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1

Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Morus alba Linn. (mulberry) leaves.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba Linn. (Family: Moraceae) commonly known as mulberry are mainly used as food for the silkworms and they are sometimes eaten as vegetable or used as cattle fodder in different parts of the world. The effect of Morus alba on the immune system was evaluated by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test, cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia, neutrophil adhesion test, effect on serum immunoglobulins, mice lethality test and indirect haemagglutination test. Methanolic extract of Morus alba was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg respectively and Ocimum sanctum (100 mg/kg, po) was used as standard drug. Morus alba extract in both doses increased the levels of serum immunoglobulins and prevented the mortality induced by bovine Pasteurella multocida in mice. It also increased the circulating antibody titre in indirect haemagglutination test. On the other hand, it showed significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay, a significant protection against cyclophosphamide induced neutropenia and increased the adhesion of neutrophils in the neutrophil adhesion test. Hence, it was concluded that Morus alba increases both humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity. PMID:20067869

Bharani, Shendige Eswara Rao; Asad, Mohammed; Dhamanigi, Sunil Samson; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli

2010-01-01

2

Morus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mulberry (Morus L) is an important tree crop that provides sustainable economic and environmental benefits to a large number of people who\\u000a live in rural areas of several Asian countries. Out of the 68 species that have been recognized widely, only a few species\\u000a such as M. alba, M. bombycis, M. indica, M. latifolia, and M. multicaulis are cultivated for

Kunjupillai Vijayan; Amalendu Tikader; Zhao Weiguo; Chirakkara Venugopalan Nair; Sezai Ercisli; Chi-Hua Tsou

3

CONCENTRACIÓN DE CARBONO Y NITRÓGENO A SEIS FRECUENCIAS DE PODA EN Tithonia diversifolia Y Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out at EARTH University with the objective to quantify the concentration of carbon and nitrogen in the above-ground plant biomass and in the soil of six frequencies of pruning in Tithonia diversifolia and Morus alba. Random blocks were used with treatments in divided plots, using small parcels of 3 m x 4 m with 36 plants.

Y. Zavala; J. C. Rodríguez; M. Cerrato

4

Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.

Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

2008-01-01

5

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

6

Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect.

Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

2008-01-01

7

Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

2013-01-01

8

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

9

Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adaptogenic property of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba roots against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). Materials and Methods: Rats were exposed to stress procedure for 21 days. The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered for 1 h once daily for 21 days. Rats were administered with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o) 1 h before footshock for 21 days and behavioral parameters were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction and depression using elevated plus maze and despair swim test, respectively. On day 21, rats were sacrificed immediately after stress and blood was collected for biochemical estimation. The adrenal gland and spleen were dissected for organ weight and the stomach was dissected for ulcer score. Results: CS significantly induced cognitive deficit, mental depression and hyperglycemia and increased blood corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations and adrenal gland weight, but decreased the splenic weight. Pre-treatments with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the CS-induced perturbations. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard antistress drug. Conclusion: The results indicate that M. alba possesses significant adaptogenic activity, indicating its possible clinical utility as an antistress agent.

Nade, Vandana S.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Naik, Rashmi A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

2009-01-01

10

Ensiling of mulberry foliage (Morus alba) and the nutritive value of mulberry foliage silage for goats in central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different additives (molasses or rice bran) on quality of silage made from mulberry (Morus alba) foliage. The second experiment was designed as a Latin square (5 x 5) with 5 growing goats with a mean live weight of 17.3 kg to determine effects of mulberry foliage silage on feed intake,

Nguyen Xuan Ba; Vu Duy Giang

11

[Studies on chemical constituents from fruits of Morus alba L].  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of fruits of Mours alba L. lead to the isolation of fifteen compounds by various chromatographies such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatography. Their structures were determined to be: 1-[5-(2-formlfuryl) methyl] dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxylate 2, 3-diethyl ester (1), 1-[2-(furan-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] pyrrolidin-2-one (2), divaricataester A (3), methyl 1-[2-(furan-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (4), 1-[2-(furan-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl]-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (5), L-pyroglutamic acid (6), L-pyroglutamic acid ethyl ester (7), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (8), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester (9), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (10), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester (11), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (12), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (13), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (14), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (15), respectively, based on the spectral analysis such as NMR, MS etc. Compounds 1-14 were isolated from this genus for the first time, among which 1 was a new compound. PMID:24974468

Wang, Xin; Wang, Hong-Qing; Kang, Jie; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruo-Yun

2014-04-01

12

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

13

Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.  

PubMed

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

14

Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents.

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

15

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80mg\\/l ClO2 solutions for 5, 10, and 15min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1min and stored at ?1°C for 14d. ClO2 treatment was effective in retention of

Zhao Chen; Chuanhe Zhu; Ziqiang Han

2011-01-01

16

Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

2014-03-01

17

Biosorption properties of Morus alba L. for Cd (II) ions removal from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The abundantly available industrial waste product Morus alba L. pomace (MAP) is one of the cost-effective biosorbent for removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to test the ability of MAP to remove Cd(II) ions through batch biosorption process. Firstly, MAP was characterized using several techniques, and then the influence of various experimental parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous solution, initial Cd(II) concentration, contact time, MAP concentration, and temperature were evaluated upon the biosorption process. It was found that the maximum uptake of Cd(II) ions occurred at initial pH 6.0 and optimum contact time was observed as 60 min. Cd(II) ions adsorption on MAP analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of MAP was found to be 21.69 mg?g(-1) by using the Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed to describe the biosorption kinetics. In order to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the biosorption process, the changes in the Gibbs free energy (?G), enthalpy (?H), and entropy (?S) were also evaluated and it has been concluded that the process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 5-40 °C. PMID:23184397

Serencam, Huseyin; Ozdes, Duygu; Duran, Celal; Tufekci, Mehmet

2013-07-01

18

Protective Effects of Morus alba Leaves Extract on Ocular Functions of Pups from Diabetic and Hypercholesterolemic Mother Rats  

PubMed Central

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.

El-Sayyad, H.I.H.; El-Sherbiny, M.A.; Sobh, M.A.; Abou-El-Naga, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.A.N.; Mousa, S.A.

2011-01-01

19

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity.

2014-01-01

20

Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions  

PubMed Central

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium.

KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

2014-01-01

21

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally

Mariko Nakamura; Sadako Nakamura; Tsuneyuki Oku

2009-01-01

22

Asymmetrical introgression between two Morus species (M. alba, M. rubra) that differ in abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetrical introgression is an expected genetic consequence of hybridization when parental taxa differ in abundance; however, evidence for such effects in small populations is scarce. To test this prediction, we estimated the magnitude and direction of hybridization between red mulberry ( Morus rubra L.), an endangered species in Canada, and the intro- duced and more abundant white mulberry ( Morus

K. S. BURGESS; M. MORGAN; L. DEVERNO; B. C. HUSBAND

2005-01-01

23

Volatile glycosides from the leaves of Morus alba with a potential contribution to the complex anti-diabetic activity.  

PubMed

The leaves and root bark of Morus alba, the white mulberry tree, are well-known traditional medicines for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several different types of constituents have been suggested to be responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of mulberry drugs, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids. Our group recently suggested that a volatile-oil like fraction of the hot water extract of M. alba leaves, containing several phenyl-propane derivatives, can increase the glucose consumption of adipocytes. Here we report the isolation of three glycosylated volatile constituents from mulberry leaves, two megastigmane derivatives along with the beta-D-glucoside of eugenol. Furthermore, a commercially available mixture of probiotic bacteria was assessed to study the effect of the intestinal flora on the megastigmane derivatives. Significant amounts of the aglycons of both compounds were liberated, suggesting that these compounds can be metabolized in the large intestines and absorbed without the sugar moiety after the consumption of a traditional mulberry tea. Based on literature data, both the glycosides and their aglycons have a potential contribution to the beneficial effects of mulberry leaves in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24689274

Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Veres, Katalin; Erdei, Anna; Simon, András; Tóthb, Gábor

2014-02-01

24

Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Ethyl Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Root Bark of Morus alba on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test.  

PubMed

In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity. PMID:24927367

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

2014-01-01

25

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

2014-01-01

26

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

27

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings.  

PubMed

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3'-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, "Yongcheon" showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas "Somok" had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the "Cheongil" mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-12-01

28

Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy.

Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

2014-01-01

29

Repeated ingestion of the leaf extract from Morus alba reduces insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of diet containing the leaf extract from a Morus alba (LEM) maintains the postprandial hypoglycemic response and suppresses the progression of insulin resistance in high-sucrose diet-fed KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This hypothesis is based on our previous studies where LEM competitively inhibited intestinal disaccharidases and suppressed the elevation of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. Ten KK-Ay mice in each group were raised on 0%, 3%, or 6% LEM powder-containing high-sucrose diets for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at weeks 2, 4, and 7 after the start of feeding. Urinary glucose excretion was monitored as a parameter of insulin resistance in 3-day intervals. Fasting plasma glucose level and urinary glucose excretion were significantly lower in both 3% and 6% LEM groups compared with the control group throughout the experiment. The plasma insulin of the 6% LEM group was significantly lower compared with the 3% LEM and control groups. Maintenance of low blood glucose and insulin delayed the onset time of urinary glucose excretion and were reflected by the ratio of additional LEM to sucrose in the diet. We observed the suppressive effects on the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet. Namely, repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet reduces insulin resistance and may delay the appearance of DM, especially type 2 DM. Therefore, daily intake of LEM may be suitable for the prevention of obesity and DM. PMID:22118756

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2011-11-01

30

Purification, characterization and immunomodulating activity of a pectic polysaccharide isolated from Korean mulberry fruit Oddi (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

A water-soluble polysaccharide (JS-MP-1) was isolated and purified from the Korean mulberry fruits Oddi (Morus alba L.) by crushing the fresh fruits then performing ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The neutral monosaccharide composition of the purified JS-MP-1 was determined to be composed mainly of galactose (37.6%, in mole percent), arabinose (36.3%), and rhamnose (18.4%), while other major sugars such as glucose, xylose, mannose, and fucose were present as minor components. HPLC analysis revealed that JS-MP-1 contains both galacturonic acid (GalA) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) at approximately 4:1 in mole percent. Monosaccharide composition, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, biochemical analysis, and elemental analysis suggested that JS-MP-1 is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, most likely a rhamnoarabinogalacturonan type plant pectic polysaccharide, with an apparent molecular mass of 1600 kDa containing no, or if any, negligible level of sulfate esters and proteins. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that JS-MP-1 significantly stimulates murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells to release chemokines (RANTES and MIP-1?) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-6) and to induce the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of NO and prostaglandin PGE2, respectively. These results suggest that the mulberry fruit-derived polysaccharide JS-MP-1 can act as a potent immunomodulator, and these observations may support the applicability of this polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant or the water extracts of the mulberry fruit as a beneficial health food. PMID:24120956

Lee, Ji Sun; Synytsya, Andriy; Kim, Hyun Bok; Choi, Doo Jin; Lee, Seul; Lee, Jisun; Kim, Woo Jung; Jang, Seongjae; Park, Yong Il

2013-11-01

31

Inhibitory effects of Morus alba on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic reactions and anti-chicken gamma globulin IgE- mediated mast cell activation.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of hot-water extract from the root bark of Morus alba (HEMA) on anaphylactic reactions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, we examined whether HEMA could inhibit compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock and anti-chicken gamma globulin (CGG) IgE-mediated rat peritoneal mast cell activation. HEMA significantly inhibited systemic anaphylaxis induced by the compound 48/80 in mice. HEMA also significantly inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-CGG IgE. HEMA had no cytotoxicity on rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, HEMA dose-dependently inhibited mast cell degranulation, histamine release and calcium uptake into RPMC induced by the compound 48/80 or anti-CGG IgE. When HEMA was added, the level of intracellular cAMP in RPMC showed a transient and significant increase (5-fold) compared with that of control cells. HEMA also inhibited significantly the compound 48/80-induced cAMP reduction in RPMC. These results suggested that HEMA inhibits the compound 48/80- or anti-CGG IgE-induced mast cell activation and its inhibitory effects on mast cell activations were favorably comparable to disodium cromoglycate. And HEMA is a candidate for effective therapeutic tools of allergic diseases. PMID:16204934

Chai, Ok Hee; Lee, Moo Sam; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Song, Chang Ho

2005-10-01

32

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively.

Barta, Tomas; Soucek, Karel; Zavalova, Veronika Muller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Smejkal, Karel; Suchy, Pavel; Hampl, Ales

2013-01-01

33

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

34

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients.

Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2009-01-01

35

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression.  

PubMed

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:23983799

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

36

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/? bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5?- and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit peptide sequence) of the full length cDNA from M. alba.

Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

2012-01-01

37

Alba Patera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a volcano as a 'geologic warrior,' that is. These volcanoes aren't too fierce, however. Because of the gentle layering of lava over time, they don't stand tall and angry against the horizon, but instead have relatively gentle slopes and are spread out over large areas. (On Earth, the Hawaiian Islands are examples of shield volcanoes, but you can't see much of their expanse, since they rise almost three miles from the ocean floor before popping out above the water's surface.) What's most interesting in this picture are all of the branching features that lightly texture the terrain. The patterns may look like those caused by rivers here on Earth, but geologists say that no surface streams on Mars were responsible. That's no disappointment, however, to those who'd like to find water on Mars, because there are still intriguing water-related possibilities here. Some of the broad valley features in this image look like karsts, a terrain found on Earth in Karst, a limestone area on the Adriatic Sea in modern-day Croatia, and in other world regions including France, China, the American Midwest, Kentucky, and Florida. Karst terrain on Earth is barren land with all kinds of caves, sinkholes, and underground rivers that excavate the subsurface, causing the surface above it to collapse. So, perhaps it's like that in this region on Mars as well. Future Martian spelunkers should be excited, because most caves on Earth are in karst areas. Other suggestions of water here are some long, narrow valleys that resemble Earth surfaces where groundwater has sapped away the terrain. Sapping occurs when groundwater erodes slopes, creating valleys. Water action can be concentrated at valley heads, leading to what is called their 'headward growth.' That may be what has happened here on Alba Patera as well. All of these features suggest the action of liquid water, but Mars is so cold, you might wonder if any water would have to be as frozen as the world it is on. Well . . . that depends! Remember that this area is part of a volcano, and volcanoes can put out

2002-01-01

38

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species  

PubMed Central

Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species into distinct clusters. Conclusion We report a total of 188 genomic and genic SSR markers in Morus alba L. A large proportion of these markers (164) were polymorphic both among mulberry species and genotypes. A substantial number of these markers (149) were also transferable to other related species like Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. The extent of polymorphism revealed and the ability to detect heterozygosity among the cross pollinated mulberry species and genotypes render these markers an invaluable genomic resource that can be utilized in assessing molecular diversity as well as in QTL mapping and subsequently mulberry crop improvement through MAS.

2013-01-01

39

Interactions of Archaeal Chromatin Proteins Alba1 and Alba2 with Nucleic Acids  

PubMed Central

Background Architectural proteins have important roles in compacting and organising chromosomal DNA. There are two potential histone counterpart peptide sequences (Alba1 and Alba2) in the Aeropyrum pernix genome (APE1832.1 and APE1823). Methodology/Principal Findings These two peptides were expressed and their interactions with various DNAs were studied using a combination of various experimental techniques: surface plasmon resonance, UV spectrophotometry, circular dichroism–spectropolarimetry, gel-shift assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that there are significant differences in the properties of the Alba1 and Alba2 proteins. Both of these Alba proteins can thermally stabilise DNA polynucleotides, as seen from UV melting curves. Alba2 and equimolar mixtures of Alba1/Alba2 have greater effects on the thermal stability of poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT). Surface plasmon resonance sensorgrams for binding of Alba1, Alba2, and equimolar mixtures of Alba1/Alba2 to DNA oligonucleotides show different binding patterns. Circular dichroism indicates that Alba2 has a less-ordered secondary structure than Alba1. The secondary structures of the Alba proteins are not significantly influenced by DNA binding, even at high temperatures. Based on these data, we conclude that Alba1, Alba2, and equimolar mixtures of Alba1/Alba2 show different properties in their binding to various DNAs.

Crnigoj, Miha; Podlesek, Zdravko; Zorko, Mateja; Jerala, Roman; Anderluh, Gregor; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar

2013-01-01

40

Alba Patera Windstreaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

41

Effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of enzyme treatment with ?-glucosidase on antioxidant capacity of the\\u000a mulberry leaf extract (MLE) using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant capacity (CAC) assay.\\u000a The MLE was prepared by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min and treated with ?-glucosidase for 9 hr. High pressure liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) analysis showed

Gyo-Nam Kim; Hae-Dong Jang

2010-01-01

42

Sulfur metabolism in Beggiatoa alba.  

PubMed Central

The metabolism of sulfide, sulfur, and acetate by Beggiatoa alba was investigated under oxic and anoxic conditions. B. alba oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide with the stoichiometric reduction of oxygen to water. In vivo acetate oxidation was suppressed by sulfide and by several classic respiratory inhibitors, including dibromothymoquinone, an inhibitor specific for ubiquinones. B. alba also carried out an oxygen-dependent conversion of sulfide to sulfur, a reaction that was inhibited by several electron transport inhibitors but not by dibromothymoquinone, indicating that the electrons released from sulfide oxidation were shuttled to oxygen without the involvement of ubiquinones. Intracellular sulfur stored by B. alba was not oxidized to sulfate or converted to an external soluble form under aerobic conditions. On the other hand, sulfur stored by filaments of Thiothrix nivea was oxidized to extracellular soluble oxidation products, including sulfate. Sulfur stored by filaments of B. alba, however, was reduced to sulfide under short-term anoxic conditions. This anaerobic reduction of sulfur was linked to the endogenous oxidation of stored carbon and to hydrogen oxidation.

Schmidt, T M; Arieli, B; Cohen, Y; Padan, E; Strohl, W R

1987-01-01

43

Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composed of North American volunteers, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was one of several international brigades that fought on the side of the Republicans against Franco's fascist Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). The ALBA was founded in 1975 by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) to preserve the history of the Brigade's actions in Spain and the post-war activities of its veterans in America. Part of ALBA's mission includes supervising the comprehensive archive of materials related to the North American involvement in the Spanish Civil War at Brandeis University. At the ALBA site, users will find exhibits of posters and photos brought back by volunteers; contact information for researchers interested in using the archive; a high school curriculum entitled "Between the World Wars," downloadable in .pdf format; a brief history of the VALB and recent issues of its journal, The Volunteer (in .pdf format); a discussion list; and related links.

44

Prenylated arylbenzofuran derivatives from Morus mesozygia with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Five prenylated arylbenzofurans, moracins Q-U, were isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Along with these compounds, 3beta-acetoxyurs-12-en-11-one, marsformoxide, moracin C, moracin M, moracin K, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpesin, morachalcone A were also isolated. Four of the five compounds, (moracins R-U) displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:19147162

Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Fozing, Christian D; Donfack, Jean H; Fotso, Ghislain W; Amadou, Dawe; Tchana, Angèle N; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Moundipa, Paul F; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Abegaz, Berhanu M

2009-01-01

45

MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.  

PubMed

Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

46

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas.

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

47

2-Arylbenzofuran and tyrosinase inhibitory constituents of Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the stem of Morus notabilis led to the isolation and characterization of 10 compounds of 2-arylbenzofurans (1-10), including two new compounds, (2'R)-2',3'-dihydro-2'-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,6'-bibenzofuran-6,4'-diol (1) and 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)benzofuran (2). Moracins O (6) and P (10) showed inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase with IC?? values being lower than that of kojic acid. PMID:23088613

Hu, Xiao; Wang, Meng; Yan, Gui-Rui; Yu, Mei-Hua; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

2012-01-01

48

Shadow prices for LLR and ALBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

hadow prices are calculated for least loaded routing (LLR) and aggregated least busy alternative (ALBA) routing in circuit-switched networks for the blocking probability obtained from fixed point algorithms. Numerical results are presented for the calculation of these shadow prices in small networks. As an application of these shadow prices, we also formulate a constrained optimization problem to calculate the sum

Cesar Vargas; Manjunath V. Hegde; Morteza Naraghi-Pour; Paul S. Min

1996-01-01

49

Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

1991-01-01

50

Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1991-02-01

51

Meadowfoam: Pretty flowers, pretty possibilities. [Limnanthes alba  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the cultivation of oilseed plants that can be used to produce products such as industrial lubricants and polymers. Although native to the Pacific Northwest, the meadowfoam plant (Limnanthes alba) can be grown in mild climates where soil temperatures range from 40-60 degrees F. The greatest deterrent to commercialization is cost due to low yields (nutlets contain 20-30% oil). Plant scientists are working to increase the amount of seed oil yield per acre.

Bosisio, M.

1989-02-01

52

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

53

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

54

The Alba ray tracing code: ART  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alba ray tracing code (ART) is a suite of Matlab functions and tools for the ray tracing simulation of x-ray beamlines. The code is structured in different layers, which allow its usage as part of optimization routines as well as an easy control from a graphical user interface. Additional tools for slope error handling and for grating efficiency calculations are also included. Generic characteristics of ART include the accumulation of rays to improve statistics without memory limitations, and still providing normalized values of flux and resolution in physically meaningful units.

Nicolas, Josep; Barla, Alessandro; Juanhuix, Jordi

2013-09-01

55

[Resources of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan and strategies for development and utilization].  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis was conducted on resources composition of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan using survey data and related literature. The original plants, germplasm collections, cultivation areas, main cultivated varieties and production sale of crude drugs of Sang in Sichuan were clearly expounded. Strategies for development and utilization of Sichuan mulberry resources were suggested. PMID:19294839

Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, De-Guang

2008-12-01

56

Elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra and Zizyphus jujuba and their biological activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 616.314-008.92 We have studied the elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra L. and Zizyphus jujuba Mill. and their biological activities in order to determine the desirability of using these fruits as a component of toothpastes. The plants concerned are widely distributed in Uzbekistan and their fruits contain a considerable amount of such biologically active agents as tannin

U. Zh. Zhumatov

1996-01-01

57

Antioxidant Efficacy of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.) Leaves Extract and Powder in Edible Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves was evaluated in rice bran oil (RBO). The oil was subjected to accelerated oxidation at 100° C for 5 days and heat treatment at 180°C for 1 h. In order to examine its potential antioxidant activity, the oxidative stability of the oils was evaluated by employing peroxide value (PV), radical scavenging

Linda Grace Roy; Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2010-01-01

58

In vitro screening of mulberry ( Morus spp.) for salinity tolerance.  

PubMed

An efficient in vitro screening method has been developed for mulberry ( Morus spp. ) to screen salinity-tolerant genotypes from a large population. Axillary buds from field-grown plants were cultured on MS medium containing five different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.00%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) in order to study the shoot growth pattern. Rooting was also tested at four different concentrations of NaCl (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3.%). NaCl has been found to inhibit the growth and development of mulberry shoots and roots in vitro. The survivability of the axillary buds of the genotypes tested was reduced from 83.7% for the controls to 6.1% in 1.0% NaCl. The average number of roots developed by the genotypes ranged from 11.9 (controls) to 0.2 (0.3% NaCl). Out of the 63 genotypes tested, only seven--Rotundiloba, English black, Kolitha-3, Berhampore-A, Kajli, BC(2)59 and C776--developed roots in 0.3% NaCl. Root growth was also reduced drastically from 1.8 cm for the controls to 0.1 cm in 0.3% NaCl. To test the reproducibility of the results in soil, five tolerant and two susceptible genotypes, identified in this in vitro study, were selected and tested under ex vitro conditions. The significant correlation coefficients obtained between the performances of these genotypes under both types of cultural conditions revealed that in vitro screening of mulberry through axillary bud culture is an easy and efficient method to identify salt-adapted genotypes within a limited space and time period. PMID:12942311

Vijayan, K; Chakraborti, S P; Ghosh, P D

2003-12-01

59

Near Ambient Pressure XPS at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALBA light source has started to operate this year. One of the seven beamlines built in the first phase is the CIRCE beamline (BL24), with two endstations in different branches, dedicated to Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) and Near Ambient Pressure Photoelectron spectroscopy (NAPP). In this communication we present the NAPP endstation. A differentially pumped electron energy analyzer allows extending the standard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique, which traditionally required ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, to sample pressures up to 20 mbar. The surface reactivity and structure in more realistic environments can reveal dramatic differences with respect to the solid-vacuum studies. A novel differentially pumped system for the photon beam entrance and other state-of-the-art instrumentation built by SPECS GmbH (Berlin, Germany) are briefly described.

Pérez-Dieste, V.; Aballe, L.; Ferrer, S.; Nicolàs, J.; Escudero, C.; Milán, A.; Pellegrin, E.

2013-03-01

60

In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

1989-01-01

61

Aqueous two-phase extraction, identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry ( Morus atropurpurea Roxb.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE), identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) were investigated in this study. The optimal differential partitioning of mulberry anthocyanins (MAY) and sugars was achieved in a system (pH 4.5, temperature=35±1°C) composed of 30% (w\\/w) ethanol, 20% (w\\/w) concentration of ammonium sulphate, 10% (w\\/w) mulberry juice and 40% (w\\/w) water. The multiple partitioning

Xiangyang Wu; Linghong Liang; Ye Zou; Ting Zhao; Jiangli Zhao; Fang Li; Liuqing Yang

2011-01-01

62

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus ) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity\\u000a and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust\\u000a alternative, PCR based marker assays

Arvind K Awasthi; GM Nagaraja; GV Naik; Sriramana Kanginakudru; K Thangavelu; Javaregowda Nagaraju

2004-01-01

63

Paeoniae alba Radix Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.  

PubMed

The present study provides in vitro and in vivo evaluation of Paeoniae alba Radix (PR) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In the in vitro study, we found the PR caused a marked enhancement of the nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells as well as their expression of growth associated protein 43 and synapsin I. In the in vivo study, silicone rubber chambers filled with the PR water extract were used to bridge a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. At the conclusion of 8 weeks, regenerated nerves in the PR groups, especially at 1.25?mg?ml(-1) had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, relatively larger mean values of total nerve area, myelinated axon count and blood vessel number, and a significantly larger nerve conductive velocity compared to the control group (P? < ?.05). These results suggest that the PR extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being salutary in aiding the growth of injured peripheral nerve. PMID:19687191

Huang, Kun-Shan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lee, Han-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Bau, Da-Tian; Huang, Chih-Yang; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

2011-01-01

64

Paeoniae alba Radix Promotes Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The present study provides in vitro and in vivo evaluation of Paeoniae alba Radix (PR) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In the in vitro study, we found the PR caused a marked enhancement of the nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells as well as their expression of growth associated protein 43 and synapsin I. In the in vivo study, silicone rubber chambers filled with the PR water extract were used to bridge a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect in rats. At the conclusion of 8 weeks, regenerated nerves in the PR groups, especially at 1.25?mg?ml?1 had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, relatively larger mean values of total nerve area, myelinated axon count and blood vessel number, and a significantly larger nerve conductive velocity compared to the control group (P? < ?.05). These results suggest that the PR extract can be a potential nerve growth-promoting factor, being salutary in aiding the growth of injured peripheral nerve.

Huang, Kun-Shan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lee, Han-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Bau, Da-Tian; Huang, Chih-Yang; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng

2011-01-01

65

Development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alba Patera volcano is located in the middle of an almost 3000 km long fossae grabe zone radial to the Tharsis bulge. Alba Patera construction is wide, but only 7 km high. It has the appearance of a large, central-vent shield volcano with very low slope angle. Huge volumes of lavas have erupted from its center and flank vents to build it. The viscosity of the lavas must have been relatively low allowing them to flow hundreds of kilometers along the gentle downslopes. Lava tubes and flows radiate from central Alba Patera, where complex calderas can be seen. The composition of the lava flows may be indicative to the Martian internal development. A deep magma generation has to be considered as a possible cause for low-viscous lavas.

Raitala, J.

66

A new endornavirus species infecting Malabar spinach (Basella alba L.).  

PubMed

A putative new endornavirus was isolated from Malabar spinach (Basella alba). The viral dsRNA consisted of 14,027 nt with a single ORF that coded for a polyprotein of 4,508 aa. The genome organization was similar to that of four other endornaviruses. Conserved domains for helicase-1, capsular synthase, UDP-glucose-glycosyltransferase (UGT), and RdRp were detected. Infected plants were phenotypically undistinguishable from healthy ones. The name Basella alba endornavirus is proposed for the virus isolated from Malabar spinach. PMID:24122112

Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Toshiyuki, Fukuhara; Valverde, Rodrigo A

2014-04-01

67

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

68

Antioxidant effect of astragalin isolated from the leaves of Morus alba L. against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antioxidant properties of mulberry leaves extract (MLE) and flavonoids isolated from MLE. MLE was prepared by extraction with methanol. Flavonoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidative hemolysis of normal human red blood cells (RBCs) was induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH]. MLE contained three flavonoids in the order quercetin (QC) > kaempferol (KF) > astragalin (AG). Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs induced by AAPH was suppressed by MLE, AG, KF, and QC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLE and these three flavonoids prevented the depletion of cystosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in RBCs. AG had the greatest protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis and GSH depletion in RBCs. PMID:23512775

Choi, Jiwon; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sung Zoo; Kwon, Tae Oh; Jeong, Seung-Il; Jang, Seon Il

2013-07-01

69

Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils  

PubMed Central

The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-?-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds.

Lopez, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

2011-01-01

70

Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess

R. C. Anderson; J. M. Dohm; A. F. C. Haldemann; T. M. Hare; V. R. Baker

2004-01-01

71

Circumferential graben and the structural evolution of Alba Mons, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba Mons is a unique, very extensive but shallow volcanotectonic construct in northern Tharsis, Mars. Numerous models have been presented to explain the formation of Alba Mons and its most characteristic feature, a wristwatch-like pattern of radial and circumferential graben. We used a wide selection of topographic datasets to characterize the fault throw variation on nine topographic transects across the circumferential graben in order to provide observational constraints for the different formation models, and to gain further insight into the evolution of Alba Mons. In most of the transects, summed throws from outwards-facing (away from the center of the volcano) faults are larger than from the inwards-facing (towards the center) ones. Only the very gently sloping western transects show the opposite, emphasizing the east-west-asymmetry of Alba Mons. 10-40% of the observed topographic relief of Alba Mons along the nine transects can be accounted for by this throw difference between the inwards- and outwards-facing faults. These results are consistent with predictions of models suggesting an uplift mechanism to explain the formation of the circumferential graben, but not with models invoking central subsidence. Horizontal extensional strain along the transects varies between 0.5% and 2%, consistent with strain predictions of the late-stage sill complex inflation model of McGovern et al. (McGovern, P.J., Solomon, S.C., Head J.W. III, Smith, D.E., Zuber M.T., Neumann, G.A. [2001]. J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23769-23809).

Öhman, Teemu; McGovern, Patrick J.

2014-05-01

72

Wittiorumins A - F, antioxidant diels-alder-type adducts from Morus wittiorum.  

PubMed

Six new Diels-Alder-type adducts, wittiorumins A-F ( 1 - 6) along with the three known compounds chalcomoracin ( 7), mulberrofuran J ( 8), and mongolicin F ( 9), were isolated from the stem bark of Morus wittiorum. Their structures including their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Some of the isolated compounds ( 1 - 4) were assayed for their antioxidant activities, among which compounds 1 - 3 were active as antioxidants, with inhibitory ratios of 73.0 %, 82.0 %, and 82.0 %, respectively, at a concentration of 10 ( - 5) M. PMID:19137498

Tan, Yong-Xia; Yan, Ren-Yi; Wang, Hong-Qing; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

2009-02-01

73

New isoprenylated flavonoids and adipogenesis-promoting constituents from Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Five new isoprenylated flavonoids, notabilisins A-E (1-5), and two known Diels-Alder adducts (6 and 7), were isolated from the twigs of Morus notabilis. Compounds 4 and 5 possess two novel pyran rings, which may be biogenetically derived from 3. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly promoted adipogenesis, characterized by increased lipid droplet and triglyceride content in 3T3L1 cells, and induced up-regulation of the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, aP2 and GLUT4. PMID:21737271

Hu, Xiao; Ji, Jun; Wang, Meng; Wu, Jin-Wei; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Wang, He-Yao; Hou, Ai-Jun

2011-08-01

74

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

75

Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some selected physico-chemical properties (antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, fatty acids, fruit colour, fruit juice yield, fruit weight, organic acids, pH, total phenolic and total soluble solid contents) of five black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes grown in the Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey was investigated. The total phenolic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of black mulberry

Sezai Ercisli; Emine Orhan

2008-01-01

76

Modification of flower sex and acid phosphatase activity by phthalimides in female plants of Morus nigra L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalimide treatments at 125, 250 and 500 mg 1-1 to female plants of dioecious Morus nigra L. induced intersex and male flowers. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of acid phosphatase in male and female flower buds showed that the male flower had significantly higher levels of the enzyme activity than the female flower buds. The level of acid phosphatase activity significantly

Madan Lal; Vijai S. Jaiswal

1988-01-01

77

Relative ages of lava flows at Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many large lava flows on the flanks of Alba Patera are astonishing in their volume and length. As a suite, these flows suggest tremendously voluminous and sustained eruptions, and provide dimensional boundary conditions typically a factor of 100 larger than terrestrial flows. One of the most striking features associated with Alba Patera is the large, radially oriented lava flows that exhibit a variety of flow morphologies. These include sheet flows, tube fed and tube channel flows, and undifferentiated flows. Three groups of flows were studied; flows on the northwest flank, southeast flank, and the intracaldera region. The lava flows discussed probably were erupted as a group during the same major volcanic episode as suggested by the data presented. Absolute ages are poorly constrained for both the individual flows and shield, due in part to disagreement as to which absolute age curve is representative for Mars. A relative age sequence is implied but lacks precision due to the closeness of the size frequency curves.

Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

1987-01-01

78

Storage Behaviour of Salix alba and Salix matsudana Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dehydration, storage temperature and humidification on germination of Salix alba andS. matsudana seeds were studied. Newly released seeds showed 100% germination before and after dehydration to 11–12% moisture content. Germination of the high vigour lot (100% initial normal germination) was not affected by dehydration to 6.7% moisture content but germination decreased with further dehydration to 4.3%. The lower

H. L. Maroder; I. A. Prego; G. R. Facciuto; S. B. Maldonado

2000-01-01

79

Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

Kauhanen, K.

1993-01-01

80

PfAlbas constitute a new eukaryotic DNA/RNA-binding protein family in malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

In Plasmodium falciparum, perinuclear subtelomeric chromatin conveys monoallelic expression of virulence genes. However, proteins that directly bind to chromosome ends are poorly described. Here we identify a novel DNA/RNA-binding protein family that bears homology to the archaeal protein Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity). We isolated three of the four PfAlba paralogs as part of a molecular complex that is associated with the P. falciparum-specific TARE6 (Telomere-Associated Repetitive Elements 6) subtelomeric region and showed in electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) that the PfAlbas bind to TARE6 repeats. In early blood stages, the PfAlba proteins were enriched at the nuclear periphery and partially co-localized with PfSir2, a TARE6-associated histone deacetylase linked to the process of antigenic variation. The nuclear location changed at the onset of parasite proliferation (trophozoite-schizont), where the PfAlba proteins were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern. Using single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes in EMSAs, we found that PfAlbas bind to ssRNA, albeit with different binding preferences. We demonstrate for the first time in eukaryotes that Alba-like proteins bind to both DNA and RNA and that their intracellular location is developmentally regulated. Discovery of the PfAlbas may provide a link between the previously described subtelomeric non-coding RNA and the regulation of antigenic variation.

Chene, Arnaud; Vembar, Shruthi S.; Riviere, Loic; Lopez-Rubio, Jose Juan; Claes, Aurelie; Siegel, T. Nicolai; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Hernandez-Rivas, Rosaura; Scherf, Artur

2012-01-01

81

Strain Histories Among Alba and Syria Planum, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The centers work of Anderson et al. (2001) [1] identified two prominent centers in the Tharsis region, Syria Planum and Alba Patera (Stage 2 and Stage 4 respectively). Because of their perceived influence on the geologic and possible paleoclimatic histories of Mars, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) along with published stratigraphic and paleotectonic information (including the centers information) were analyzed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to perform a comparative investigation of their strain histories through time. This investigation highlights their similarities and distinctions, including their topographic and morphologic signatures, deformational extent, and intensities and durations of activity.

Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Hare, T.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Baker, V.

2003-01-01

82

Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

2013-03-01

83

Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Anderson, R. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Hare, T. M.; Baker, V. R.

2004-01-01

84

Specificity of induction responses in Sinapis alba L.  

PubMed Central

Plant defenses are expected to be negatively correlated with plant growth, development and reproduction. In a recent study, we investigated the specificity of induction responses of chemical defenses in the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba.1 It was shown that glucosinolate levels and myrosinase activities increased to different degrees after 24-hours-feeding by a specialist or generalist herbivore or mechanical wounding. Here, we present the specific influences of these treatments on organ biomasses which were recorded as a measure of growth. Directly after the treatments, organ biomasses were reduced locally and systemically by herbivore feeding, but not by mechanical wounding compared to control plants. Induction of glucosinolates, which increased in all treatments, is thus not necessarily expressed as cost in terms of reduced growth in S. alba. No significant long-term differences in plant development between herbivore treated and control plants were found. Thus, tissue loss and increased investments in chemical defenses could be compensated over time, but compensation patterns depended on the inducing agent. Furthermore, herbivore treatments resulted in an increased mechanical defense, measured as abaxial trichome densities. Plants respond highly dynamic with regard to defense and growth allocation and due to different inductors.

Travers-Martin, Nora

2008-01-01

85

A new antioxidant stilbene and other constituents from the stem bark of Morus nigra L.  

PubMed

A new stilbene, 2',3,4',5,5'-pentahydroxy-cis-stilbene (1), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (2), oxyresveratrol (3), norartocarpetin (4), kuwanon C (5), morusin (6), cudraflavone A (7), kuwanon G (8), albafurane C (9), mulberrofuran G (10), 3-O-acetyl-?-amyrin (11), 3-O-acetyl-?-amyrin (12) ursolic acid-3-O-acetate (13) and uvaol (14), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are reported for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS, as well as by comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds and the different extracts were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(+) radical-scavenging capacity assay and compared with ascorbic acid. The new stilbene (1) exhibited remarkable antioxidant capacity with IC50 of 4.69 ?M. PMID:24673367

Abbas, Ghada M; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Baraka, Hany N; Gohar, Ahmed A; Lahloub, Mohammed-Farid

2014-07-01

86

Bioactive diels-alder type adducts from the stem bark of Morus macroura.  

PubMed

Five new compounds, named guangsangons A (1), B (5), C (6), D (7), and E (8), along with four known compounds, albafuran C (2), kuwanon X (3), kuwanon P (4), and kuwanon Y (9) were isolated from Morus macroura Miq.. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. These compounds were regarded biogenetically as Diels-Al-der type adducts, and 1H-NMR variable temperature experience suggested that they all existed as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. Compounds 1-3 and 5-9 showed good anti-oxidation activity, with the inhibitory rate of malondialdehyde being from 90.1% to 102.7% at a concentration of 10(-4) mol/L and from 70.9% to 88.1% at a concentration of 10(-5) mol/L. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 showed anti-inflammation activity, with the inhibitory rates of release of lysosome enzyme from polymorphonuclear leukocytes of rats being 19.0% (P > 0.05), 57.3% (P < 0.001) and 24.3% (P < 0.05) at concentrations of 10(-5) mol/L, respectively. PMID:15368673

Dai, Sheng-Jun; Mi, Zhong-Mao; Ma, Zhi-Bo; Li, Shuai; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Yu, De-Quan

2004-08-01

87

Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%), with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid) species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

Awasthi, Arvind K; Nagaraja, GM; Naik, GV; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Thangavelu, K; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

2004-01-01

88

Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity.

2013-01-01

89

Chemical variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso essential oils from East Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical compositions of 16 Artemisia herba-alba oil samples harvested in eight East Moroccan locations were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Chemical variability of the A. herba-alba oils is also discussed using statistical analysis. Detailed analysis of the essential oils led to the identification of 52\\u000a components amounting to 80.5–98.6 % of the total oil. The investigated chemical compositions showed significant

Julien Paolini; El Mokhtar El Ouariachi; Abdelhamid Bouyanzer; Belkheir Hammouti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Jean Costa; Alain Muselli

2010-01-01

90

Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease.

Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

2014-01-01

91

Identification of the essential histidine residue for high-affinity binding of AlbA protein to albicidin antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The albA gene from Klebsiella oxytoca encodes a protein that binds albicidin phytotoxins and antibiotics with high affinity. Previously, it has been shown that shifting pH from 6 to 4 reduces binding activity of AlbA by about 30%, indicating that histidine residues might be involved in substrate binding. In this study, molecular analysis of the albA coding region revealed sequence

Li-Xing Weng; Jin-Ling Xu; Qi Li; Robert G. Birch; Lian-Hui Zhang

2003-01-01

92

Investigating Some Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Native Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of seed and seed oil obtained from the native black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) were investigated in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the seed consisted of 27.5–33% crude oil, 20.2–22.5% crude\\u000a protein, 3.5–6% ash, 42.4–46.6% carbohydrate and 112.2–152.0 mg total phenolics\\/100 g. Twenty different fatty acids were determined,\\u000a with the percentages varying from 0.02% myristic acid (C14:0)

Umit Gecgel; Serap Durakli Velioglu; Hasan Murat Velioglu

93

Small- to large-scale geographical patterns within the macrobenthic Abra alba community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Abra alba community is widely spread in the coastal zone of the English Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. The community is located on shallow, fine muddy sands. Its spatial distribution can be broken up into a number of isolated patches (Atlantic French, British and German coast) and one large continuous distribution area (northern France up to the Netherlands). The aim of this study is to investigate the geographical patterns within the macrobenthic A. alba community at different scales: the community's full distribution range (i.e. large scale) and a selected area with a continuous distribution of the A. alba community (i.e. small scale) in relation to structuring environmental variables. Therefore, an analysis of newly collected samples along the Belgian coastal zone was combined with available information on the A. alba community throughout its distribution range. Although the community structure shows a high similarity across the full distribution range of the A. alba community, large- as well as small-scale changes in community composition were observed: the Belgian Continental Shelf (BCS) should be considered as a major transition from the rich southern to the relatively poorer northern distribution area of the A. alba community. At a large scale (i.e. full distribution range), the differences in community structure are expected to result from (1) the specific hydrodynamic conditions in the English Channel (Atlantic ocean waters) and the Southern Bight of the North Sea, with a consequent differential connectivity between the different areas and (2) the climatological and related faunal shift from temperate (English Channel) to boreal conditions (German Bight). At a small scale (i.e. within the continuous distribution area), structural and functional community aspects may result from geographic differences in (1) detrital food availability, related to riverine input and pelagic productivity, along and across the coastline and (2) the amount of suspended matter, impoverishing the A. alba community when excessively available.

Van Hoey, Gert; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

2005-09-01

94

Valleys on Northwest Flank of Alba Patera Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1972, Mariner 9 images revealed a variety of branched and networked valleys on Alba Patera, a volcano in northern Tharsis. Since then, the question has always been, 'what made these valleys, water or lava?' Because the Alba Patera volcano was considered to be a relatively young feature on Mars, it seemed that if waterways involved in the formation of the valleys, then it would imply that liquid water flowed on this part of Mars at a relatively recent time in the planet's history. Thus, it was hoped that Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), with its super-high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), would help answer this key question about evidence for past water on the red planet.

However, when MOC peered down upon these valleys it became clear that the camera might not help answer the question of their origin. As the picture above shows, these valleys--which trend from lower right to upper left in the picture--are old and have been cut by younger faults that created graben--e.g., the wide, straight valley running diagonally from upper right to lower left. Worse, the close-up views revealed that the valleys are covered up by a lumpy-textured material that also partly fills nearby impact craters. The origin of the textured material is unknown but might result from years and years of wind erosion of surface 'soil' or volcanic ash. However it formed, this covering obscures so much of the details of the valleys that high resolution pictures are unlikely to solve this mystery.

The picture above covers an area approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) wide by 15 kilometers (9 miles) high. Illumination is from the right. The picture was acquired in August 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign, and was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

95

Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

96

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.  

PubMed Central

Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle contests over prey items to be delivered next by a parent. This 'sibling negotiation hypothesis' proposes that offspring use each others' begging vocalization as a source of information about their relative willingness to contest the next prey item delivered. In line with the hypothesis we found that (i) a nestling barn owl refrains from vocalization when a rival is more hungry, but (ii) escalates once the rival has been fed by a parent, and (iii) nestlings refrain from and escalate vocalization in experimentally enlarged and reduced broods, respectively. Thus, when parents are not at the nest a nestling vocally refrains when the value of the next delivered prey item will be higher for its nest-mates. These findings are the exact opposite of what current models predict for begging calls produced in the presence of the parents.

Roulin, A; Kolliker, M; Richner, H

2000-01-01

97

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual.

Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Celine; Waldvogel, Celine; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

98

Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis.  

PubMed

Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30?:?70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200?mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ? 0.05-0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ? 0.05-0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25025056

Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

2014-01-01

99

Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30?:?70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200?mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ? 0.05–0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ? 0.05–0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases.

Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

2014-01-01

100

Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

101

Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

Muhr, Thomas

2008-01-01

102

The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

1999-01-01

103

Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1988-01-01

104

Essential oil composition of Artemisia herba-alba from southern Tunisia.  

PubMed

The composition of the essential oil hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of 18 individual Artemisia herba-alba Asso. plants collected in southern Tunisia was determined by GC and GCMS analysis. The oil yield varied between 0.68% v/w and 1.93% v/w. One hundred components were identified, 21 of of which are reported for the first time in Artemisia herba-alba oil. The oil contained 10 components with percentages higher than 10%. The main components were cineole, thujones, chrysanthenone, camphor, borneol, chrysanthenyl acetate, sabinyl acetate, davana ethers and davanone. Twelve samples had monoterpenes as major components, three had sesquiterpenes as major components and the last three samples had approximately the same percentage of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The chemical compositions revealed that ten samples had compositions similar to those of other Artemisia herba-alba essential oils analyzed in other countries. The remaining eight samples had an original chemical composition. PMID:19384287

Mohsen, Haouari; Ali, Ferchichi

2009-01-01

105

[Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].  

PubMed

Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified. PMID:15060983

Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

2004-02-01

106

Periodicity, fluctuations and successions of macrofungi in fir forests ( Abies alba Miller) in Tuscany, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study, carried out in natural and planted Abies alba Miller woods, was undertaken as a contribution to knowledge of temporal changes occurring in fungal communities. Moreover, notes on fungal species and fungal communities in this type of wood are given. Correlations between meteorological variables and fungi (number of species and number of carpophores, as total or divided into

A Laganà; C Angiolini; S Loppi; E Salerni; C Perini; C Barluzzi; V De Dominicis

2002-01-01

107

You Need Company in the Dark: Building the House of Bernarda Alba at HMP Holloway Prison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is about the production of The House of Bernarda Alba in Her Majesty's Prison Holloway in London England. It is written from a personal perspective and focuses on the following topics, collaboration, a brief comparison of prison life in the US and the UK, the successful and unsuccessful experiences of participants, and their insights…

Williams, Rachel Marie-Crane

2003-01-01

108

On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

2011-01-01

109

The effect of kinetin on the photosynthetic apparatus of Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of kinetin during the development of primary leaves of Sinapis alba was investigated. Kinetin treatment (6 ppm) induced an increase of dry weight, of soluble reducing sugars, soluble protein, chlorophylls, carotenoids and cytochrome f; a higher ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, higher rates of CO2 fixation per fresh weight and higher activity of nitrite reductase, were

R. Zerbe; A. Wild

1980-01-01

110

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment and restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scattered tree layer that defines savannas is important for structuring the understory community and determining patterns of overstory recruitment. However, encroachment by woody plants has altered overstory tree densities and regeneration dynamics. We characterized seedling success of the savanna-forming species Quercus alba within Midwestern (USA) oak savannas that had been degraded by encroachment (control; n=4) or experimentally restored by

Lars A. Brudvig; Heidi Asbjornsen

2009-01-01

111

The Effects of Chinese Traditional Processing Method on Components in Semen Sinapis Albae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques of infrared (IR) spectrophotometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry are employed in this study to reveal the changes of the components in Semen sinapis Albae during the Chinese traditional processing. While the degradation of proteins and polysaccarides can be observed, sinapine in this drug can be known to decompose immediately after 15 mins during processing. A

Lifang Liu; Hui Zhou; Suqin Sun; Qiang Wang; Genxi Li

112

WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY: A CASE OF ALBA COUNTY COMPANIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to analyze the efficiency of working capital management ofcompanies from Alba County. The relation between the efficiency of the working capital management andprofitability is examined using Pearson correlation analyses and using a sample of 20 annual financialstatements of companies covering period 2004-2008. The conclusion to our study is that there is a weaknegative liniar

Adina Elena Danuletiu

2010-01-01

113

BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

2011-01-01

114

Interspecific somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Brassica hirta ( Sinapis alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and B. hirta (or Sinapis alba) is described. No cybrid plant with B. napus nucleus exhibiting cytoplasmic male sterility was recovered. Somatic hybrids were identified morphologically and, for some of them, by cytological observations. They were also characterised by Southern hybridization of nuclear rDNA. Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis showed that 2 plants out

C. Primard; F. Vedel; C. Mathieu; G. Pelletier; A. M. Chèvre

1988-01-01

115

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

116

Alba-Domain Proteins of Trypanosoma brucei Are Cytoplasmic RNA-Binding Proteins That Interact with the Translation Machinery  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma brucei and related pathogens transcribe most genes as polycistronic arrays that are subsequently processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Expression is frequently regulated post-transcriptionally by cis-acting elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs). GPEET and EP procyclins are the major surface proteins of procyclic (insect midgut) forms of T. brucei. Three regulatory elements common to the 3? UTRs of both mRNAs regulate mRNA turnover and translation. The glycerol-responsive element (GRE) is unique to the GPEET 3? UTR and regulates its expression independently from EP. A synthetic RNA encompassing the GRE showed robust sequence-specific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins in electromobility shift assays. This, combined with column chromatography, led to the identification of 3 Alba-domain proteins. RNAi against Alba3 caused a growth phenotype and reduced the levels of Alba1 and Alba2 proteins, indicative of interactions between family members. Tandem-affinity purification and co-immunoprecipitation verified these interactions and also identified Alba4 in sub-stoichiometric amounts. Alba proteins are cytoplasmic and are recruited to starvation granules together with poly(A) RNA. Concomitant depletion of all four Alba proteins by RNAi specifically reduced translation of a reporter transcript flanked by the GPEET 3? UTR. Pulldown of tagged Alba proteins confirmed interactions with poly(A) binding proteins, ribosomal protein P0 and, in the case of Alba3, the cap-binding protein eIF4E4. In addition, Alba2 and Alba3 partially cosediment with polyribosomes in sucrose gradients. Alba-domain proteins seem to have exhibited great functional plasticity in the course of evolution. First identified as DNA-binding proteins in Archaea, then in association with nuclear RNase MRP/P in yeast and mammalian cells, they were recently described as components of a translationally silent complex containing stage-regulated mRNAs in Plasmodium. Our results are also consistent with stage-specific regulation of translation in trypanosomes, but most likely in the context of initiation.

Mani, Jan; Guttinger, Andreas; Schimanski, Bernd; Heller, Manfred; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Pescher, Pascale; Spath, Gerald; Roditi, Isabel

2011-01-01

117

Crystal Structure of Archaeal Chromatin Protein Alba2-Double-stranded DNA Complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1*  

PubMed Central

All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode homologs of dimeric Alba (Sac10b) proteins that bind cooperatively at high density to DNA. Here, we report the 2.0 ? resolution crystal structure of an Alba2 (Ape10b2)-dsDNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1. A rectangular tube-like structure encompassing duplex DNA reveals the positively charged residues in the monomer-monomer interface of each dimer packing on either side of the bound dsDNA in successive minor grooves. The extended hairpin loop connecting strands ?3 and ?4 undergoes significant conformational changes upon DNA binding to accommodate the other Alba2 dimer during oligomerization. Mutational analysis of key interacting residues confirmed the specificity of Alba2-dsDNA interactions.

Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri

2012-01-01

118

In vitro antifungal activities of leaf extracts of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) against clinically important yeast species.  

PubMed

Introduction There are few studies reporting the antifungal activities of Lippia alba extracts. Methods A broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antifungal effects of Lippia alba extracts against seven yeast species of Candida and Cryptococcus. The butanol fraction was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The butanol fraction showed the highest activity against Candida glabrata. The fraction also acted synergistically with itraconazole and fluconazole against C. glabrata. The dominant compounds in the butanol fraction were 2,2,5-trimethyl-3,4-hexanedione, 3,5-dimethyl-4-octanone and hexadecane. Conclusions The butanol fraction may be a good candidate in the search for new drugs from natural products with antifungal activity. PMID:24861304

Oliveira, Graziela Teixeira de; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa de; Johann, Susana; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues Dos Santos

2014-04-01

119

The acetylenic acid in Comandra pallida and Osyris alba seed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) analyses are reported for fatty acid methyl esters from seed oils of two previously unreported\\u000a species of Santalaceae,Comandra pallida A. DC. andOsyris alba L. The major component in each (43 and 57%, respectively) is an enynoic acid, probablytrans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic (ximenynic) acid which has been found in seed oils of other members of this family. Equivalent chain\\u000a lengths by

K. L. Mikolajczak; F. R. Earle; I. A. Wolff

1963-01-01

120

Molecular and structural modeling of the Phanerochaete flavido - alba extracellular laccase reveals its ferroxidase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba is highly efficient in the oxidation of olive oil wastewater-derived polyphenols. This capability is largely due to the action\\u000a of a multicopper-oxidase (MCO), encoded by the pfaL gene. We describe the sequence and organization of pfaL gene and the biochemical characterization and predicted 3D structural model of the encoded protein. pfaL gene organization and peptide sequence

Francisco Rodríguez-Rincón; Antonio Suarez; Mathias Lucas; Luis Fernando Larrondo; Teresa de la Rubia; Julio Polaina; José Martínez

2010-01-01

121

CYP79B1 from Sinapis alba converts tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytochrome P450 CYP79B1 from Sinapis alba has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyze the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime. Three expression constructs were made, one expressing the native protein and two expressing proteins with different N-terminal modifications. The native construct gave the highest yield as estimated by enzymatic activity per liter of culture. Spheroplasts of

Peter Naur; Carsten Hørslev Hansen; Søren Bak; Bjarne Gram Hansen; Niels Bjerg Jensen; Hanne Linde Nielsen; Barbara Ann Halkier

2003-01-01

122

Composition and infraspecific variability of Artemisia herba-alba from southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the essential oils of 16 individual plants of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (at the full bloom stage) growing wild in four different locations from southern Spain were investigated by capillary GC and GC–MS in combination with retention indices. Among the 60 identified constituents (accounting for 80.6–95.0% of the oils), 33 have been reported for

Sofía Salido; Luis R. Valenzuela; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Aldolfo Sánchez; Eusebio Cano

2004-01-01

123

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the oil, steam-distilled from aerial parts of Artemisia herha-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (Asteraceae) collected from the south of Spain, has been analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 65 constituents investigated (representing 93.6 % of the oil composition), 61 were identified (90.3% of the oil composition). The major constituents detected were the sesquiterpene davanone (18.1%) and monoterpenes

Sofía Salido; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez

2001-01-01

124

Initial Evaluation of Prosopis alba Griseb Clones Selected for Growth at Seawater Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous article, growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis were measured in a greenhouse hydroponic system in which the salinities were increased from 10 to 45 dS m. Twenty-one of the Prosopis alba seedlings that grew at the 45 dS m salinity were propagated by rooting cuttings and a seed orchard\\/long-term evaluation trial established. To develop predictors and\\/or correlations

Peter Felker; Mauricio Ewens; Marcelo Velarde; Diego Medina

2008-01-01

125

Can small water level fluctuations affect the biomass of Nymphaea alba in large lakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated above-ground biomass and morphological responses of a floating-leaved plant species, Nymphaea alba, to small spring water level manipulations (0.1–0.5m) in a large, shallow lake over a 9-year period (1995–2003). A year effect was found in mean annual above-ground plant biomass with higher values found in years of low water levels, 275–339gDWm?2 in 1995 and 2003

Jean-Marc Paillisson; Loïc Marion

2006-01-01

126

Cryopreservation of white poplar ( Populus alba L.) by vitrification of in vitro-grown shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot tips from in vitro-grown, cold-hardened stock plants of white poplar (Populus alba L.) were successfully cryopreserved at –196??°C by one-step vitrification. After preculturing at 5??°C for 2 days on hormone-free\\u000a MS medium containing different sucrose concentrations, and loading for 20?min with 2?m glycerol and 0.4?m sucrose, shoot tips were treated with the PVS2 vitrification solution and plunged directly into

M. Lambardi; A. Fabbri; A. Caccavale

2000-01-01

127

Metabolites from the aerial parts of the Sicilian population of Artemisia alba.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia alba Turra afforded one new irregular sesquiterpenoid, artemiric acid, and five known metabolites: hydroxydavanone, the coumarins isofraxidin and scopoletin, (6S*, 7S*,10R*)-6,10 -dimethyl-7,10-epoxyocta-11-enoic acid and artalbic acid. From the MeOH extract three flavonoids were identified: chrysoeriol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. The possible biogenetic pathways of artemiric and artalbic acids are discussed. PMID:23678791

Maggio, Antonella; Rosselli, Sergio; Brancazio, Celeste Laura; Spadaro, Vivienne; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Bruno, Maurizio

2013-03-01

128

Redescription and biological aspects of Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881), a luminescent sea anemone (Anthozoa, Actiniaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea anemone Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881) is redescribed and definitely established as distinct from H. coronata. Synonymy, external morphology, anatomy and cnidom are treated in detail. Aspects of its reproduction, ecology, distribution and distinctive characteristics are also reported. The species, largely mistaken throughout literature, is rather common on Mediterranean infralittoral soft bottoms. It has also been found in the SW of Ireland. This is the only known sea anemone with luminescence, a feature that has never been reported before.

Tur, J. M.

1993-06-01

129

[Influence of continuous cropping years on yield and active compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba].  

PubMed

Biological characteristic of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba in field was studied. HPLC method was used to determine the lipophilic constituents (dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone, tanshinone II (A) and miltione) and hydrophilic constituents (salvianolic acid, rosemarinic acid). The results showed that the fresh weight of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba which cropped for 2 years was decreased by 80.47%, while dry weight decreased by 79.42%. The normal diameter of the root was 0.3-0.5 cm, however, the diameter was 0.2-0.4 cm after 2 years, it was said that the decrease of the root diameter was the main reason for the decrease of the yield. The average contents of dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone, tanshinone II (A), miltione, salvianolic acid and rosemarinic acid were decreased by 35.26%, 32.26%, 19.35%, 3.39%, 64.40%, 66.93% in plant which continuously cropped for 2 years, respectively. The yield and active constituents were mostly effected in the plant of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba, which continuously cropped for 2 years. PMID:24791525

Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Yun; Zhou, Jie; Sun, Qing-Lei; Wang, Xiao; Li, Feng-Sheng

2013-12-01

130

The system Tetrabothrius bassani (Tetrabothriidae)/Morus bassanus (Sulidae) as a bioindicator of marine heavy metal pollution.  

PubMed

Helminths are known to accumulate higher amounts of certain elements than their hosts. The present study assesses the accumulation of heavy metals in Tetrabothrius bassani and in its host, the Atlantic gannet (Morus bassanus) found dead due to bycatch along the seashore in the centre of Portugal. Samples of kidney, liver and pectoral muscle of 23 infected gannets, as well as specimens of T. bassani were analysed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn by ICP-MS. The evidenced lower concentrations of Cr and Pb in tissues of gannets in comparison to an earlier study performed in the same area may reveal a change in the diet of M. bassanus between both study periods. The highest bioaccumulation factor was obtained for Cd with a 12.7-times higher concentration in the cestode than in gannet muscle. Lead concentration in T. bassani was 6.9-times higher than in kidney tissue, 8.5-times higher than in muscle and 9.5-times higher than in liver of M. bassanus. The cestode/seabird system T. bassani/M. bassanus can be considered a promising bioindicator system to monitor environmental Cd and Pb pollution in marine ecosystems. PMID:23377908

Mendes, Paula; Eira, Catarina; Vingada, José; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi

2013-03-01

131

Molecular and Conformational Basis of a Specific and High-Affinity Interaction between AlbA and Albicidin Phytotoxin  

PubMed Central

The albA gene of Klebsiella oxytoca encodes a protein of 221 amino acids that binds the albicidin phytotoxin with a high affinity (dissociation constant = 6.4 × 10?8 M). For this study, circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry and an alanine scanning mutagenesis approach were used in combination to investigate the molecular and conformational mechanisms of this high-affinity protein-ligand interaction. CD analysis revealed that AlbA contains a high-affinity binding site, and binding of the albicidin ligand to AlbA in a low-ionic-strength environment induced significant conformational changes. The ligand-dependent conformational changes of AlbA were specific and rapid and reached a stable plateau within seconds after the addition of the antibiotic. However, such conformational changes were not detected when AlbA and albicidin were mixed in the high-ionic-strength buffer that is required for maximal binding activity. Based on the conceptual model of protein-ligand interaction, we propose that a threshold ion strength allows AlbA to complete its conformational rearrangement and resume its original stable structure for accommodation of the bound albicidin. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the replacement of Lys106, Trp110, Tyr113, Leu114, Tyr126, Pro134, and Trp162 with alanine did not change the overall conformational structure of AlbA but decreased the albicidin binding activity about 30 to 60%. We conclude that these residues, together with the previously identified essential residue His125, constitute a high-affinity binding pocket for the ligand albicidin. The results also suggest that hydrophobic and electrostatic potentials of these key amino acid residues may play important roles in the AlbA-albicidin interaction.

Weng, Li-Xing; Wang, Lian-Hui; Xu, Jin-Ling; Wu, Ji-En; Li, Qi; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2005-01-01

132

TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL  

PubMed Central

Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2014-01-01

133

Rapid determination of volatile constituents of Michelia alba flowers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of Michelia alba flowers, including fresh flowers, frozen flowers and withered flowers, were investigated by GC-MS. The volatiles in a simulated natural environment were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), with a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 25+/-5 degrees C for 4 h. The fibers were desorbed in a GC injection liner at 250 degrees C for 3 min. With headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis, 61 peaks were separated. The main compounds in headspace of fresh Michelia alba flowers included alpha-myrcene, (S)-limonene, (R)-fenchone, linalool, camphor, caryophyllene, germacrene D, etc., a greater number of compounds than for frozen flowers and withered flowers. At the same time, the biomarkers of fresh flowers were compared with the frozen flowers and withered flowers. In this study, headspace SPME-GC-MS afforded a simple and more sensitive sampling method for fresh Michelia alba flowers and other fresh flowers. PMID:11822393

Shang, Chunqing; Yaoming, H; Deng, Chunhui; Hu, Keji

2002-01-01

134

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

135

Structural identification and bioactivities of red-violet pigments present in Basella alba fruits.  

PubMed

Mature Basella alba L. fruit, with dark blue skin and deep red-violet flesh, is a potential source of natural colorants. Its pigment components and bioactivities deserve particular attention and investigation. In this study, fruit flesh was extracted with 80% methanol (containing 0.2% formic acid) and subjected to solid-phase extraction, semipreparative HPLC isolation, mass spectrophotometric analysis, and structural elucidation. The major red pigment was identified as gomphrenin I. Its quantity increased with the increase of fruit maturity. The gomphrenin I extract yield from ripe fruits was 36.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight. In addition to gomphrenin I, betanidin-dihexose and isobetanidin-dihexose were also detected. The antioxidant activities of gomphrenin I determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and antioxidative capacity assays were equivalent to 534 ?M Trolox, 103 ?M butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 129 ?M ascorbic acid, and 68 ?M BHT at 180, 23, 45, and 181 ?M, respectively. The anti-inflammatory function was tested at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ?M in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results revealed that gomphrenin I suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased PGE(2) and IL-1? secretions at the highest concentration tested. The transcriptional inhibitory activities of gomphrenin I on the expression of inflammatory genes encoding iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 were also observed. It is of merit to identify gomphrenin I as a principal pigment of B. alba fruits and as a potent antioxidant and inflammatory inhibitor. These findings suggest that B. alba fruit is a rich source of betalains and has value-added potential for use in the development of food colorants and nutraceuticals. PMID:20839771

Lin, Shu-Mei; Lin, Bo-Hong; Hsieh, Wan-Mei; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Liu, Chi-Dong; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

2010-10-13

136

Incompatibility in Populus: structural and cytochemical characteristics of the receptive stigmas of Populus alba and P. nigra.  

PubMed

Structural and cytochemical characteristics of stigmas of Populus alba (section Leuce) and P. nigra (section Aigeiros) have been studied to provide an understanding of the cell biology of the interspecific incompatibility reactions between these two species. In addition to specific morphological characteristics, stigma surfaces differ in the presence of an exudate studied by ultrastructural and stigma print techniques. P. nigra shows features of a dry-type stigma covered by a pellicle, whereas P. alba has a copious exudate typical of a wet-type stigma that contains unsaturated lipids. PMID:3429498

Villar, M; Gaget, M; Said, C; Knox, R B; Dumas, C

1987-04-01

137

Transferability and characterization of nine microsatellite markers for the tropical tree species Tabebuia roseo-alba.  

PubMed

Microsatellite loci that were previously developed in the tropical tree Tabebuia aurea were used for the genetic analysis of Tabebuia roseo-alba populations. Nine of 10 simple sequence repeat markers were amplified, and the polymorphism was assessed in 58 individuals sampled from two stands in southeastern Brazil. All loci were polymorphic with Mendelian inheritance. The allele numbers were high, ranging from 5 to 13 in population I and 3 to 7 in population II, with means of 8.9 and 5.5, respectively. We conclude that these markers can be efficiently used for parentage and gene-flow studies. PMID:21564672

Feres, Juliana Massimino; Martinez, Marcelo L L; Martinez, Carlos A; Mestriner, Moacyr A; Alzate-Marin, Ana Lilia

2009-01-01

138

Diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects of Eclipta alba in mild hypertensive subjects: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The combined effect of dried Eclipta alba leaf powder (3 g/day) in encapsulated form on blood pressure, diuresis, and lipid profile of 60 mildly hypertensive male subjects in the age group of 40-55 years was studied. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., a control (placebo) and the Eclipta group, and were given six capsules (500 mg each) per day in three equal doses for a period of 60 days. Clinical parameters, viz., blood pressure, urine volume, electrolytes (Na and K) in serum and urine, lipid profile, and plasma lipid peroxides, were analyzed before and after the feeding trials. The findings revealed that the Eclipta-supplemented group showed a marked reduction in mean arterial pressure by 15%, total cholesterol (17%), low-density lipoprotein fraction (24%), triglycerides (14%), very-low-density lipoprotein fraction (14%), and plasma lipid peroxides (18%). Results also revealed a remarkable increase in urine volume (34%), urine sodium (24%), serum vitamin C (17%), and serum tocopherols (23%) of the Eclipta group. In conclusion, it would appear that E. alba is diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic and helps in the alleviating oxidative stress-induced complications in hypertensives. PMID:17472478

Rangineni, Vasavi; Sharada, D; Saxena, Saileshnath

2007-03-01

139

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rat  

PubMed Central

Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) is used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and wounds. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba roots in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity test was conducted by administering orally dose of 5 g/Kg. General behavior and mortality were examined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was performed by daily gavage at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg for 28 days. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weight were determined at the end of the 28 days administration. In acute study, no adverse effect of the extract was observed at 5.0 g/Kg. Sub-acute oral administration of the extract at the dose up to 1000 mg/Kg did not induce death or significant changes in body weight, relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters and was not associated with liver and kidney toxicity.

Tessou, K. Z.; Lawson-Evi, P.; Metowogo, K.; Diallo, A.; Eklu-Gadegkeku, K.; Aklikokou, K.; Gbeassor, M.

2013-01-01

140

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rat.  

PubMed

Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) is used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and wounds. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba roots in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity test was conducted by administering orally dose of 5 g/Kg. General behavior and mortality were examined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was performed by daily gavage at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg for 28 days. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weight were determined at the end of the 28 days administration. In acute study, no adverse effect of the extract was observed at 5.0 g/Kg. Sub-acute oral administration of the extract at the dose up to 1000 mg/Kg did not induce death or significant changes in body weight, relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters and was not associated with liver and kidney toxicity. PMID:24711763

Tessou, K Z; Lawson-Evi, P; Metowogo, K; Diallo, A; Eklu-Gadegkeku, K; Aklikokou, K; Gbeassor, M

2013-12-01

141

The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba.  

PubMed

Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function ? factor (PspX), its cognate anti-? factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic. PMID:23776227

Sherwood, Emma J; Bibb, Mervyn J

2013-07-01

142

Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.  

PubMed

We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice. PMID:23768383

Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2013-11-01

143

Relaxant Effect of Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. on Rodent Jejunum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Artemisia herba-alba Asso. is a shrub commonly encountered in Morocco. It is used in traditional medicine for treating intestinal disorders. The essential oil extracted from the plant’s aerial parts reversibly relaxed the spontaneous tonus of the rabbit jejunum in a reversible concentration dependent manner with an IC50 value of 97.33 ± 2.59 ng/ml and reversed the tonic contraction of rat jejunum induced by 75 mM KCl and 10?6 M carbachol with IC50 values of 115.5 ± 3.05 and 119.4 ± 20.86 ng/ml, respectively. The pre-treatment of the latter isolated intestine with this essential oil produced a dose-dependent shift of the Ca++ and CCh dose-response curve to the right, with suppression of the maximal effect, similar to the non-competitive antagonist effect on muscarinic receptors and calcium channel, respectively.

Aziz, Mohammed; Karim, Ahmed; El Ouariachi, El Mokhtar; Bouyanzer, Abdelhamid; Amrani, Souliman; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Melhaoui, Ahmed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

2012-01-01

144

Pityriasis Alba  

MedlinePLUS

... may include: Heat Humidity Heavily scented detergents or soaps Abrasive clothing Smoke Stress Who's At Risk Pityriasis ... skin well moisturized. Try the following: Use non-soap cleansers or moisturizing soaps. Apply moisturizers such as ...

145

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

146

Contribution of root growth responses to leaf traits and relative growth rate of Populus alba under different water-table conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-table depth variations alter root growth response and may affect whole-plant growth in arid and semi-arid regions. We\\u000a examined how root biomass allocation and root morphological traits affect the leaf physiological and morphological traits\\u000a and whole-plant growth of Populus alba growing under different water tables. We exposed 1-year-old P. alba cuttings to contrasting soil–water conditions via water table changes in

Shogo Imada; Norikazu Yamanaka; Shigenobu Tamai

2010-01-01

147

Fine-root growth, fine root mortality, and leaf morphological change of Populus alba in response to fluctuating water tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water table fluctuation in arid land regions may alter tree fine-root growth and mortality, thereby affecting leaf growth.\\u000a To reveal the effects of water table fluctuation on fine-root growth and mortality and their relation to leaf growth, we exposed\\u000a P. alba L. cuttings to various fluctuating water table depths. 1-year-old rooted cuttings were grown individually in pots containing\\u000a sandy soil

Shogo Imada; Norikazu Yamanaka; Shigenobu Tamai

2010-01-01

148

Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

2004-01-01

149

Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant by a sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sponge-associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis alba MSA10 was screened and evaluated for the production of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by conventional\\u000a screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement method, lipase production and emulsification\\u000a index. The active compound was extracted with three solvents including ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and dichloromethane. The\\u000a diethyl ether extract was fractionated by

R. Gandhimathi; G. Seghal Kiran; T. A. Hema; Joseph Selvin; T. Rajeetha Raviji; S. Shanmughapriya

2009-01-01

150

Accumulation and Distribution of Trivalent Chromium and Effects on Hybrid Willow ( Salix matsudana Koidz × alba L.) Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic response of plants to exogenous supply and bioaccumulation of trivalent chromium (Cr3+ ) was investigated. Pre-rooted young hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × alba L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with CrCl3 at 24.0°C ± 1°C for 192 hours. Various physiologic parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from Cr\\u000a exposure. The transpiration rate of

X.-Z. Yu; J.-D. Gu

2007-01-01

151

Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Ley dig cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull, and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes.Methods:The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig

Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboyl; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

2005-01-01

152

Effects of extracts from Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba mixture on testosterone production in vitro in adult rat testes slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To find an in vitro system for the measurement of the androgenic effects of different extracts of Hibiscus macranthus (Malvaceae) and Basella alba (Basellaceae).Methods:The production of testosterone from testes slices incubated in two media, either Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Dubecco's Modified Eagle's medium-F12 Ham nutrient mixture (DME\\/Ham F12), under a mixture of 5 %

Paul F. Moundipa; Silvère Ngouela; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Felicite M. Tchouanguep; Serge Carreau

2006-01-01

153

Symplastic isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the phloem of Ricinus communis and Salix alba stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical and physiological isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex (se-cc complex) was investigated in stems of Ricinus communis L. and Salix alba L. In Ricinus, the plasmodesmatal frequencies were in the proportions 8:1:2:30, in the order given, at the interfaces between sieve tube-companion cell, sieve tube-phloem parenchyma cell, companion cellphloem parenchyma cell, and phloem parenchyma cellphloem parenchyma cell.

Aart J. E. Bel; Ronald Kempers

1991-01-01

154

Projected benefit-cost analysis of agri-silvicultural system: vegetable crops intercropping with Salix alba (Willow)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment upon an agri-silvicultural system involving Willow (Salix alba) tree, Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and Knol khol (Brassica oleracea var. caularapa) was laid in randomized block designed at farmers’ willow field at Shalimar near Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural\\u000a Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar India during 2005 and 2006. The main plot was divided into sub-spots with 8

Aijaz Hussain Mir; M. A. Khan

2008-01-01

155

Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation during the ontogenesis of high-light and low-light leaves of Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncyclic electron transport to ferricyanide and photophosphorylation as well as the methylviologen mediated aerobic and anaerobic photophosphorylation with dichlorophenolindophenol-ascorbate as the electron donor of photosystem I were measured during the development of high-light and low-light adapted leaves of Sinapis alba. Anaerobic methylviologen-catalyzed phosphorylation is more than twice as high as aerobic phosphorylation. The difference between the rates of aerobic and

A. Wild; J. Belz; W. Rtihle

1981-01-01

156

Photodegradation product of sulcotrione and the physiological response of maize (Zea mays) and white mustard (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

One of the strategies for decreasing the consumption of herbicides consists in improving their uptake and efficiency. It was suggested that the photodegradation of herbicides due to sunlight results in a greater demand of herbicides to be introduced into the environment in order to ensure the plant protection activity. Moreover, an ecotoxicological effect of the photoproducts needs to be clarified. The physiological response of Zea mays and Sinapis alba (weed) to sulcotrione and its main photoproduct, called chromone (xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl), was evaluated under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The dose-response effects were determined on Z. mays and S. alba. Using the sulcotrione (doses ranging from 1 to 9mg per plant), the physiological parameters indicated a decrease of photosynthesis for the S. alba species while the Z. mays species were only slightly affected. On the contrary, the chromone had no herbicide activity on both species. The sulcotrione is known to block 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) enzyme. The differences between the parent herbicide and the photoproduct could be ascribed to drastic structural modifications. We have shown that the chromone probably do not block the HPPD active site. PMID:19111887

Wiszniowski, Jaroslaw; Halle, Alexandra Ter; Richard, Claire; Hitmi, Adnane; Ledoigt, Gérard

2009-03-01

157

Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

Lichtenberg, J. S.; Lichtenberg, D. A.

2002-01-01

158

CYP79B1 from Sinapis alba converts tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime.  

PubMed

The cytochrome P450 CYP79B1 from Sinapis alba has been heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyze the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-acetaldoxime. Three expression constructs were made, one expressing the native protein and two expressing proteins with different N-terminal modifications. The native construct gave the highest yield as estimated by enzymatic activity per liter of culture. Spheroplasts of E. coli expressing CYP79B1 were reconstituted with the Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH:cytochrome P450 reductase ATR1 heterologously expressed in E. coli to obtain enzymatic activity. This indicates that the E. coli electron-donating system, flavodoxin/flavodoxin reductase, does not support CYP79B1 activity. Recombinant CYP79B1 has a K(m) for tryptophan of 29+/-2 microM and a V(max) of 36.5+/-0.7nmolh(-1)(mlculture)(-1). The identity at the amino acid level of CYP79B1 is, respectively, 93 and 84% to CYP79B2 and CYP79B3 from A. thaliana, and 96% to CYP79B5 (Accession No. AF453287) from Brassica napus. The CYP79B subfamily of cytochromes P450 is likely to constitute a group of orthologous genes in the biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates. PMID:12464264

Naur, Peter; Hansen, Carsten Hørslev; Bak, Søren; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Nielsen, Hanne Linde; Halkier, Barbara Ann

2003-01-01

159

Focusing and defocusing using mechanically corrected mirrors at the MX beamline at Alba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical limitation of X-ray focusing mirrors is that, while providing nice gaussian photon distributions at the focal plane, they usually produce inhomogeneous beam profiles upon defocusing that are caused by the mirror polishing errors. This can become a limitation in order to match the beam size with the sample dimensions, as the sample is not uniformly illuminated. We outline a method to achieve well shaped unfocused beams that has been successfully proven at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the ALBA synchrotron. As received from the manufacturer, the mirrors had rms slope errors of 180 nrad rms (vertically focusing mirror, VFM) and 210 nrad rms (horizontally focusing mirror, HFM). Ray tracing simulations suggested that pronounced stripes arising from the surface waviness would appear upon defocusing. By using the elastic beam theory to model the deformations and calculating the necessary correcting forces exerted by a few mechanical actuators that were installed in the mirror mechanical holders, we were able to reduce the slope errors of the mirrors to 55 nrad rms (VFM) and 83 nrad rms (HFM). The corrected mirrors were installed at the beamline and they were tested with the X-ray beam from the undulator source.

Nicolas, J.; Ruget, C.; Juanhuix, J.; Benach, J.; Ferrer, S.

2013-03-01

160

Jiangella alba sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the stem of Maytenus austroyunnanensis.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete strain, YIM 61503T, isolated from the stem of Maytenus austroyunnanensis, was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 61503T belonged to the genus Jiangella and exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.8 and 98.6% to Jiangella alkaliphila D8-87T and Jiangella gansuensis YIM 002T. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain YIM 61503T were consistent with those of the genus Jiangella: the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was based on ll-diaminopimelic acid and MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C14:0, C17:1omega8c and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was 71.9 mol%. Strain YIM 61503T was phenotypically distinct from recognized Jiangella species and was shown to belong to a separate genomic species based on DNA-DNA hybridization results. Thus, strain YIM 61503T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Jiangella, for which the name Jiangella alba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 61503T (=DSM 45237T=CCTCC AA 208023T). PMID:19605701

Qin, Sheng; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Li, Jie; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-09-01

161

Status and Developments of BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at Alba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BL13-XALOC is a Macromolecular Crystallography beamline at the newly built 3-GeV synchrotron ALBA (Barcelona). The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator, and a pair of KB mirrors. The optical design allows three main operation modes: an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path; a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam to 49×9 ?m2 FWHM (H×V), and a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus it at the detector. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors were reduced by using novel method together with our high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning has also demonstrated that the X-ray beam has excellent energy and spatial stability. The End Station includes a high accuracy single axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa goniometer, an automated sample mounting robot and a Pilatus6M, photon-counting detector. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility, allows the beamline to tackle a large variety of crystals, from medium sized crystals with large unit cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of high-quality data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18th July 2012.

Benach, J.; Cuní, G.; Colldelram, C.; Nicolás, J.; Lidón, J.; Gil-Ortiz, F.; Juanhuix, J.

2013-03-01

162

Sequence and expression characteristics of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast sigma factor from mustard (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed Central

Plant chloroplasts contain transcription factors that functionally resemble bacterial sigma factors. We have cloned the full-length cDNA from mustard (Sinapis alba) for a 53 kDa derived polypeptide that contains similarity to regions 1.2-4.2 of sigma70-type factors. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus has characteristics of a chloroplast transit peptide. An in vitro synthesized polypeptide containing this region was shown to be imported into the chloroplast and processed. The recombinant factor lacking the N-terminal extension was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. It confers the ability on E.coli core RNA polymerase to bind specifically to a DNA fragment that contains the chloroplast psbA promoter. Transcription of the psbA template by E.coli core enzyme in the presence of recombinant SIG1 results in enhanced formation of transcripts of the size expected for correct initiation at the in vivo start site. Together, these data suggest that the mature protein acts as one of the chloroplast transcription factors in mustard. RNA gel blot hybridization reveals a transcript at approximately 1.8 kb, which is more abundant in light-grown than in dark-grown mustard seedlings.

Kestermann, M; Neukirchen, S; Kloppstech, K; Link, G

1998-01-01

163

Sequence and expression characteristics of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast sigma factor from mustard (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

Plant chloroplasts contain transcription factors that functionally resemble bacterial sigma factors. We have cloned the full-length cDNA from mustard (Sinapis alba) for a 53 kDa derived polypeptide that contains similarity to regions 1.2-4.2 of sigma70-type factors. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus has characteristics of a chloroplast transit peptide. An in vitro synthesized polypeptide containing this region was shown to be imported into the chloroplast and processed. The recombinant factor lacking the N-terminal extension was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. It confers the ability on E.coli core RNA polymerase to bind specifically to a DNA fragment that contains the chloroplast psbA promoter. Transcription of the psbA template by E.coli core enzyme in the presence of recombinant SIG1 results in enhanced formation of transcripts of the size expected for correct initiation at the in vivo start site. Together, these data suggest that the mature protein acts as one of the chloroplast transcription factors in mustard. RNA gel blot hybridization reveals a transcript at approximately 1.8 kb, which is more abundant in light-grown than in dark-grown mustard seedlings. PMID:9592164

Kestermann, M; Neukirchen, S; Kloppstech, K; Link, G

1998-06-01

164

In vitro Evaluation of Eclipta alba against Serogroups of Leptospira interrogans  

PubMed Central

Leptospirosis is now acknowledged as the most widespread zoonoses in the world. Hundreds of cases occur in India every year accounting for considerable morbidity and sizable mortality. Several studies have delineated the epidemiology, pathology and variable clinical features of this condition. The present study comprises the importance and utilization of traditional based medicines to overcome the adverse reaction by conventional drugs and standardize the technology. The antileptospiral activity of Eclipta alba L. was well studied by both tube dilution and micro dilution techniques and the result showed better inhibitory action against various serogroups of Leptospira interrogans. L. australis, L. autumnalis and L. grippotyphosa are inhibited by both water and ethanol extract by tube dilution technique. The MIC level observed are 50 ?g and 100 ?g respectively. Similarly acetone extract, Icterohaemorrhagiae was responded to 200 ?g/ml as MIC whereas in petroleum ether extract, no inhibition was observed. In the case of micro dilution technique, the entire inhibition rates are supported to the tube dilution technique. It showed that the micro dilution technique is the best method where we obtained the results within 30 minutes; at the same time tube dilution technique takes minimum of 7 days to provide the result.

Prabhu, N.; Innocent, Joseph Pushpa; Chinnaswamy, P.; Natarajaseenivasan, K.; Sarayu, Lakshmi

2008-01-01

165

Treatment of nonepitheliotropic cutaneous B-cell lymphoma in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba).  

PubMed

A 3.5-year-old umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) was presented because of the development of widely disseminated subcutaneous nodules. The diagnostic work-up included a complete blood count, plasma biochemical analysis, and whole body radiographs. Biopsy samples of the skin lesions were submitted for histopathologic evaluation, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, immunohistochemistry staining, and acid-fast staining. The diagnosis was nonepitheliotropic cutaneous B-cell lymphoma with a leukemic blood picture. The bird was treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen consisting of vincristine and chlorambucil for 17 weeks. During treatment, the complete blood count was monitored every 1-3 weeks, and the plasma biochemical analysis was monitored every 3-4 weeks. The bird was in partial remission on week 9. On week 17, the bird became acutely ill and was fluffed, depressed, anorectic, and anemic. The chemotherapeutic regimen was discontinued. At this time, the bird had a consistent lymphocytosis but no neoplastic lymphocytes were seen in the general circulation. At week 29 the bird was in complete remission and remains in complete remission 8 years after chemotherapy was discontinued. PMID:20235461

Rivera, Samuel; McClearen, James R; Reavill, Drury R

2009-12-01

166

The Genetic Basis of Sex Ratio in Silene Alba (= S. Latifolia)  

PubMed Central

A survey of maternal families collected from natural populations showed that the sex ratio in Silene alba was slightly female biased. Sex ratio varied among populations and among families within a female biased population. Crosses among plants from the most female biased population and the most male biased population showed that the sex ratio polymorphism was inherited through or expressed in the male parent. Males from one family in particular exhibited a severe female bias, characterized by less than 20% male progeny. The inheritance of sex ratio was investigated using a reciprocal crossing design. Sex ratios from reciprocal crosses were significantly different, indicating either sex-linkage or cytoplasmic inheritance of sex ratio. The sex ratios produced by males generally resembled the sex ratios produced by their male parents, indicating that the sex ratio modifier was Y linked. The maternal parent also significantly influenced sex ratio through an interaction with the genotype of the paternal parent. Sex ratio, therefore, is apparently controlled by several loci. Although sex ratio bias in this species may be due to deleterious alleles on the Y chromosome, it is more likely to involve an interaction between loci that cause the female bias and a Y-linked locus that enhances the proportion of males in the progeny.

Taylor, D. R.

1994-01-01

167

Rapid discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. var. alba C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li and Radix S. miltrorrhiza belong to the same genus. S. miltiorrhiza var. alba has a unique effectiveness for thromboangiitis besides therapeutical efficay of S. miltrorrhiza. It exhibits antioxidant activity (AA), while its quality and efficacy also vary with geographic locations. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was developed for discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The discrimination of geographical origin was achieved by using discriminant analysis and the accuracy was 100%. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to establish the model for evaluation of AA by NIRS. The spectral regions were selected by interval PLS (i-PLS) method. Different pre-treated methods were compared for the spectral pre-processing. The final optimal results of PLS model showed that correlation coefficients in the calibration set (Rc) and the prediction set (Rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were 0.974, 0.950, 0.163 mg mL(-1) and 2.66, respectively. The results demonstrated that NIRs combined with chemometric methods could be a rapid and nondestructive tool to discriminate geographical origin and evaluate AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The developed NIRS method might have a potential application to high-throughput screening of a great number of raw S. miltiorrhiza var. alba samples for AA. PMID:24378625

Duan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Danlu; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

2014-03-25

168

Inhibition of cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on vero cells by Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae) and Ziziphus mistol Griseb (Rhamnaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

The capacity of Prosopis alba Griseb. and Ziziphus mistol Griseb. fruit extracts to inhibit the toxic action of Shiga toxin (Stx) was investigated. Purification of Stx from Escherichia coli O157:H7 was performed by saline precipitation and affinity chromatography using a column with globotriaosylceramide, while the fruits were subjected to ethanolic or aqueous extractions. The protective action of both fruits was determined by pre-, co-, and postincubation of one 50% cytotoxic dose per ml of Stx with different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts in confluent monolayers of Vero cells for 72 h at 37°C (5% CO2). The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Stx by fruit extracts was determined by the neutral red vital staining technique. The extraction of the polyphenols and flavonoids was effective, and more polyphenols per milligram of dissolved solids were obtained from P. alba than from Z. mistol. However, there were more flavonoids in Z. mistol than in P. alba. Components of both fruits increased the viability of cells treated with Stx when the extracts were preincubated with Stx for 1 h before being applied to the cell cultures, with the ethanolic extract of P. alba showing 95% cell viability at a concentration of 2.45 mg/ml. The extracts were less effective in protecting cells when Stx, extracts, and cells were coincubated together without a previous incubation of Stx; only the concentrations of 19.46 mg/ml for the P. alba aqueous extract and 3.75 mg/ml for the Z. mistol ethanolic extract resulted in the inhibition of cytotoxicity, with 52 and 56% cell viability occurring, respectively. Investigation into this difference in the protection of cells indicated that the protein molecule of Stx suffered degradation to advanced oxidative protein products during preincubation with extracts, principally with P. alba, which exhibited a greater amount of nonflavonoid polyphenols than Z. mistol. The prooxidant action on Stx favored the cells and enhanced the protective action of both fruits. PMID:24112573

Pellarín, M G; Albrecht, C; Rojas, M J; Aguilar, J J; Konigheim, B S; Paraje, M G; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J

2013-10-01

169

Effects of Auricular Acupressure Using Sinapsis alba Seeds on Obesity and Self-Efficacy in Female College Students.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: To examine the effects of auricular acupressure with Sinapsis alba seeds on obesity and self-efficacy. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Settings: College settings located in metropolitan areas of Korea. Participants: A total of 49 female college students who were overweight or obese (body-mass index [BMI] ?25.0?kg/m(2)) were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) or the control group (n=24). Interventions: The experimental group applied three S. alba seeds to each of five auricular points (Shenmen, mouth, stomach, endocrine, and small intestine points). These participants were asked to stimulate those points 10 times at a rate of two times per second 30 minutes before mealtime, three times daily, for 1 month. They performed the procedure for each earlobe for alternating weeks (a total of 2 weeks' treatment for each ear). Outcome Measures: The obesity index included weight (kg), BMI (kg/m(2)), percentage body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. Self-efficacy was measured by using a self-efficacy scale. Results: Female students in the experimental group showed significant decreases in weight (t=10.76; p<0.001) and BMI (t=9.60; p<0.001) and significant improvement in self-efficacy (t=1.85; p<0.05) compared with those in the control group. However, percentage body fat (t=1.27; p>0.05) and waist-to-hip ratio (t=0.60; p>0.05) changes did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that auricular acupressure using S. alba seeds may be an effective intervention for decreasing weight and BMI and increasing self-efficacy of overweight and obese individuals. PMID:24070326

Kim, Dongwon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Kang, Changwan; Jun, Eunmi

2014-04-01

170

Fractional CO2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV  

PubMed Central

Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2–4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients’ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm2) in comparison with Group 2(-7.9±9 cm2) (P value >0.001). Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74) compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66) (P value >0.001). Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba.

Naein, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz

2012-01-01

171

Researches on the preparation and characterization of some tinctures from Silene albae herba and Silene pendulae herba.  

PubMed

Starting from the varied chemical composition of Silene species (Caryophyllaceae family), the pharmacological utilizations (homeopathy) and the cumulative toxicity for a long time administration, were performed researches concerning the preparation and characterization of tinctures from aerial parts of S. alba and S. pendula species. Tinctures were obtained, according to the Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth edition, by percolation and characterized from physico-chemical point of view: color, taste, smell, relative density, refractive index, and quality conditions - content in iron and heavy metals, alcohol concentration and evaporation residue. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of tinctures were making for the flavonosids, using thin layer-chromatography, respectively VIS spectrophotometry. PMID:24778846

Tircomnicu, Viorela; Gird, Cerasela Elena; Radu, S

2012-04-01

172

Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens.  

PubMed

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soilborne pathogens. To maximize the pest-suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soilborne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soilborne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, was the most toxic compound against all of the soilborne pathogens, with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC(50) values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20-40 times lower than estimated EC(50) mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

Zasada, Inga A; Weiland, Jerry E; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F

2012-01-11

173

Purification and molecular properties of malate dehydrogenase from the marine diatom Nitzschia alba.  

PubMed Central

Malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) was purified to homogeneity from the marine diatom Nitzschia alba. The purification steps consisted of (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography and gel filtration. A typical procedure provided 685-fold purification with 58% yield. The Mr of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 322,000 by gel filtration and 316,000 by ultracentrifugation. The enzyme migrated as a single polypeptide spot on two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr of 38,500, suggesting that the holoenzyme consists of eight identical subunits. This is the first case where malate dehydrogenase has been shown to be a homo-octamer; malate dehydrogenases from other sources are predominantly homodimers, with two homotetramers reported so far. The amino acid composition of the enzyme was determined and the N-terminal sequence of the subunit polypeptide was found to be Arg-Lys-Val-Ala-Val-Met-Gly-Ala-Ala-Gly-Gly-Ile-Gly-Gln-Pro-Leu-Ser-Leu- Leu-Leu - Lys-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gln-Val-Thr-Glu-Leu-Ser-Lys-Tyr-. For the first 21 amino acid residues, near-identical sequences were reported for the enzymes isolated from pig heart, Escherichia coli, yeast and watermelon. Other physicochemical and catalytic properties, such as sedimentation coefficient, partial specific volume, Stokes radius, excitation and emission maxima, Michaelis constants, pH optima, pH stability range and activation energy, of this enzyme are also presented. Images Fig. 2.

Yueh, A Y; Chung, C S; Lai, Y K

1989-01-01

174

Interaction of nitrogen nutrition and salinity in Grey poplar (Populus tremula x alba).  

PubMed

Salinity represents an increasing environmental problem in managed ecosystems. Populus spp. is widely used for wood production by short-rotation forestry in fertilized plantations and can be grown on saline soil. Because N fertilization plays an important role in salt tolerance, we analysed Grey poplar (Populus tremula x alba, syn. Populus canescens) grown with either 1 mM nitrate or ammonium subjected to moderate 75 mM NaCl. The impact of N nutrition on amelioration of salt tolerance was analysed on different levels of N metabolism such as N uptake, assimilation and N (total N, proteins and amino compounds) accumulation. Na concentration increased in all tissues over time of salt exposure. The N nutrition-dependent effects of salt exposure were more intensive in roots than in leaves. Application of salt reduced root increment as well as stem height increase and, at the same time, increased the concentration of total amino compounds more intensively in roots of ammonium-fed plants. In leaves, salt treatment increased concentrations of total N more intensively in nitrate-fed plants and concentrations of amino compounds independently of N nutrition. The major changes in N metabolism of Grey poplar exposed to moderate salt concentrations were detected in the significant increase of amino acid concentrations. The present results indicate that N metabolism of Grey poplar exposed to salt performed better when the plants were fed with nitrate instead of ammonium as sole N source. Therefore, nitrate fertilization of poplar plantations grown on saline soil should be preferred. PMID:17547652

Ehlting, B; Dluzniewska, P; Dietrich, H; Selle, A; Teuber, M; Hänsch, R; Nehls, U; Polle, A; Schnitzler, J-P; Rennenberg, H; Gessler, A

2007-07-01

175

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

2014-06-01

176

Lysophosphatidate Acyltransferase in the Microsomes from Maturing Seeds of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) 1  

PubMed Central

Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3. 1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of the two acyl acceptors and oleoyl CoA, but only the meadowfoam enzyme could use erucoyl CoA as the acyl donor to produce dierucoyl phosphatidic acid (PA). The meadowfoam enzyme was studied further. It had an optimal activity at pH 7 to 8, and its activity was inhibited by 1 millimolar MnCl2, ZnCl2, or p-chloromercuribenzoate. In a test of substrate specificity using increasing concentrations of either 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and either oleoyl CoA or erucoyl CoA, the enzyme activity in producing PA was highest for dioleoyl-PA, followed successively by 1-oleoyl-2-erucoyl-PA, dierucoyl-PA, and 1-erucoyl-2-oleoyl-PA. In a test of substrate selectivity using a fixed combined concentration, but varying proportions, of 1-oleoyl-LPA and 1-erucoyl-LPA, and of oleoyl CoA and erucoyl CoA, the enzyme showed a pattern of acyl preference similar to that observed in the test of substrate specificity, but the preference toward oleoyl moiety in the substrates was slightly stronger. The meadowfoam microsomes could convert [14C]glycerol-3-phosphate to diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the presence of erucoyl CoA. The meadowfoam LPA acyltransferase is unique in its ability to produce dierucoyl-PA, and should be a prime candidate for use in the production of trierucin oils in rapeseed via genetic engineering.

Cao, Yi-zhi; Oo, Khaik-Cheang; Huang, Anthony H. C.

1990-01-01

177

La posesión como hecho punible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

Friedrich Christian Schroeder

178

QUEJA COMO MECANISMO DE GARANTÍA  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad debemos considerar imprescindible, como premisa fundamental, la defensa de la persona ante las posibles arbitrariedades de los órganos de poder, así como otras que a menudo vulneran derechos que atañen al ciudadano. Quizás algunos crean que se trata de una quimera inalcanzable, otros, por el contrario, confían que puede ser posible. Sin embargo, considero que mientras los

Liechert García Rojas

2011-01-01

179

Mameliella alba gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the Roseobacter clade in the order Rhodobacterales.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, JLT354-W(T), that accumulates poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was isolated from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to members of the genera Antarctobacter, Sagittula, Oceanicola and Loktanella; levels of similarity between strain JLT354-W(T) and members of the above genera were less than 92.0 %. The predominant fatty acid of strain JLT354-W(T) was C(18 : 1)omega7c (83.1 %); significant amounts of C(18 : 0) (7.9 %) and C(12 : 1) 3-OH (3.7 %) were also present. The predominant respiratory ubiquinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content of strain JLT354-W(T) was 63.7 mol%. The isolate was distinguishable from members of the order Rhodobacterales based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. On the basis of the taxonomic data presented, strain JLT354-W(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Mameliella alba gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mameliella alba is JLT354-W(T) (=LMG 24665(T)=CGMCC 1.7290(T)). PMID:19661508

Zheng, Qiang; Chen, Chuang; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zeng, Yong-Hui; Hao, Li-Kai; He, Wei-Hong; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

2010-04-01

180

Did the Alba Patera and Syria Planum regions of Mars lose their lithospheric roots in convective overturn events?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective removal of part of the thermal boundary layer and its replacement with hotter asthenosphere has been proposed to explain the unusual tectonic setting of the Tibetan plateau on Earth: a topographically highstanding plateau abutting an active region of continental collision and yet undergoing extensional tectonics. A similar model, adapted to take account of the probable absence of plate tectonic processes on Mars, can explain three of the distinctive morphological peculiarities of the shield volcano Alba Patera, namely, the extremely low angle of its flank slopes, the system of annular graben which surround the edifice, and the fact that the nature of volcanic activity apparently changed during the lifetime of the volcano from volatile rich to volatile poor. This change in eruptive style has previously been interpreted to be a consequence of the evolution of the Martian mantle, but we argue that the change is because late stage activity at Alba Patera is sourced from remelted underplated igneous material rather than juvenile melt from the mantle. Our model can also explain the tectonic geomorphology of the Syria Planum area and can relate the compressional regime which produced wrinkle ridges to the more abundante extensional tectonics. These two sets of features have previously been analyzed separately and taken as evidence for global heating or cooling, respectively. Our proposal removes the requirement to explain these features by diametrically opposed processes and on a global scale identifies the patera and large shield morphologies as the end-members of a single evolutionary sequence.

Scott, Eve; Wilson, Lionel

2003-05-01

181

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

2013-03-01

182

Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS  

PubMed Central

The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma.

Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

2014-01-01

183

Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. PMID:24876867

Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

2014-01-01

184

Clonality and spatial genetic structure in Populus x canescens and its sympatric backcross parent P. alba in a Central European hybrid zone.  

PubMed

Spatial genetic structure (SGS) holds the key to understanding the role of clonality in hybrid persistence, but multilocus SGS in hybrid zones has rarely been quantified. Here, the aim was to fill this gap for natural hybrids between two diploid, ecologically divergent European tree species with mixed sexual/asexual reproduction, Populus alba and P. tremula. Nuclear microsatellites were used to quantify clonality, SGS, and historical gene dispersal distances in up to 407 trees from an extensive Central European hybrid zone including three subpopulation replicates. The focus was on P. x canescens and its backcross parent P. alba, as these two genotypic classes co-occur and interact directly. Sexual recombination in both taxa was more prominent than previously thought, but P. x canescens hybrids tended to build larger clones extending over larger areas than P. alba. The 3.4 times stronger SGS in the P. x canescens genet population was best explained by a combination of interspecific gene flow, assortative mating, and increased clonality in hybrids. Clonality potentially contributes to the maintenance of hybrid zones of P. alba and P. tremula in time and space. Both clonality and SGS need to be taken into account explicitly when designing population genomics studies of locus-specific effects in hybrid zones. PMID:18005320

van Loo, Marcela; Joseph, Jeffrey A; Heinze, Berthold; Fay, Mike F; Lexer, Christian

2008-01-01

185

Distribution of heavy metals and their age-related changes in the eastern great white egret, Egretta alba modesta , in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ and tissue distribution of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg) and their age-related changes were investigated in the chick and adult eastern great white egret,Egretta alba modesta, collected in Korea. High concentrations of the metals were found in the liver, kidney, feathers, bone, and skin; low values were found in the muscle and brain. A

Katsuhisa Honda; Byung Yoon Min; Ryo Tatsukawa

1986-01-01

186

The influences of increased CO 2 and water supply on growth, biomass allocation and water use efficiency of Sinapis alba L. grown under different wind speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how independent and interactive effects of CO2 concentrations, water supply and wind speed affect growth rates, biomass partitioning, water use efficiency, diffusive conductance and stomatal density of plants. To test the prediction that wind stress will be ameliorated by increased CO2 and\\/or by unrestricted water supply we grew Sinapis alba L. plants in controlled chambers under combinations of

R. Retuerto; F. I. Woodward

1993-01-01

187

Lichens, tree growth, and foliar symptoms of air pollution: are the stories consistent. [Acer saccharum Fraxinus spp. ; Liriodendron tulipifera; Quercus alba; Quercus rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen communities, tree growth, and foliar symptoms of Acer saccharum Fraxinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, and the Quercus rubra group were studied in relation to air pollutants in southern Indiana and Illinois. Both study areas receive regional pollutants, but only one is close to a large coal-fired utility, which results in a high dose of SOâ and its reaction

P. S. Muir; B. McCune

2009-01-01

188

Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Background: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis. Objective: This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact. Results: The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Botelho, Marco A.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; da Costa, Jose Galberto M.

2011-01-01

189

Tinggianthura alba: A New Genus and Species of Anthuridae (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia with an Updated Key to the Genera of Anthuridae.  

PubMed

A new anthurid isopod from dead coral rubble and stones in the intertidal area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia, is described. It is placed in a new genus and species, Tinggianthura alba. Tinggianthura is characterized by: (1) subtriangular carpus shape of pereopods 4-7, (2) pereopod 1 propodus palm without prominent tooth or steps and (3) maxillipedal palp 2-articled. PMID:24914642

Chew, Melvin; Abdul Rahim, Azman; Haji Ross, Othman Bin

2014-01-01

190

A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

Blackstock, J.

1980-03-01

191

Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.  

PubMed

Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars. PMID:15568354

Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

2004-10-01

192

Tinggianthura alba: A New Genus and Species of Anthuridae (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia with an Updated Key to the Genera of Anthuridae  

PubMed Central

A new anthurid isopod from dead coral rubble and stones in the intertidal area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia, is described. It is placed in a new genus and species, Tinggianthura alba. Tinggianthura is characterized by: (1) subtriangular carpus shape of pereopods 4–7, (2) pereopod 1 propodus palm without prominent tooth or steps and (3) maxillipedal palp 2-articled.

Chew, Melvin; Abdul Rahim, Azman; Haji Ross, Othman bin

2014-01-01

193

Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples.

Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

2013-01-01

194

Recovery Plan: Four Plants of the Lower Apalachicola Region, Florida, 'Euphorbia telephioides' (Telephus spurge), 'Macbridea alba' (White birds-in-a-nest), 'Pinguicula ionantha' (Godfrey's butterwort), 'Scutellaria floridana' (Florida skullcap).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This recovery plan covers four herbaceous plants from the lower Apalachicola region of the Florida panhandle. Three of them were added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants together: Euphorbia telephioides (Telephus spurge), Macbridea alba (whit...

1994-01-01

195

Plant regeneration capacity of callus derived from leaf, stem, and root segments of Populus alba L. x P. grandidentata Michx.  

PubMed

Expiants for establishing callus cultures originated from in vitro cultured hybrid poplar (Populus alba L. X P. grandidentata Michx.). Plant regeneration was achieved from established callus cultures derived from stem internodes (SI), leaf discs (LD), and root segments (RS). Shoot regeneration from callus occurred within 4 weeks of culture on most of the media tested. Frequency of shoot formation was greatly increased by subculturing the selected organogenic calli on regeneration media. The highest rate of multiple shoot formation (an average number of 7/SI, 11/LD, and 8/RS) was obtained by using 0.05 ?M IBA in combination with 22.5 ?M 2iP, 22.5 ?M zeatin, and 12.5 ?M 2iP, respectively. Regenerated shoots were easily rooted in polyterra(™) peat plugs in transparent plastic boxes. The rooted plantlets were subsequently transferred to pots containing an artificial potting mix. PMID:24226948

Son, S H; Hall, R B

1990-10-01

196

[Separation of water-soluble active components in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f. alba using capillary zone electrophoresis].  

PubMed

To establish a high performance capillary zone electrophoretic method for the separation of water-soluble active components, protocatechuic aldehyde (PAH), danshensu (DSS), and protocatechuic acid (PA), in Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f. alba, many factors that can affect the resolution and the migration time, including the concentration of phosphate-borax buffer, pH value, separation voltage and detection wavelength were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: uncoated capillary column, 75 microm x 60.2 cm (effective length of 50 cm); column temperature, 25 degrees C; detection wavelength of the photo-diode-array detector, 210 nm; injection, 3.45 kPa x 4 s; separation voltage, 27.5 kV; running buffer, 5 mmol/L borax (pH 7.5). Under the optimized conditions, good separation of PAH, DSS and PA can be achieved in less than 8 min. PMID:18161318

Cui, Yingjie; Li, Yuqin; Shi, Weifeng; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Xia, Zuoli

2007-09-01

197

Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the Alba Synchrotron.  

PubMed

BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuní, Guifré; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolás, Josep; Lidón, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

2014-07-01

198

Two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy applied to analyzing and identifying the Radix paeoniae Alba medicinal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we employed Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation (2D) technique to analyzing and comparing the Radix paeoniae Alba medicinal materials that provided by Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) base, the market, and China pharmaceutical biological analysis institute whose medicinal material acts as a control group. We compared the infrared spectra of the three samples, and found that they are very similar to each other, the only difference is that the control group has a strong absorbing peak at 1634 cm -1, and the sample from GAP base and suppliers have the same absorbing peak shape at 1627 cm -1 and 1625 cm -1, respectively. The comparison of three second derivative spectra indicating that the characteristic peak of the R. paeoniae Alba that from the base and the market have a one-to-one relationship with that of the control group, but at the range of 900-1200 cm -1 they have different absorbing peaks. More comparisons of 2D IR spectra were done, and the result shows that at the range of 1060-1320 cm -1, the samples from GAP has a high similarity with the control group, but the samples from the suppliers have a distinct difference with the control group. Combining the infrared spectra, second derivative spectra and 2D IR spectra, the samples of the GAP base has a strong relativity with the control group, and the productions from the suppliers have a weak relativity. Comparing with the single index quantitative analysis served by classical Liquid Chromatograph, this method is simple, fast and accurate.

Liu, Yan; Jun-quan, Wang; Shun-hang, Liu; Sun, Su-Qin

2008-07-01

199

Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the Alba Synchrotron  

PubMed Central

BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012.

Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuni, Guifre; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolas, Josep; Lidon, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

2014-01-01

200

Composition and intraspecific chemical variability of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in a Tunisian arid zone.  

PubMed

The intraspecific chemical variability of essential oils (50 samples) isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso growing wild in the arid zone of Southeastern Tunisia was investigated. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 54 essential oil components. The main compounds were ?-thujone and ?-thujone, followed by 1,8-cineole, camphor, chrysanthenone, trans-sabinyl acetate, trans-pinocarveol, and borneol. Chemometric analysis (k-means clustering and PCA) led to the partitioning into three groups. The composition of two thirds of the samples was dominated by ?-thujone or ?-thujone. Therefore, it could be expected that wild plants of A. herba-alba randomly harvested in the area of Kirchaou and transplanted by local farmers for the cultivation in arid zones of Southern Tunisia produce an essential oil belonging to the ?-thujone/?-thujone chemotype and containing also 1,8-cineole, camphor, and trans-sabinyl acetate at appreciable amounts. PMID:21072770

Mighri, Hédi; Akrout, Ahmed; El-jeni, Hajer; Zaidi, Slah; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph; Neffati, Mohamed

2010-11-01

201

In situ growth of Soletellina alba (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae) in response to detrital supply and mouth status in a seasonally-closed estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supply of detritus is an important food source for many soft-sediment invertebrates, but its importance for their growth and condition is rarely, if ever, tested directly using manipulative field experiments. Therefore, we designed such a study to: (1) test the importance of fine particulate organic matter for the growth and condition of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba; (2) indirectly test the feeding mode of S. alba, which has been assumed to be a deposit feeder like other members of the same superfamily (Tellinoidea); (3) compare growth rates across two summers with contrasting patterns of estuary mouth opening/closing; and (4) compare the condition of individuals used in two field studies (i.e. present versus past) and a past laboratory study. Neither growth nor condition differed when organic content of the sediments was varied, which suggests that S. alba is either a suspension feeder or capable of switching modes of feeding. There was considerable interannual variation in growth with greater growth occurring during the summer with a longer period of mouth opening. This suggests that periods of mouth closure may reduce secondary production within seasonally-closed estuaries. Potential artefacts associated with laboratory trials were also identified, with laboratory bivalves exhibiting poorer condition than those used in two field trials. The present study provides no evidence that variable quantities and qualities of organic matter within the sediments influence the growth and condition of S. alba, but future studies should focus on food supplied via the water column when the estuary is open versus closed.

Matthews, Ty G.; Fairweather, Peter G.

2008-06-01

202

Transformation of white poplar (Populus alba L.) with a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine proteinase inhibitor and analysis of insect pest resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic white poplar (Populus alba L.) plants expressing a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Atcys) gene have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Internodal stem segments of cv. Villafranca were co-cultivated with the EHA105 pBI-Atcys A. tumefaciens strain. Sixteen putative transgenic plant lines were regenerated from different calli with a transformation efficiency of 11%. The integration and expression of

Massimo Delledonne; Gianni Allegro; Beatrice Belenghi; Alma Balestrazzi; Franco Picco; Alex Levine; Samantha Zelasco; Paolo Calligari; Massimo Confalonieri

2001-01-01

203

Responses of antioxidative systems to acute ozone stress in transgenic poplar ( Populus tremula × P. alba ) over-expressing glutathione synthetase or glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula 2 P. alba) plants and transgenic lines over-expressing glutathione reductase (GR) either in the cytosol (ca. 5-fold) or in the chloroplast (150- to 200-fold) or glutathione synthetase (GSS) in the cytosol (ca. 200-fold) were exposed for 3 days to ambient air or air containing 300 nl l-1 ozone for 7 h day-1. The contents and

Michael Strohm; Monika Eiblmeier; Christian Langebartels; Lise Jouanin; Andrea Polle; Heinrich Sandermann; Heinz Rennenberg

2002-01-01

204

Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge f.alba root and partial EST sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB vector. The number of clones, recombinant rate and length of insert

Gangping Hao; Renjiu Shi; Jianmei Wang; Bing Qi

2009-01-01

205

Results of the independent radiological verification survey of the remedial action performed at the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio, (OXO001)  

SciTech Connect

Between October 1952 and February 1957, National Lead of Ohio (NLO), a primary contractor for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), subcontracted certain uranium machining operations to Alba Craft Laboratory, Incorporated, located at 10-14 West Rose Avenue, Oxford, Ohio. In 1992, personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) confirmed the presence of residual radioactive materials from the AEC-related operations in and around the facility in amounts exceeding the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Although the amount of uranium found on the property posed little health hazard if left undisturbed, the levels were sufficient to require remediation to bring radiological conditions into compliance with current guidelines, thus ensuring that the public and the environment are protected. A team from ORNL conducted a radiological verification survey of the former Alba Craft Laboratory property between December 1994 and February 1995. The survey was conducted at the request of DOE and included directly measured radiation levels, the collection and analysis of soil samples to determine concentrations of uranium and certain other radionuclides, and comparison of these data to the guidelines. This document reports the findings of this survey. The results of the independent verification survey of the former Alba Craft Laboratory property demonstrate that all contaminated areas have been remediated to radionuclide concentrations and activity levels below the applicable guideline limits set by DOE.

Kleinhans, K.R.; Murray, M.E.; Carrier, R.F.

1996-04-01

206

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada.

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

207

Pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation between co-occurring Mussaenda pubescens var. alba and M. shikokiana (Rubiaceae).  

PubMed

Reproductive isolation is a fundamental requirement for speciation and includes several sequential stages. Few studies have determined the relative contributions of pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation in plants, especially between relative species with clear differentiation in flower form. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for reproductive isolation in sympatric Mussaenda pubescens var. alba and Mussaenda shikokiana (Rubiaceae) in Guangxi Province, China, we made observations of flowering phenology, patterns of insect visitation, and conducted pollination experiments, including artificial hybridization. The two species had overlapping flowering times and were pollinated by overlapping pollinators; however, their relative importance differed significantly with M. pubescens visited more commonly by bees and M. shikokiana more frequently by butterflies. Using vegetative and floral characters and molecular evidence based on nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacer regions we detected seven naturally occurring hybrids among a sample of approximately 125 individuals. Hybrids were characterized by morphologies that most closely resembled their maternal parents based on chloroplast evidence. Studies of artificially synthesized and natural hybrids demonstrated that hybrid seed had very low germination rates and naturally occurring hybrids exhibited pollen sterility. Post-zygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms play a primary role in limiting gene exchange between co-occurring species and maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry. PMID:24299214

Chen, Shi; Luo, Zhonglai; Zhang, Dianxiang

2014-04-01

208

Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.  

PubMed

An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions. PMID:24310436

Link, G

1984-07-01

209

Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba).  

PubMed

The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O-substituted analogues of fluorene (carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran, respectively), and the quinoline representative acridine. Seedling growth was a far more sensitive endpoint than seed emergence for all substances. Concentrations estimated to give a 20% reduction of seedling fresh weight (EC20-values) ranged from 36 to 290 mgkg(-1) for carbazole, 43 to 93 mgkg(-1) for dibenzofuran, 37 to 110 mgkg(-1) for dibenzothiophene, 140 to 650 mgkg(-1) for fluoranthene, 55 to 380 mgkg(-1) for fluorene, 37 to 300 mgkg(-1) for phenanthrene, and 49 to 1300 mgkg(-1) for pyrene. For acridine, no toxicity was observed within the concentration range tested (1-1000 mgkg(-1)). As illustrated by the EC20-values, there was a rather large difference in sensitivity between the species, and T. pratense was the most sensitive of the species tested. PMID:14505722

Sverdrup, Line E; Krogh, Paul Henning; Nielsen, Torben; Kjaer, Christian; Stenersen, Jørgen

2003-12-01

210

Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in artificial acid rain on Brassica napus and Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D) acid in artificial rain at pH 3.3 was examined for young plants of rape (Brassica napus L.) and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Plants were treated in a closed simulation chamber system with varying CO2 supply (198-418 ppm). Single or daily showers were applied for 20-30 min at varying 2,4-D concentrations (0, 0.03, 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg liter-1). The plants were sampled 5 days after the last treatment. Epinasty was observed for Brassica at 0.5 mg liter-1 and for Sinapis at 0.1 mg liter-1 2,4-D. Leaf to stem dry weight ratios increased with increasing CO2 concentrations in the air and decreased following single treatments with 0.5 or 2.5 mg liter-1 2,4-D in the rain. Dose-effect relationships are proposed for both plant species. Leaf dry matter weights per area unit decreased with increasing CO2 concentrations, but were not significantly affected by the 2,4-D treatments. PMID:6479080

Løkke, H

1984-08-01

211

Nesterenkonia alba sp. nov., an alkaliphilic actinobacterium isolated from the black liquor treatment system of a cotton pulp mill.  

PubMed

An alkaliphilic actinobacterium, designated strain CAAS 252(T), was isolated from the black liquor treatment system of a cotton pulp mill in Wuhan, China. Cells of strain CAAS 252(T) were Gram-positive, non-motile, non-endospore-forming, short rod-shaped, and grew optimally at 42 degrees C and pH 9-10 in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain CAAS 252(T) contained MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9 as the major menaquinones and anteiso-C(17 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0) as the predominant cellular fatty acids and had a peptidoglycan type of A4alpha, Lys-Gly-d-Asp. The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. Based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences (94.7-96.8 % similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (<70 % relatedness) and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain CAAS 252(T) belonged to the genus Nesterenkonia, but differed from all recognized species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain CAAS 252(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nesterenkonia, for which the name Nesterenkonia alba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAAS 252(T) (=CCTCC AB 207011(T)=DSM 19423(T)). PMID:19329621

Luo, Hui-Ying; Wang, Ya-Ru; Miao, Li-Hong; Yang, Pei-Long; Shi, Peng-Jun; Fang, Cheng-Xiang; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yun-Liu

2009-04-01

212

Evaluation of the effect of an organic extract obtained from Ipomoea alba L. on experimental periodontitis in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an organic extract obtained from Ipomoea alba L. (Convolvulaceae or OE 1493), on experimental periodontal disease in rats. Periodontitis was induced in thirty six Wistar rats: a first mandibular molar was randomly assigned to receive a ligature, whereas the contralateral molar was left unligated. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups and treated topically, three times a day, for 11 days, as follows: Control Group - vehicle-treated (n = 18), and Test Group - OE 1493-treated (n = 18). The rats were sacrificed on the 12th day. Morphometrical measurements from the cementoenamel junction to the bone crest were performed to determine alveolar bone loss, using standardized photographs. Single- and multi-dose acute toxicity assays were carried out after OE 1493 treatment. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that topically-administered OE 1493 showed no effect on reducing bone loss when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). In addition, OE 1493 did not present toxicity. Within the limits of this investigation, it may be concluded that OE 1493 did not show any positive influence on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats, when administered according to the regimen used in the present study. PMID:22473352

Barrella, Guilherme Emerson; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Pimentel, Suzana Peres

2012-01-01

213

Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.  

PubMed

An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location. PMID:18351436

Markovi?, D M; Novovi?, I; Viloti?, D; Ignjatovi?, Lj

2009-04-01

214

The effect of soil bioaugmentation with strains of Pseudomonas on Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by Sinapis alba L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of selected metal resistant strains of the Pseudomonas genus to increase Zn, Cd and Cu uptake by the metalophyte Sinapis alba L. under laboratory conditions. Moreover, the mechanisms of the plant growth promotion in the tested strains and their impact on the shoots and roots of white mustard biomass were examined. Soil inoculation with the tested strains resulted in higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in the shoots and roots of the plants in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. The highest phytoextraction enhancement was caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens MH15 which increased Zn, Cd and Cu accumulation in shoot tissue by 60%, 96% and 31%, respectively, in comparison with control plants. Moreover, all the tested strains also exhibited a significant increase of Cd translocation from roots to shoots of the white mustard. Three Pseudomonas putida (MH3, MH6, MH7) and two P. fluorescens biotype G and C (MH9 and MH15, respectively) strains had the ability to produce siderophore, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid as well as hydrocyanic acid. Additionally, P. putida strains were also capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate. The ability of the tested strains to increase the metal uptake in white mustard and their plant growth-promoting properties make them good candidates for supporting heavy metal phytoextraction as well as for plant growth promoting. PMID:23561856

P?ociniczak, T; Kukla, M; W?troba, R; Piotrowska-Seget, Z

2013-05-01

215

[Capillary electrophoresis with field-enhanced stacking for determination of water-soluble active principles in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba].  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method with field-enhanced stacking concentration for the analysis of protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba was developed. The separation was achieved with a fused-silica capillary (75 microm x 50.2 cm, effective length was 40 cm) and a running buffer 15 mmol x L(-1) borax (pH 10.0) containing 20% CH3 OH. The UV detection wavelength was 210 nm. The applied voltage was 28 kV, and the cartridge temperature was 25 degrees C. Water plug was introduced from the anode by 0.5 psi x 4 s before injection. Sample was injected by electrokinetic injection - 8 kV x 3 s. The linear range of protocatechuic aldehyde is 3.0-60.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.999 8); that of protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are 1.0-20.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 are 0.999 1, 0.999 4, 0.998 9 and 0.999 8, respectively), and the limits of detection of five analyts are 0.55, 0.40, 0.25, 0.32, 0.38 microg x L(-1), respectively, Stacking factor is higher and precision is satisfactory. The recoveries ranges were from 97.3% to 99.8%. The proposed method was used to determine the protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate and high sensitivity, and can be used to control of the quality of S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. PMID:22779179

Li, Yuqin; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Xiaoming; Jia, Baoxiu; Qi, Yongxiu

2011-06-01

216

De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba  

PubMed Central

Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera.

2013-01-01

217

Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.  

PubMed

Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry. PMID:21834225

Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

2011-07-01

218

Use of Internal Transcribed Spacer Primers and Fungicide Treatments to Study the Anther-Smut Disease, Microbotryum violaceum (=Ustilago violacea), of White Campion Silene alba (=Silene latifolia).  

PubMed

We report the construction and use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for detection of Microbotryum violaceum in Silene alba. Such primers show that the pathogen is present in the aboveground bud meristems, flower pedicels, and flower-stem internodes but not in the flowering-stem leaves and roots of flowering plants. Use of primers also showed that the pathogen was absent from plants that had been inoculated with the fungus but remained healthy. The fungicides Folicur and Bayleton cured plants of the disease, and the absence of the fungus from such cured plants was confirmed using the PCR primers. PMID:10568785

Akhter; Antonovics

1999-11-01

219

Electron Microscopy and X-ray Analysis of Cr-Containing Precipitates Synthesized by Newly Isolated Actinobacterium, Flexivirga alba ST13(T.).  

PubMed

Chromium(Cr) precipitate synthesized by Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium Flexivirga alba ST13(T) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The strain showed altered-morphology after exposing to Cr(VI) in minimal medium. The resultant precipitate included bacterial pellet and needle-like structure which was similar to the structure made from Cr(OH)3 precipitate. Cr was observed in bacterial cells using TEM-EDX. Bacteria with high electron density showed the precipitation of Ca in addition to Cr. The isolated strain would be useful to precipitate Cr from Cr(VI)-containing environment. PMID:24891744

Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

2014-09-01

220

Spontaneous activity of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl (Tyto alba): analyses of interspike interval distributions.  

PubMed

In vertebrate auditory systems, the conversion from graded receptor potentials across the hair-cell membrane into stochastic spike trains of the auditory nerve (AN) fibers is performed by ribbon synapses. The statistics underlying this process constrain auditory coding but are not precisely known. Here, we examine the distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) from spontaneous activity of AN fibers of the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal avian predator whose auditory system is specialized for precise temporal coding. The spontaneous activity of AN fibers, with the exception of those showing preferred intervals, is commonly thought to result from excitatory events generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process, which lead to spikes unless the fiber is refractory. We show that the ISI distributions in the owl are better explained as resulting from the action of a brief refractory period ( approximately 0.5 ms) on excitatory events generated by a homogeneous stochastic process where the distribution of interevent intervals is a mixture of an exponential and a gamma distribution with shape factor 2, both with the same scaling parameter. The same model was previously shown to apply to AN fibers in the cat. However, the mean proportions of exponentially versus gamma-distributed intervals in the mixture were different for cat and owl. Furthermore, those proportions were constant across fibers in the cat, whereas they covaried with mean spontaneous rate and with characteristic frequency in the owl. We hypothesize that in birds, unlike in mammals, more than one ribbon may provide excitation to most fibers, accounting for the different proportions, and that variation in the number of ribbons may underlie the variation in the proportions. PMID:19357334

Neubauer, Heinrich; Köppl, Christine; Heil, Peter

2009-06-01

221

Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.  

PubMed

Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

2014-05-15

222

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, functional properties and mutagenicity studies of protein and protein hydrolysate obtained from Prosopis alba seed flour.  

PubMed

Prosopis species are considered multipurpose trees and shrubs by FAO and their fruit constitute a food source for humans and animals. According to the "Código Alimentario Argentino", "algarrobo flour" is produced by grinding the whole mature pod, but in the traditional process most of the seeds are discarded. In this paper, the flour from seed was obtained. Then, the proteins were extracted and enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out. According to their amino acid profile and chemical score (>100%), the Prosopis alba proteins, are not deficient in essential amino acids considering the amount of amino acid necessary by adults. The protein isolate showed a good solubility (pH 7.4-9), emulsificant capacity, oil binding capacity and water adsorption capacity. The antioxidant ability of proteins was significantly increased with hydrolysis (SC50 values: 50-5?g/mL, respectively). Inhibitory activity of pro-inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and phospholipase) was described. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity of proteins and protein hydrolysates from seed flour were also analysed. The results suggest that P. alba cotyledon flour could be a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods not only for its high protein content but also by the biological and functional properties of its proteins and protein hydrolysates. PMID:24837968

Cattaneo, Florencia; Sayago, Jorge Esteban; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel; Chamorro, Verónica; Pazos, Adriana; Isla, María Inés

2014-10-15

223

Developmental profile of sinalbin (p-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) in mustard seedlings,Sinapis alba L., and its relationship to insect resistance.  

PubMed

Sinalbin was identified as a chemical component of insect anti-xenosis and antibiosis resistance mechanisms in seedlings ofSinapis alba by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, HPLC, treatment with sulfatase and myrosinase, various feeding tests using artificial and natural substrates, and by measuring sinalbin concentrations in cotyledons and leaves during seedling development. The effects of sinaibin on feeding were dependent upon the insect species and upon the rapidly changing profile of sinaibin concentrations in the developing seedling. The high concentrations of sinalbin found in young cotyledons (up to 20 mM) and leaves (up to 10 mM) deterred the feeding of the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and larvae of the bertha armyworm,Mamestra configurata Walker. The protection that sinalbin confers upon the vulnerable, newly emerged seedling (and upon tiny, young leaves) appears critical for the first few days of survival ofS. alba under feeding pressure from flea beetles in the field. The lower concentrations of sinaibin found in older cotyledons and leaves (2-3 mM) offer little or no protection againstP. cruciferae and may actually stimulate the feeding of this crucifer specialist. These concentrations of sinaibin, however, are still effective in reducing the level of feeding by larvae of the more generalist feederM. configurata. PMID:24257879

Bodnaryk, R P

1991-08-01

224

An energy-circuit population model for great egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake stages, but water area exerted primary control during a two-year drought. Modeling prey production as a linear function of water area resulted in underestimation of prey density during the drought, suggesting that prey organisms maintained high fecundity while concentrated in submerged vegetation at the lakeward fringe of the littoral zone. Simulation confirmed that large influxes of wading birds during the drought were the combined result of a regional refuge response and the availability of concentrated prey. Modeling immigration and emigration as primarily functions of the surface-water drying rate, rather than lake stage, resulted in a closer match of observed and simulated population trends for foraging birds, suggesting that the pattern of surface-water fluctuations was a more important factor than water depth. Simulation indicated an abrupt-threshold response rather than a linear association between foraging efficiency and low temperatures, which reduce activity levels of forage fishes. Great Egret breeder recruitment is primarily a function of prey availability, climate, and hydrologic trends, but simulation confirmed the concurrent involvement of a seasonal or physiological-readiness factor. An attractor function driven by high winter lake stages was necessary to reproduce observed patterns of breeder recruitment, suggesting that Great Egrets initiate nesting based on environmental cues that lead to peak food availability when nestlings are present. Poor correspondence of reproductive effort and nest productivity suggested that the drought compromised the birds' predictive abilities. The need to model breeder recruitment as a function of a maximum rate rather than the size of the local foraging population suggested that birds may nest on the lake even though on-lake foraging conditions are poor. Simulated and observed estimates of egg and hatching production did not match, suggesting that the causes of failure during incubation were complex or more localized than could be accounted for with lakewide hydrologic and climatic data. A forced increase in prey consumption of 12% was necessary to reproduce observed, high levels of nest productivity in 1990, which corresponded to the finding that panhandled fish constituted 10a??12% of the biomass fed to Great Egret nestlings that year.

Smith, Jeff P.

1997-01-01

225

[Multi-scale and multi-parameter spatial distribution patterns of Seriphidium terrae-albae and Artemisia songarica populations in Gurbantunggut Desert of Northeast China].  

PubMed

The researches on the plant population spatial pattern were mostly based on 0-D plant point (0-D IND) or 0-D plant count, and only a few was based on the 2-D projective cover (2-D PC) and 3-D aboveground biomass (3-D AGB reflected by canopy volume). Until now, the plant population spatial distribution patterns incarnated by these parameters were still unclear. Taking the widely distributed small semi-shrubs Seriphidium terrae-albae and Artemisia songarica in Gurbantunggut Desert of Northwest China as test objects, this paper studied the IND, PC, and AGB of each individual at two sampling plots. Through six-scale division of plot coordinate system with GIS, and by using aggregation analysis, coefficient of variation (CV) , and a scaling exponent between the CV and six scales, the characteristics of the population spatial distribution patterns with the above mentioned parameters were comparatively analyzed. At all scales, the IND (except for the S. terrae-albae population at 0.5 m scale) and the AGB of the two shrubs all presented a clumped distribution, and the aggregation intensity increased' with increasing scale. However, the PC had a uniform distribution (except for the A. songarica population at 5 and 8 m scales). With increasing scale, the CV values of the two shrubs decreased. The absolute value of scaling exponent (k value) of the IND was higher than those of the PC and AGB, and there was no significant difference in the k values between the PC and AGB, indicating that the scale variation scope of the struc- tural complexity of the IND was larger than that of the PC and AGB. The k value of each parameter for S. terrae-albae was higher than that for A. songarica, which could be related to the populations' interspecific relationship and plant size. In sum, the IND and AGB had similar spatial patterns, while the PC and AGB had almost same spatial pattern complexity and scale change characteristics. PMID:24564127

Ye, Tao; Yuan-Ming, Zhang; Xiao-Bo, Wu

2013-11-01

226

The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

2014-06-01

227

Tree ring-based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the South-Central United State from 1750 to 1980. [Quercus stellata; Quercus alba  

SciTech Connect

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and historical evidence. A variance trend in the tree ring data, which may have resulted from nonclimatic factors, was removed. The reconstructed precipitation series indicates that (1) a drought which appears to have been more severe than any in the instrumental record occurred about 1860 and (2) severe and prolonged droughts comparable to twentieth century events have occurred at roughly 15- to 25-years intervals throughout the past 231 years. It follows that serious droughts in the south-central United States could be expected to recur even in the absence of projected CO/sub 2/-induced warming.

Blasing, T.J.; Stahle, D.W.; Duvick, D.N.

1988-01-01

228

alba36.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new international vortal portal boasts over 50,000 entries. The site indexes vertical portals (vortals), subject-specific search sites, and other key search tools in five languages (English, German, Spanish, French, and Italian). The entries are organized under six headings: Current & Regional Events, Culture, Society, Entertainment, Trade & Economics, and Knowledge, with the 36 most-requested sub-topics given pride of place on the front page. Users can also search for a category by keyword. Links can be listed in order of popularity or alphabetically by site name and include short descriptions along with flags indicating languages used at the site. Users can also subscribe to receive a free weekly email featuring "the top 36 of the best web sites." An interesting tool that is especially notable for its coverage of non-English language sites.

229

ENOD40 Gene Expression and Cytokinin Responses in the Nonnodulating, Nonmycorrhizal (Nod?Myc?) Mutant, Masym3, of Melilotus alba Desr.  

PubMed Central

Several nonnodulating, nonmycorrhizal (Nod?Myc?) mutants of Melilotus alba Desr. (white sweetclover) have been described. However, the details of their responses to Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been fully elucidated. We investigated rhizobial entry and colonization using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy on the Masym1–5 mutants and isolated an early nodulin (ENOD40) gene from wild-type M. alba. We focused on Masym3, the least responsive of the mutants to S. meliloti and VA-fungi, to determine its response to cytokinin. Cytokinin appears to be a downstream signal in the nodule developmental pathway based not only on our previous observations whereby Nod?Myc? alfalfa roots treated with cytokinin accumulated several ENOD gene transcripts, but also on recent reports showing the importance of cytokinin receptors for nodulation. Here we show that applying 10?6 M 6-benzylaminopurine to uninoculated Masym3 roots elicited ENOD40 transcript accumulation. In addition, Masym3 root hairs inoculated with either wild-type S. meliloti or Nod? S. meliloti expressing the trans-zeatin synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens exhibited tip swelling, suggesting that cytokinin mediated this response. However, Masym3 root hair tips swelled following inoculation with Nod? S. meliloti or after mock-inoculation, a response resembling the phenotype of root hairs, after handling, of the Medicago truncatula mutant, dmi2. Mtdmi2 is Nod?Myc? due to a defect in a gene encoding a Nodule Receptor Kinase (NORK). Like Mtdmi2, the root hair swelling response appears in part to be mediated by touch because Masym3 root hairs not contacted by either bacteria or drops of water or buffer remain elongated and do not exhibit tip swelling.

Lee, Angie; Lum, Michelle R

2007-01-01

230

Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze  

PubMed Central

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25?mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25?mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250?g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5?mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25?mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer.

Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S.; Giassi, A.C.C.; Coslope, L.A.; Viana, M.B.

2012-01-01

231

Investigation of Four Classes of Non-nodulating White Sweetclover (Melilotus alba annua Desr.) Mutants and Their Responses to Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi.  

PubMed

The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between Rhizobiaceae and legumes is one of the best-studied interactions established between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plant develops root nodules in which the bacteria are housed, and atmospheric nitrogen is fixed into ammonia by the rhizobia and made available to the plant in exchange for carbon compounds. It has been hypothesized that this symbiosis evolved from the more ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, in which the fungus associates with roots and aids the plant in the absorption of mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. Support comes from several fronts: 1) legume mutants where Nod(-) and Myc(-) co-segregate, and 2) the fact that various early nodulin (ENOD) genes are expressed in legume AM. Both strongly argue for the idea that the signal transduction pathways between the two symbioses are conserved. We have analyzed the responses of four classes of non-nodulating Melilotus alba (white sweetclover) mutants to Glomus intraradices (the mycorrhizal symbiont) to investigate how Nod(-) mutations affect the establishment of this symbiosis. We also re-examined the root hair responses of the non-nodulating mutants to Sinorhizobium meliloti (the nitrogen-fixing symbiont). Of the four classes, several sweetclover sym mutants are both Nod(-) and Myc(-). In an attempt to decipher the relationship between nodulation and mycorrhiza formation, we also performed co-inoculation experiments with mutant rhizobia and Glomus intraradices on Medicago sativa, a close relative of M. alba. Even though sulfated Nod factor was supplied by some of the bacterial mutants, the fungus did not complement symbiotically defective rhizobia for nodulation. PMID:21708721

Lum, Michelle R; Li, Ying; Larue, Thomas A; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Kapulnik, Yoram; Hirsch, Ann M

2002-04-01

232

Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.  

PubMed

Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

2006-05-01

233

LA CREATIVIDAD COMO EXPRESIÓN DE LA PERSONALIDAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

El hombre es un ser potencialmente creativo, pues la creatividad se desarrolla a lo largo de toda nuestra vida, haciéndose necesario e importante que los docentes puedan potenciarla desde las primeras edades, correspondiendo a la escuela y a la educación, influir en la expresión creativa de nuestros educandos en la actividad cognoscitiva y para la vida. La creatividad como proceso

Yaina Martínez Viel; Dariela Pérez Obregón

2011-01-01

234

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

235

Contribution of cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds and ornamental plants in harboring of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and associated parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in cotton agroecosystem in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci and its parasitoids was studied on Gossypium hirsutum, Cucumis melo, Helianthus annus, Glycine max, Solanum melangena, Cucurbita pepo melopopo, Bauhinia pupurea, Morus alba, Albizzia lebbek, Lantana camara, Achyranthus aspera, and Convolvulus arvensis in cotton growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. Whitefly infested leaves having maximum number of second\\u000a to third instar

Muhammad Naveed; Abdus Salam; Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem

2007-01-01

236

Evaluation of feeding value of Eupatorium adenophorum in combination with mulberry leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of sun dried Ea (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) leaves in combination with mulberry (Morus alba, Ma) was studied by in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique and in vivo feeding experiment with sheep. The IVGP involved both kinetic assay and ruminal fermentation attributes (gas production, CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA), purines and digestibility parameters). IVGP data from the combined

A. Sahoo; B. Singh; O. P. Sharma

2011-01-01

237

Drought, salt and wounding stress induce the expression of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1 gene in poplar (Populus alba×P. tremula var. glandulosa).  

PubMed

Water uptake across cell membranes is a principal requirement for plant growth at both the cellular and whole-plant levels; water movement through plant membranes is regulated by aquaporins (AQPs) or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). We examined the expression characteristics of the poplar plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1 gene (PatPIP1), a type of MIP, which was isolated from a suspension cell cDNA library of Populus alba×P. tremula var. glandulosa. Examination of protoplasts expressing the p35S-PatPIP1::sGFP fusion protein revealed that the protein was localized in the plasma membrane. Northern blot analysis revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in poplar roots and leaves. Gene expression was inducible by abiotic factors including drought, salinity, cold temperatures and wounding, and also by plant hormones including gibberellic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Since we found that the PatPIP1 gene was strongly expressed in response to mannitol, NaCl, jasmonic acid and wounding, we propose that PatPIP1 plays an essential role in the defense of plants against water stress. PMID:21640804

Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon

2011-09-01

238

Microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization analyses of gene expression in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cell suspension cultures after exposure to NaCl.  

PubMed

The gene expression profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus tremula var. glandulosa) cells in suspension culture after exposure to salinity (NaCl) induced stress were examined by constructing two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries. cDNA from non-treated cells was used as a driver and cDNA samples from cell suspension cultures exposed to 150 mM NaCl for 2 or 10 h were used as testers. Randomly selected clones from each SSH library were sequenced and 727 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained and analyzed. Four novel ESTs were identified. Between the two libraries, 542 unique SSH clones were selected for placement on a cDNA microarray. In total, 18 differentially expressed genes were identified with 4 and 12 genes being significantly differentially expressed 2 and 10 h after the treatment, respectively. Genes related to metabolism and protein synthesis and several genes whose protein products are implicated in salt or other abiotic stress-related responses were expressed in the salt-stressed cells. PMID:22813944

Bae, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Hyoshin; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon; Choi, Young-Im; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Dong-Woog

2012-09-01

239

Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

Markovi?, D. M.; Novovi?, I.; Viloti?, D.; Ignjatovi?, Lj.

2007-09-01

240

The Correlation between Chemical Composition, as Determined by UPLC-TOF-MS, and Acute Toxicity of Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba  

PubMed Central

The eighteen incompatible medicaments is an important theory in traditional Chinese medicine. The theory suggests that drugs in the eighteen incompatible medicaments can be toxic when used together. Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba belong to the eighteen incompatible medicaments and have been prohibited for thousands of years. This study offers preliminary insight into the mechanism and chemical constituents responsible for the incompatibility and toxicity of these two agents. Specifically, we performed toxicology studies to identify and quantify the constituent substances of the two agents. Experiments revealed that acute toxicity increases when the dose of V. nigrum L. is higher than, or equal to, RPA. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis showed that, although the volumes of V. nigrum L. were the same, the content of some veratrum alkaloids changed significantly and had a trend toward a highly positive correlation (|r| ? 0.8) with toxicity. This suggests that the increased toxicity of the V. nigrum L. and RPA combination was due mainly to increased content of the special veratrum alkaloids. The cytotoxicity of veratridine in SH-SY5Y cells was decreased with increasing paeoniflorin concentrations. This study provides insight into the mechanism behind the incompatibility theory of TCM.

Zhang, Xianxie; Wang, Yuguang; Liang, Qiande; Ma, Zengchun; Xiao, Chengrong; Tan, Hongling; Gao, Yue

2014-01-01

241

[Importance of Shaw's Jird Meriones shawii within the trophic components of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in steppic areas of Algeria].  

PubMed

The study of the diet of the Barn Owl in two steppic regions (M'Sila and Djelfa) located in the Algerian highlands is based on the analysis of the pellets of rejections collected in six stations. The analysis of 706 pellets resulting from the various stations made it possible to count 1380 individuals, represented by seven classes, 12 orders, 32 families, and 76 species of preys. The mammals are consumed with variable abundance rates between 59.1 % and 90.0 % whose predominance is assigned to the rodents (relative abundance: AR>58 %). The latter constitute the most advantageous preys in biomass (61.4?B %?99.2). The most consumed prey is Meriones shawii, with variable rates between 31.9 % and 76.6 %. Generally, Tyto alba presents a diversified diet in the majority of the stations (0.69?E?0.76), except the station of Ain El-Hadjel (E=0.35), with a low diversity and dominance of M. shawii (AR=76.6 %). PMID:24961561

Sekour, Makhlouf; Souttou, Karim; Guerzou, Ahlem; Benbouzid, Noureddine; Guezoul, Omar; Ababsa, Labed; Denys, Christiane; Doumandji, Salaheddine

2014-06-01

242

Impact of amoco cadiz oil spill on the muddy fine sand Abra alba and Melinna palmata community from the Bay of Morlaix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen quantitative quarterly samples of the Abra alba-Melinna palmata community from the Bay of Morlaix (France) were taken from August 1977 to August 1980. The quantitative and qualitative changes in the community subsequent to the Amoco Cadiz oil pollution (March 1978) could thus be studied. Hydrocarbons were present in the sediments in exceptionally high quantities for more than a year after the oil spill, and then they decreased sharply. The numbers of species in the community increased as a whole during the 3 years' observation; in fact, a regular increase in the species numbers in polychaetes was observed, compensating for a reduction in the species numbers in amphipods after the oil pollution. Some species that disappeared after April 1978 have not yet re-appeared. Density and biomass showed important seasonal variations, with summer maxima and winter minima and with a net dominance by the polychaete populations, particularly of Chaetozone setosa. During the first annual cycle after the pollution, there was a sharp increase in the density of some species which were present in very low ( Mediomastus fragilis, Tharyx marioni) or very high ( Chaetozone setosa) numbers before the pollution. Neither Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices nor Gray's log-normal diagram were useful in describing the effects of the pollution on the community structure. The present study shows that, under such conditions, it is often difficult to employ highly synthetic methods to expose a perturbation in the structure of a benthic community.

Dauvin, Jean-Claude

1982-05-01

243

The cationic cell-wall-peroxidase having oxidation ability for polymeric substrate participates in the late stage of lignification of Populus alba L.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that purified Cell Wall Peroxidase-Cationic (CWPO-C) from poplar callus (Populus alba L.) oxidizes sinapyl alcohol and polymeric substrate unlike other plant peroxidases and proposed that this isoenzyme is a conceivable lignification specific peroxidase. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of CWPO-C and investigated the transcription of CWPO-C gene in various organs and the localization of CWPO-C protein in the differentiating xylem of poplar stem.Real-time PCR analyses indicated that CWPO-C gene is constitutively expressed in the developing xylem, leaf, and shoot but not affected by many stress treatments. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CWPO-C locates in the middle lamellae, cell corners, and secondary cell walls of the fiber cells during the lignification. The intensity of the CWPO-C labeling increased gradually from the cell wall thickening stage to mature stage of fiber cells, which is very consistent with the increase of lignin content in the developing xylem. These results strongly support that CWPO-C is responsible for the lignification of the secondary xylem. Interestingly, immuno-labeling of CWPO-C was also observed inside of the ray parenchyma cells instead no signals were detected within the developing fiber cells. This suggests that CWPO-C is biosynthesized in the parenchyma cells and provided to the middle lamellae, the cell corners, and the cell walls to achieve lignin polymerization. PMID:17004015

Sasaki, Shinya; Baba, Kei'ichi; Nishida, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2006-12-01

244

Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study Comparing 0.0003% Calcitriol with 0.1% Tacrolimus Ointments for the Treatment of Endemic Pityriasis Alba  

PubMed Central

Background. Pityriasis alba (PA) is a frequent cause of consultation in tropical areas due to its chronic course, frequent relapses, and notorious hypopigmented lesions in pediatric dark skin populations. Currently, no treatment is widely accepted. Objective. To assess the efficacy of 0.0003% calcitriol and 0.1% tacrolimus ointments compared with placebo in the treatment of endemic PA. Methods. Twenty-eight children aged 3–17 years with 56 symmetrical lesions and phototype IV-V, were randomly assigned to receive the treatments on target lesions on the face. Improvement was evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks later clinically and by digital quantification of the affected area, colorimetry, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Results. Tacrolimus and calcitriol ointments induced a mean improvement of 68%, compared to 44% of placebo. We found an elevated TEWL in PA lesions. In the treated plaques, the reduction of the affected area was associated with improvement of pigmentation and TEWL. Conclusions. Calcitriol and tacrolimus induced similar repigmentation in endemic PA lesions. Melanogenic, anti-inflammatory, and barrier defect restoration properties of these drugs may explain these findings.

Moreno-Cruz, Berenice; Torres-Alvarez, Bertha; Hernandez-Blanco, Diana; Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo

2012-01-01

245

On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ( and ). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components.

Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

2014-01-01

246

Establishment of a shortened annual cycle system; a tool for the analysis of annual re-translocation of phosphorus in the deciduous woody plant (Populus alba L.).  

PubMed

The supply of phosphorus, the essential element for plant growth and development, is often limited in natural environments. Plants employ multiple physiological strategies to minimize the impact of phosphate deficiency. In deciduous trees, phosphorus is remobilized from senescing leaves in autumn and stored in other tissues for reuse in the following spring. We previously monitored the annual changes in leaf phosphate content of white poplar (Populus alba) growing under natural conditions and found that about 75 % of inorganic and 60 % of organic leaf phosphates observed in May were remobilized by November. In order to analyze this process (such annual events), we have established a model system, in which an annual cycle of phosphate re-translocation in trees can be simulated under laboratory conditions by controlling temperature and photoperiod (='shortened annual cycle'). This system evidently allowed us to monitor the annual changes in leaf color, phosphate remobilization from senescent leaves, and bud break in the next spring within five months. This will greatly facilitate the analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms of annual phosphate re-translocation in deciduous trees. PMID:24848773

Kurita, Yuko; Baba, Kei'ichi; Ohnishi, Miwa; Anegawa, Aya; Shichijo, Chizuko; Kosuge, Keiko; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Mimura, Tetsuro

2014-07-01

247

Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E1, E2, E3, and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E1 represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E2 and E3 originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5? untranslated region. E3 was identical to E2 but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E2 and E3 also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E1, but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants.

Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

248

EXAFS Study of Co/Mo Multilayers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the measured moment in magnetic multilayers relative to the bulk value is a poorly understood phenomenon. This lack of understanding is clearly illustrated by two studies on Co/Mo where the reduced moment is attributed to two very different mechanisms. Sato reports a ``dead layer'', i.e., Co atoms near the Mo layers have no moment or a reduced moment(Noboru Sato, J. Appl. Phys. 63), 3476 (1988), while Wang, et al. report the presence of a non-magnetic compound--Co_7Mo_6.(Y. Wang, et al., J. Mag. Mag. Mater 102), 121 (1991). These studies report different saturation magnetizations for thicker Co layers; however, they agree that crystalline order vanishes as both layer thicknesses decrease and that magnetism decreases greatly for thinner Co layers. We have done structural and magnetic studies(C.L. Foiles, et al., MRS Symposium Proc. 384) (in press) on dc magnetron sputtered Co/Mo multilayers and find that the most striking feature is how the saturation magnetization scales with the apparent coordination number using EXAFS data with a Co standard. Data from the various studies will be compared.

Franklin, M. R.; Foiles, C. L.; Loloee, R.

1996-03-01

249

UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis as a powerful technique for rapidly exploring potential chemical markers to differentiate between radix paeoniae alba and radix paeoniae rubra.  

PubMed

To explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for differentiating Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, a method is proposed based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Batches of commercial samples were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The datasets of t(R)-m/z pair, ion intensities and sample codes were further processed with orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to compare holistically the difference between these two kinds of samples. Then statistics were used to generate an S-plot, in which the variables (t(R)-m/z pair) contributing most to the difference were clearly depicted as points at the two ends of "S", and the components correlated to these ions should be regarded as the chemical markers. The identities of the most changed markers can be identified by comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of known compounds published in the literature. Using this proposed approach, albflorin, paeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, galloylalbiflorin and paeoniflorigenone were found to be the differentiating components for discrimination of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Moreover, paeoniflorin sulfonate and its isomer, isomaltopaeoniflorin sulfonate, were found to be the characteristic markers for all Radix Paeoniae Alba samples that were processed by sulfurdioxide gas fumigation. The results suggested that this newly established approach could be used to explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for herbs with similar chemical characteristics. PMID:23738461

Luo, Nian-Cui; Ding, Wen; Wu, Jing; Qian, Da-Wei; Li, Zhen-Hao; Qian, Ye-Fei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao

2013-04-01

250

Fish anesthesia: effects of the essential oils of Hesperozygis ringens and Lippia alba on the biochemistry and physiology of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).  

PubMed

The anesthetic activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Hesperozygis ringens (EOHR) and Lippia alba (EOLA) and their effects in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) after anesthesia and recovery were investigated. Fish (32.19 ± 1.24 g) were submitted to one of the following treatments for each EO: basal group, control, or anesthesia (150, 300, or 450 ?L L(-1) EO). After that the anesthesia was induced or simulated and the biometric measurements were completed, fish were transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria to allow for recovery. Fish were sampled at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 240 min after recovery. At time 0 of recovery, the ventilatory rate was lower in the groups anesthetized with either EO. In comparison with the basal group, control fish showed an increase in plasma glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Na(+) levels and a reduction in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at 0 min of recovery. Plasma levels of ammonia and Na(+) were lower in the fish anesthetized with EOLA (450 ?L L(-1)) and EOHR (all concentrations), respectively, than in the control fish. Additionally, lactate, AST, alanine aminotransferase, K(+) plasma levels, and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities were higher in the fish anesthetized with either EOHR or EOLA than in the control fish. The EOs promoted slight changes in silver catfish that enabled both an adaptive response and the recovery of most of the measured parameters after 240 min regardless of concentration or EO that was used. These findings support the use of EOHR and EOLA as anesthetics for fish. PMID:24141557

Toni, Cândida; Becker, Alexssandro Geferson; Simões, Larissa Novaes; Pinheiro, Carlos Garrido; de Lima Silva, Lenise; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Caron, Braulio Otomar; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

2014-06-01

251

Ozone fumigation results in accelerated growth and persistent changes in the antioxidant system of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. alba.  

PubMed

The growth response and antioxidant capacity of Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba plants treated with 70ppb of ozone was examined. Four week old cabbage seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the growing field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined directly after fumigation and over the course of field cultivation. Plants subjected to O3 treatment had an increased diameter of rosettes and number of leaves after 3 and 7 weeks in agriculture, respectively. In addition, the vast majority of fumigated plants reached marketable quality faster than control plants, indicating a positive role of episodes of increased O3 concentrations during vegetation on growth and yielding. Our analysis revealed that by fumigating juvenile white cabbage plants with moderate doses of O3 the activity of catalases (CAT) and peroxidases was elevated. The activity of the examined enzymes was not affected directly after fumigation, but it increased after several weeks in the experimental field. Increased CAT activity was accompanied by changes in 2 out of the 3 CAT genes CAT1 and CAT2, where CAT2 seemed to be responsible for the induced CAT activity. The biosynthesis of low-molecular stress protectants - tocopherols and the glucosinolate (GLS) sinigrin was transiently affected by ozone. ?-Tocopherol (?-toc) content significantly increased directly after fumigation, but after 3 weeks of vegetation in the field its concentration reached values similar to control. The biosynthesis of ?-tocopherol (?-toc) and sinigrin seemed to be upregulated in fumigated plants. However, the response was delayed; no differences were registered directly after treatment, but 3 weeks after transplanting the concentration of sinigrin and ?-toc was elevated. PMID:23773692

Rozp?dek, Piotr; ?lesak, Ireneusz; Cebula, Stanis?aw; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Micha?; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew

2013-09-15

252

Ecophysiological competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. used in plantations for the recovery of riparian vegetation.  

PubMed

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity. PMID:17849159

Manzanera, Jose A; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F

2007-12-01

253

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

2007-12-01

254

Effects of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil  

SciTech Connect

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO/sub 2/. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO/sub 2/ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO/sub 2/. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO/sub 2/, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO/sub 2/. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO/sub 2/-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO/sub 2/ concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO/sub 2/ may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand. 30 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.

1986-01-01

255

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)  

PubMed Central

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding.

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

256

Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate components in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is an important condiment crop for the spice trade in the world. It has lagged behind oilseed Brassica species in molecular marker development and application. Intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers are highly polymorphic, co-dominant and cost-effective. The cross-species applicability of ILP markers from Brassica species and Arabidopsis makes them possible to be used for genetic linkage mapping and further QTL analysis of agronomic traits in yellow mustard. Results A total of 250 ILP and 14 SSR markers were mapped on 12 linkage groups and designated as Sal01-12 in yellow mustard. The constructed map covered a total genetic length of 890.4 cM with an average marker interval of 3.3 cM. The QTL for erucic content co-localized with the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene on Sal03. The self-(in)compatibility gene was assigned to Sal08. The 4-hydroxybenzyl, 3-indolylmethyl and 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate contents were each controlled by one major QTL, all of which were located on Sal02. Two QTLs, accounting for the respective 20.4% and 19.2% of the total variation of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate content, were identified and mapped to Sal02 and Sal11. Comparative synteny analysis revealed that yellow mustard was phylogenetically related to Arabidopsis thaliana and had undergone extensive chromosomal rearrangements during speciation. Conclusion The linkage map based on ILP and SSR markers was constructed and used for QTL analysis of seed quality traits in yellow mustard. The markers tightly linked with the genes for different glucosinolate components will be used for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. The ILP markers and linkage map provide useful molecular tools for yellow mustard breeding.

2013-01-01

257

Redox states of glutathione and ascorbate in root tips of poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) depend on phloem transport from the shoot to the roots  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) are important antioxidants that are involved in stress defence and cell proliferation of meristematic root cells. In principle, synthesis of ASC and GSH in the roots as well as ASC and GSH transport from the shoot to the roots by phloem mass flow is possible. However, it is not yet known whether the ASC and/or the GSH level in roots depends on the supply from the shoot. This was analysed by feeding mature leaves with [14C]ASC or [35S]GSH and subsequent detection of the radiolabel in different root fractions. Quantitative dependency of root ASC and GSH on shoot-derived ASC and GSH was investigated with poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) trees interrupted in phloem transport. [35S]GSH is transported from mature leaves to the root tips, but is withdrawn from the phloem along the entire transport path. When phloem transport was interrupted, the GSH content in root tips halved within 3?d. [14C]ASC is also transported from mature leaves to the root tips but, in contrast to GSH, ASC is not removed from the phloem along the transport path. Accordingly, ASC accumulates in root tips. Interruption of phloem transport disturbed the level and the ASC redox state within the entire root system. Diminished total ASC levels were attributed mainly to a decline of dehydroascorbate (DHA). As the redox state of ASC is of particular significance for root growth and development, it is concluded that phloem transport of ASC may constitute a shoot to root signal to coordinate growth and development at the whole plant level.

Herschbach, Cornelia; Scheerer, Ursula; Rennenberg, Heinz

2010-01-01

258

Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

2013-02-01

259

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

260

Management of Lake Como: a multiobjective analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a heuristic approach for improving the performance of multipurpose reservoirs that have already been in operation for a certain number of years. The main characteristic of the method is that the analyst must first learn from the past experience of the manager and synthesize it into a simple operating rule. Then, the analyst must point out, with the help of the manager, what the acceptable modifications of such a rule are. After this has been accomplished, the optimal improvements of the operating rule can be obtained by using standard optimization techniques. Quite satisfactory results have been obtained by applying this approach to Lake Como (Northern Italy), which has been regulated since the end of World War II. In fact, the method shows that both flood protection on the lake shores and water supply to the downstream agricultural areas can be substantially improved, without lowering the mean yearly electricity production of the downstream run-of-river plants. For this reason the operating rule proposed by the method has been programmed on a microcomputer, which is now used every day by the manager as an essential support for his final decision. This and the fact that other actions suggested by this analysis have indeed been undertaken by the local authorities gave to this study the chance to have a positive and direct impact on the lake management.

Guariso, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

1986-02-01

261

Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba Attenuate CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury: An Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) Based Metabolomic Approach for the Pharmacodynamic Study of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs)  

PubMed Central

Metabolomics has been frequently used in pharmacodynamic studies, especially those on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra are popularly used in TCM, and both have hepatoprotective effects. In this study, a CCl4-induced acute liver injury rat model was established and confirmed by the observed serum aminotransferase activities. The metabolomics approach was applied to study the influence of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra on the metabolic changes in rats with acute liver injury. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of rat serum and their ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) fingerprints allowed discrimination of controlled, acute liver injury-model rats after administration of the two types of TCMs. The time-dependent PLS-DA plots showed that the changes in the metabolic patterns of the rats, which were administered with the TCMs, had stabilized within 2 h after they received the intraperitoneal CCl4 injection. The results indicated the protective effect of TCMs against liver injury. Several potential biomarkers were detected and identified, which included creatine, deoxycholic acid, choline, 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, folic acid, and glycocholic acid. The physiological significance of these metabolic changes was discussed.

Wang, Rui; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Teng, Zhong-Qiu; Yang, Qi-Wei; Shi, Yan-Hong; Yang, Li

2012-01-01

262

Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba Attenuate CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury: An Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) Based Metabolomic Approach for the Pharmacodynamic Study of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs).  

PubMed

Metabolomics has been frequently used in pharmacodynamic studies, especially those on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra are popularly used in TCM, and both have hepatoprotective effects. In this study, a CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury rat model was established and confirmed by the observed serum aminotransferase activities. The metabolomics approach was applied to study the influence of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra on the metabolic changes in rats with acute liver injury. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of rat serum and their ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) fingerprints allowed discrimination of controlled, acute liver injury-model rats after administration of the two types of TCMs. The time-dependent PLS-DA plots showed that the changes in the metabolic patterns of the rats, which were administered with the TCMs, had stabilized within 2 h after they received the intraperitoneal CCl(4) injection. The results indicated the protective effect of TCMs against liver injury. Several potential biomarkers were detected and identified, which included creatine, deoxycholic acid, choline, 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, folic acid, and glycocholic acid. The physiological significance of these metabolic changes was discussed. PMID:23203085

Wang, Rui; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Teng, Zhong-Qiu; Yang, Qi-Wei; Shi, Yan-Hong; Yang, Li

2012-01-01

263

Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes.

Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, German

2014-01-01

264

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

265

Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

2014-07-15

266

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

267

Cuticular uptake of xenobiotics into living plants. Part 2: influence of the xenobiotic dose on the uptake of bentazone, epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin, applied in the presence of various surfactants, into Chenopodium album, Sinapis alba and Triticum aestivum leaves.  

PubMed

This study has determined the uptake of three pesticides, applied as commercial or model formulations in the presence of a wide range of surfactants, into the leaves of three plant species (bentazone into Chenopodium album L. and Sinapis alba L., epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin into Triticum aestivum L.). The results have confirmed previous findings that the initial dose (nmol mm(-2)) of xenobiotic applied to plant foliage is a strong, positive determinant of uptake. This held true for all the pesticide formulations studied, although surfactant concentration was found to have an effect. The lower surfactant concentrations studied showed an inferior relationship between the amount of xenobiotic applied and uptake. High molecular mass surfactants also produced much lower uptake than expected from the dose uptake equations in specific situations. PMID:16718743

Forster, W Alison; Zabkiewicz, Jerzy A; Liu, Zhiqian

2006-07-01

268

Salix alba and Populus nigra seedlings resistance to physical hydro-sedimentary stresses: nursery experimental approach compared to in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data on the seedlings survival once buried during a flood event. Genetic diversity of the seed lots will be investigated via biomass and shoot / root ratio. Results reveal that willow seedlings have a higher density of roots compared to poplar. In sand mixture, poplar has a taproot system; in sand-gravel mixture, taproot is divided into several roots which leads to a branched root system. The required forces to uprooting are twice much important for sand-gravel mixture. In situ measurements detail the sediment dynamics and morphological evolution during and after floods (topography, scour/fill processes, grain size surveys, flow velocity, sediment transport rates) on a managed alluvial bar. Results associated with floods occurring after fluvial management works highlight the rapid regeneration of bedforms associated with sedimentary and hydraulics constraints. This leads to the development of new morphological and sedimentological units, suitable for seedlings recruitment. Thirty plots measurements of seedlings (densities and species) established were associated with these news physical conditions over the bar. Black poplar and white willow appeared for a wide range of grain sizes and on specific morphological units. Seedlings survival will be analyzed with regard to physical constraints determined for each plot from measurements of hydro-sedimentary dynamics and then compared to ex situ results.

Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc

2014-05-01

269

Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing season each year. At the beech site the middle samplings corresponded to the peak of the drought season whereas the last samplings of each year - to recovery phase. Leaves were sampled with three replicates at three heights. Assimilation activity was monitored on the leaf level with a portable LiCor 6400 system. Leaf respiration was measured with the same instrument after keeping the leaves for 30 min in darkness. Recently assimilated soluble sugars as well as bulk leaf organic matter were analysed in the laboratory for their ?13C signature and for sugars quantity and composition. Trunk, root and soil respirations together with their ?13C signatures were measured with closed static chambers by the Keeling plot approach. Phloem was sampled with a bark core aiming to analyse the C isotopic signature and composition of assimilates translocate downward with the phloem flow. A sequence of climatically different growing seasons and detailed analyses of plant material allowed us to evaluate climatically-induced variations in different steps of the C cycle at a plant level and to derive some conclusions on the plasticity of European beech and Silver fir in response to changing climate.

Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

2014-05-01

270

Co/Mo multilayers deposited by ion-beam sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co/Mo multilayers have been prepared by using ion-beam sputtering. The samples had a periodic layered structure and an in-plane easy axis of magnetization. The structures of Co layers were disordered, fcc or fcc + hcp, depending upon the thickness of the Co layer ( tCo), as well as the thickness of the Mo layer ( tMo). A nonmagnetic compound, Co 7Mo 6, was observed to form at the Co/Mo interfaces, unlike compounds found in Co/Mo multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering. The existence of this compound was considered to be an important reason for the decrease of the saturation magnetization of crystalline samples with tCo < 40 Å, among others. The dependence of the coercivity on tCo and/or tMo was also studied.

Wang, Y.; Cui, F. Z.; Li, W. Z.; Fan, Y. D.

1991-12-01

271

Photosynthesis and the Enzymes of Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle in Mulberry During Water Stress and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gS), transpiration rate (E), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), leaf water potential (?w), leaf area, chlorophyll (Chl) content, and the activities of photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) enzymes in two mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivars (drought tolerant Anantha and drought sensitive M-5) were studied during water stress and recovery. During water stress, PN, gS, and

S. Thimmanaik; S. Giridara Kumar; G. Jyothsna Kumari; N. Suryanarayana; C. Sudhakar

2002-01-01

272

Oxyresveratrol as the Potent Inhibitor on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyresveratrol (2,3?,4,5?-tetrahydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found inMorus albaL., exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis. Oxyresveratrol with 0.3 to 5 ?M exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitions (25 to 84%) on the enzyme activity, where 50% of inhibition was shown at the concentration of about 1 ?M. Oxyresveratrol

Nam-Ho Shin; Shi Yong Ryu; Eun Ju Choi; Seh-Hoon Kang; IL-Moo Chang; Kyung Rak Min; Youngsoo Kim

1998-01-01

273

Observations on the rooting patterns of some agroforestry trees in an arid region of north-western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with root architecture of 6-year-old trees of 9 indigenous and 3 exotic species growing in arid climate of north-western India. Observations, made on excavated root systems (3 tree replicates of each species) showed large variation in horizontal and vertical spread of roots. In Morus alba, Melia azedarach and Populus deltoides, the roots were confined to 80

O. P. Toky; R. P. Bisht

1992-01-01

274

Pollen production in some plant taxa with a supposed role in allergy in Eastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the production of pollen grains per anther per flower of 15 probably allergenic pollen producing angiospermic\\u000a plant taxa growing in Eastern India. The selected plant taxa includesAilanthus excelsa, Alstonia scholaris, Argemone mexicana, Azadirachta indica, Cassia alata, C. siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, Holarrhena\\u000a pubescens, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Madhuca indica, Milletia pinnata, Mimusops elengi, Morus alba, M. indica andMurraya paniculata.

Amal Kumar Mondal; Subrata Mondal; Sudhendu Mandal

1998-01-01

275

Antioxidant responses to enhanced generation of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in the copper-stressed mulberry plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to implicate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox environment with the effects of Cu-deficiency or Cu-excess in mulberry (Morus alba L.) cv. Kanva 2 plants. A study of antioxidative responses, indicators of oxidative damage and cellular redox environment in Cu-deficient or Cu-excess mulberry plants was undertaken. While the young

Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

2006-01-01

276

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

277

Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2012-07-01

278

Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

2008-04-01

279

[Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts].  

PubMed

Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts. Hydro-alcohol extracts of ten tropical plants were tested by the immersion method on mature ticks (Boophilus microplus Canestrini 1887). The biological evaluation was made with raw hydro alcoholic extracts (R-OH) to determine the most promissory compounds, which later were fractioned in their polar and non-polar parts. The polar parts showed a significantly inferior effect. The species that produced the highest mortality were Zizigium aromaticum, Morus alba, Piper nigrum and the mixture of Allium sativum- Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on oviposition: M. alba, P. nigrum and the mixture of A. sativum - Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on eclosion: P. nigrum, Z. aromaticum, Echinacea angustiofilia, Poligonum punctatum, M. alba and the mixture of A. sativum-Z. aromaticum (all non-polar): on control percentage: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum and M. alba (all non-polar, except for M. alba in which both fractions showed important activity); and finally, on the percentage of oviposition inhibition: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum, Gliricidia sepium and M. alba. PMID:18624244

Alvarez, Víctor; Loaiza, Jorge; Bonilla, Roberto; Barrios, Mariano

2008-03-01

280

EMPLEO DE FRACCIONES CELULARES DE LA LEVADURA Saccharomyces cerevisiae COMO ADITIVO ALIMENTARIO PARA Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN En el presente estudio se evalúa la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae de forma desintegrada (LD) y tres fracciones celulares obtenidas de ella: complejo pared-membrana (FP), núcleo-proteínas (FN) y citoplasma (FC) como aditivo alimentario utilizando al crustáceo Artemia franciscana como modelo de experimentación. Se realizaron dos bioensayos para determinar el efecto que ejercían dichos aditivos en el crecimiento, biomasa seca, supervivencia

Yamilé Comabella; Tsai García-Galano; Olimpia Carrillo; Yadir Mauri

281

A emergência da categoria “agricultor familiar” como sujeito de direitos na trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras raízes ainda na constituição da legislação trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergência dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na

Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto

2008-01-01

282

Atomic-Scale Structure of Co–Mo–S Nanoclusters in Hydrotreating Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it has been possible to obtain the first atomic-scale images of the Co–Mo–S structure present in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. Information on the catalytically important edge structures has been obtained by synthesizing single-layer Co–Mo–S nanoclusters using the Au(111) herringbone structure as a template. It is observed that the presence of the Co promoter atoms

J. V Lauritsen; S Helveg; E Lægsgaard; I Stensgaard; B. S Clausen; H Topsøe; F Besenbacher

2001-01-01

283

Investigation of nanoindentation on Co\\/Mo multilayers by the continuous stiffness measurement technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical properties of evaporated Co\\/Mo multilayers with periodicity of 4–16 nm were investigated. The microstructures of the films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Continuous stiffness measurement technique was used in the nanoindentation tests to determine the hardness and elastic modulus of the films. A Hall–Petch-like behavior is observed in the Co\\/Mo multilayers, in which the

G. H. Yang; B. Zhao; Y. Gao; F. Pan

2005-01-01

284

Preliminary screening of some tropical plants for anti-tyrosinase activity.  

PubMed

In our efforts to find new active tyrosinase inhibitors for skin-whitening or antibrowning preparations, we investigated 67 tropical plants belonging to 38 families, which were evaluated for their anti-tyrosinase activity. The results of our investigation show that extracts of 5 plants, Stryphnodendron barbatimao, Portulaca pilosa, Cariniana brasiliensis, Entada africana and Prosopis africana present interesting in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition (over 90%), similar to a positive control: Morus alba. These 5 plants will be studied in order to isolate and identify phytochemical compounds, involved in this biological activity. PMID:12241990

Baurin, N; Arnoult, E; Scior, T; Do, Q T; Bernard, P

2002-10-01

285

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

286

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9.

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-01-01

287

XPS characterization of zirconium-promoted CoMo hydrodesulfurization catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

CoMo hydrodesulfurization catalysts (HDS) supported on mixed ZrO2-Al2O3 and ZrO2-SiO2 oxides have been prepared via a two-step impregnation using the incipient wetness method. The SBET method, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for characterization of the samples. Increasing the ZrO2 content decreases the surface areas and the pore volumes of supported CoMo catalysts. The effect of

S Damyanova; L Petrov; P Grange

2003-01-01

288

Mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 supported Co–Mo catalyst for hydrodesulfurization of petroleum resids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we explored the potential of mesoporous zeolite-supported Co–Mo catalyst for hydrodesulfurization of petroleum resids, atmospheric and vacuum resids at 350–450°C under 6.9MPa of H2 pressure. A mesoporous molecular sieve of MCM-41 type was synthesized; which has SiO2\\/Al2O3 ratio of about 41. MCM-41 supported Co–Mo catalyst was prepared by co-impregnation of Co(NO3)2·6H2O and (NH4)6Mo7O24 followed by calcination and

Kondam Madhusudan Reddy; Boli Wei; Chunshan Song

1998-01-01

289

USO DE CINTURÃO VEGETAL COMO ESTRATÉGIA DE OBSTRUÇÃO VISUAL DE ÁREAS DEGRADADAS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Na área de empréstimo da Ilha da Madeira (13 m de decapeamento) são desenvolvidos um conjunto de medidas conservacionistas desde 1993. Os resultados visuais são lentos e, como estratégia de agilizá-los, desenvolvemos um manejo paisagístico das bordaduras, onde o cinturão vegetal é composto por espécies arbustivas e arbóreas selecionadas em função de sua rusticidade, características plásticas individuais e

Magna Cunha; Ricardo VALCARCEL

290

Planificación urbana versus autoregulación: la ciudad de Fortaleza (Brasil) como tablero de juego de diferentes agentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortaleza es una ciudad relativamente jóven en cuanto a su importancia como metrópoli regional, caracterizándose sobre todo en las últimas décadas por una muy fuerte dinámica demográfica, económica y política. En este contexto el espacio urbano se ha convertido en una mercancía de alto costo, disputada entre los intereses contradictorios de compañías influentes, especuladores inmobiliarios, políticos y el resto de

Waltraud Rosner; Ulli Vilsmaier

2007-01-01

291

Surface chemistry of model CoMo catalysts supported on planar. gamma. -AlâOâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have done some TPD work on our planar model catalysts and a planar aluminium oxide support. Benzene did not adsorb on a planar alumina surface significantly. Benzene adsorbed on the sulfied planar Co-Mo model catalysts significantly and the desorption starts at 450 K. We could not get enough information from this set of data due to evaporated of SiOâ

T. Sahin; W. K. Ford

1988-01-01

292

O papel dos Larídeos como portadores de Salmonella e Listeria spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Tal como noutros países, a população de gaivotas (larídeos) aumentou exponencialmente em Portugal. Para averi- guar as implicações na Saúde Pública deste sobrecrescimento, duzentas e oitenta e cinco amostras de fezes de gaivotas foram analisadas para dois agentes potencialmente patogénicos para o Homem, Salmonella spp. e Listeria sp. Isolou-se Salmonella sp em trinta e sete amostras (13%). Os serotipos

E. L. Duartea; M. M. Guerra; F. M. Bernardo; CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS

293

Topical observations on centric diatoms (Bacillariophyceae, Centrales) of Lake Como (N. Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 a qualitative analysis of the centric diatoms in Lake Como was made. In this work 15 taxa of the genus of Stephanodis- cus, Cyclotella, Melosira, Aulacoseira and Stephanocostis were recorded. Among them the taxa Cyclotella pseudostelligera, C. comensis, C. comensis morphotype minima, C. costei, Stephanodiscus minutulus and Stephanocostis chantaicus were of special in- terest to us with regard

Wolfram SCHEFFLER; Giuseppe MORABITO

294

UMA INVESTIGAÇÃO DISCURSIVA ACERCA DE CALABAR - O ELOGIO DA TRAIÇÃO: O HUMOR COMO EVENTO POLIFÔNICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introdução Este estudo tem por objetivo fazer uma reflexão, sob a luz da análise do discurso da linha francesa, acerca do humor na literatura, mais precisamente, da linguagem transgressiva que se instaura no discurso literário-teatral em decorrência de fenômenos como ironia e paródia. Esse enfoque será norteado a partir da peça Calabar - o elogio da traição (1973), de

Manuella Felicíssimo

295

El desarrollo de la creatividad a través del proceso docente como problema social  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo tiene como propósito reflejar aspectos sobre el desarrollo de la creatividad en estudiantes de Educación Inicial del Programa Nacional de Formación de Educadores y Educadoras (PNFE). En tal sentido el Problema científico es ¿Cómo perfeccionar los modos de actuación en los estudiantes del PNFE? El Objetivo está dirigido a la Elaboración de una metodología para favorecer el desarrollo

Magaly Sarmiento Romero

2011-01-01

296

Land subsidence and Late Glacial environmental evolution of the Como urban area (Northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Glacial and Holocene geological and environmental evolution of the Como lacustrine–palustrine basin has been broadly reconstructed based on (a) the collection and analysis of more than 100 borehole stratigraphies, (b) the drilling of three new shallow boreholes and the analysis of a new geological section and (c) several in situ and laboratory analyses (mineralogical, organic and pollen content,

Valerio Comerci; Sabrina Capelletti; Alessandro M. Michetti; Sabina Rossi; Leonello Serva; Eutizio Vittori

2007-01-01

297

Pregadoras murshidat como agentes de mudança no Marrocos: uma perspectiva comparativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo As feministas marroquinas tem como objetivo promover posições de poder para as mulheres através da educação, da auto- consciência e do conhecimento de novos direitos legais; e também disseminando informações a respeito do novo código da família e do novo código trabalhista por meio de suas ONGs e grupos comunitários. O ativismo das mulheres contribuiu de maneira significativa para

Moha Ennaji

2008-01-01

298

Un estudio exploratorio sobre el desarrollo de creencias sobre síntomas como señales de hipertensión arterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aunque la hipertensión arterial es un trastorno asintomático, muchos pacientes hipertensos están con- vencidos de experimentar síntomas indicadores de los cambios en su tensión arterial (TA), y los con- sejos y prescripciones médicas pueden verse afectados por estas creencias. Diversos estudios han mos- trado que los pacientes hipertensos usan con frecuencia síntomas como indicadores del estado de su tensión arterial

Genoveva Granados Gámez; Jesús Gil Roales-Nieto; José Luis; Ybarra Sagarduy

2006-01-01

299

Hydrologic flowpaths and biogeochemical cycles in the subalpine Como Creek catchment, Colorado Front Range, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outstanding question for snowmelt-dominated watersheds of the western US are the responses of biogeochemical processes to two major drivers of environmental change: directional changes in climate and increasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in wetfall. In the Colorado Front Range, atmospheric deposition of DIN has increased several-fold in the last 25 years. In response, nitrate concentrations at the alpine Green Lakes 4 (GL4) catchment have increased from 1985 to 2009 by 0.27 ?eq L-1 yr-1. In contrast, we see no directional change in either nitrate concentrations or fluxes in the subalpine Como Creek catchment. We hypothesize that differences in surface/groundwater interactions result in the differing behavior of stream nitrate between the alpine and subalpine catchments that are receiving similar amounts of DIN from atmospheric deposition. For both basins we sampled precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, surface water, and subsurface waters. All water samples are analyzed for geochemical, nutrient and isotopic (?18O, ?D) composition. Stream chemistry data from the last ten years at Como Creek show increases in nitrate concentration during baseflow conditions and then a sharp decline during snowmelt. In contrast, in the alpine basin there is sharp increase in surface water nitrate during snowmelt. Hydrograph separation at the alpine GL4 using end member mixing analysis (EMMA) shows that stream flow is a mixture of three components, groundwater, talus, and new snowmelt that each contribute to roughly a third of discharge, with talus flow supplying the majority of nitrate. In contrast, and somewhat surprisingly, EMMA shows that for the subalpine Como Creek basin, annual streamflow is a mixture of only two components, groundwater and new snowmelt. During snowmelt the groundwater and snow contributions are nearly equal and subsurface flows dominate the remainder of the year. Newly installed piezometers at Como Creek provide evidence that the basin is largely a losing reach during snowmelt, with water levels in the piezometers increasing 5-7 m. After peak snowmelt however, Como Creek becomes a gaining stream, with piezometer levels dropping. Thus, both EMMA and piezometers show that surface-groundwater interactions are tightly coupled during snowmelt, with snowmelt at Como first replenishing the subsurface water deficit and increasing groundwater levels before contributing to discharge. Thus, in contrast to the alpine GL4 basin, DIN released in snowmelt is assimilated belowground as snowmelt infiltrates the subsurface in the subalpine basin. Interestingly, at the subalpine Como Creek basin, isotopic and geochemical solute concentrations undergo shifts during periods of winter baseflow prior to snowmelt. In winter much of the stream is frozen and we hypothesize that cryo-concentration of solutes and fractionation of isotopes may influence the concentrations of winter stream samples.

Cowie, R. M.; Williams, M. W.; Zeliff, M. M.; Parman, J.

2011-12-01

300

Trophic modifications in Lake Como (N. Italy) caused by the zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large scale study on the western basin of Lake Como (N. Italy) was started in 1995 to examine the effects of the zebra mussel\\u000a colonization which began in early '90. Our results have been related to '91–92 data (pre-Dreissena period), before the maximum\\u000a colonization of zebra mussel. In spring and summer of the post-Dreissena period total phosphorus, P-PO4, nitrate

A. Binelli; A. Provini; S. Galassi

1997-01-01

301

Megaturbidite deposits in the Holocene basin fill of Lake Como (Southern Alps, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, limnogeological investigations have been carried out in Lake Como, the deepest lake of the Alps, combining a bathymetric survey (multibeam Simrad 3000) with a high-resolution seismic reflection study (single-channel 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler) and a coring campaign (gravity corer). This data set enables detailed characterization of the sedimentary subsurface in the western branch of the lake, the

Daniela Fanetti; Flavio S. Anselmetti; Emmanuel Chapron; Michael Sturm; Luigina Vezzoli

2008-01-01

302

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

303

Interseções entre cultura midiática, cibercultura e gamecultura: o Ragnarök como processo sociocomunicacional e mediador da conscientização ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Os games on-line são estudados na atualidade como mídias interativas complexas. Neste artigo compreendemos os games on-line como resultados das relações entre a cultura midiática, cibercultura e gamecultura. Propomos demonstrar que sua finalidade está na socialização dos jogadores, nos \\

Igor Ramady; Lira de SOUSA; Henrique Paiva de MAGALHÃES

304

EL ANÁLISIS DE CITAS EN TRABAJOS DE INVESTIGADORES COMO MÉTODO PARA EL ESTUDIO DEL USO DE INFORMACIÓN EN BIBLIOTECAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Revisión bibliográfica sobre el análisis de citas como método para el estudio del uso y las necesidades de información por parte de los investigadores como usuarios de bibliotecas. Una vez comparados los estudios locales basados en las publicaciones de los usuarios potenciales de una biblioteca con los estudios de análisis de citas basados en la bibliografía circulante a nivel

Cristóbal Urbano Salido

2001-01-01

305

Hydrofining of Athabasca derived heavy gas oil over Ni-W and Co-Mo catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The hydrotreatment of heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was studied in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W and Co-Mo zeolite catalyst at 350-425/sup 0/C, 3.55 to 10.44 MPa, and LHSV of 1-4. The effects of temperature and liquid flow rates on the product were investigated. ASTM distillation, aniline point, viscosities and densities of the product oil were measured and correlated with various parameters. Activity of the catalysts for hydrodenitrogenation is compared.

Mann, R.S.; Diaz-real, R.

1987-01-01

306

Characterization of K 2CO 3/Co-MoS 2 catalyst by XRD, XPS, SEM, and EDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoS 2, Co-MoS 2 and K 2CO 3/Co-MoS 2 catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD analysis indicates that Co-MoS 2 is a primary phase in K 2CO 3/Co-MoS 2 catalyst and the diffraction lines of Co-MoS 2 are not changed by the addition of K 2CO 3. Co 9S 8 phase is not present at Co/Mo mole ratio of 0.5 using a co-precipitation method for preparation of cobalt-molybdenum catalyst. The binding energies (BEs) of chemical species present on the surface of the catalysts are compared through the course of catalyst preparation. K 2CO 3/Co-MoS 2 catalyst has been investigated as a function of dispersion of K on the surface and exposure to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The distribution of potassium on the surface of the K-promoted catalyst is not uniform.

Iranmahboob, Jamshid; Hill, Donald O.; Toghiani, Hossein

2001-12-01

307

A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

2008-09-01

308

IR study of the interaction of phenol with oxides and sulfided CoMo catalysts for bio-fuel hydrodeoxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of phenol on supported sulfide CoMo catalysts and on oxides is investigated using IR spectroscopy. On silica, phenol mainly interacts via hydrogen-bonding, whereas on alumina it dissociates on the acid–base pairs of this oxide leading to the formation of strongly adsorbed phenolates species. On a sulfided CoMo catalyst supported on alumina, phenol dissociates on the support but does

Andrey Popov; Elena Kondratieva; Jean-Pierre Gilson; Laurence Mariey; Arnaud Travert; Francoise Maugé

2011-01-01

309

Co–Mo catalysts for ultra-deep HDS of diesel fuels prepared via synthesis of bimetallic surface compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of bimetallic Co–Mo compounds from ammonium heptamolybdate, citric acid and cobalt acetate for the preparation of catalysts for the ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of diesel fuel is reported. The structure of the Co–Mo compounds formed in solution and on alumina surfaces was studied by 95Mo, 17O, 13C, and 27Al NMR, FTIR, Raman and XAS spectroscopy. It was found that

Oleg V. Klimov; Anastasiya V. Pashigreva; Martin A. Fedotov; Dmitri I. Kochubey; Yuri A. Chesalov; Galina A. Bukhtiyarova; Alexandr S. Noskov

2010-01-01

310

Mutant Groups in Nature, Gentiana campestris var. alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. JULIAN HUXLEY (NATURE, October 3, 1925, p. 497) may be glad to know that his example of mutant white-flowered Gentiana campestris has its analogue in Zetland. There, on the slopes of Whiteness Voe, is a very large group of white-flowered specimens, outnumbering the normal form, and I saw several good-sized patches in the remote island of Balta. There is

G. Claridge Druce

1926-01-01

311

DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACI?N ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA  

PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia.

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil

2012-01-01

312

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

2011-01-01

313

La valoraciòn econòmica de bienes y servicios ambientales como herramienta estrategica para la conservaciòn y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El trabajo corresponde a un estudio piloto hacia la implementación de una metodología que permita aproximar el valor monetario de los Bienes y Servicios Ambientales (BSA) ofertados por un ecosistema hídrico, caso “Ciénaga de la Caimanera, municipio de Coveñas, departamento de Sucre-Colombia”, como herramienta estratégica para incentivar la conservación y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas. Avanzar en procesos de

ADOLFO CARBAL HERRERA

2010-01-01

314

Transformaciones en el Discurso sobre la Epidemia al VIH como una Epidemia Sexuada - Paradojas y Enigmas en la Respuesta Global  

Microsoft Academic Search

Así como el discurso sobre sexualidad experimentó la influencia central de los procesos técnicos y políticos generados por la epidemia, igualmente el discurso global sobre la epidemia de SIDA a lo largo de tres décadas ha sido marcado por estos momentos cambiantes en el discurso sobre la sexualidad y su diversidad. Desde un momento inicial en que el SIDA fue

Carlos F. Cáceres

315

Foliar application of Azatobactor chroococcum increases leaf yield under saline conditions in mulberry ( Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of two nitrogenous fertilizers such as urea and the bacterial bio-fertilizer ‘Azatobactor chroococcum’ on growth and development along with leaf quality was studied under various levels of NaCl in mulberry. Performance of four mulberry varieties, two tolerant and two susceptible to salt, were studied in pot culture. NaCl at different concentrations (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%

K. Vijayan; S. P. Chakraborti; P. D. Ghosh

2007-01-01

316

Electrochemical stability of Co-Mo intermetallic compound electrodes for hydrogen oxidation reaction in hot KOH solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain a hydrogen electrode with high-performance and stability for H 2-O 2 alkaline fuel cells, Brewer-type Co-Mo alloys are manufactured in the 35 to 57 wt.% Mo composition range by an arc-melting method. The electrochemical stability of alloys composed of Co 3Mo and Co 7Mo 6 phases is investigated in hot KOH solution deaerated with N 2 gas by means of electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry, potentiostatic polarization and potentiodynamic polarization. Co-Mo alloy is extensively dissolved because the cobalt in alloy is soluble in hot KOH solution. The dissolution current of the alloys increases with increasing electrolyte temperature, electrolyte concentration and Mo content in the alloy.

Lee, Chang Rae; Kang, Sung Goon

317

Factors Affecting the use of Dreissena polymorpha as a Bioindicator: the PCB Pollution in Lake Como (N. Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the PCB pollutionof the South-Western branch of Lake Como by using thezebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as abioindicator since its recent reintroduction. Someenvironmental and physiological variables influencingaccumulation processes of organochlorine compounds inDreissena were investigated because climaticfactors may affect life cycle, reproductive stage andage. PCB levels were highest in the soft tissues ofDreissena close

A. Binelli; S. Galassi; A. Provini

2001-01-01

318

A computa»c~ao numerica como ferramenta para o professor de F¶‡sica do Ensino Medio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposta deste trabalhoe apresentar ao professor de F¶‡sica do ensino medio uma forma de empregar recur- sos computacionais para esclarecer e aprofundar conceitos de F¶‡sica que s~ao explorados de forma limitada por n~ao se poder recorrer ao Calculo Diferencial e Integral. O p^endulo simplese usado como prototipo para o trata- mento sugerido. Mostramos que apenas com o aux¶‡lio de

Augusto Cesar; Claudio Gon; Marcus Vinicius; Tovar Costa

319

Plant antimutagens and their mixtures in inhibition of genotoxic effects of xenobiotics and aging processes.  

PubMed

The antimutagenic effect of the bioactive compounds from fruits of Morus alba L. (MA), Punica granatum L. (PG), Diospyros kaki L. (DK), Cydonia oblonga Mill. (CO) and roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) were investigated. The antimutagenic effects of compounds separately as well as their action in complex mixtures were studied on mutations induced by genotoxicants (X-rays, N-methylnitrosourea, cyclophosphamide, NaF) and aging in bone marrow cell chromosomes from mice and rats. When tested separately and in a complex mixture, the plant products showed an ability to decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrations. The antimutagenic properties of the complex mixtures were considerably greater than those of the separate components. More antimutagenic activity of the mixture was revealed when mutagenesis was the result of X-rays and the natural aging processes. PMID:12570329

Alekperov, Urkhan K

2002-08-01

320

Cytotoxic activities of several geranyl-substituted flavanones.  

PubMed

Nine geranylated flavanones isolated from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa (4-12) and two from the roots of Morus alba (13 and 14) were examined for cytotoxicity to selected human cancer cell lines and normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was determined in vitro using a calcein AM cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity for the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell line was tested using erythrosin B cell staining. The geranylated compounds tested were compared with the known simple flavanone standards taxifolin (1), naringenin (2), and hesperetin (3) and with the standard anticancer drugs olomoucine II, diaziquone, and oxaliplatin and the antineoplastic compound camptothecin, and showed different levels of cytotoxicity. The effects of structural changes on cytotoxic activity, including geranyl substitution of the flavanone skeleton and the oxidation pattern of ring B of the flavanones, are discussed. PMID:20192247

Smejkal, Karel; Svacinová, Jana; Slapetová, Tereza; Schneiderová, Kristýna; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Závalová, Veronika; Kollár, Peter; Chudík, Stanislav; Marek, Radek; Julínek, Ondrej; Urbanová, Marie; Kartal, Murat; Csöllei, Marek; Dolezal, Karel

2010-04-23

321

Seasonal variations in isoprene emission from tropical deciduous tree species.  

PubMed

Isoprene is a dominant constituent of the global biogenic volatile organic compounds budget. It plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including tropospheric ozone concentrations. In this study, monthly measurements of isoprene emission rates were carried out over a 1-year period (December 2002-November 2003) from four Indian deciduous tree species, namely Ficus relegiosa, Ficus infectoria, Pongamia pinnata, and Morus alba, using branch enclosure method. Significantly high monthly variations in isoprene emission rates were observed in all four-plant species. Also, each plant species exhibited pronounced seasonal variation in isoprene emission. Maximum isoprene emissions were observed during summer and minimum during the winter or spring months. PMID:17242968

Singh, Abhai Pratap; Varshney, C K; Singh, U K

2007-08-01

322

Inhibitory activity of plant stilbenoids against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.  

PubMed

Microglia-driven inflammatory processes are thought to play an important role in ageing and several neurological disorders. Since consumption of a diet rich in polyphenols has been associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of twenty-five stilbenoids isolated from Milicia excelsa, Morus alba, Gnetum africanum, and Vitis vinifera. These compounds were tested at 5 and 10 µM on BV-2 microglial cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Ten stilbenoids reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production at 5 and/or 10 µM. Two tetramers, E-vitisin A and E-vitisin B, were the most effective molecules. Moreover, they attenuated the expression of the inducible NO synthase protein and gene. PMID:23807809

Nassra, Merian; Krisa, Stéphanie; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Kapche, Gilbert Deccaux; Bisson, Jonathan; André, Caroline; Konsman, Jan-Pieter; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre

2013-07-01

323

A new source of whitening agent from a Thai Mulberry plant and its betulinic acid quantitation.  

PubMed

Protection of human body against the harmful ultraviolet exposure is nowadays more important and interesting. Melanin, a group of bio-pigments, acts as a natural solar filter absorbing and reflecting most of the UV radiation passing through the layer of skin. Over production of the pigments can create a health problem, hyperpigmentation. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-dihydroxyalanine (L-Dopa), therefore tyrosinase inhibitors are used in various skin preparations due to its pronounced effect on anti-hyperpigment. In this study, an in vitro anti-tyrosinase activity study of the extracts from a hybrid Mulberry plant obtained from Morus alba L. and Morus rotundiloba Koidz, is shown to prove as new source of Thai whitening agent. The presence of betulinic acid, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity agent, is also reported. The study develops the technique of HPLC quantitation of betulinic acid and its relation to anti-tyrosinase activity of the whole parts of Thai Mulberry. PMID:18569714

Nattapong, Snitmatjaro; Omboon, Luanratana

2008-06-15

324

Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 µg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2µg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. Conclusions We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piper betel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment.

Tirupathi, Rao G; Suresh, Babu K; Ujwal, Kumar J; Sujana, P; Raoa, A Veerabhadr; Sreedhar, AS

2011-01-01

325

Hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived gas oil over Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oil containing 4.08% S and 0.49% N was carried out in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W, Ni-Mo, and Co-Mo catalysts supported on zeolite-alumina-silica at 623-698 K, LHSV of 1-4, gas flow rate 890 m[sup 3][sub H2]/m[sup 3][sub oil] (5,000 sef/bbl), and pressure of 6.89 MPa. Analyses for viscosity, density, aniline point, ASTM mid boiling point distillation, C/H ratio, and percentage of N and S in the final product were carried out to characterize the product oil. The amounts of N and S removed indicated the hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization activity of the catalysts. Results of zeolite-alumina-silica-supported catalysts are compared to those obtained with commercially available Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo on [gamma]-alumina. Ni-Mo supported on zeolite-alumina-silica was most active and could remove as much as 99 % S and 89% N present in the oil at 698 K. The data for HDN and HDS fitted the pseudo first order model. The kinetic model is described in detail.

Diaz-Real, R.A.; Mann, R.S.; Sambi, I.S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-07-01

326

Comparing the hydrodesulfurization reaction of thiophene on ?-Al 2 O 3 supported CoMo, NiMo and NiW sulfide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction on ?-Al2O3 supported CoMo, NiMo and NiW sulfide catalysts was compared in order to gain insight into the promoter effect on direct desulfurization\\u000a (DDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) pathways. Ni-promoted Mo (or W) sulfide catalysts favor the hydrogen transfer reactions relative\\u000a to CoMo sulfide catalyst, which facilitates the direct route instead. This different performance and also

Sergio L. González-Cortés

2009-01-01

327

Como funciona un extintor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Spanish-language chemistry activity, learners use simple materials to explore how fire extinguishers work to put out fires. Safety note: this activity involves the use of a small candle with a burning flame.

Figueroa, Randall; Foundation, Cientec

2014-05-28

328

Metabolic effects of mulberry leaves: exploring potential benefits in type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia.  

PubMed

The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

Hunyadi, A; Liktor-Busa, E; Márki, A; Martins, A; Jedlinszki, N; Hsieh, T J; Báthori, M; Hohmann, J; Zupkó, I

2013-01-01

329

Phytoplankton assemblage structure and dynamics as indicator [-2pt] of the recent trophic and biological evolution of the western basin of Lake Como (N. Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the phytoplankton assemblage of the western basin of Lake Como (Northern Italy) during 1997. The phytoplankton assemblage was composed of 65 taxa, belonging to six taxonomic groups. Chlorophyta were represented by the highest number of taxa (28) followed by Bacillariophyceae (17), Cyanoprokaryota (9), Dinophyceae (6), Chrysophyceae (3) and Cryptophyta (2). The total assemblage density and biomass ranged from

R. Bettinetti; G. Morabito; A. Provini

2000-01-01

330

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

331

Respeito às Normas e Crescimento Econômico: Como Promotores Públicos Garantem o Cumprimento das Leis e Promovem o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esta pesquisa examina como os membros do Ministério Público (MP) brasileiro conseguem que empresas instaladas em território nacional cumpram com a legislação trabalhista e ambiental sem perder a competitividade. Nos casos analisados, promotores e procuradores percebem que os gargalos que dificultam o cumprimento da lei estão freqüentemente fora das empresas infratoras e de suas respectivas cadeias de valor, e que,

Salo Vinocur Coslovsky

2008-01-01

332

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure determination of the structure of cobalt in carbon-supported Co and Co-Mo sulfide hydrodesulfurization catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The structure of the cobalt present in carbon-supported Co and Co-Mo sulfide catalysts was studied by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Co K-edge and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thiophene hydrodesulfurization activities were used to measure the catalytic properties of these catalysts. By comparison of the EXAFS and XANES spectra of the catalysts with those of Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} and CoS{sub 2} model compounds, it was concluded that all Co atoms in a catalyst prepared with nitrilotriacetic acid as complexing agent were in the Co-Mo-S state, while the Co atoms in a conventionally prepared catalyst were partly present in a Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}-like structure and partly in a Co-Mo-S structure. The Co atoms in the Co-Mo-S state have a distorted 5- to 6-fold sulfur coordination, and on the average, every Co atom is in contact with two Mo atoms at a distance of 2.80 {angstrom}. On the basis of these data, the most likely position for the Co atoms is in front of the square sulfur faces of the MoS{sub 6} trigonal prisms along the edges of the MoS{sub 2} crystallites with two additional sulfur atoms or H{sub 2}S molecules attached.

Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Koningsberger, D.C.; de Beer, V.H.J.; Prins, R. (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); van Veen, J.A.R. (Koninklijke/Shell-Laboratorium, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1991-01-10

333

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes.

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

334

Overexpression of HVA1 gene from barley generates tolerance to salinity and water stress in transgenic mulberry ( Morus indica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic proteins found primarily in plants.\\u000a The barley hva1 gene encodes a group 3 LEA protein and is induced by ABA and water deficit conditions. We report here the over expression\\u000a of hva1 in mulberry under a constitutive promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of the transgenic plants

Shalini Lal; Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2008-01-01

335

Effect of the nature of the additives of metal cations (Sr, Ba, and La) on the properties of CoMo hydrodesulfurization catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the nature of the support modified with the ions of alkaline earth and rare earth elements (Sr, Ba, and La)\\u000a on the properties of Co-Mo catalysts for the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT),\\u000a and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was studied using a set of physicochemical and catalytic techniques. It was found\\u000a that the introduction of modifying additives decreased

E. V. Korneeva; A. S. Ivanova; G. A. Bukhtiyarova; P. V. Aleksandrov; V. I. Zaikovskii; I. P. Prosvirin; A. S. Noskov

2011-01-01

336

Low-cost and high-performance CoMoS4 and NiMoS4 counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Porous chalcogels CoMoS4 and NiMoS4 made by a facile solution reaction displayed good electrocatalytic activity in the redox reaction of the I(-)/I3(-) shuttle. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these ternary compounds as counter electrodes (CEs) showed photovoltaic performance similar to the devices made with noble metal platinum CE (7.46%). PMID:24022304

Zheng, Xiaojia; Guo, Jiahao; Shi, Yantao; Xiong, Fengqiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Ma, Tingli; Li, Can

2013-10-25

337

LA SUBASTA DE ACTIVOS FINANCIEROS COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL COSTO DE RESCATES BANCARIOS ORIGINADOS POR LAS CRISIS FINANCIERAS AUCTION OF FINANCIAL ASSETS AS A STRATEGY TO REDUCE THE COST OF BANK PURCHASE CAUSED BY THE FINANCIAL CRISIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Desde los años setenta y hasta la fecha muchos países han experimentado crisis bancarias. Estos fenómenos, que han sido ocasionados por un conjunto de factores macro y microeconómicos, tanto internos como externos, se han dado tanto en países desarrollados como en países en vías de desarrollo, demostrado la fragilidad del sistema financiero ante el crecimiento explosivo del volumen de

Mónica Isabel; López Cardoza

338

Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity. PMID:22205224

Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

2012-06-01

339

Effect of heat treatment on the crystalline structure of martensite in iron-, nickel-, manganese- and silicon-doped Co-W and Co-Mo alloys  

SciTech Connect

X-ray investigation of the crystalline structure of martensite of Co-W-Fe, Co-Mo (Fe, Ni, Mn, Si) single crystals is performed after quenching and preliminary aging in [alpha] and [beta] phases. Continuous decomposition of a and [beta] solid solutions at aging at temperatures 500 700C is observed. In Fe- and Ni-doped alloys the multilayer martensite polytypes are formed. In Co-Mo-Fe and Co-Mo-Ni single crystals such polytypes are found at the satellite stages of decomposition.

Nikolin, B.I.; Babkevich, A.Yu.; Izdkovskaya, T.V.; Petrova, S.N. (Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vernadsky, (Ukraine). Institute of Metal Physics)

1993-02-01

340

Fibromialgia: o que é, como diagnosticar e como acompanhar?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The main objective of this article is to review the clinical characteristics, diagnóstic criteria and follow up methods of the fibromyalgia syndrome. The author also presents a brief historical review of the knowledge on this syndrome. It is also commented the necessity of this knowledge divulgation in order to obtain early diagnosis to improve the patients quality of life.

José Eduardo Martinez

341

Influence of the Additives and The pH On the Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo) Alloy Electrodeposited On n-TypeSilicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, thin films of metal alloys (Co-Mo) have been electrodeposited onto silicon (Si) surface. The effects of two different additives (H3BO3 and Na2CO3) and the pH of the solution on the electrochemically deposited films (morphology, stochiometry…) have been investigated. The properties of the deposits were characterized by using X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the morphology and the film composition depend on both the pH of the solution and the additives. The presence of boric acid favors the Mo deposition. Crack-free homogeneous deposits with a low percentage of molybdenum can be easily obtained from high pH bath. The deposits were shown to exhibits a good crystalline structure.

Fekih, Z.; Ghellai, N.; Fortas, G.; Chiboub, N.; Sam, S.; Chabanne-sari, N. E.; Gabouze, N.

342

Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

2014-04-01

343

Ultrasonic dyeing of cotton fabric with aqueous extract of Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cotton fabric using Eclipta as natural dye has been studied in both conventional and sonicator methods. The effects of dyeing show higher color strength values obtained by the latter. Dyeing kinetics of cotton fabrics were compared for both the methods. The time\\/dye uptake reveals the enhanced dye uptake showing sonicator efficiency. The results of fastness properties of

Padma S. Vankar; Rakhi Shanker; Jyoti Srivastava

2007-01-01

344

Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

1995-01-01

345

Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba  

PubMed Central

The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks’ feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1 m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird.

Pabisch, S.; Puchegger, S.; Kirchner, H.O.K.; Weiss, I.M.; Peterlik, H.

2010-01-01

346

Effects of stress ethylene inhibitors on sweet clover (Melilotus Alba L.) seedling growth in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous experiments from our lab have shown that seeds of sweet clover, when germinated and grown within the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) on a slow rotating clinostat produce significantly greater levels of the volatile stress hormone, ethylene, when compared to seeds treated the same but without clinorotation. In both conditions, carbon dioxide levels reached high levels and seedling growth was inhibited. However, clinorotation inhibited growth to a greater extent. To help determine to what extent microgravity influences stress ethylene production and to what extent ethylene inhibits seedling growth, we have extended the above experiments by growing sweet clover in the presence of aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), inhibitors of stress ethylene biosynthesis and action, respectively. Seeds of sweet clover were germinated and grown for five days in the FPA under two gravity conditions: under stationary conditions on Earth and in microgravity onboard the space shuttle, Discovery (STS-63), which launched Feb. 3, 1995. Upon recovery, gas samples were aspirated from the growth chambers and carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph. Then the tissue was weighed, photographed and fixed, and is current undergoing further morphological and microscopic characterization.

Gallegos, Gregory L.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brown, Christopher S.; Guikema, James A.

1995-01-01

347

Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.  

PubMed

In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57mm and 128-512?g/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10?m and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

2014-12-15

348

The Structure of Ipalbine, a New Hexahydroindolizine Alkaloid, Isolated from Ipomoea Alba L..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent phytochemical studies have shown that the seeds of several members of the Convolvulaceae family, in particular certain Rivea, Ipomoea, and Argyreia species contain significant amounts of ergoline alkaloids. The isolation and structural determinatio...

J. M. Gourley R. A. Heacock A. G. McInnes B. Nikolin D. G. Smith

1969-01-01

349

Teratomas of Drosera capensis var. alba as a source of naphthoquinone: ramentaceone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants belonging to genus Drosera (family Droseraceae) contain pharmacologically active naphthoquinones such as ramentaceone and plumbagin. Hairy root cultures\\u000a obtained following Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have been reported to produce elevated levels of secondary compounds as well as exhibit desirable\\u000a rapid biomass accumulation in comparison to untransformed plants. The aim of this study was to establish hairy root or teratoma\\u000a cultures

Aleksandra Krolicka; Anna Szpitter; Krzysztof Stawujak; Rafal Baranski; Anna Gwizdek-Wisniewska; Anita Skrzypczak; Marian Kaminski; Ewa Lojkowska

2010-01-01

350

La biodiversidad como recurso estratégico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Con los nuevos desarrollos y avances ocurridos en los últimos años, vinculados al conocimiento genético, que motivaron que se desarrollara la lectura e interpretación del genoma humano, y que detonaron todo un sin fin de estudios (que se venia realizando a desde tiempos atrás), en los seres vivos del planeta principalmente animales y plantas, posicionaron a la biodiversidad de todo

Edgar Talledos Sánchez

2007-01-01

351

Down-regulation of P-gp expression and function after Mulberroside A treatment: Potential role of protein kinase C and NF-kappa B.  

PubMed

P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. Mulberroside A (Mul A) is one of the main bioactive constituents of Sangbaipi, the dried root-bark of Morus alba L. (white mulberry), which is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Mul A treatment on mRNA expression and protein expression of P-gp in the Caco-2 cells by real-time qPCR and Western blot analysis. The effect of Mul A treatment on the function of P-gp in vitro and in vivo was assessed by Rho123 transport assay and a pharmacokinetic study. The potential roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in the expression regulation of P-gp after Mul A treatment were also investigated. The results revealed that Mul A treatment significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells after treatment with Mul A (5-20?M). Furthermore, Mul A treatment displayed apparently inhibitory effect on the function of P-gp both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, activation of PKC activity and NF-?B nuclear translocation were observed in the presence of Mul A, which suggested that PKC and NF-?B might play crucial roles in Mul A-induced suppression of P-gp. Our study demonstrated that Mul A treatment could down-regulate P-gp expression and function accompanied by the activation of PKC and NF-?B, and this should be taken into consideration in potential herb-drug interactions when Mul A or M. alba are co-administered with other drugs transported by P-gp. PMID:24530447

Li, Yuhua; Huang, Ling; Zeng, Xuezhen; Zhong, Guoping; Ying, Mengjia; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

2014-04-25

352

A field study on solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment parameters along a vertical canopy gradient of four tree species in an urban environment.  

PubMed

To better understand the potential uses of vegetation indices based on the sun-induced upward and downward chlorophyll fluorescence at leaf and at canopy scales, a field study was carried out in the city of Valencia (Spain). Fluorescence yield (FY) indices were derived for trees at different traffic intensity locations and at three canopy heights. This allowed investigating within-tree and between-tree variations of FY indices for four tree species. Several FY indices showed a significant (p < 0.05) and important effect of tree location for the species Morus alba (white mulberry) and Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm). The upward FY parameters of M. alba, and the upward to downward ratios at 687 and 741 nm for both species, were significantly related to tree location. It was found that not the total chlorophyll (Chl) content, but rather the Chl a/b ratio showed the strongest correlations with several of the indices applied. Chl a/b was lowest at the bottom level of the highest traffic intensity location for both species due to an increased Chl b, indicating a larger light harvesting complex related to Photosystem II (LHCII) as a response to limiting light. The leaf deposits from traffic observed at this sampling location possibly led to a shading effect, resulting further in an adaptive response of the photosynthetic system and subsequent difference of FY indices. This study therefore indicated the importance of the size of LHCII on the fluorescence emission, observed under different traffic generated pollution conditions. PMID:23895782

Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Alonso, Luis; Verrelst, Jochem; Hermans, Inge; Valcke, Roland; Veroustraete, Frank; Moreno, José; Samson, Roeland

2014-01-01

353

Structure of the molybdenum sulfide phase in carbon-supported Mo and Co-Mo sulfide catalysts as studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The structure and dispersion of the active phase present in carbon-supported Mo and Co-Mo sulfide catalysts were studied by means of Mo K-edge EXAFS. In situ EXAFS measurements were carried out at liquid N{sub 2} temperature on freshly sulfided (at 673 K) catalysts. Due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the experimental data, detailed information about the structural parameters of the active phase could be obtained. The catalysts probably consist of small MoS{sub 2}-like particles with an average local ordered structure of 5-6 Mo atoms (Mo/C) and 7-8 Mo atoms (Co-Mo/C). Comparison with literature data shows that the MoS{sub 2} dispersion in these carbon-supported catalysts is probably as good as in their alumina-supported counterparts. A detailed EXAFS data analysis shows the presence of carbon neighbors next to the Mo atoms in both catalysts with a Mo-C coordination distance of 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 {angstrom}.

Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Prins, R.; de Beer, V.H.J.; Koningsberger, D.C. (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1990-05-03

354

Thermal effects on Co/Mo2C multilayer mirrors studied by soft x-ray standing wave enhanced photoemission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here is presented the spectroscopic study of the evolution of the first buried interfaces of a B4C capped Co/Mo2C multilayer mirror induced by thermal treatment up to 600°C. This kind of study is typically performed to simulate the response of multilayer optics working in extreme conditions, as for instance when irradiated by new high brilliance sources as Free Electron Lasers. In fact, the efficiency of multilayers is related to the optical contrast between the alternating high and low density layers, and then to the degree of interdiffusion and the creation or evolution of interface compounds. The analysis has been performed at the Co L23 edge with different soft x-ray spectroscopic techniques including diffuse and specular reflectivity, total electron and fluorescent yield at the BEAR beamline at Elettra (Trieste) (http://www.elettra.trieste.it/elettra-beamlines/bear.html). The presentation is focused on the spectroscopic results obtained by soft x-ray standing wave enhanced photoemission (XSW) from the Mo 3d, B 1s, C 1s, O 1s core levels by using a photon energy close to the Co L23 edge and corresponding to the first Bragg peak of the multilayer. The experimental results have been compared with simulations to obtain information both on the chemical state (e.g. oxidation state) and interface morphology in terms of profiles of distribution of elements and interdiffusion of B, oxidized B and C in the interface region. In summary, it is possible to conclude in favour of a good stability of the multilayer in the investigated temperature range, as confirmed by the good performance in terms of reflectivity. These results confirm the usefulness of XSW for this kind analysis of multilayer optics.

Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mahne, N.; Nannarone, S.; Jonnard, P.; Le Guen, K.; Yuan, Y.-Y.; André, J.-M.; Wang, Z.-S.; Li, H.-C.; Zhu, J.-T.

2013-05-01

355

Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

356

Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study. PMID:16497459

Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Dih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsien

2006-07-19

357

Flavonoids from the cocoon of Rondotia menciana.  

PubMed

Two flavonol glycosides along with four known flavonoids were isolated from the cocoon of the mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae: Bombycinae), a closely related species of the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori, both of which feed on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba). The two glycosides were characterized as quercetin 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-galactopyranosyl-(1?3)-?-d-galactopyranoside, based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The flavonol galactosides found in the cocoon were not present in the host plant, nor in the cocoon of the silkworm, B. mori. Notably, flavonol glucosides, which are the main constituents of cocoon flavonoids in B. mori mori, were not found in the R. menciana cocoon. The present result strongly suggests that R. menciana is quite unique in that they predominantly use an UDP-galactosyltransferase for conjugation of dietary flavonoids, whereas UDP-glucosyltransferases are generally used for conjugation of plant phenolics and xenobiotics in other insects. PMID:23830693

Hirayama, Chikara; Ono, Hiroshi; Meng, Yan; Shimada, Toru; Daimon, Takaaki

2013-10-01

358

Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.

Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

359

Mulberroside a protects against ischemic impairment in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A is a natural polyhydroxylated stilbene compound present at relatively high abundance in the roots and twigs of Morus alba L. It is known for its nephroprotective, hypoglycemic, and antidiabetic effects. Because its metabolite, oxyresveratrol, possessed purported anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we proposed that mulberroside A may elicit neuroprotective effects that can be used in the treatment of brain ischemic injury. Therefore, we decided to investigate the pharmacological properties of mulberroside A in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R), evaluating its ability to counteract the hypoxia-ischemia impairment. The results showed that mulberroside A elicited neuroprotective effects comparable to nimodipine. The mechanistic studies showed that mulberroside A decreased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 and inhibited the activation of NALP3, caspase-1, and nuclear factor-?B and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, exhibiting anti-inflammatory antiapoptotic effects. Our results also further demonstrate that the proinflammatory cytokines of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? are promising targets for treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. Although further investigation is required for its development, all of these findings led us to speculate that mulberroside A is a candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke, which would act as a multifactorial neuroprotectant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24687774

Wang, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Zhong; Li, Gui-Cai; Shi, Yun-Wei; Li, Jian-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Fei; Liang, Xin-Miao

2014-07-01

360

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity.  

PubMed

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others. PMID:22895104

Goud, Prashanth B; Kachole, Manvendra S

2012-10-01

361

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

362

Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

2009-10-01

363

Comparison of dry, wet and microwave digestion methods for the multi element determination in some dried fruit samples by ICP-OES.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was used to investigate the level of trace metals (Ba, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr and Fe) in some dried fruits (Prunus domestica L., Ficus carica L., Morus alba L., Vitis vinifera L., Prunus armeniaca L., and Malus domestica) samples from Turkey. Trace elements were determined by ICP-OES after dry, wet and microwave digestion methods in dried fruit samples. Validation of the proposed method was carried out by using a NIST-SRM 1515-Apple Leaves certified reference material. Element concentrations in dried fruit samples were 0.33-1.77 (Ba), 0.12-0.54 (Cd), 0.25-1.03 (Co), 0.45-2.30 (Cr), 0.43-2.74 (Cu), 0.56-4.87 (Mn), 0.61-2.54 (Ni), 0.40-2.14 (Pb), 2.16-6.54 (Zn), 0.83-12.02 (Al), 11.82-40.80 (Fe) and 0.16-6.34 (Sr) ?g/g. The analytical parameters show that the microwave oven digestion procedure provided best results as compared to the wet and dry digestion procedures. The results were compared with the literature values. PMID:21843582

Altundag, Huseyin; Tuzen, Mustafa

2011-11-01

364

Mulberry leaf extract reduces postprandial hyperglycemia with few side effects by inhibiting ?-glucosidase in normal rats.  

PubMed

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extract (MLE) was investigated as a potent plant-derived ?-glucosidase inhibitor with low ?-amylase inhibitory activity. MLE was prepared by heating in an autoclave at 121 °C for 15 minutes, and its in vitro and in vivo antihyperglycemic activities were investigated. The adverse side effects of MLE were analyzed by measuring the weight and volume of the cecum, stool color, starch content in the cecum, and the integrity of intestinal transporting capacity. The in vitro inhibitory activity of MLE on intestinal ?-glucosidase was potent and that on intestinal ?-amylase was very weak compared with acarbose. Sugar loading tests with starch, maltose, and sucrose showed that MLE may reduce postprandial increases in blood glucose by acting as an intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Feeding tests suggested that MLE may exhibit fewer adverse side effects than other ?-glucosidase inhibitors, such as abdominal flatulence and meteorism, which are attributed to the impaired digestion of starch by strong inhibition of intestinal ?-amylase. These results suggest that MLE could be used in the development of pharmaceutical foods to control the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients by inhibiting intestinal ?-glucosidase with reduced side effects. PMID:21631361

Kim, Gyo-Nam; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

2011-01-01

365

Hypolipidemic effect of flavonoids from mulberry leaves in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of the total flavonoids from mulberry leaves (MTF) in hyperlipidemic mice. The total flavonoids have been isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and purified by macroporous resins. After that, the content of MTF is 581.7 mg g-1 in dried product. The hypolipidemic effect of MTF has been evaluated in triton WR-1339 (400 mg kg-1) induced hyperlipidemic mice. The beneficial effects of MTF on serum lipid levels are more significant at 12h post MTF administration than at 6h. The levels of TG, TC and LDL-C were remarkably reduced to 388, 257 and 189 mg 100 ml-1 in MTF (30 mg kg-1) and triton WR-1339 treated mice, compared with 540, 464 and 299 mg 100 ml-1, respectively, in group treated by triton WR-1339 only. The ratios of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C were increased to 0.42 and 0.57 post MTF (30 mg kg-1) administration, whereas these two ratios at the low levels of 0.33 and 0.52, respectively, in the reference group. These findings support a serum a lipid-favourable activity for mulberry leaf flavonoids. PMID:17392121

Chen, Jingjing; Li, Xiangrong

2007-01-01

366

The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.  

PubMed

In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

2004-01-01

367

Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River.  

PubMed

The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57%) for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80) were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72) and skin infections (0.73). There was a significant correlation (r (2) = 0.950; p < 0.01) between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds. PMID:24778701

Mussarat, Sakina; Abdel-Salam, Nasser M; Tariq, Akash; Wazir, Sultan Mehmood; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

368

Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River  

PubMed Central

The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57%) for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80) were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72) and skin infections (0.73). There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.950; p < 0.01) between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds.

Mussarat, Sakina; AbdEl-Salam, Nasser M.; Tariq, Akash; Wazir, Sultan Mehmood; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

369

Cytoprotective activity of mulberry leaf extract against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in rats.  

PubMed

Morus alba Linn. (MA), mulberry leaves have been used as a beverage for prevention of various diseases including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. Recently, the antioxidant activities of the MA leaf extract have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the MA leaf extract on free radical-induced cellular injury. In the in vitro models, the extract scavenged stable free radical (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DPPH) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 20.10 ± 0.78 ? g/ml. The extract protected the erythrocytes from free radical (2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; AAPH)-induced hemolysis with an IC(50) of 74.22 ± 9.87 ?g/ml. Additionally, the extract significantly prevented the gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats when given orally at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg/day for 3 consecutive days (p < 0.05; n=7). However, this effect was not found when the higher doses (1 and 2 g/kg/day) of the extract were tested. In conclusion, these results indicate that the MA leaf extract possesses the cytoprotective activity against free radical-induced cell injury. Therefore, when given at the appropriate dose range, the mulberry leaf may potentially be used as a food supplement in patients with certain diseases in which the oxidative stress-induced cellular injury is pathologically involved. PMID:23261743

Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

2013-01-01

370

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

371

Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.  

PubMed

Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

2007-04-01

372

The protection of 4,4'-diphenylmethane-bis(methyl) carbamate from Cortex Mori on advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial dysfunction: via inhibiting AGE formation or blocking AGEs-RAGE axis?  

PubMed

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications. Our previous study found that a novel compound 4,4'-diphenylmethane-bis(methyl) carbamate (CM1) from Cortex Mori (Morus alba L.) could attenuate AGE-induced endothelial dysfunction. The present study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of CM1 on AGE-induced endothelium damage. In binding experiments, fluorescence quenching and fluorescence polarization assays showed no significant difference or changes of AGEs on fluorescence intensity and polarization in the absence/presence of CM1. In AGE formation experiments, CM1 was incubated with AGE precursor compounds methylglyoxal (MGO), glyceraldehydes (Glycer) and glycolaldehyde (Glycol) in the formation system. However, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed no new conjugated compounds formed in the reaction system. The results of ELISA analysis also showed that CM1 did not inhibit the AGE formation. However, the pretreatment with CM1 could significantly decrease AGE or high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a ligand of RAGE)-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results suggested that CM1 might block the AGEs-RAGE signal transduction rather than inhibit AGE formation or bind to AGEs and change its structure to prevent endothelial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications. PMID:23769884

Feng, Liang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhang, Minghua; Gu, Junfei; Jia, Xiaobin; Tan, Xiaobin; Gao, Chenglin; Zhu, Quan

2013-09-01

373

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2012-02-01

374

La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) como plaga y vectora de virus en fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) as pest and vector of plant viruses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Resumen. La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci es una de las plagas más ampliamente distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo donde afecta más de 600 especies de plantas cultiva- das y silvestres. Los daños que causa se deben a diversos efectos del insecto en las plantas atacadas, como el debilitamiento de la planta por la extracción de nutrientes;

MARÍA ELENA CUÉLLAR; FRANCISCO J. MORALES

2006-01-01

375

Dinámica del sistema agroforestal de chagras como eje de la producción indígena en el Trapecio Amazónico (Colombia) Chagras' agroforestal system dynamics as the basis for indigenous production in the Amazonian Trapezium (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: La tradición indígena, la pertenencia a la cuenca Amazónica y la cercanía a un importante centro urbano como Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia) son factores que aportan elementos característicos al sistema de producción de Ciudad Jitoma y lo dife- rencian de otras formas de producción indígena y no-indígena, incluso dentro de la misma región ama- zónica. En el presente estudio se

Luz Amparo Triana-Moreno; Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez; Jesús García

376

Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)alba cortex (0.0625 mg/ml)=Siegesbeckia pubescens aerial part (0.0625 mg/ml)alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B. cereus in foods. PMID:23290233

Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2013-01-01

377

High-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, Morus indica cv. K2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.  

PubMed

Osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant PR-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. We report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (CaMV 35S) as well as a stress-inducible rd29A promoter. Southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. Real-time PCR analysis provided evidence for the expression of osmotin in the transgenic plants under both the constitutive and stress-inducible promoters. Transgenic plants with the stress-inducible promoter were observed to better tolerate salt and drought stress than those with the constitutive promoter. Transgenic plants when subjected to simulated salinity and drought stress conditions showed better cellular membrane stability (CMS) and photosynthetic yield than non-transgenic plants under conditions of both salinity and drought stress. Proline levels were very high in transgenic plants with the constitutive promoter relative to those with the stress-inducible promoter. Fungal challenge undertaken with three fungal species known to cause serious losses to mulberry cultivation, namely, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum dematium, revealed that transgenic plants with osmotin under control of the constitutive promoter had a better resistance than those with osmotin under the control of the stress-inducible promoter. Evaluation in next generation was undertaken by studying bud break in transgenic and non-transgenic plants under simulated drought (2% polyethylene glycol) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) conditions. The axillary buds of the selected transgenic lines had a better bud break percentage under stressed conditions than buds from non-transgenic mulberry lines. A biotic assay with Bombyx mori indicated that osmotin protein had no undesirable effect on silkworm rearing and feeding. We therefore conclude that 35S transgenic plants are better suited for both abiotic stress also biotic challenges (fungal), while the rd29A transgenic plants are more responsive to drought. PMID:20549349

Das, Manaswini; Chauhan, Harsh; Chhibbar, Anju; Rizwanul Haq, Qazi Mohd; Khurana, Paramjit

2011-04-01

378

Growth-phase-dependent gene expression profiling of poplar (Populus alba x Populus tremula var. glandulosa) suspension cells.  

PubMed

Complex sequences of morphological and biochemical changes occur during the developmental course of a batch plant cell culture. However, little information is available about the changes in gene expression that could explain these changes, because of the difficulties involved in isolating specific cellular events or developmental phases in the overlapping phases of cell growth. In an attempt to obtain such information we have examined the global growth phase-dependent gene expression of poplar cells in suspension cultures by cDNA microarray analysis. Our results reveal that significant changes occur in the expression of genes with functions related to protein synthesis, cell cycling, hormonal responses and cell wall biosynthesis, as cultures progress from initiation to senescence, that are highly correlated with observed developmental and physiological changes in the cells. Genes encoding protein kinases, calmodulin and proteins involved in both ascorbate metabolism and water-limited stress responses also showed strong stage-specific expression patterns. Our report provides fundamental information on molecular mechanisms that control cellular changes throughout the developmental course of poplar cell cultures. PMID:18251851

Lee, Hyoshin; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Park, So-Young; Sjödin, Andreas; Lee, Jae-Soon; Noh, Eun-Woon; Jansson, Stefan

2007-12-01

379

Secondary metabolites synthesis in transformed cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Potentilla alba L. as producents of radioprotective compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Chernobyl explosion, screening for new drugs of radioprotective activity has been initiat? ed in Ukraine. The European licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.,) is a pharmacologically important species which is rich in flavonoids and saponins, especially in the roots. To increase the pharmacological potential of this plant, the authors have obtained transformed licorice protoplasts with higher production of target compounds.

P. G. Kovalenko; V. P. Antonjuk; S. S. Maliuta

380

Did the Alba Patera and Syria Planum regions of Mars lose their lithospheric roots in convective overturn events?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective removal of part of the thermal boundary layer and its replacement with hotter asthenosphere has been proposed to explain the unusual tectonic setting of the Tibetan plateau on Earth: a topographically highstanding plateau abutting an active region of continental collision and yet undergoing extensional tectonics. A similar model, adapted to take account of the probable absence of plate tectonic

Eve Scott; Lionel Wilson

2003-01-01

381

Elevated CO2 and/or ozone modify lignification in the wood of poplars (Populus tremula x alba)  

PubMed Central

Trees will have to cope with increasing levels of CO2 and ozone in the atmosphere. The purpose of this work was to assess whether the lignification process could be altered in the wood of poplars under elevated CO2 and/or ozone. Young poplars were exposed either to charcoal-filtered air (control), to elevated CO2 (800 ?l l?1), to ozone (200 nl l?1) or to a combination of elevated CO2 and ozone in controlled chambers. Lignification was analysed at different levels: biosynthesis pathway activities (enzyme and transcript), lignin content, and capacity to incorporate new assimilates by using 13C labelling. Elevated CO2 and ozone had opposite effects on many parameters (growth, biomass, cambial activity, wood cell wall thickness) except on lignin content which was increased by elevated CO2 and/or ozone. However, this increased lignification was due to different response mechanisms. Under elevated CO2, carbon supply to the stem and effective lignin synthesis were enhanced, leading to increased lignin content, although there was a reduction in the level of some enzyme and transcript involved in the lignin pathway. Ozone treatment induced a reduction in carbon supply and effective lignin synthesis as well as transcripts from all steps of the lignin pathway and some corresponding enzyme activities. However, lignin content was increased under ozone probably due to variations in other major components of the cell wall. Both mechanisms seemed to coexist under combined treatment and resulted in a high increase in lignin content.

Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Tozo, Koffi; Pollet, Brigitte; Maillard, Pascale; Huber, Francoise; Priault, Pierrick; Banvoy, Jacques; Gross, Patrick; Dizengremel, Pierre; Lapierre, Catherine; Perre, Patrick; Cabane, Mireille

2012-01-01

382

Photodegradation product of sulcotrione and the physiological response of maize ( Zea mays) and white mustard ( Sinapis alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the strategies for decreasing the consumption of herbicides consists in improving their uptake and efficiency. It was suggested that the photodegradation of herbicides due to sunlight results in a greater demand of herbicides to be introduced into the environment in order to ensure the plant protection activity. Moreover, an ecotoxicological effect of the photoproducts needs to be clarified.

Jaroslaw Wiszniowski; Alexandra Ter Halle; Claire Richard; Adnane Hitmi; Gérard Ledoigt

2009-01-01

383

Potential of Borago officinalis , Sinapis alba L. and Phacelia boratus for Phytoextraction of Cd and Pb from Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal phytoextraction is a soil remediation technique, which makes use of plants in removing contamination from soil.\\u000a The plants must thus be tolerant to heavy metals, adaptable to soil and climate characteristics, and able to take up large\\u000a amounts of heavy metals. Most of the high biomass productive plants such as, maize, oat and sunflower are plants, which do

Michael W. H. Evangelou; Sandra Kutschinski-Klöss; Mathias Ebel; Andreas Schaeffer

2007-01-01

384

The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

2013-06-01

385

Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation  

SciTech Connect

Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.

1984-01-01

386

One body, many heads; the Cerberus of catalysis. A new multipurpose in-situ cell for XAS at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-purpose in-situ cell and its control system have been developed for synchrotron-based techniques as are X-Ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The cell is made of a stainless steel 'body' and three different exchangeable 'heads' to tackle different scientific areas that include solid-gas catalysis, solid-liquid catalysis and electrocatalysis. The different versions of the cell are herein described and their functionality is exemplified by some case studies.

Guilera, G.; Rey, F.; Hernández-Fenollosa, J.; Cortés-Vergaz, J. J.

2013-04-01

387

Como Lo Hago Yo: Lipomas Medulares  

PubMed Central

Basados en la experiencia de 82 casos; en 5% se observaron anomalías pélvicas asociadas. En los menores de 3 años el motivo de consulta (85%) fue la tumoración. En los mayores de 3 años (42%) tenía problemas neurológicos. Solo el 24% preocupados por la tumoración. El objetivo de la cirugía es desanclar la médula y no remover la totalidad del lipoma. El lipoma de filum es el que es mas simple para operar. Aún cuando la escuela francesa propone operar solamente cuando hay síntomas favorezco cirugía preventiva. Favorezco una segunda cirugía si hay signos de anclaje postoperatorio, aún cuando observamos empeoramiento postoperatorio motor en 2.5% de los operados y urológico a largo plazo en 6% de los operados.

Portillo, Santiago

2014-01-01

388

Textile wastewater reuse in northern italy (COMO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive research programme has been carried out on advanced treatment of secondary effluents discharged by centralized activated sludge treatment plants fed on mixed textile\\/domestic effluents in order to produce a final effluent suitable for reuse in the textile factories. Activated carbon adsorption or membrane filtration (ranging from microfiltration to reverse osmosis) have been investigated at pilot plant scale in

A. Rozzi; F. Malpei; L. Bonomo; R. Bianchi

1999-01-01

389

Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected. We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans). This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17555327

Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Oita, Shigeru; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2007-07-11

390

Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its ?-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 ?g mL(-1)), CC (80 ?g mL(-1)), PG (374.56 ?g mL(-1)) and MA (480 ?g mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

2012-11-01

391

Screening of Nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition.  

PubMed

South-East Asian population is daily exposed to strong sunlight. As a result, the majority of population will have darker, ethnic skin. Moreover, many people suffer from dark spots, hyperpigmentation, which is considered to be a skin disorder and causes psychological disturbance. To treat dark spots, most of the population will still rely on traditionally used crude drugs, knowledge about which is transferred from generation to generation. Fifty-two crude drugs were selected based on the survey performed among local healers and beauticians of different ethnic origin. These crude drugs were screened for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, as tyrosinase inhibitors are becoming increasingly important as cosmetic and medicinal products, primarily to control hyperpigmentation. Among the tested crude drugs, methanolic extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Morus alba, Syzygium aromaticum, Citrus aurantifolia, Cypreae moneta, Punica granatum and Citrus aurantium, at the final concentration of 50 microg mL(-1), showed mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of 78.9%, 71.0%, 69.4%, 59.0%, 56.0%, 53.4 and 51.9%, respectively, with 91.4% inhibitory activity of kojic acid taken as positive control. To our knowledge, this is the first report that extracts of Cypreae moneta shell and Syzygium aromaticum flowering bud have tyrosinase inhibitory activity. These potent extracts were further evaluated at different concentration. The final concentration of the extracts in reaction mixtures was 50, 25 and 5 microg mL(-1) for the initial concentration of 1000, 500 and 100 microg mL(-1), respectively. They showed concentration-dependent inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase. Those extracts expressing relatively weak tyrosinase inhibitory activity may act through different inhibition pathway which is not based on tyrosinase activity. Further evaluation of the most potent tyrosinase inhibitors in in vivo conditions would be recommended. PMID:18822041

Adhikari, A; Devkota, H P; Takano, A; Masuda, K; Nakane, T; Basnet, P; Skalko-Basnet, N

2008-10-01

392

Isoprene emission from Indian trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 ?molm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 ?g g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (<1 ?g g-1 h-1), 6 species were low emitting (1 ? to <10 ?g g-1 h-1), 5 species were moderate emitting (10? to <25 ?g g-1 h-1), and 11 species were high isoprene emitting (?25 ?g g-1 h-1). Maximum isoprene emission rate (81.5 ?g g-1 h-1) was observed in the case of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. It was interesting to find that Citrus limon Linn., Citrus reticulata Linn., Citrus sinensis Linn., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., and Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 ?g g-1 h-1) in the present study.

Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

2003-12-01

393

Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans. Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine. Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the digestibility of newly developed saccharide materials evaluated by rat small intestinal enzymes can substitute for evaluation using human enzymes.

Oku, Tsuneyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Ogawa, Shigeharu; Sadamori, Naoki; Nakamura, Sadako

2011-01-01

394

Particle-associated contaminants in street dust, parking lot dust, soil, lake-bottom sediment, and suspended and streambed sediment, Lake Como and Fosdic Lake watersheds, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey of impaired water bodies in Fort Worth, Texas, reported elevated but variable concentrations of particle-associated contaminants (PACs) comprising chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace elements in suspended and bed sediment of lakes and streams affected by urban land use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Fort Worth, collected additional samples during October 2004 to investigate sources of PACs in the watersheds of two impaired lakes: Lake Como and Fosdic Lake. Source materials and aquatic sediment were sampled and analyzed for PACs. Source materials sampled consisted of street dust and soil from areas with residential and commercial land use and parking lot dust from sealed and unsealed parking lots. Aquatic sediment sampled consisted of bottom-sediment cores from the two lakes and suspended and streambed sediment from the influent stream of each lake. Samples were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, major and trace elements, organic carbon, grain size, and radionuclides.

Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Werth, Charles J.; Yang, Yanning

2006-01-01

395

A indústria petroquímica no próximo século: como substituir o petróleo como matéria-prima?  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN THE NEXT CENTURY: HOW TO REPLACE PETROLEUM AS RAW MATERIAL. The world reserves of petroleum will finish in about 100 years. For a tropical country like Brazil, biomass will be the natural substitute for petroleum. For the best utilization of biomass, it first needs to be separated into its principal components: cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignins, vegetable and

Ulf Schuchardt; Marcelo L. Ribeiro; Adilson R. Gonçalves

2001-01-01

396

Barn owl (Tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis) and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9%) and Necromys lasiurus (6.7%) being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection. PMID:19197490

Magrini, L; Facure, K G

2008-11-01

397

EFFECTS OF Artemisia sieberi Besser (A. herba-alba) ON HEART RATE AND SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Artemisia sieberi Besser on heart rate and some hematological values in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. It was found that water extract of Artemisia sieberi produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after 10 days of treatment; however, there was a significant (p<0.05)

Kamal Mansi; Jamil Lahham

398

Etude de l’effet androgénique de l’extrait au méthanol de Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) sur la fonction de reproduction du rat mâle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume  Basellaalba est une plante utilisée par les tradipraticiens de la province de l’Ouest Cameroun pour lutter contre l’asthénie sexuelle\\u000a et l’infertilité chez l’homme. Les travaux antérieursin vitro ont prouvé l’activité androgénique de son extrait au méthanol. Le présent travail porte sur la confirmationin vivo de son effet androgénique chez le rat mâle adulte. Cet extrait est quotidiennement administré (par gavage)

Edouard Akono Nantia; Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Thomas K. Monsees; Serge Carreau

2007-01-01

399

Foliar retention of 15N-nitrate and 15N-ammonium by red maple (Acer rubrum) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves from simulated rain  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nitrogen cycling in forests indicate that trees assimilate atmospheric nitrate and ammonium and that differences between atmospheric deposition to the forest canopy and deposition measured in forest throughfall can be attributed to the removal of these ions from rain by tree leaves. Red maple and white oak leaves were exposed to artificial rain solutions (pH 4.1) containing {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate (3.5 {micro}g N/ml) or ammonium (2.2 {micro}g N/ml). At two time intervals after exposure (2 hr and 2 days) an exposed leaf and a control (non-exposed) leaf were removed from replicate seedlings. Based on results from {sup 15}N analysis, most of the nitrate applied to tree leaves was removed by washing with water; the mean per cent removal ({+-} standard error, N = 4) was 87 {+-} 1 and 73 {+-} 4% of the {sup 15}NO-N Applied to red maple and white oak leaves, respectively. Relative retention of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}-N by the leaves was greater than that observed for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}-N. In red maple and white oak leaves, 58 {+-} 9 and 84 {+-} 7% (mean {+-} standard error, N = 4), respectively, of the applied ammonium was not removed by washing treatments. Our results show that the foliar uptake of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} from simulated rain by deciduous tree leaves is greater than that for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Greater retention of NH{sub 4}{sup +} than NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions by red maple and white oak leaves from simulated rainfall is consistent with field observations showing a preferential retention of ammonium from rainfall by forest canopies. As nitrogen chemistry and the relative importance of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere change in response to proposed emission reductions (and possibly climate change), an improved understanding of the fate of airborne nitrogen compounds in forest biogeochemical cycles will be necessary.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

1990-07-01

400

Investigation of Four Classes of Non-nodulating White Sweetclover (Melilotus alba annua Desr.) Mutants and Their Responses to Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between Rhizobiaceae and legumes is one of the best-studied interactions established between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plant develops root nodules in which the bacteria are housed, and atmospheric nitrogen is fixed into ammonia by the rhizobia and made available to the plant in exchange for carbon compounds. It has been hypothesized that this symbiosis evolved from

MICHELLE R. LUM; YING LI; THOMAS A. LARUE; R AKEFET DAVID-SCHWARTZ; YORAM KAPULNIK; ANN M. HIRSCH

2002-01-01

401

Feeding of the barn owl, Tyto alba with first record of the European free-tailed bat, Tadarida teniotis on the island of Ibiza (Spain, Balearics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . In the abandoned quarry of San Carlos (Ibiza, Balearics) prey remains of the barn owl were collected. A total of 6,977 identifiable bone remains from 2,767 individuals of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians was found. The spectrum of mammals clearly shows two main prey groups: mice (Mus domesticus, M. spretus: 39.4

Robert SOMMER; Hinrich ZOLLER; Dieter KOCK; Wolfgang BÖHME; Antje GRIESAU

402

Identification of Tyr74 and Tyr177 as substrate oxidation sites in cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase from Populus alba L.  

PubMed

Cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase (CWPO-C) has the capability to oxidize sinapyl alcohol, ferrocytochrome c, and synthetic lignin polymers, unlike most peroxidases that have been characterized in flowering plants, such as horseradish peroxidase and Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase A2. It has been suggested that the oxidation site is located on the CWPO-C surface, and homology modeling and chemically modified CWPO-C studies suggest that Tyr74 and/or Tyr177 are possible participants in the catalytic site. The present study clarifies the importance of these Tyr residues for substrate oxidation, using recombinant CWPO-C and recombinant mutant CWPO-C with phenylalanine substitution(s) for tyrosine. Such recombinant proteins, produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies, were successfully refolded to yield the active form, and purified recombinant protein solutions exhibited typical spectra of high-spin ferric protein and displayed H(2) O(2) -dependent oxidation of guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. Measurement of peroxidase activity with these guaiacyl and syringyl compounds as reducing substrates indicated that a single mutation, Y74F or Y177F, resulted in substantial loss of oxidation activity (? 40-60% and 82%, respectively). Also, over 95% of the oxidation activity was lost with a double mutation, Y74F/Y177F. These results indicated that Tyr74 and Tyr177, rather than the heme pocket, play a central role in the oxidation of these substrates. This is the first report of active residues on an enzyme surface being identified in a plant peroxidase. This study also suggests that sinapyl alcohol incorporation into lignin is performed by a peroxidase that generates Tyr radicals on its surface. PMID:22099451

Shigeto, Jun; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2012-01-01

403

In vivo effects of microcystins and complex cyanobacterial biomass on rats (Rattus norvegicus var. alba): changes in immunological and haematological parameters.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacteria represent a serious health and ecological problem in drinking and recreational waters worldwide. Some previous toxicological studies investigated effects of isolated microcystins on laboratory rodents including mice and rats. However, much less attention has been paid to more realistic exposure situations such as the effects of MCs accumulated in food. The objectives of the present study were to provide a simple model simulation of the food chain in order to evaluate impacts of microcystins (MCs) on rat immune and haematologicalparameters. Impacts of feeding experimental rats with a diet containing fish meat with and without microcystins and complex toxic biomass have been studied during a 28 day exposure. Red blood cell parameters (RBC counts, haematocrit values, MCH, MCV and MCHC) showed significant differences in experimental groups (p ? 0.05, p ? 0.01) in comparison with the control group. We also detected an immunomodulatory effect in the experimental groups. NK cells and ??+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in peripheral blood in the group exposed to isolated microcystin in the food. Significant change in the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells (increase of CD4+ and a drop in CD8+) was found in the group with added cyanobacterial biomass with low concentration of MCs. The greatest changes in lymphoid organs were observed in the same groups. There was an increase of spleen subpopulations of ??+ T lymphocytes as well as of IgM+ lymphocytes (B lymphocytes) and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Indeed, the modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ of peripheral lymphocytes was associated with similar changes in thymic lymphocytic subpopulations. In summary, food containing fish meat with considerable doses of microcystins (or toxic cyanobacterial biomass) induces significant changes in RBC parameters and influence preferably innate part of the immune system represented by NK cells and by gamma-delta T cells, which are known to play role as a bridge between adaptive and innate immune response. PMID:23831285

Palikova, Miroslava; Ondrackova, Petra; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Pikula, Jiri; Kohoutek, Jiri; Navratil, Stanislav; Blaha, Ludek; Kopp, Radovan

2013-10-01

404

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

405

Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele  

PubMed Central

En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo.

Portillo, Santiago

2014-01-01

406

Las líneas de aluminio neutro como diagnóstico cromosférico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se presenta un modelo atómico para el cálculo de las lí neas del Aluminio neutro que se forman en la cromósfera solar. En particular, se estudia la línea ? 3961 Å, que, por estar muy próxima a la lí nea H del Ca II y a H? es muy frecuentemente observada. Observaciones en esta lí nea obtenidas con el espectrógrafo a instalarse en el CASLEO, serán utilizadas para el estudio de fulguraciones solares.

Fernández Borda, R.; Mauas, P. J. D.

407

EL JUEGO COMO ESTRATEGIA DE APRENDIZAJE EN EL AULA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Games are widely recognized , without exemption of race, creed and ide- ology. Its origins are traced back to Greece civilization. The Helenic idea of the game appears in the epic of Homer and Hesiod, it was conceived as the notion of Physical power, then it becomes paidea as the innocent game of children. *Este trabajo ha sido financiado por

Carmen Minerva Torres

408

Como Planear Mi Vida = Make a Life for Yourself.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for teenagers about life planning is presented in parallel English and Spanish versions with a special focus on young Hispanics growing up in America. It discusses hopes and dreams that adolescents may have and gives tips for reaching goals. A sentence completion exercise is included to help readers set goals. Four important goals for…

Haffner, Debra; Casey, Sean

409

O FREEWARE HOT POTATOES E SEU POTENCIAL COMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to reflect about the production and implementation of interactive exercises created with the Hot Potatoes software in Foreign Language classes. These exercises were applied to High School students at Prieto Martinez State School in Curitiba. The activities were made available on a web site and the students accessed them in the school computer laboratory. The Hot Potatoes

FERRAMENTA DE APRENDIZAGEM; LENY GALLEGO DONDA

2007-01-01

410

COMO ENTENDER LOS ESTANDARES INTERNACIONALES DE INFORMACIÒN FINANCIERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Cada día que pasa, más países, más profesionales y más empresarios en el contexto global se interesan, estudian y aplican estándares internacionales de información financiera. En Colombia, estudiantes, profesores, profesionales y empresarios, también han venido acercándose al tema, muchos de ellos por necesidad, otros por curiosidad y otros para poder participar en las continuas disertaciones y confrontaciones que se

Helio Fabio Ramirez Echeverry; Luis eduardo Suarez Balaguera

2010-01-01

411

La inulina y derivados como ingredientes claves en alimentos funcionales  

Microsoft Academic Search

e - r e s ). SUMMARY. Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingre- dient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually

Lorena Madrigal; Elba Sangronis

2007-01-01

412

COMO: A UML-Based Component Development Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations have begun to consider implementing applications using reusable components. They envision that writing a component once and reusing it in many subsequent software systems will effectively amortize the development cost among all users. Recent technology advances such as JavaBeans\\/EJB, COM, CORBA, and others spur this interest. However, the systematic development process and practical instructions for building software components

Sang Duck Lee; Young Jong Yang; Eun Sook Cho; Soo Dong Kim; Sung Yul Rhew

1999-01-01

413

Understanding Your Child's Learning Differences = Entienda como aprende su hijo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who are bright and hard-working, yet find school a struggle, or children who can discuss things they have learned but whose written work is of surprisingly poor quality, might have learning differences that are hindering them from reaching their full potential. Some children are visual learners, others are auditory learners, and others…

Fielding, Elizabeth N.

414

Las técnicas GPS como herramienta en la gestión ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN El presente artículo describe el sistema GPS y sus aplicaciones de manera general y con relación a la gestión ambiental, Se hace referencia a estudios re- lativos a múltiples aplicaciones, estudios que ya se han realizado con un nota- ble éxito. De este artículo se desprende que el sistema GPS es totalmente via- ble en el campo y en

Roberto Rodríguez-Solano Suárez; Santiago Mancebo Quintana

415

Problematização como estratégia de educação nutricional com adolescentes obesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a public health issue with relevant social determinants in its etiology and where interventions with teenagers encounter com- plex biopsychological conditions. This study evaluated intervention in nutritional education through a problem-posing approach with 22 obese teenagers, treated collectively and individ- ually for eight months. Speech acts were collected through the use of word cards, observer recording, and tape-recording.

Érika Marafon Rodrigues; Maria Cristina Faber Boog

2006-01-01

416

A narrativa como uma técnica de pesquisa fenomenológica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrative as a phenomenological research technique.. The focus of this paper is the narrative as a modality of phenomenological research according to Walter Benjamin's conception. Using narratives, the author discusses the theoretical and methodological framework of phenomenology, based on heideggerian ontology and on the phenomenological and existential psychology. The purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that experience, as a

Elza Dutra

2002-01-01

417

Como Iniciar una Cooperativa (How to Start a Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a step-by step detailed guide to forming a cooperative, beginning with promotion, and going on to cover the following topics: The first meeting of potential members; work of the planning committee; second meeting of potential members; work of the ...

I. W. Rust

1966-01-01

418

Como Organizar una Cooperativa (How to Organize a Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets explain co-ops in general, co-ops as businesses, how co-ops succeed and how to form a co-op. Co-ops in the American Private Enterprise System compares co-ops with other businesses. The Business Co-op explains how a co-op can function as a p...

1971-01-01

419

Desulfurization of benzenethiol on Co?Mo(110) phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desulfurization of benzenethiol on Co-covered Mo(110) (?Co = 0.25–1.3 ML) produces benzene, H2 and adsorbed carbon and sulfur. Benzene is formed via adsorbed phenyl thiolate, which is identified by X-ray photoelectron and electron energy loss spectroscopies. Benzene production is attributed to reaction on Co, since it is evolved at a temperature well below that required for sulfur-induced aggregation of

D. A. Chen; C. M. Friend; H. Xu

1998-01-01

420

In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.  

PubMed

Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 ?g/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 ?g/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 ?g/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated a dose-dependent effect on larval feeding with respective IC50 estimates (mean±s.e.) of 0.015 mg/ml ±0.001 and 3.465 mg/ml ±0.144, effects which were partly reversed by the inclusion of either the tannin inhibitor polyethylene glycol or the lectin inhibitor Fetuin. These studies demonstrate that plant lectins can have an inhibitory effect on the feeding behaviour of first stage larvae of ovine GIN in vitro. Moreover they also provide novel evidence that lectins may contribute to the anthelmintic properties of some tropical forage plant extracts, such as G. sepium and L. leucocephala. PMID:22130336

Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

2012-05-25

421

A Freeze-Fracture Study Designed to Clarify the Mechanisms of Freezing Injury Due to the Freezing-Induced Close Apposition of Membranes in Cortical Parenchyma Cells of Mulberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing injury in cortical parenchyma cells of mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz. cv. Goroji) collected in autumn and spring was closely associated with the occurence of ultrastructural changes in the plasma membrane, namely, formation of aparticulate domains (APD) with accompanying \\

Seizo Fujikawa

1995-01-01