Sample records for morus alba como

  1. Antiviral flavonoids from the root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; He, Zhen-Dan; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai; Xu, Hong-Xi; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2003-04-01

    A prenylated flavonoid, moralbanone, along with seven known compounds kuwanon S, mulberroside C, cyclomorusin, eudraflavone B hydroperoxide, oxydihydromorusin, leachianone G and alpha-acetyl-amyrin were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. Leachianone G showed potent antiviral activity (IC(50) = 1.6 microg/ml), whereas mulberroside C showed weak activity (IC(50) = 75.4 microg/ml) against herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:12648543

  2. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:25467154

  3. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

  4. Chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts as NF-?B inhibitors from Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thi Xuan Binh; Tran, Thi Hong Hanh; Dan, Thi Thuy Hang; Chau, Van Minh; Hoang, Thanh Huong; Nguyen, Tien Dat

    2012-01-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels-Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10?-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.?B activity with the IC?? values of 4.65 and 7.38 ?M, respectively. PMID:22587800

  5. Chalcone-derived Diels–Alder adducts as NF-?B inhibitors from Morus alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thi Xuan Binh Phung; Thi Hong Hanh Tran; Thi Thuy Hang Dan; Van Minh Chau; Thanh Huong Hoang; Tien Dat Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical fractionation of the methanol extract of the Morus alba root barks led to the isolation of two chalcone-derived Diels–Alder adducts (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated as kuwanon J 2,4,10?-trimethyl ether (1) and kuwanon R (2) by means of spectroscopic methods. Both compounds strongly inhibited nuclear transcription factor.?B activity with the IC50 values of 4.65 and

  6. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

  7. Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.V.; Kawale, L.A.; Nade, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect. PMID:21264159

  8. Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

  9. [Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2012-07-01

    A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

  10. Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dormancy and spring burst of lateral buds on stems of low-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) T. Suzuki acrotonic form, in which only a few upper buds grow out to form branches (Suzuki et al., 1988). In contrast, the majority of the buds of 1 yr old stems, including the basal buds, burst into growth almost simultaneously

  11. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

  12. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants. PMID:25647798

  13. Iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel for biosorption of Co(II): biosorption properties and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298-328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

  14. Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220?g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300?mg·kg?1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

  15. Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

  16. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Yeon; Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Jo, Yang Hee; Mo, Eun Jin; Yang, Hyo Hee; Song, Dae Hye; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae) have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 ?g GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 ?g GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:26007176

  17. Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kang, Young Min; Jin, Wen Yi; Sung, Yoon-Young; Choi, Goya; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68-12.7, 0.69-9.86 and 0.05-3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Imran; Hamayun Khan; Mohibullah Shah; Rasool Khan; Faridullah Khan

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose,\\u000a the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash,

  19. Flavonoid 4?-O-Methylkuwanon E from Morus alba Induces the Differentiation of THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bárta, Tomáš; Keltošová, Stanislava; Trnová, Pavlína; Müller Závalová, Veronika; Šmejkal, Karel; Fedr, Radek; Sou?ek, Karel; Hampl, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Aims. In this work we studied cytodifferentiation effects of newly characterized prenyl flavonoid 4?-O-methylkuwanon E (4ME) isolated from white mulberry (Morus alba L.). Main Methods. Cell growth and viability were measured by dye exclusion assay; cell cycle and surface antigen CD11b were monitored by flow cytometry. For the cytodifferentiation of cells the NBT reduction assay was employed. Regulatory proteins were assessed by western blotting. Key Findings. 4ME induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of THP-1 cells, which was not accompanied by toxic effect. Inhibition of cells proliferation caused by 4ME was associated with the accumulation in G1 phase and with downregulation of hyperphosphorylated pRb. Treatment with 4ME led to significant induction of NBT-reducing activity of PMA stimulated THP-1 cells and upregulation expression of differentiation-associated surface antigen CD11b. Our results suggest that monocytic differentiation induced by 4ME is connected with up-regulation of p38 kinase activity. Significance. Our study provides the first evidence that 4ME induces the differentiation of THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells and thus is a potential cytodifferentiating anticancer agent. PMID:25737734

  20. Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

    2013-10-01

    Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

  1. Morus alba Accumulates Reactive Oxygen Species to Initiate Apoptosis via FOXO-Caspase 3-Dependent Pathway in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Bishayee, Kausik; Rahman, Ataur; Hong, Jae Seung; Lim, Soon-Sung; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2015-07-31

    Morus alba root extract (MARE) has been used to treat hyperglycaemic conditions in oriental medicine. Here, we studied whether MARE possesses a cytotoxic effect on neuroblastoma. To check the cytotoxicity generated by MARE was whether relatively higher against the cancer cells rather than normal cells, we chose a neuroblastoma cell line (B103) and a normal cell line (Rat-2). A CCK assay revealed that MARE (10 ?g/ml) reduced cell viability to approximately 60% compared to an untreated control in B103 cells. But in Rat-2 cells, MARE induced relatively lower cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of MARE, we used flow cytometry combined with immunoblot analyses. We found that MARE-treatment could accumulate ROS and depolarize mitochondria membrane potential of B103 cells. Further treatment with MARE in B103 cells also could damage DNA and induce apoptosis. An expression study of p-Akt also suggested that there was a reduction in cellular proliferation and transcription along with the process of apoptosis, which was further evidenced by an increase in Bax and cleaved-caspase 3 activity. Together, our findings suggest that MARE produces more cytotoxicity in cancer cells while having a relatively attenuated effect on normal cells. As such, MARE may be a safer option in cancer therapeutics, and it also shows potential for the patients with symptoms of hyperglycemia and cancer. PMID:25921607

  2. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy. PMID:24587809

  3. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-02-11

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

  4. Effect of Kuwanon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba on ovalbumin-induced allergic response in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

    2014-11-01

    The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10?mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7?days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. PMID:25116225

  5. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2?) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin.

  6. Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory effect of UP3005, a botanical composition Containing two standardized extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation exhibited by clinical symptoms such as joint swelling, synovitis, and inflammatory pain. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes detrimental gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. As a result, the need for evidence based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is a necessity. Materials and Methods: Describe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP3005, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, abdominal constriction (writhing’s) and ear swelling assays in mouse with oral dose ranges of 100–400 mg/kg. Results: In vivo, statistically significant improvement in pain resistance, and suppression of paw edema and ear thickness in animals treated with UP3005 were observed compared with vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Ibuprofen was used a reference compound in all the studies. In vitro, enzymatic inhibition activities of UP3005 were determined with IC50 values of 12.4 ?g/ml, 39.8 ?g/ml and 13.6 ?g/ml in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1), COX-2 and lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity assay, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP3005, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with balanced dual COX-LOX inhibition activity, could potentially be used for symptom management of OA.

  7. Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients. PMID:19602243

  8. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

  9. Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

  10. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePLUS

    ... benign) skin condition affecting children. It appears as light-colored patches, especially on the cheeks. Although the condition typically lasts 1 year or more without treatment, pityriasis alba usually resolves ...

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Shah, Mohibullah; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Faridullah

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and niacin (vitamin B(3)) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)-(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)-(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. PMID:21121077

  12. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

  13. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0±0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92°C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. PMID:26005139

  14. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Aithisg Bhliadhnail Coilltearachd na h-Alba

    E-print Network

    Aithisg Bhliadhnail Ùghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail 2007-2008 #12;Ùghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail 2007-08 1 | Ùghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail Leasachadh coimhearsnachd 11 Ruigsinneachd agus slàinte 14 Càileachd na h-àrainneachd 17 Bith-iomadachd 19 Mu

  16. Phenotypic Divergence in Mulberry (Morus spp.) Germplasm Collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Banerjee; S. Roychoudhury; H. Sau; B. K. Das; A. K. Saha; B. Saratchandra; A. K. Bajpai

    2011-01-01

    To improve mulberry foliage productivity, identification of suitable genes related to agronomically important traits in the available mulberry germplasm is essential. Twenty-five indigenous mulberry accessions representing five different species of Morus from seven diverse parts of the India were evaluated via principal component analysis (PCA) for 22 aboveground and underground morphometric traits and silkworm cocoon yield during 2002–2005 in the

  17. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Morus bombycis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duc Manh Hoang; Tran Minh Ngoc; Nguyen Tien Dat; Do Thi Ha; Young Ho Kim; Hoang Van Luong; Jong Seog Ahn; KiHwan Bae

    2009-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform-soluble fraction of Morus bombycis, using an in vitro PTP1B inhibitory assay led to the identification of three 2-arylbenzofurans, albafuran A (1), mulberrofuran W (2) and mulberrofuran D (6), along with three chalcone-derived Diels–Alder products, kuwanon J (3), kuwanon R (4), and kuwanon V (5). Compounds 1–6 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against PTP1B with IC50 values

  19. Foraging of a coastal seabird: flight patternsand movementsof breeding Cape gannets Morus capensis

    E-print Network

    Altwegg, Res

    the energeticadvantagesof returningwith the prevailing wind. Keywords.Cape gannet,feeding,Morus capenslsForaging of a coastal seabird: flight patternsand movementsof breeding Cape gannets Morus capensis of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa: now School of Natural Sciences. Unitec, New

  20. Chalcone dimethylallyltransferase from Morus nigra cell cultures. Substrate specificity studies.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Alberto; Giardina, Bruno; Delle Monache, Giuliano; Rocca, Filippo; Silvestrini, Andrea; Tafi, Andrea; Botta, Bruno

    2004-01-16

    A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth. PMID:14741337

  1. Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

  2. Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate Alexandre Roulin*

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources Alexandre Roulin* , Mathias KÎlliker to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence; barn owl; begging; parent^o¡spring con£ict; sibling competition; Tyto alba 1. INTRODUCTION Models

  3. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

  4. Location of the transition zone of the Barn Owl subspecies Tyto alba alba and Tyto alba guttata (Strigiformes: Tytonidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Róbert MÁTICS; Gyula HOFFMANN

    2002-01-01

    The colouration of the underparts of the Barn Owl ranges in Europe from reddish-brown to white. This character, that shows a clinal variation, is thought to be a marker of subspecies identity. The subspecific identity or transitional state of a total 64 Barn Owl Tyto alba pairs was determined on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics. The present authors investigated

  5. Free and Bound Volatile Chemicals in Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Qing; Yang, Lili; Li, Jingming; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Mulberry (Morus atropurpurea Roxb.) is a popular and desirable fruit that is widely cultivated in China. Despite its popularity, the free volatile chemicals and glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs) of mulberry have been minimally studied. To this end, we have investigated these compounds in 4 mulberry cultivars via solid phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). A total of 55 free volatile chemicals and 57 GBVs were identified and quantified. In 3 of the cultivars ("YFS," "T10," and "D10"), the GBVs were found in higher amounts than their free counterparts, corresponding to a ratio of 1.2 to 1.8. The characteristic aromas were determined by their odor activity values (OAVs) and by generating an aroma series (AS). A total of 20 volatile compounds had OAVs ? 1.0. In particular, ethyl butanoate, hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-nonenal, and eugenol had relatively high OAVs and were considered to be the key aromas contributing to the mulberry flavor. Consequently, mulberry was characterized by a variety of herbaceous scents having a background of sweet, spicy, fruity, and floral notes. The free volatiles exhibited strong herbaceous notes, whereas the GBVs were responsible for the sweet and spicy qualities of the fruit. Based on our results, 2 cultivars ("YFS" and "D10") are proposed to be good candidates suitable for the further development of mulberry-based food products due to their complex and desirable aromas. PMID:25817411

  6. Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.

    PubMed

    He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2013-01-01

    Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

  7. Diversification of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36), a vegetatively propagated tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Vijayan; C. V. Nair; S. N. Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity among plants sprouted from seven year old clones of mulberry (Morus indica var. S36) was studied using molecular markers such as ISSR and RAPD. The clones showed significant variability in sex expression and the sprouting behavior. These changes were appeared after seven years of rigorous pruning and training (pruned once in every 3-4months). Genetic diversity analysis revealed significant

  8. Highly oxygenated sesquiterpenes in Artemisia alba Turra.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Danova, Kalina; Simmons, Luke; Wolfram, Evelyn; Meier, Beat; Riedl, Rainer; Evstatieva, Luba

    2015-02-01

    Ten new sesquiterpene alcohols of which seven germacranes, a eudesmane, a guaiane and an oplopane were isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia alba Turra. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectral methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and MS). In addition, the known 7-hydroxycadin-4-en-3-one, centaureidin and axillarin were found for the first time in the studied species. PMID:25541045

  9. Micropropagation of a fruit tree, Morus australis Poir. syn. M. acidosa Griff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; Y. Sahoo; P. K. Chand

    1996-01-01

    High frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in nodal explants collected between November to February from a 5 year old tree of Morus australis Poir syn. M. acidosa Griff. on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (1.0 mg\\/1). Incorporation of gibberellic acid (0.3 mg\\/l) along with BAP (1.0 mg\\/l) not only induced faster bud break from nodal

  10. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-Y. Sohn; K. H. Son; C.-S. Kwon; G.-S. Kwon; S. S. Kang

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the 18 prenylated flavonoids, which were purified from five different medicinal plants, was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution methods against four bacterial and two fungal microorganisms (Candida albicans, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus). Papyriflavonol A, kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D and sophoraisoflavanone A exhibited a good antifungal activity with

  11. In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

    1989-01-01

    Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

  12. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1*

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1* , Thomas W. Jungi2 , Hedi P that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black

  13. 2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

    E-print Network

    2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British at the northern limit of its distribution. The Barn Owl (Tyto alba pratincola) is classified as "uncommon to very

  14. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. PMID:20854669

  15. Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianling Ji; Guobing Lu; Yingping Gai; Huijv Gao; Baoyun Lu; Lingrang Kong; Zhimei Mu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013 Abstract Winter weather has a strong influence on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology season place constraints on Barn Owl reproduction. Keywords Climate Á Reproduction Á Tyto alba Á Weather

  17. J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 3. Tree density (stems ha-1) by

    E-print Network

    519 388 219 175 J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 3. Tree density (stems ha-1 walnut (Juglans nigra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) have 100 Survival(%) J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 4. Survival (% ± SE) by species

  18. Barn owls ( Tyto alba ) use accommodation as a distance cue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Wagner; Frank Schaeffel

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the role of ocular accommodation in the distance estimation during pecking in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Owls were trained to peck at pieces of food presented on a small platform (Fig. 2) while one eye was occluded to eliminate binocular distance cues (Fig. 1). The other eye was defocussed by spectacle lenses ( -4, -2, +2

  19. Temporal modulation transfer functions in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micheal L. Dent; Georg M. Klump; Christian Schwenzfeier

    2002-01-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) have evolved several specializations in their auditory system to achieve the high sensory acuity required for prey capture, including superior processing of interaural time differences and phase coding in the auditory periphery. Here, we tested whether barn owls are capable of high temporal resolution that may be a prerequisite for the accuracy in binaural processing. Temporal

  20. Der Stoffwechsel von Indolderivaten in Sinapis Alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schraudolf; F. Bergmann

    1965-01-01

    D,L-tryptophane is taken up by isolated segments of the hypocotyls of Sinapis alba against a concentration gradient. This process is inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Both observations suggest an active uptake process. The rate of absorption of the D-isomer is only 50% of that of the L-compound.

  1. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Anderson; J. M. Dohm; A. F. C. Haldemann; T. M. Hare; V. R. Baker

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess

  2. Meliloester, a new melilotic ester from Melilotus alba.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Rasheeda; Saba, Nikhat; Zahoor, Aqib; Summer, Shazia; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2012-01-01

    A new melilotic ester, meliloester [2-ethyl-hexyl-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) propionate], was isolated from the whole plant of Melilotus alba. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, including EI-MS, HR-MS, and UV, IR, 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies. PMID:22428247

  3. an interview with Richard Alba Extraordinary Lives: Patti Smith

    E-print Network

    Dennehy, John

    When racial boundaries fade an interview with Richard Alba Extraordinary Lives: Patti Smith What #12;FEATURES A MORE INTEGRATED AMERICA (FOR SOME) 8 In this interview, Distinguished Professor Richard JACKIE GLASTHAL KERRI LINDEN KC TROMMER BARRY DISMAN Director of Graphic Design DONALD CHERRY Graphic

  4. Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Khaled M.; Mostafa, Ashraf M.

    2011-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 ?U/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 ?U/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 ?M methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds. PMID:22145117

  5. Glucosinolate Content and Susceptibility for Insect Attack of Three Populations of Sinapis alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Hopkins; Barbara Ekbom; Lisa Henkow

    1998-01-01

    Sinapis alba is less susceptible to damage by insect pests than Brassica napus. We investigated the composition and distribution of glucosinolates in different plant parts in three populations of S. alba; two populations selected for low-seed-glucosinolate content and one commercial cultivar. We have assessed the susceptibility of low-seed-glucosinolate content populations of S. alba to four insect pests, a flea beetle,

  6. Evaluation of Anti –Inflammatory Activity of Eclipta alba in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Suresh; Sivakumar, T.; Chandrasekar, M.J.N.; Suresh, B.

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the plant of Eclipta alba (Family – Asteraceae) was evaluated using carrageenin, mediators such as histamine and serotonin induced paw oedema, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for their effect on acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats. Maximum inhibition (55.85%) was noted at the dose of 500 mg/kg after 3 hr of drug treatment in carrageenin induced paw oedema, whereas the Indomethacin (standard drug ) produced 61.30% of inhibition. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CEEA and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 49.7,41.5,22.1% and 53.48 % respectively. The results indicate the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Eclipta alba extract on animal models, which is compared with Indomethacin. PMID:22557164

  7. Directional hearing in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger B. Coles; Anna Guppy

    1988-01-01

    The acoustical properties of the external ear of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by measuring sound pressure in the ear canal and outer ear cavity. Under normal conditions, pressure amplification by the external ear reaches about 20 dB between 3–9 kHz but decreases sharply above 10 kHz. The acoustic gain curve of the outer ear cavity alone is

  8. Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric I. Knudsen; Masakazu Konishi

    1979-01-01

    1.We investigated the mechanisms by which the barn owl (Tyto alba) determines the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Our measure of localizing ability was the accuracy with which the owl oriented its head to a sound source.2.When localizing tonal signals, the owl committed the smallest errors at frequencies between 4 and 8 kHz. The azimuthal component of these

  9. Photometrische Messungen am Phytochromsystem von Senfkeimlingen ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Marmé

    1969-01-01

    The behavior of phytochrome has been investigated in hypocotyl tissue of the mustard seedling (Sinapis alba L.) as a function of destruction, “synthesis” and dark reversion (Pfr?Pr). A method has been developed to separate the 3 processes experimentally. The main results are the following:1.The kinetics under continuous red light ([P730]\\/[P]=0.8) (Fig. 2) can be explained on the basis of destruction

  10. Sesquiterpene lactones from Algerian Artemisia herba-alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Messai Laid; Mohamed-Elamir F. Hegazy; Ahmed A. Ahmed; Kalla Ali; Djaballah Belkacemi; Shinji Ohta

    2008-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the methylene chloride\\/methanol extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba afforded two new natural sesquiterpene lactones 1?,9?-diacetoxyeudesm-3-en-5?,6?,11?H-12,6-olide (1) and 1?,9?-diacetoxyeudesm-4-en-6?,11?H-12,6-olide (2). The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and HRMS.

  11. Fungicidal Activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAHMOUD A. SALEH; MOHAMED H. BELAL; GAMAL EL-BAROTY

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC\\/MS, GC\\/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds

  12. Fractal geometry of some Martian lava flow margins: Alba Patera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauhanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    Fractal dimension for a few lava flow margins on the gently sloping flanks of Alba Patera were measured using the structured walk method. Fractal behavior was observed at scales ranging from 20 to 100 pixels. The upper limit of the linear part of log(margin length) vs. log(scale) profile correlated well to the margin length. The lower limit depended on resolution and flow properties.

  13. (Abies alba Mill.) in the south-western

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge D. Muller; Takeshi Nakagawa; Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu; Mona Court-Picon; Christopher Carcaillet; Paul Roiron; Clement Boutterin; Adam A. Ali; Helene Bruneton; Universitede Montpellier

    Aim Previous studies have failed to reconstruct the regional post-glacial migration pattern of Abies alba in southern France. Based on the first exhaustive compilation of palaeoecological data in this region, we present the state-of-the-art and attempt to synthesize the available information concerning glacial refugia and post-glacial migration, and analyse the information with regard to climate and orography. Location South-western Alps

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Shahbudin; Taher, Muhammad; Susanti, Deny; Qaralleh, Haitham; Awang, Anis Fadhlina Izyani Bt

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba). Methods The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods against six microorganisms. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction with a series of solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in sequence of increasing polarity. Results Methanol extract appeared to be the most effective extract while n-hexane extract showed no activity. The antimicrobial activities were observed against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans appeared to be not sensitive to the concentrations tested since no inhibition zone was observed. E. coli (17.5 mm) appeared to be the most sensitive strain followed by S. aureus (12.5 mm) and B. cereus (12.5 mm). Conclusions From this study, it can be concluded that S. alba exhibits antimicrobial activities against certain microorganisms. PMID:23569943

  15. Extra-pair paternity, testes size and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    in the barn owl Tyto alba Alexandre Roulin, Wendt Mu¨ller, Lajos Sasva´ri, Cor Dijkstra, Anne-Lyse Ducrest and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 35: 492Á/500 in the barn owl Tyto alba in which coloration varies from reddish-brown to white. This trait is heritable

  16. Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996

    E-print Network

    Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996 I. Newton, I. Wyllie, and L. Dale1 Abstract.--During 1963-1996, 1,101 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) carcasses Owls (Tyto alba) breeding in Britain and some other parts of western Europe have declined during

  17. Venturia inaequalis-inhibiting Diels-Alder adducts from Morus root bark.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Judith M; Spitaler, Renate; Menz, Magdalena; Marschall, Klaus; Zelger, Roland; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Schneider, Peter; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-11-01

    In organic apple orcharding there is a continuous need for natural fungicides effective against Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, the causal agent of apple scab. In this study an in vitro assay is presented for determining the germination inhibitory potential of extracts and pure compounds. From a screening of plant extracts, the methanol extract of Morus root bark revealed distinct V. inaequalis inhibiting qualities, which were subjected to a bioguided fractionation. Among the isolated metabolites [moracins M (1), O/P (2), kuwanon L (3), and sanggenons D (4), B (5), G (6), O (7), E (8), and C (9)] all the Diels-Alder adducts (3-9) showed an antifungal activity with IC50 values between 10 and 123 microM. The in vitro activity of the most active fraction (A5, IC50 39.0 +/- 4.2 microg/mL) was evaluated in vivo, confirming a distinct antifungal activity against V. inaequalis for the tested natural material. PMID:17061817

  18. Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

  19. Species Variability for Fruit Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Abilities in Mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Shivashankara; S. H. Jalikop; T. K. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Fruits from five accessions of mulberry (Morussp.) representing Morus nigra, Morus lavigeta, and Morus alba were evaluated for ferric reducing antioxidant potential, diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability, total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid contents. In fresh fruits, higher antioxidant capacity was found in M. nigra followed by M. lavigeta and the lowest capacity was observed in M. alba.

  20. [Determination of trace elements in radix Paeoniae alba by microwave digestion-ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Xu, Run-Sheng; Mao, Cheng-Peng; Yu, Rui-Peng; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2008-03-01

    Microwave digestion technique was used in the decomposition of radix Paeoniae alba samples of different growing area, different growing time and before and after processing, and the contents of K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn and Fe were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results of the determination show that radix Paeoniae alba samples are rich in the trace elements. The RSDs of these elements were lower than 4%, and the recovery ratio ranged between 99% and 113%. The results revealed that the analytic method is sensitive and precise. The pattern recognition based on the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the measured trace elements of different radix Paeoniae alba samples. The PCA was useful in the classification of radix Paeoniae alba. This paper provides scientific basis for deeply studying the relation between the trace elements and the drug effect of radix Paeoniae alba. PMID:18536439

  1. Der Einfluss monochromatischer Strahlung auf das Längenwachstum des Hypocotyls und auf die Anthocyanbildung bei Keimlingen von Sinapis alba L. (=Brassica alba Boiss.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Mohr

    1957-01-01

    Summary a)Some photoreactions influencing the early stages of the development of mustard seedlings (Brassica alba Boiss.=Sinapis alba L.) were studied, using monochromatic radiation (400–800 m?) from a spectrograph.b)Anthocyanin formation is light-dependent in these seedlings and is controlled by two photoreactions. One of these photoreactions is governed by the well-known red-far-red-pigment system and is practically saturated after a very shor time

  2. The mosaic of ancestral karyotype blocks in the Sinapis alba L. genome.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew N; Parkin, Isobel A P; Lydiate, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    The organisation of the Sinapis alba genome, comprising 12 linkage groups (n = 12), was compared with the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype (AK) genomic blocks previously described in other crucifer species. Most of the S. alba genome falls into conserved triplicated genomic blocks that closely match the AK-defined genomic blocks found in other crucifer species including the A, B, and C genomes of closely related Brassica species. In one instance, an S. alba linkage group (S05) was completely collinear with one AK chromosome (AK1), the first time this has been observed in a member of the Brassiceae tribe. However, as observed for other members of the Brassiceae tribe, ancestral genomic blocks were fragmented in the S. alba genome, supporting previously reported comparative chromosome painting describing rearrangements of the AK karyotype prior to the divergence of the Brassiceae from other crucifers. The presented data also refute previous phylogenetic reports that suggest S. alba was more closely related to Brassica nigra (B genome) than to B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome). A comparison of the S. alba and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes revealed many regions of conserved gene order, which will facilitate access to the rich genomic resources available in the model species A. thaliana for genetic research in the less well-resourced crop species S. alba. PMID:21217804

  3. Tectonic histories between Alba Patera and Syria Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Hare, T.M.; Baker, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Syria Planum and Alba Patera are two of the most prominent features of magmatic-driven activity identified for the Tharsis region and perhaps for all of Mars. In this study, we have performed a Geographic Information System-based comparative investigation of their tectonic histories using published geologic map information and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimetry (MOLA) data. Our primary objective is to assess their evolutional histories by focusing on their extent of deformation in space and time through stratigraphic, paleotectonic, topographic, and geomorphologic analyses. Though there are similarities among the two prominent features, there are several distinct differences, including timing deformational extent, and tectonic intensity of formation. Whereas Alba Patera displays a major pulse of activity during the Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian, Syria Planum is a long-lived center that displays a more uniform distribution of simple graben densities ranging from the Noachian to the Amazonian, many of which occur at greater distances away from the primary center of activity. The histories of the two features presented here are representative of the complex, long-lived evolutional history of Tharsis. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy Expenditure of Free-Ranging Chicks of the Cape Gannet Morus capensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, René A; Mullers, Ralf H E; Meijer, Haro A J; Underhill, Les G

    2015-01-01

    The Cape gannet Morus capensis, a large fish-eating seabird, is endemic to southern Africa. To study the energetics of nestling growth, we used the doubly labeled water technique to measure field metabolic rate (FMR) of nestlings, from hatchings to large partly feathered chicks (n = 17) at Malgas Island, Saldanha Bay, South Africa. At the same time, the growth rate of a large sample of chicks was measured (n = 338). These data, together with literature values on resting metabolic rate and body composition, were used to construct and partition the nestling energy budget. Nestling FMR (kJ d(-1)) increased with body mass according to FMR = 1.23m(0.923), r(2) = 0.944. Mass-specific FMR (FMRratio; kJ d(-1) g(-3/4)) was independent of chick age (r(2) = 0.20, P > 0.05); mean mass-specific FMR was 4.11 ± 1.28, n = 17. Peak daily-metabolized energy (DME), which represents the maximum rate at which parents must supply their nestlings, occurred at age 71 d and was 2,141 kJ d(-1). Between the ages 51 and 92 d (43% of the fledging period), the DME of Cape gannet chicks was equal to or surpassed 90% of adult FMR at the nest. Energy demand during this period of peak DME represented 58% of the total metabolized energy, which was estimated at 150.1 MJ for an average chick during a 97-d period, from hatching to fledging. Sensitivity analysis of the energy budget indicated that the model was robust; the biggest source of error (±15%) was for the mass-FMR equation used in the model. PMID:26052637

  5. Über die Großgefieder-Mauser eines gekäfigten Paares der Schleiereule (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Piechocki

    1974-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Mauser des Großgefieders vonTyto alba wurde an 2 gekäfigten Nestgeschwistern in 5 auf das Geburtsjahr folgenden Jahren untersucht. Ein Mausercyklus dauerte 2 Jahre und läuft in 3 unterschiedlichen Phasen wie folgt ab:

  6. Reproductive Peformance of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at High Island, Texas

    E-print Network

    McInnes, Andrew

    2012-02-14

    Despite habitat perturbations and seasonal fluctuations in reproduction, many studies report no significant inter-annual variation in Great Egret reproductive performance. I examined the reproductive performance of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) for two...

  7. Alba shapes the archaeal genome using a delicate balance of bridging and stiffening the DNA

    PubMed Central

    Laurens, Niels; Driessen, Rosalie P.C.; Heller, Iddo; Vorselen, Daan; Noom, Maarten C.; Hol, Felix J.H.; White, Malcolm F.; Dame, Remus T.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Architectural proteins have an important role in shaping the genome and act as global regulators of gene expression. How these proteins jointly modulate genome plasticity is largely unknown. In archaea, one of the most abundant proteins, Alba, is considered to have a key role in organizing the genome. Here we characterize the multimodal architectural properties and interplay of the Alba1 and Alba2 proteins using single-molecule imaging and manipulation techniques. We demonstrate that the two paralogues can bridge and rigidify DNA and that the interplay between the two proteins influences the balance between these effects. Our data yield a structural model that explains the multimodal behaviour of Alba proteins and its impact on genome folding. PMID:23271660

  8. REGION, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ALBA COUNTY: TOWARDS A BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Keywords: Cultural heritage, Development strategy, Policy, Tourism. International Conference of TerritorialPAPERS ON REGION, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 103 ALBA COUNTY: TOWARDS A BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY BASED ON ITS CULTURAL HERITAGE Marian AITAI Executive Director aitaim

  9. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  10. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Niculau, Edenilson Dos Santos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26075292

  11. Die Bedeutung des Lichtsinnes für Aktivität und Raumorientierung der Schleiereule ( Tyto alba guttata Brehm)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Gerhard Erkert

    1969-01-01

    1.Research was done on the Barn-Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to discover how strongly its behavior is determined by optical information. The influence of light intensity on the behavior of the whole system, and the significance of visual perception when re-orientating, are the criterien of judgement.2.The activity phase of Tyto alba is during the darkness in an artificial light-darkness cycle. The

  12. THE FOOD HABITS OF THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA AT THREE SITES ON MADAGASCAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Goodman; Olivier Langrand; Christopher J. Raxworthy

    1993-01-01

    Goodman, S. M., Langrand, O. & Raxworthy, C. J. 1993. The food habits of the Barn Owl Tyro alba at three sites on Madagascar. Ostrich 64:160-171.Regurgitated food remains of the Barn Owl Tyro alba were collected within the rain forest of the Eastern Region of Madagascar (Andasibe and Manombo) and in the sub-arid thorn scrub of the Western Region (Beza

  13. Étude des relations microflore-microfaune: expériences sur Pseudosinella alba (Packard), Collembole mycophage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Ponge; M. J. Charpentié

    1981-01-01

    29 souches pures de champignons du sol ont été testées comme aliments pour Pseudosinella alba (Collembola). L'action sur le tapis mycélien a été notée et les déjections ont été étudiées au microscope photonique. L'effet de l'ingestion sur le pouvoir germinatif des conidies a été également mesuré. Comme résultat, il a été établi que Pseudosinella alba a un impact considérable sur

  14. Sex ratio in hybrids between Silene alba and Silene dioica: evidence for Y-linked restorers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Sex ratio in Silene alba is generally female biased, and the bias is influenced by Y-linked alleles that are polymorphic in natural populations. One interpretation of these alleles is that they enhance the production of males in female-biased populations, i.e. they are restorers. Two Silene species, S. alba and S. dioica, and their reciprocal hybrids were used to investigate the

  15. Chemical variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso essential oils from East Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Paolini; El Mokhtar El Ouariachi; Abdelhamid Bouyanzer; Belkheir Hammouti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Jean Costa; Alain Muselli

    2010-01-01

    Chemical compositions of 16 Artemisia herba-alba oil samples harvested in eight East Moroccan locations were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Chemical variability of the A. herba-alba oils is also discussed using statistical analysis. Detailed analysis of the essential oils led to the identification of 52\\u000a components amounting to 80.5–98.6 % of the total oil. The investigated chemical compositions showed significant

  16. Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

    2013-10-15

    The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

  17. Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more female-like

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more-individual fluctuations and their covariation with fitness-related traits. In barn owls (Tyto alba), individuals vary from

  18. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  19. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  20. Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.

    PubMed Central

    Roulin, A; Kölliker, M; Richner, H

    2000-01-01

    Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle contests over prey items to be delivered next by a parent. This 'sibling negotiation hypothesis' proposes that offspring use each others' begging vocalization as a source of information about their relative willingness to contest the next prey item delivered. In line with the hypothesis we found that (i) a nestling barn owl refrains from vocalization when a rival is more hungry, but (ii) escalates once the rival has been fed by a parent, and (iii) nestlings refrain from and escalate vocalization in experimentally enlarged and reduced broods, respectively. Thus, when parents are not at the nest a nestling vocally refrains when the value of the next delivered prey item will be higher for its nest-mates. These findings are the exact opposite of what current models predict for begging calls produced in the presence of the parents. PMID:10737402

  1. Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect of winter

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect Owls Tyto alba. This species shows pronounced inter-annual variation in population size (Taylor 1994 In the temperate zone, food availability and winter weather place serious constraints on European Barn Owl Tyto

  2. Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

    2011-01-01

    Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

  3. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  4. Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

  5. Mammalian multidrug resistance lipopentasaccharide inhibitors from Ipomoea alba seeds.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Morales, Sara; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon; Figueroa-González, Gabriela; Mendoza-García, Alma Delia; Lorence, Argelia; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

    2012-09-28

    As part of an ongoing project to identify inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, three new resin glycosides, albinosides I-III (1-3), were isolated from a CHCl(3)-soluble extract from the seeds of moon vine (Ipomoea alba). Their structures were established through NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as partially acylated branched pentasaccharides derived from three new glycosidic acids, named albinosinic acids A-C (4-6). The same oligosaccharide core formed by two D-quinovose, one D-glucose, and two L-rhamnose units was linked to either convolvulinolic or jalapinolic acid for 1 and 3, respectively. They were partially esterified with (2R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoic, acetic, or 2-methyl-2-butenoic acid. Compound 2 has two D-quinovose and three L-rhamnose units, linked to convolvulinolic acid, and its esterifying residues were characterized as two units of 2-methyl-2-butenoic acid. The aglycone lactonization site was located at C-2 of the terminal rhamnose unit (Rha) for 1, at C-3 of the terminal rhamnose unit (Rha') for 2, and at C-3 of the second saccharide unit (Glc) for 3. Reversal of multidrug resistance by this class of plant metabolites was also evaluated in vinblastine-resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7/Vin). The noncytotoxic compound 3 exerted the strongest potentiation effect of vinblastine susceptibility to over 2140-fold, while a moderate activity was observed for 1 (3.1-fold) and 2 (2.6-fold) at a concentration of 25 ?g/mL. PMID:22924480

  6. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

  7. Nonrandom pairing by male barn owls (Tyto alba) with respect to a female plumage trait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Roulin

    1999-01-01

    In socially monogamous species it is rare for females to be more intensely colored than males. The barn owl (Tyto alba) is one of the exceptions, as females usually exhibit more and larger black spots on the plumage. The evolution of sexual dimorphism in plumage traits is commonly assumed to be the result of sexual selection. I therefore examined the

  8. Agri-environment schemes and foraging of barn owls Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas P. Askew; Jeremy B. Searle; Niall P. Moore

    2007-01-01

    The barn owl Tyto alba has been in decline throughout much of its range largely as a consequence of loss of foraging habitat resulting from agricultural intensification. The recent introduction of agri-environment schemes in the UK has resulted in the reinstatement of substantial areas of rough grassland which may be of benefit to small mammals and their avian predators. In

  9. THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA IN THE NEGEV DESERT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MALI TORES; YORAM YOM-TOV

    2003-01-01

    Food remains left by predators, and pellets in particular, are a good source of informa- tion about species composition in a particular area. Such information is essential for research and conservation purposes. We report here on the composition of an assem- blage of barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets collected from the Holot Agur Nature Reserve located in the sand dunes

  10. Analysis of mammal remains from owl pellets ( Tyto alba), in a suburban area in Baja California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda; Natali Cárdenas; Lia Méndez

    2004-01-01

    We analysed 108 owl pellets of the barn owl, Tyto alba, collected daily in winter, from December 1998 to March 1999. Pellet analysis gave us the opportunity to study variation in daily diet relative to effects of lunar phases, and to evaluate owl preference for rodents in urban or rural areas. The nest was in a suburban area, 200m from

  11. Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

    1998-01-01

    The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

  12. Food supply differentially affects sibling negotiation and competition in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roulin

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to most birds, nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) vocalise not only when parents are at the nest but also in their absence. Calls produced in their absence have been shown to facilitate sibling negotiation over the impending food resource. Since nestlings vocalise more vigorously in the presence of parents, they may be calling not to negotiate resources but

  13. Delayed maturation of plumage coloration and plumage spottedness in the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Roulin

    1999-01-01

    Summary The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) varies in plumage from dark reddish-brown to white, and from heavily marked with black spots to immaculate. Males are commonly lighter coloured and less spotted than females. I assessed whether male and female Barn Owls delay the full expression of plumage coloration and spottedness to the second year of life. In Switzerland, I quantified

  14. Interspecific somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Brassica hirta ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Primard; F. Vedel; C. Mathieu; G. Pelletier; A. M. Chèvre

    1988-01-01

    Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and B. hirta (or Sinapis alba) is described. No cybrid plant with B. napus nucleus exhibiting cytoplasmic male sterility was recovered. Somatic hybrids were identified morphologically and, for some of them, by cytological observations. They were also characterised by Southern hybridization of nuclear rDNA. Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis showed that 2 plants out

  15. The development of protein and oil bodies in the seed of Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane A. Rest; J. G. Vaughan

    1972-01-01

    The cotyledons of Sinapis alba L. seed are the storage organs and first photosynthetic organs. The development of the cotyledon cell contents was studied using electron and light microscopy. From the heart shaped embryo (11 days from petal fall) to the mature seed, nine stages were examined.

  16. High irradiance response promotion of a subsequent light induction response in Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Beggs; W. Geile; M. G. Holmes; M. Jabben; A. M. Jose; E. Schäfer

    1981-01-01

    Relative quantum responsivity curves for inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in Sinapis alba L. seedlings previously grown in white light confirm that a marked “end of day” inhibition response can be induced by a monochromatic light treatment (30 min) at the end of the light period. In dark grown seedlings, however, no growth inhibition can be induced by a 30 min

  17. Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

  18. The effect of kinetin on the photosynthetic apparatus of Sinapis alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zerbe; A. Wild

    1980-01-01

    The influence of kinetin during the development of primary leaves of Sinapis alba was investigated. Kinetin treatment (6 ppm) induced an increase of dry weight, of soluble reducing sugars, soluble protein, chlorophylls, carotenoids and cytochrome f; a higher ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, higher rates of CO2 fixation per fresh weight and higher activity of nitrite reductase, were

  19. Der Lichteinfluss auf die Haarbildung am Hypokotyl von Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Mohr

    1959-01-01

    Summary In an earlier paper (Mohr 1957) it was described that the formation of anthocyanin and the inhibition of lengthening of the hypocotyl of dark grown seedlings (Sinapis alba) is governed by the action of two photomorphogenic action systems. The one system is the well known “reversible red far-red reaction system” (low energy reaction), the other one is a high

  20. Rapid activation by phytochrome of nitrate reductase in the cotyledons of Sinapis alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Nitrate reductase in the cotyledons of etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. responds rapidly to the addition of nitrate. The response is inhibited by cycloheximide at low concentrations. The enzyme is also under phytochrome control. Five minutes of red light irradiation leads instantaneously to a 45% increase in enzyme activity. Increases in activity, linear with respect to time and with

  1. Anatomical and ultrastructural changes in aleurone and myrosin cells of Sinapis alba during germination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ella Werker; J. G. Vaughan

    1974-01-01

    The cells of the embryo of Sinapis alba L. include either aleurone or myrosin grains and all cells contain oil bodies. Aleurone grains and oil bodies are degraded during germination. The myrosin grains of each myrosin cell, on the other hand, gradually turn into one big vacuole containing the myrosin. Probably very little, if any, new myrosin is formed in

  2. Rejoinder: On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses--"Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    We commend the measured tone and clearly stated arguments in Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on our article. It is particularly welcome because, in combination with our own conclusions, it lays out before the relevant audiences the substance of the debate in this field. Based on the commentary's opening statement, it would appear that there…

  3. Food habits of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba) in a steppe area of Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Leonardi; G. L. Dell’Arte

    2006-01-01

    The diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) is well known in different habitats but a lack of data persists for arid and subarid environments. We provide preliminary information on food selection of barn owls in Tunisia by the analysis of the composition of pellets. The diet consists largely of rodents and the three-toed Jerboa (Jaculus jaculus) that accounted for

  4. Essential oils and isolated compounds from Lippia alba leaves and flowers: antimicrobial activity and osteoclast apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Juiz, Paulo José Lima; Lucchese, Angelica Maria; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Di Ciano, Martina; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Silva, Franceli; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, essential oils extracted from the leaves and flowers of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. (L. alba) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity and their effects on osteoclasts. The periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans; ATCC 43717), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum; ATCC 25586) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis); ATCC 33277) were used in antimicrobial activity assays for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), whereas Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis; ATCC 25285) was used as the control microorganism. Osteoclast (OC) apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Fas receptor expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. The analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that P. gingivalis had the lowest MIC values, whereas A. actinomycetemcomitans had the highest. L. alba essential oils were found to be toxic to human cells, although the compounds, carvone, limonene and citral, were non-toxic and induced apoptosis in the OCs. This study demonstrates that L. alba has potential biotechnological application in dentistry. In fact periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, and the immune response to microbial challenge leads to osteoclast activation and the resorption of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss. PMID:25384405

  5. Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Roulin; Christian Riols; Cor Dijkstra; Anne-Lyse Ducrestd

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in

  6. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  7. Sex ratio in hybrids between Silene alba and Silene dioica: evidence for Y-linked restorers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D R

    1994-11-01

    Sex ratio in Silene alba is generally female biased, and the bias is influenced by Y-linked alleles that are polymorphic in natural populations. One interpretation of these alleles is that they enhance the production of males in female-biased populations, i.e. they are restorers. Two Silene species, S. alba and S. dioica, and their reciprocal hybrids were used to investigate the inheritance of sex ratio and the relationship between sex ratio and male fertility. Sex ratio was paternally inherited (i.e. Y-linked), but was also strongly influenced by the maternal parent through an interaction with the Y chromosome. These results corroborate previous work on the inheritance of sex ratio within S. alba, and suggest that sex ratio in S. alba and S. dioica has a similar genetic basis. Examination of the maternal by Y chromosome interaction revealed that the Y chromosome of each species produced a more severe female bias in crosses with females of the opposite species. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the alleles expressed in the maternal parent cause the female bias, while the Y-linked alleles tend to restore sex ratio toward equality. PMID:7960924

  8. Inhibitory effects of Artemisia herba-alba on the germination of the gypsophyte Helianthemum squamatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián Escudero; María J. Albert; José M. Pita; Félix Pérez-García

    2000-01-01

    The potential allelopathic role of Artemisia herba-alba has been evaluated in order to explain the community pattern of the gypsum semiarid environments of central Spain. This pattern shows a sharp ecotone between a gypsophile sparse shrubby community dominated by Helianthemum squamatum, which grows on slopes with gypsum surface crusts, and a nitrohalophilous community on the gypsum alluvial soils of piedmont

  9. Distribution, movement and availability of Cd and Zn in a dredged sediment cultivated with Salix alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Bedell; Xavier Capilla; Claire Giry; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel; Yves Perrodin

    2009-01-01

    Willows occur as volunteer vegetation on sediment-derived soils, such as dredged sediments, landfill cover or stockpile deposits, and are used as phytoremediators on such soils. The present study evaluates growth and metal uptake by Salix alba grown on a contaminated dredge sediment for 209 days under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the study, the aerial parts of the S.

  10. Fluvial valleys on Alba Patera, Mars, viewed by HRSC\\/MEx camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ansan; N. Mangold; P. L. Masson; G. Neukum

    2009-01-01

    Alba Patera is the northernmost shield volcano of the Tharsis bulge, on which valley networks have been identified in Viking images. Valleys are mainly distributed on the northern side of volcano, with a parallel to dendritic pattern associated with a very high drainage density of 2.3 km-1, comparable to those observed on Hawaiian volcanoes (Gulick and Baker, Nature 341, 1989;

  11. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    PubMed Central

    Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

  12. Predicting tree death for Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba using permanent plot data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Wunder; Björn Reineking; Jean-François Matter; Christof Bigler; Harald Bugmann

    2007-01-01

    Question: How well can mortality probabilities of deciduous trees (Fagus sylvatica) and conifers (Abies alba) be predicted using permanent plot data that describe growth patterns, tree species, tree size and site conditions? Location: Fagus forests in the montane belt of the Jura folds (Switzerland). Method: Permanent plot data were used to develop and validate logistic regression models predicting survival probabilities

  13. Diversity in seed production characteristics within the USDA-ARS Limnanthes alba germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadowfoam (L. alba) seeds are a source of long chain fatty acids which are stable under diverse environmental conditions. The fatty acid composition makes the oil valuable for use in cosmetics, lubricants, rubber additives, and plastics. While a few meadowfoam cultivars have been developed, high se...

  14. Competitive Effects of Native and Exotic Shrubs on Quercus alba Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars A. Brudvig; Christopher W. Evans

    2006-01-01

    The exotic shrub Lonicera tatarica (Tartarian honeysuckle) has aggres- sively invaded woodlands and forests in central and eastern North America; however, its impacts on native plant species are not well understood. We used a greenhouse seedling experiment to examine the effects of L. tatarica on Quercus alba (white oak), the presettlement dominant tree of many of these forests. Growth- related

  15. Biomonitoring heavy metals using the barn owl (Tyto alba guttata) : Sources of variation especially relating to body condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Esselink; F. M. van der Geld; L. P. Jager; G. A. Posthuma-Trumpie; P. E. F. Zoun; A. J. Baars

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to monitor environmental quality in the Netherlands was investigated, using Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe as indicators for environmental contamination.

  16. Crystal Structure of Archaeal Chromatin Protein Alba2-Double-stranded DNA Complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1*

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri

    2012-01-01

    All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode homologs of dimeric Alba (Sac10b) proteins that bind cooperatively at high density to DNA. Here, we report the 2.0 ? resolution crystal structure of an Alba2 (Ape10b2)-dsDNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1. A rectangular tube-like structure encompassing duplex DNA reveals the positively charged residues in the monomer-monomer interface of each dimer packing on either side of the bound dsDNA in successive minor grooves. The extended hairpin loop connecting strands ?3 and ?4 undergoes significant conformational changes upon DNA binding to accommodate the other Alba2 dimer during oligomerization. Mutational analysis of key interacting residues confirmed the specificity of Alba2-dsDNA interactions. PMID:22334696

  17. Dispersal and disease gradients of anther-smut (Ustilago violacea) infection of Silene alba at different life stages

    E-print Network

    Roche, Bernadette M.; Alexander, Helen M.; Maltby, Arlan D.

    1995-09-01

    well-studied system, the herbaceous plant Silene alba, infected by the anther-smut fungus Ustilago violacea. Two different life stages (vegetative and floral) were examined. We measured spore deposition on flowers and, as an analog of dispersal...

  18. PRIMEROS ANTECEDENTES DE LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA DE CAMPANARIO (TYTO ALBA) EN EL DEPARTAMENTO —EEMBUC? (PARAGUAY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PABLO TETA; JULIO R. CONTRERAS

    FIRST REPORT ON THE DIET OF THE COMMON BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) FROM —EEMBUC? DE- PARTMENT, PARAGUAY.ó We report the food habits of the Common Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Pilar, —eembucœ Department, Paraguay (26?52'S, 58?23'O). By inspecting 35 pellets we found 107 prey items. The diet consisted mainly of muroid rodents, with low frequencies of marsupials, bats, and birds.

  19. Cytochemical heterochromatin differentiation in Sinapis alba ( Cruciferae ) using a simple air-drying technique for producing chromosome spreads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Geber; Dieter Schweizer

    1988-01-01

    The fluorochrome and Giemsa chromosome banding patterns and the Ag-NOR histochemical staining ofSinapis alba are described. Two major types of heterochromatin can be distinguished, one of which contains GC-rich DNA. The observations are discussed as they relate to the known satellite DNAs ofS. alba. — A simple air-drying technique for producing spreads of plant mitotic chromosomes is presented. Different materials

  20. Simple and Efficient Method for Isolation and Measurement of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxins by Plant Tests ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kos; G. Gorzo; G. Suranyi; G. Borbely

    1995-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective method for isolating and assaying microcystins, cyanobacterial toxins, by C-18 cartridges, DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) chromatography, and a mustard (Sinapis alba L.) plant seedling test is described. The procedure results in a purity of up to 95-97% microcystin without the need for an HPLC system and justifies the use of the S. alba L. seedling test in the

  1. Pollen dispersal and deposition characteristics of Abies alba , Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris , Roztocze region (SE Poland)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anneli PoskaIrena; Irena Agnieszka Pidek

    2010-01-01

    Pinus sylvestris L., Abies alba Mill. and Fagus sylvatica L.—the significant forest forming tree species in Europe are important for palaeoecological interpretations based on the\\u000a results of pollen analysis of fossil deposits. The potential pollen loading for Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica was modelled using simulated and actual vegetation maps, measured fall-speed values and pollen productivity estimates from

  2. The ALBA spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station: layout and performance

    PubMed Central

    Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Pellegrin, Eric; Nicolas, Josep; Ferrer, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The spectroscopic LEEM-PEEM experimental station at the CIRCE helical undulator beamline, which started user operation at the ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility in 2012, is presented. This station, based on an Elmitec LEEM III microscope with electron imaging energy analyzer, permits surfaces to be imaged with chemical, structural and magnetic sensitivity down to a lateral spatial resolution better than 20?nm with X-ray excited photoelectrons and 10?nm in LEEM and UV-PEEM modes. Rotation around the surface normal and application of electric and (weak) magnetic fields are possible in the microscope chamber. In situ surface preparation capabilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature flashing, exposure to gases, and metal evaporation with quick evaporator exchange. Results from experiments in a variety of fields and imaging modes will be presented in order to illustrate the ALBA XPEEM capabilities. PMID:25931092

  3. [The development and evolution of differentiation between Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Wang, De-Qun

    2007-07-01

    The root of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. was differentiated into Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba since the Southern and Northern Dynasties, most of which were, by then, sourced from the wild plants of Paeonia. In the Song Dynasty, the differentiation of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba was based on the color of its root, and from Yuan to Qing Dynasty, based on the color of its flower. In modern times, this is based on whether it is cultivated and processed or not. Radix Paeoniae was selected and eventually cultivated as ornamental plants of Paeonia for enjoyment from the Song to Ming Dynasties. The wild plants of Paeonia with single-petal flower were cultivated for medicinal use because of the esteem by the doctors. The current method of differentiation of Radix Paeoniae was formed in the 20th century. PMID:18453201

  4. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  5. Isolation and identification of (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile as a phytotoxin from meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seedmeal.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, S F; Boydston, R A; Mallory-Smith, C A

    1996-10-01

    Ethyl ether, ethanol, and water extracts of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal were prepared and bioassayed against velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. "Cardinal"). Both the ethyl ether and ethanol fractions, but not the water extract, inhibited velvetleaf and wheat radicle elongation. Fractionation of the extracts indicated that (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (3-MPAN) was the active compound from both extracts, comprising >97% of the active ethanol fraction. 3-Methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which had been previously shown to be the major breakdown product of glucolimnanthin, the majorL. alba glucosinolate, was not detected in either extract. Radicle elongation of velvetleaf and wheat were inhibited by 3-MPAN with I50 (the concentration required to inhibit growth by 50%) values of approximately 4 × 10(-4) M (velvetleaf) and 7×10(-4) M (wheat). PMID:24227117

  6. Emmetropization and optical development of the eye of the barn owl ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Schaeffel; H. Wagner

    1996-01-01

    1.We have studied the development of the refractive state in young barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola). Strikingly, the eyes had severe refractive errors shortly after lid opening (which occurred around day 14 after hatching; average from 6 owls: 13.83 ± 1.47 days). Refractive errors vanished in the subsequent one or two weeks (Fig. 1, Fig. 2).2.Refractive errors did not differ

  7. Sound localization by the barn owl ( Tyto alba ) measured with the search coil technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric I. Knudsen; Gary G. Blasdel; Masakazu Konishi

    1979-01-01

    1.The dynamics and accuracy of sound localization by the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by exploiting the natural head-orienting response of the owl to novel sound stimuli. Head orientation and movement were measured using an adaptation of the search coil technique which provided continous high resolution azimuthal and elevational information during the behavior.2.The owls responded to sound sources with

  8. How much energy do barn owls ( Tyto alba) save by roosting?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic J. McCafferty; John B. Moncrieff; Iain R. Taylor

    2001-01-01

    (1) The energy savings associated with the roosting behaviour of barn owls (Tyto alba) were determined with a biophysical model using measurements of microclimate from a roost and nest site in SW Scotland (55°10? N 3°12? W) from April 1991–March 1992. (2) The roost building provided complete shelter from wind and precipitation. Air temperature inside the roost building was 1.4°C

  9. Phytochrome control of plastid mRNA in mustard ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Link; Universitfit Freiburg

    1982-01-01

    The steady-state levels of plastid RNA sequences in dark-grown and light-grown mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings have been compared. Total cellular RNAs were labeled in vitro with 32P and hybridized to separated restriction fragments of plastid DNA. Cloned DNA fragments which encode the large subunit (LS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase [3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxylase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39] and a 35,000 plastid polypeptide were

  10. Rapid photomodulation of stem extension in light-grown Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Morgan; T. O'Brien; H. Smith

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of the whole of aSinapis alba plant with supplementary far-red light (FR), in back-ground white light (WL), induces a rapid increase in stem extension rate. This rapid increase is regulated by the light environment of the stem itself. Supplementary FR to the stem increases extension rate after a lag period of 10–15 min. A lag period of 3–4 h

  11. Die Wirkung von „Störlicht” auf die Blütenbildung von Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hanke; K. M. Hartmann; H. Mohr

    1969-01-01

    The induction of flowering in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) was studied by means of night-breaks (“Störlicht”). The plants were cultivated under fully controlled conditions: 8000 Lux white light (mixed fluorescent and incandescent) 18°C, 80% relative humidity. Raised under our conditions in short days (8 hours of white light) mustard behaved as a quantitative long-day plant (Fig. 2). Flowering can be

  12. Size and physical organization of chloroplast DNA from mustard ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Link; Susan E. Chambers; John A. Thompson; Heinz Falk

    1981-01-01

    Intact chloroplast (cp)DNA from mustard cotyledons (Sinapis alba L.) was found by electron microscopy to be a uniform population of circular molecules with a contour length corresponding to 158 kilobase pairs. This size was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Nucleases SalI and XhoI each generate a small number of cpDNA fragments. The sizes of all fragments generated by each enzyme

  13. Action spectra for changes in the “high irradiance reaction” in hypocotyls of Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Holmes; E. Schäfer

    1981-01-01

    Detailed action spectra are presented for the inhibition of hypocotyl extension in dark-grown Sinapis alba L. seedlings by continuous (24 h) narrow waveband monochromatic light between 336 nm and 783 nm. The results show four distinct wavebands of major inhibitory action; these are centred in the ultra-violet (?max=367 nm), blue (?max=446 nm), red (?max=653 nm) and far-red (?max=712 nm) wavebands.

  14. Microcystin uptake inhibits growth and protein phosphatase activity in mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katriina Kurki-Helasmo; Jussi Meriluoto

    1998-01-01

    Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds were cultivated for seven days on a solid nutrient medium supplemented with 0–40?g microcystin-RR per ml. Microcystin-RR affected seedling growth (ic50 0.8?g\\/ml) and microcystin concentrations ?5.0?g\\/ml produced malformed plants. The inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity correlated with the growth inhibition. The seedlings were also shown to take up 3H-dihydromicrocystin-LR derived radioactivity up

  15. Light-controlled inhibition of hypocotyl growth in Sinapis alba L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Heim; Eberhard Schfifer

    1982-01-01

    Fluence rate-response curves were determined for the inhibition of hypocotyl growth in 54 h old dark-grownSinapis alba L. seedlings by continuous or hourly 5 min red light irradiation (24 h). In both cases a fluence rate-dependence was observed. More than 90% of the continuous light effect could be substituted for by hourly light pulses if the total fluence of the

  16. Specificity of induction responses in Sinapis alba L. and their effects on a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Travers-Martin, Nora; Müller, Caroline

    2007-08-01

    The glucosinolate-myrosinase system of Brassicaceae is known to hold a defensive function in both a constitutive and an inducible fashion. Glucosinolates are sulfur- and nitrogen-containing metabolites that are hydrolyzed upon tissue disruption by myrosinase enzymes. The resulting products are toxic for most herbivores. Nevertheless, some insects evolved detoxification mechanisms that enable them to feed exclusively on Brassicaceae. Induction of plant chemical defenses that deter or poison generalists might be ineffective against adapted specialists. We investigated the specificity of short-term induction patterns of chemical defenses in Sinapis alba damaged by a glucosinolate-sequestering specialist herbivore (turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae), a generalist herbivore (fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda), or mechanical wounding (cork borer), and their effects on the behavior of A. rosae. After 24 hr of damage to young leaves, local as well as systemic changes in glucosinolate and myrosinase levels were analyzed. The intensity of the resulting changes was highest in damaged leaves. Induction responses in S. alba were dependent upon the attacking herbivore and were distinct from a mere wound response. Specialist feeding and mechanical wounding evoked up to threefold increases in levels of both parts of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, whereas generalist feeding induced up to twofold increases in glucosinolate levels only. The majority of constitutive and induced myrosinase activity was found in the insoluble fractions. Possible consequences for the plant-specialist interaction were examined in behavioral tests with larvae and adult females of A. rosae on induced S. alba plants. Larval feeding and adult oviposition patterns were not modulated in relation to plant treatment. Thus, specificity was found in S. alba responses in relation to the inducing agent, but it was not present in return in the effects on the behavior of an adapted herbivore. PMID:17587140

  17. Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  18. Thermodynamic properties and moisture sorption isotherms of Artemisia herba-alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lamharrar; A. Idlimam; M. Kouhila

    2007-01-01

    Sorption isotherms of Artemisia herba-alba were determined at three temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) and in the range of water activity varying from 0.0572 to 0.898. The hysteresis effect was distinctly observed in the range of temperature tested. Five sorption models were used to fit the experimental data. The GAB equation was the best model describing the equilibrium moisture

  19. Regulation of sulfate uptake and xylem loading of poplar roots ( Populus tremula x P. alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther van der Zalm; Andrea Schneider; Heinz Rennenberg

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate transport processes and its regulation were studied in roots of poplar trees ( Populus tremula x P. alba). From the exponential increase in sulfate uptake with temperature an activation energy ( E a) of 9.0±0.8 kJ mol ?1 was calculated. In the concentration range 0.005–10 mM sulfate uptake showed biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K m of 3.2±3.4 ?M

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia herba-alba essential oil cultivated in Tunisian arid zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedi Mighri; Hafedh Hajlaoui; Ahmed Akrout; Hanen Najjaa; Mohamed Neffati

    2010-01-01

    This study was conceived to examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of four essential oil types extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba cultivated in southern Tunisia. The chemical composition was investigated using both capillary GC and GC\\/MS techniques. ?-thujone, ?-thujone, ?-thujone\\/?-thujone and 1,8-cineole\\/camphor\\/?-thujone\\/?-thujone were respectively, the major components of these oil types. The antimicrobial activity of

  1. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofía Salido; Joaquín Altarejos; Manuel Nogueras; Adolfo Sánchez

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the oil, steam-distilled from aerial parts of Artemisia herha-alba Asso ssp. valentina (Lam.) Marcl. (Asteraceae) collected from the south of Spain, has been analyzed by GC\\/MS. Among the 65 constituents investigated (representing 93.6 % of the oil composition), 61 were identified (90.3% of the oil composition). The major constituents detected were the sesquiterpene davanone (18.1%) and monoterpenes

  2. Some pharmacological studies on Artemisia herba-alba (Asso.) in rabbits and mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husnia I. Marrif; B. H. Ali; K. M. Hassan

    1995-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae) produced an initial hyperglycaemia which was followed by hypoglycaemia in normoglycaemic and alloxan-treated rabbits and mice. The extract (0.39 g\\/kg) significantly increased gastrointestinal transit time and the reaction time to thermal stimuli, but had no effect on the activity of alkaline phosphatase or concentrations of creatinine and urea in plasma. Histopathological examination

  3. Content of indoleacetic acid and its metabolism in root nodules of Melilotus alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Datta; P. S. Basu

    1998-01-01

    The root nodules ofMelilotus alba, a leguminous fodder herb, contain a high amount of indoleacetic acid (IAA). The tryptophan pool present in the nodule might\\u000a serve as a source for the IAA production. Metabolism of IAA in the nodules was evidenced by the presence of IAA-metabolizing\\u000a enzymes, IAA oxidase and peroxidase. A high amount of IAA was produced by the

  4. Cloning and analysis of the planosporicin lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster of Planomonospora alba.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Emma J; Hesketh, Andrew R; Bibb, Mervyn J

    2013-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

  5. The acetylenic acid in Comandra pallida and Osyris alba seed oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Mikolajczak; F. R. Earle; I. A. Wolff

    1963-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) analyses are reported for fatty acid methyl esters from seed oils of two previously unreported\\u000a species of Santalaceae,Comandra pallida A. DC. andOsyris alba L. The major component in each (43 and 57%, respectively) is an enynoic acid, probablytrans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic (ximenynic) acid which has been found in seed oils of other members of this family. Equivalent chain\\u000a lengths by

  6. Ground seed density patterns under conditions of strongly overlapping seed shadows in Abies alba Mill. stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaros?aw G. Paluch

    In three subsequent years, seeds were collected from 66 to 75 seed traps in three Abies alba stands that differed in vertical structure and the number of potentially reproducing trees. The objective was to compare\\u000a empirical patterns of seed density with a random (Poisson) model, which assumes that seed density would be the same in every\\u000a location, and a binomial

  7. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P Moundipa; P Kamtchouing; N Koueta; Justine Tantchou; N. P. R Foyang; Félicité T Mbiapo

    1999-01-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180–220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups

  8. Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of the resin from seeds of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. ?ermák

    1987-01-01

    Using gas-chromatographic methods, the variability of the contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (a-pinene, ß-pinene, ?3carene and limonene) in the resin of silver fir seeds (Abies alba Mill.) was studied. Resin cavities were characterized according to their position on the seed surface. It was estabilished that the terpene content of the resin of cavities localized on the abaxialadaxial surfaces of the seed

  9. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  10. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica alba, the addition of phosphate had a slightly positive effect on the Ge concentrations in leaves, in general B. alba is less capable accumulator than P. miliaceum. In the latter species the aboveground plant accumulate high Ge concentrations, exceeding mostly the Ge concentrations in roots. The concentrations of the aboveground parts in P. miliaceum typically increase with the Ge supply, here there is no plateau observable. In summary Brassica alba roots (with phosphate) and Panicum miliaceum leaves (without additional phosphate) showed the highest Ge concentrations.

  11. Effects of phytohormones and jasmonic acid on glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kastell, Anja; Smetanska, Iryna; Ulrichs, Christian; Cai, Zhenzhen; Mewis, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Although some study have established hairy root cultures from brassicaceous plants with glucosinolates (GS) as characteristic secondary metabolite, studies are missing which compare hairy roots with the corresponding mother plants. Therefore, two different plant species-Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa subsp. rapa pygmeae teltoviensis-were transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Aliphatic and indolyl GS were present in B. rapa, exhibiting larger quantities in leaves than in roots. Aromatic p-hydroxybenzyl GS were found particularly in the leaves of S. alba. However, the proportion of indolyl GS increased suddenly in transformed hairy roots of S. alba and B. rapa. Cultivation with the phytohormone kinetin (0.5 mg?L(-1)) enhanced GS accumulation in B. rapa hairy roots, however not in S. alba, but 2,4-D (0.4 mg?L(-1)) induced de-differentiation of roots in both species and reduced GS levels. GS levels especially of 1-methoxyindol-3ylmethyl GS increased in hairy roots in response to JA, but root growth was inhibited. While 2 weeks of cultivation in 100 to 200 ?M JA were determined at optimum for maximum GS yield in S. alba hairy root cultures, 4 weeks of cultivation in 50 to 100 ?M JA was the optimum for B. rapa. PMID:23269631

  12. Growth rates of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae) in an intermittent estuary of southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Ty G.; Fairweather, Peter G.

    2003-12-01

    Caging and a mark-recapture design were used to estimate the growth rate of the brittle, infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba in the Hopkins River estuary. The growth of both caged and uncaged individuals was monitored at three sites near the mouth of the estuary over 180 days. Growth rates did not differ for caged and uncaged bivalves, or for bivalves subject to different amounts of handling, or between sites. Growth did differ between consecutive time intervals, which was attributable to negligible growth occurring during the colder months of autumn/winter. Comparisons of the condition (as indicated by total mass for length 3) of S. alba were inconsistent between sites for caged and uncaged bivalves and for those subject to different amounts of handling. Soletellina alba is a rapidly growing bivalve with mean growth rates for the three time intervals being 0.04±0.002 mm day-1 in summer, 0.02±0.001 mm day-1 in autumn and 0.03±0.001 mm day-1 from summer to winter. Using existing literature, it was shown that a significant relationship exists between maximum shell length and onset of sexual maturity in bivalve molluscs. This relationship predicts that S. alba should reach the onset of sexual maturity at 15.8 mm length. Therefore, it appears that it may be possible for juvenile S. alba (<1 mm) to grow, reach sexual maturity and reproduce in between annual mass-mortality events caused by winter flooding.

  13. Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea: Patterns of Spore Deposition in Experimental Populations

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea-smut infection of Silene alba ( = S. latzfolia) caused by Ustilago violacea: patterns of spore deposition populations of Silene albn consisting of healthy individuals and individuals infected by the anther

  14. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  15. Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

    2015-02-01

    Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

  16. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  17. Structural identification and bioactivities of red-violet pigments present in Basella alba fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Mei; Lin, Bo-Hong; Hsieh, Wan-Mei; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Liu, Chi-Dong; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

    2010-10-13

    Mature Basella alba L. fruit, with dark blue skin and deep red-violet flesh, is a potential source of natural colorants. Its pigment components and bioactivities deserve particular attention and investigation. In this study, fruit flesh was extracted with 80% methanol (containing 0.2% formic acid) and subjected to solid-phase extraction, semipreparative HPLC isolation, mass spectrophotometric analysis, and structural elucidation. The major red pigment was identified as gomphrenin I. Its quantity increased with the increase of fruit maturity. The gomphrenin I extract yield from ripe fruits was 36.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight. In addition to gomphrenin I, betanidin-dihexose and isobetanidin-dihexose were also detected. The antioxidant activities of gomphrenin I determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and antioxidative capacity assays were equivalent to 534 ?M Trolox, 103 ?M butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 129 ?M ascorbic acid, and 68 ?M BHT at 180, 23, 45, and 181 ?M, respectively. The anti-inflammatory function was tested at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ?M in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results revealed that gomphrenin I suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased PGE(2) and IL-1? secretions at the highest concentration tested. The transcriptional inhibitory activities of gomphrenin I on the expression of inflammatory genes encoding iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 were also observed. It is of merit to identify gomphrenin I as a principal pigment of B. alba fruits and as a potent antioxidant and inflammatory inhibitor. These findings suggest that B. alba fruit is a rich source of betalains and has value-added potential for use in the development of food colorants and nutraceuticals. PMID:20839771

  18. Isolation and characterization of 21 microsatellite markers in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Burri, R; Antoniazza, S; Siverio, F; Klein, A; Roulin, A; Fumagalli, L

    2008-09-01

    We report 21 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European barn owl (Tyto alba). The polymorphism of the reported markers was evaluated in a population situated in western Switzerland and in another from Tenerife, Canary Islands. The number of alleles per locus varies between two and 31, and expected heterozygosity per population ranges from 0.16 to 0.95. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Two loci exhibit a null allele in the Tenerife population. PMID:21585946

  19. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana Hemsl., M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants of Morus cathayana, M. lhou and M. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5-1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency

  20. Rapid clonal propagation of three mulberries, Morus cathayana HemsL, M. lhou Koiz. and M. serrata Roxb., through in vitro culture of apical shoot buds and nodal explants from mature trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pattnaik; P. K. Chand

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical shoot buds and nodal explants ofMorus cathayana, M. lhou andM. serrata on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.5–1.0 mg\\/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Addition of gibberellic acid (0.4 mg\\/l) along with BAP induced faster bud break both in apical shoot buds and nodal explants and also enhanced the frequency of bud

  1. The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Emma J.; Bibb, Mervyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function ? factor (PspX), its cognate anti-? factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic. PMID:23776227

  2. Diet of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) in wetlands of northeastern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilis Goutner; Haralambos Alivizatos

    The diets of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) were studied through pellet analysis in four northeastern Greek wetlands. Results from the months February-September showed that in all areas, the most important prey for the Barn Owl were small mammals (mainly Mus spp., Microtus rossiaemeridionalis , Crocidura spp. and Apodemus spp.) The

  3. Small Mammal Taphonomy: Intraspecific Bone Assemblage Comparison between South and North American Barn Owl, Tyto alba , Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bárbara Saavedra; Javier A. Simonetti

    1998-01-01

    Actualistic studies of small mammal taphonomy usually describe interspecific bone patterns of contemporary agents of bone deposition. These studies assume that each agent produces one specific bone pattern. Here we examine intraspecific bone patterning for bone assemblages produced by different barn owl,Tyto alba, populations. We analyse bone completeness and fragmentation patterns produced by this raptor between three Chilean and four

  4. Micromammalian distribution and abundance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, as evidenced by Barn owls Tyto alba (Scopoli)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Avery; G. Avery; N. G. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    The history of Western Cape mammalogy began almost 200 years ago with Thunberg (1811) and has been augmented periodically ever since. The present paper follows Vernon (1972) and Grindley et al. (1973) in eliciting information from material in Barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli) pellets. Analyses are based on identified and counted mandibles and maxillae. The Laminate vlei rat, Otomys laminatus

  5. Functional analysis of the promoter of a glycosyl hydrolase gene induced in resistant Sinapis alba by Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-08-01

    A putative family 3 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene showed significant differential expression in resistant Sinapis alba, compared with the susceptible Brassica juncea, as part of the initial responses during interaction with the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. To understand the mechanism of induction, the promoter was isolated and deletion analysis carried out. All the promoter fragments were fused with the ?-glucuronidase gene and the expressions were studied in stable B. juncea transgenics and transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis of the expression of the promoter showed the presence of functional abscisic acid (ABA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and salicylic acid (SA)-responsive cis elements. Interestingly, the promoter was found to be induced in both S. alba and B. juncea upon challenge with A. brassicicola but, in S. alba, SA had an inhibitory effect on the pathogen-induced expression of the gene whereas, in B. juncea, SA did not have any negative effect. Therefore, the SA-mediated inhibition in S. alba indicates that the induction is probably through JA or ABA signaling. The difference in the mechanism of induction of the same promoter in the resistant and susceptible plants is probably due to the differential hormonal responses initiated upon challenge with A. brassicicola. PMID:23550974

  6. RELATIVE EFFECTS OF NOCTURNAL VS DIURNAL POLLINATORS AND DISTANCE ON GENE FLOW IN SMALL SILENE ALBA POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    · Silene alba exists in natural metapopulations throughout its range and is visited by a suite of both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Pollen-mediated gene flow may help reduce genetic isolation of subpopulations. We compared the relative effects of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators on pollen-med...

  7. The fine sand Abra alba community of the bay of morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J-C Dauvin

    1998-01-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977–1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results

  8. Impact of flowering phenology of Silene alba and S-dioica on susceptibility to fungal infection and seed predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Biere; S. C. Honders

    1996-01-01

    Timing of the production of susceptible host stages can have a large impact on a plant's probability of infection by pathogens and on the extent of damage caused by herbivores. In the closely related plant species Silene alba and S. dioica, flowers are the site of infection by the host-sterilizing anther smut fungus Ustilago violacea, as well as the site

  9. DENSITY AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA (AVES, TYTONIDAE) ON THE TROPICAL ISLAND OF MAYOTTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN STEVENS; MICHEL LOUETTE; MARC HERREMANS

    1999-01-01

    Tyto alba is widely distributed on Mayotte, an island group of 374 km 2 in the Comoro archipelago. The species was studied in August 1996 (dry season) and December 1997\\/January 1998 (wet season). Territorial response was high in December\\/January, and there were fledged young in August, indicating that breeding starts in the wet season and young fledge during the dry

  10. ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS IN THE GULF OF

    E-print Network

    Medellín, Rodrigo

    ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA, MEXICO ENRIQUETA VELARDE,* RAFAEL AVILA-FLORES, AND RODRIGO A. MEDELLI´N Unidad de.P. 94290, Me´xico (EV) Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Me´xico, A.P. 70-275, Me´xico

  11. Analysis of Linalool Content in the Inflorescence (Flower) Essential Oil and Leaf Oil of Lippia alba Cultivar ‘Kavach’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghvendra K. Mishra; Swati Chaudhary; Richa Pandey; Sarika Gupta; Gopal R. Mallavarapu; Sushil Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lippia alba cultivar ‘Kavach’ is an aromatic, multi-branched, trailing, deep-rooted shrub that can be planted on slopes to control soil erosion. Cuttings of this genotype were planted on the edges of field plots developed by depositing agricultural soil on the rocky terrain of Aravalli mountain range land on which the Institute is located in New Delhi. Shoots harvested several times

  12. Chemical composition and biological activities of a new essential oil chemotype of Tunisian Artemisia herba alba Asso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Zouari; Nacim Zouari; Nahed Fakhfakh; Ali Bougatef; M. A. Ayadi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, angiotensin I- converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oil of Artemisia herba alba Asso (Aha), a traditional medicinal plant widely growing in Tunisia. The essential oil from the air dried leaves and flowers of Aha were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by

  13. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300?mg/kg b.?w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300?mg/kg b.?w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:26018915

  14. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest.

    PubMed

    Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V

    2006-02-01

    Air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. Biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. As an example, although the silver fir (Abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the French and European areas, its standard emission rate is not available in the literature. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission from A. alba in France measured during the fieldwork organised in the Fossé Rhénan, from May to June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Limonene was the predominant monoterpene emitted, followed by camphene, alpha-pinene and eucalyptol. No isoprene emission was detected. The four monoterpenes measured showed different behaviours according to micrometeorological conditions. In fact, emissions of limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene were temperature-dependant while eucalyptol emissions were temperature and light dependant. Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions were modeled using information gathered during the field study. Emissions of the three monoterpenes previously quoted were achieved using the monoterpenes algorithm developed by Tingey et al. (1980) [Tingey D, Manning M, Grothaus L, Burns W. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol 1980;65: 797-801.] and the isoprene algorithm [Guenther, A., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1991. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. J Geophys Res 26A: 10799-10808.]; [Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P., Harley, P., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluation and sensitivity analysis. J Geophys Res 98D: 12609-12617.]) was used for the eucalyptol emission. With these methods, simulation results and observations agreed fairly well. The standard emission rate (303 K) and beta-coefficient averaged for limonene, camphene and alpha-pinene were respectively of 0.63 microg gdw-1 h-1 and 0.06 K-1. For eucalyptol, the standard emission rate (T=303 K and PAR=1000 micromol m-2 s-1) was 0.26 microg gdw-1 h-1. This classified A. alba as a weak monoterpenes emitter. PMID:16140360

  15. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  16. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  17. Heavy metal distribution in organs and tissues of the eastern great white egret Egretta alba modesta

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, K.; Min, B.Y.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1985-12-01

    The eastern great white egret (Egretta alba modesta) is relatively a large and long-life bird species, which migrates for breeding to Korea, China and Japan late in March or early in April, and returns to Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia for wintering late in August or early in October. As the bird is placed in a high trophic level in the food web, it is useful as an indicator species for environmental pollution of heavy metals and other chemicals and also for understanding the bioaccumulation processes of pollutants. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the detailed distribution characteristics of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg) in different organs and tissues of the eastern great white egret. Based upon these results, the suitability of the organs of an egret for ecological and physiological comparison is also discussed.

  18. Detection of 5S and 25S rRNA genes in Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus and Brassica napus by double fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Schrader; H. Budahn; R. Ahne

    2000-01-01

    Different ribosomal RNA (5S and 25S) genes were investigated simultaneously by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in\\u000a Sinapis alba, Raphanus sativus and Brassica napus. The chromosomes of S. alba carried four 5S and six 25S gene sites, and those of R. sativus four sites of each gene, respectively. These two species have one chromosome pair with both rDNA genes; the

  19. Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. M. SMITS; M DELYON; G. VAN DER VELDE; P. L. M. STEENTJES; J ROELOFS

    1988-01-01

    Smits, A.J.M., de Lyon, M.J.H., van der Velde, G., Steentjes, P.L.M. and Roelofs, J.G.M., 1988. Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic car- bon. Aquat. Bot., 32: 45-62. The presence\\/absence data of Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides

  20. Cloning, expression in Streptomyces lividans and biochemical characterization of a thermostable endo-?-1,4-xylanase of Thermomonospora alba UL?JB1 with cellulose-binding ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blanco; J. J. R. Coque; J. Velasco; J. F. Martín

    1997-01-01

    Several thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from urban solid waste. One of them, Thermomonospora alba ULJB1, showed a broad degradative activity on xylan, cellulose, starch and other polymers. Xylanase and cellulase activities\\u000a were quantified and compared with those of Thermomonospora fusca. Genes encoding two different endo-?-1,4-xylanases were cloned from T.?alba ULJB1. One of them, xylA, was sequenced, subcloned and overexpressed in

  1. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.

    PubMed

    Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

    1999-05-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

  2. Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-04-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

  3. Pityriasis Alba

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Community Search Search » Sign In Remember Me Forgot your password? Haven't registered yet? more Calendar 10/16/2015 » 10/18/2015 2015 AOCD Fall Meeting 3/30/2016 » 4/3/2016 2016 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting 3/29/2017 » 4/2/ ...

  4. Gene expression profiling of Sinapis alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions with Illumina deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Cai-Hua; Li, Chen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Shun-Mou; Huang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Jun; Guo, Rui-Xing; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Fang, Xiao-Ping; Wei, Wen-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Sinapis alba has many desirable agronomic traits including tolerance to drought. In this investigation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of S. alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions in an attempt to identify candidate genes involved in drought tolerance, using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. The comparative analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression level attributable to the drought stress, which resulted in the down-regulation of 309 genes and the up-regulation of 248 genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell division and catalytic and metabolic processes. Our results provide useful information for further analyses of the drought stress tolerance in Sinapis, and will facilitate molecular breeding for Brassica crop plants. PMID:22207172

  5. A validated HPLC method for the analysis of herbal teas from three chemotypes of Brazilian Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Timóteo, Patrícia; Karioti, Anastasia; Leitão, Suzana G; Vincieri, Franco Francesco; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-05-15

    Infusions and decoctions of three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) were investigated for their quantitative profiles by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analyses. An RP-HPLC method was developed which permitted the quality control of the preparations. The correct choice of the column allowed the detailed characterization of the constituents in a total analysis time of 35 min. The HPLC method was accordingly validated for linearity range, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision. For the quantitative analysis the three major phytochemical groups were taken into consideration, namely iridoids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Comparative quantitative analyses revealed significant differences among the chemotypes that should be taken into account in the uses of the herbal teas. The developed HPLC-UV assay proved to be an efficient and alternative method for the discrimination of the three chemotypes. This is the first report of detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the constituents of L. alba chemotypes' teas. PMID:25577093

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer and Optic Nerve of the Barn Owl Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Wathey; John D. Pettigrew

    1989-01-01

    The visual capacity of the common barn owl (Tyto alba) was studied by quantitative analysis of the retina and optic nerve. Cell counts in the ganglion cell layer of the whole-mounted retina revealed a temporal area centralis with peak cell density of 12,500 cells\\/mm2 and a horizontal streak of high cell density extending from the area centralis into the nasal

  7. The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). II: Coat resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

    1997-01-01

    1.1. The thermal resistance of barn owl (Tyto alba) plumage was determined from measurements of heat flux and temperature using a model in a wind tunnel.2.2. The mean resistance of four barn owl coats was 398 s m?1 and wetting the coat reduced coat resistance to 374 s m?1. Resistance decreased linearly with increasing wind speed from 0–7 m s?1.3.3.

  8. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

  9. Absence of fluence rate dependency of phytochrome modulation of stem extension in light-grown Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Morgan; R. Child; H. Smith

    1981-01-01

    In background white light, supplementary far-red (?max 700 nm) is an order of magnitude less effective than supplementary far-red (?max 739 nm) in the stimulation of stem extension in Sinapis alba. The relationship between phytochrome photoequilibrium and extension rate increase for the two supplementary far-red treatments is, however, very similar. This evidence indicates that phytochrome cycling is not involved in

  10. Somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea L. and Sinapis alba L. with resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Hansen; E. D. Earle

    1997-01-01

    Somatic Hybrids between Sinapis alba and rapid-cycling Brassica oleracea were generated for transferring of resistance to Alternaria brassicae to B. oleracea. A. brassicae causes the significant disease black spot in cruciferous crops. A total of 27 plants were regenerated from protoplast fusion\\u000a using 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 krad ?-irradiation of the resistance donor and iodoacetate treatment of B.

  11. Temperature sensitivity as a general phenomenon in a collection of chlorophyll-deficient mutants of sweetclover ( Melilotus alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Ming Yang; John C. Osterman; John Markwell I

    1990-01-01

    A collection of chlorophyll (Chl)-deficient mutants of sweetclover (Melilotus alba) with defects in eight nuclear loci were grown at 17 or 26° C. Plants grown at either temperature were examined for Chl content, Chla\\/b ratio, expression of the light-harvesting complex II (LHC-II) apoproteins, and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) biosynthetic capacity. Except for thech4 mutant, the parental strain and all mutants accumulate more

  12. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp.), Fir Honeydew (Abies alba) and Sage (Salvia officinalis) Honey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Draen Lu; Olivera Koprivnjak; Anna G. Sabatini; Lanfranco S. Conte

    Summary Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp.), fir honeydew (Abies alba) and sage (Salvia offici- nalis) honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase micro- extraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) anal- ysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In

  13. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  14. Rapid discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Danlu; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2014-03-01

    Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. var. alba C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li and Radix S. miltrorrhiza belong to the same genus. S. miltiorrhiza var. alba has a unique effectiveness for thromboangiitis besides therapeutical efficay of S. miltrorrhiza. It exhibits antioxidant activity (AA), while its quality and efficacy also vary with geographic locations. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was developed for discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The discrimination of geographical origin was achieved by using discriminant analysis and the accuracy was 100%. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to establish the model for evaluation of AA by NIRS. The spectral regions were selected by interval PLS (i-PLS) method. Different pre-treated methods were compared for the spectral pre-processing. The final optimal results of PLS model showed that correlation coefficients in the calibration set (Rc) and the prediction set (Rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were 0.974, 0.950, 0.163 mg mL-1 and 2.66, respectively. The results demonstrated that NIRs combined with chemometric methods could be a rapid and nondestructive tool to discriminate geographical origin and evaluate AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The developed NIRS method might have a potential application to high-throughput screening of a great number of raw S. miltiorrhiza var. alba samples for AA.

  15. Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-09-01

    The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges. PMID:20552203

  16. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms. PMID:23615168

  17. How barn owls (Tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (Microtus socialis) before attacking them.

    PubMed

    Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

    2009-09-01

    The present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. The working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. To test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (Tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. Bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of movements revealed that owl head movements increased in amplitude parallel to the vole's direction of movement (sideways or away from/toward the owl). However, the owls also performed relatively large repetitive horizontal head movements when the voles were progressing in any direction, suggesting that these movements were critical for the owl to accurately locate the prey, independent of prey behavior. From the pattern of head movements we conclude that owls orient toward the prospective clash point, and then return to the target itself (the vole) - a pattern that fits an interception rather than a tracking mode of following a moving target. The large horizontal component of head movement in following live prey may indicate that barn owls either have a horizontally narrow fovea or that these movements serve in forming a motion parallax along with preserving image acuity on a horizontally wide fovea. PMID:19577583

  18. Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Caltha palustris var. alba Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mubashir, Sofi; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Lone, Bashir A; Zargar, M Iqbal; Shah, Wajaht A

    2014-08-01

    The methanolic extract obtained from the root portion of Caltha palustris var. alba was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep under both in vitro and in vivo conditions using worm motility inhibition (WMI) assay and fecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay, respectively. The extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method against different bacterial strains. In addition the extract was evaluated for cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against cultured THP-1(Leukemia), A-549 (Lung), HCT-15 (Colon), Cervix (HeLa) and PC-3(Prostrate) cell lines by SRB and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The extract used resulted in mean %WMI of 94.44%, as observed when the worms were put in lukewarm buffer for 30 min after exposure to different treatments. The mean mortality index of the sample was 0.95. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 0.11 mg·mL(-1). Cell lines were exposed to concentration of 100 ?g·mL(-1) of extract for 48 h, which reduced the viability of these cell lines. The same plant extract also showed 55.58% DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:25156281

  19. Status and Developments of BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at Alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benach, J.; Cuní, G.; Colldelram, C.; Nicolás, J.; Lidón, J.; Gil-Ortiz, F.; Juanhuix, J.

    2013-03-01

    BL13-XALOC is a Macromolecular Crystallography beamline at the newly built 3-GeV synchrotron ALBA (Barcelona). The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator, and a pair of KB mirrors. The optical design allows three main operation modes: an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path; a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam to 49×9 ?m2 FWHM (H×V), and a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus it at the detector. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors were reduced by using novel method together with our high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning has also demonstrated that the X-ray beam has excellent energy and spatial stability. The End Station includes a high accuracy single axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa goniometer, an automated sample mounting robot and a Pilatus6M, photon-counting detector. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility, allows the beamline to tackle a large variety of crystals, from medium sized crystals with large unit cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of high-quality data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18th July 2012.

  20. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    PubMed Central

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  1. Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

    2009-03-11

    Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  2. Identification and phytotoxicity of a new glucosinolate breakdown product from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Intanon, Suphannika; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F; Hulting, Andrew G; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2014-07-30

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartw. ex Benth.) is an oilseed crop grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Meadowfoam seed meal (MSM), a byproduct after oil extraction, contains 2-4% glucosinolate (glucolimnanthin). Activated MSM, produced by adding freshly ground myrosinase-active meadowfoam seeds to MSM, facilitates myrosinase-mediated formation of glucosinolate-derived degradation products with herbicidal activity. In the activated MSM, glucolimnanthin was converted into 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate ("isothiocyanate") within 24 h and was degraded by day three. 3-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile ("nitrile") persisted for at least 6 days. Methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPAA), a previously unknown metabolite of glucolimnanthin, appeared at day three. Its identity was confirmed by LC-UV and high resolution LC-MS/MS comparisons with a standard of MPAA. Isothiocyanate inhibited lettuce germination 8.5- and 14.4-fold more effectively than MPAA and nitrile, respectively. Activated MSM inhibited lettuce germination by 58% and growth by 72% compared with the control. Results of the study suggest that MSM has potential uses as a pre-emergence bioherbicide. PMID:24998843

  3. Cytokinin as a Possible Component of the Floral Stimulus in Sinapis alba

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Georges; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Jacqmard, Annie; Havelange, Andree; Bodson, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Results of previous investigations indicated that one of the early and essential events occurring in the apical meristem of Sinapis alba L. during the transition to flowering is the release to mitosis of the G2 nuclei; the trigger to mitosis is generated in the leaves and its movement out of the leaves begins around 16 hours after the start of the inductive treatment. The mitotic wave in the meristem culminates 10 hours later. In this paper, it is shown that a single application of a cytokinin (benzyladenine or zeatin) at concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 ?g/ml directly to the apical bud of vegetative plants, at a time corresponding to the time of movement of the mitotic trigger in induced plants, produces a mitotic wave which is very similar to that found in induced plants. It is thus proposed that the mitotic component of the floral stimulus in Sinapis is a cytokinin. As the cytokinins are completely unable to induce flowering, it appears that there is a multicomponent floral stimulus in this species. PMID:16660076

  4. Antioxidant capacity and HPLC-DAD-MS profiling of Chilean peumo (Cryptocarya alba) fruits and comparison with German peumo (Crataegus monogyna) from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with UV detection and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the generation of chemical fingerprints and the identification of phenolic compounds in peumo fruits and aerial parts from southern Chile. Thirty three compounds (19 of these detected in C. alba and 23 in C. monogyna) were identified, mainly flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoid aglycons. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content was measured for both species, and were higher in the extracts from C. monogyna fruits and aerial parts than extracts from C. alba. The fruits of Cryptocarya alba (Chilean peumo) presented high antioxidant capacity (9.12 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay), but was three times lower to that of Crataegus monogyna (German peumo) (3.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23385342

  5. Temporal effects on the composition of a population of Sinorhizobium meliloti associated with Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba.

    PubMed

    Bromfield, E S; Butler, G; Barran, L R

    2001-06-01

    An assessment was made of the impact of temporal separation on the composition of a population of Sinorhizobium meliloti associated with Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a single site that had no known history of alfalfa cultivation. Root nodules were sampled on six occasions over two seasons, and a total of 1620 isolates of S. meliloti were characterized on the basis of phage sensitivity using 16 typing phages. Plant infection tests indicated that symbiotic S. meliloti were deficient in the soil at the time of planting and that these bacteria were present at low density during the first season (<10(2)/g of soil); in the second season numbers increased markedly to about 10(5)/g of soil. Overall, 37 and 51 phage types, respectively, were encountered among the nodule isolates from M. sativa and M. alba. The data indicate significant temporal shifts in the frequency and diversity of types associated with the two legume species. Apparent temporal variation with respect to the frequency of types appeared largely unpredictable and was not attributable to any one sampling time. The results indicate an apparent reduction in phenotypic diversity over the course of the experiment. Differential host plant selection of specific types with respect to nodule occupancy was indicated by significant interactions between legume species and either the frequency or diversity of phage types. Isolates from M. sativa that were resistant to lysis by all typing phages (type 14) were unusual in that they were predominant on this host at all sampling times (between 53% and 82% nodule occupancy) and were relatively homogeneous on the basis of DNA hybridization with 98% of the isolates analysed sharing the same nod EFG hybridization profile. In contrast, those isolates from M. alba comprising type 14 were encountered at low total frequency (2%) and were genetically heterogeneous on the basis of Southern hybridization. The implications of the observed temporal and host plant variation for ecological studies are discussed. PMID:11467732

  6. Fractional CO2 laser as an effective modality in treatment of striae alba in skin types III and IV

    PubMed Central

    Naein, Farahnaz Fatemi; Soghrati, Mehrnaz

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rapid stretching of the skin over the weak connective tissue leads to development of striae distensae. Recently, researchers have shown special interest towards use of fractional photothermolysis in treatment of striae and several studies have shown its usefulness. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of Fractional CO2 laser in treatment of striae alba. Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial was carried out in female patients with striae alba. Ninety two striae were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Five sessions of laser resurfacing, were performed in Group 1, every 2–4 weeks. Group 2 was treated with 10% glycolic acid+0.05% tretinoin cream nightly during the study. Photographs were taken from the striae before and two weeks after the end of treatment. Mean surface area of striae compared between two groups. Patients’ views regarding the degree of improvement were assessed via visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Forty six striae in Group 1 underwent laser resurfacing and 46 matched striae in Group 2, were treated with topical cream. Mean difference of striae surface area, was significantly decreased after treatment in Group 1 (-37.1±15.6 cm2) in comparison with Group 2(-7.9±9 cm2) (P value >0.001). Mean VAS was significantly higher in Group 1 (3.05±0.74) compared to Group 2 (0.63±0.66) (P value >0.001). Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis via Fractional CO2 laser seems to be an effective method for treatment of striae alba. PMID:23825991

  7. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in the Barn owl (Aves: Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Burri, Reto; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Roulin, Alexandre; Fumagalli, Luca

    2008-09-01

    We isolated major histocompatibility complex class II B (MHCIIB) genes in the Barn owl (Tyto alba). A PCR-based approach combined with primer walking on genomic and complementary DNA as well as Southern blot analyses revealed the presence of two MHCIIB genes, both being expressed in spleen, liver, and blood. Characteristic structural features of MHCIIB genes as well as their expression and high non-synonymous substitution rates in the region involved in antigen binding suggest that both genes are functional. MHC organization in the Barn owl is simple compared to passerine species that show multiple duplications, and resembles the minimal essential MHC of chicken. PMID:18548243

  8. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    PubMed

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n?=?1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls. PMID:21564947

  9. The 2?-O-glucosylation of vitexin and isovitexin in petals of Silene alba is catalysed by two different enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Heinsbroek; J. van Brederode; G. van Nigtevecht; J. Maas; J. Kamsteeg; E. Besson; J. Chopin

    1980-01-01

    Two separate genes, Fg and Vg, which govern the presence of isovitexin 2?-O-glucoside and vitexin 2?-O-glucoside respectively in the petals of Silene alba control different glucosyltransferases. In Vg\\/Vg,fg\\/fg plants no isovitexin 2?-O-glucosyltransferase was present and in vg\\/vg,Fg\\/Fg plants no vitexin 2?-O-glucosyltransferase activity could be detected. The Fg-controlled UDP-glucose: isovitexin 2?-O-glucosyltransferase has a pH optimum of8.5, while the Vg-controlled vitexin 2?-

  10. Preparation of Three Flavonoids from the Bark of Salix alba by High?Speed Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qizhen Du; Gerold Jerz; Peter Winterhalter

    2005-01-01

    The main flavonoids from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae) were separated on preparative scale using high?speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). In each separation, 1.0 g crude extract was applied to yield pure eriodictyol (120 mg), 5,7?dihydroxychromen?4?one (29.5 mg), and naringenin (50 mg), respectively, while water–methanol–ethyl acetate–n?hexane (3:2:2:2, v\\/v) was used for a two?phase solvent system. The chemical structures of three flavonoids were elucidated

  11. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

    2014-06-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

  12. Self-(in)compatibility inheritance and allele-specific marker development in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) has a sporophytic self-incompatibility reproduction system. Genetically stable self-incompatible (SI) and self-compatible (SC) inbred lines have recently been developed in this crop. Understanding the S haplotype of different inbred lines and the inheritance of the self-(in)compatibility (SI/SC) trait is very important for breeding purposes. In this study, we used the S-locus gene-specific primers in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea to clone yellow mustard S-locus genes of SI lines Y514 and Y1130 and SC lines Y1499 and Y1501. The PCR amplification results and DNA sequences of the S-locus genes revealed that Y514 carried the class I S haplotype, while Y1130, Y1499, and Y1501 had the class II S haplotype. The results of our genetic studies indicated that self-incompatibility was dominant over self-compatibility and controlled by a one-gene locus in the two crosses of Y514 × Y1499 and Y1130 × Y1501. Of the five S-locus gene polymorphic primer pairs, Sal-SLGI and Sal-SRKI each generated one dominant marker for the SI phenotype of Y514; Sal-SLGII and Sal-SRKII produced dominant marker(s) for the SC phenotype of Y1501 and Y1499; Sal-SP11II generated one dominant marker for Y1130. These markers co-segregated with the SI/SC phenotype in the F2 populations of the two crosses. In addition, co-dominant markers were developed by mixing the two polymorphic primer pairs specific for each parent in the multiplex PCR, which allowed zygosity to be determined in the F2 populations. The SI/SC allele-specific markers have proven to be very useful for the selection of the desirable SC genotypes in our yellow mustard breeding program. PMID:24482603

  13. Lysophosphatidate acyltransferase in the microsomes from maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba)

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yizhi; Oo, Khaikcheang; Huang, A.H.C. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthese alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of the two acyl acceptors and oleoyl CoA, but only the meadowfoam enzyme could use erucoyl CoA as the acyl donor to produce dierucoyl phosphatidic acid (PA). The meadowfoam enzyme was studied further. It had an optimal activity at pH 7 to 8, and its activity was inhibited by 1 millimolar MnCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, or p-chloromercuribenzoate. In a test of substrate specificity using increasing concentrations of either 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and either oleoyl CoA or erucoyl CoA, the enzyme activity in producing PA was highest for dioleoyl-PA, followed successively by 1-oleoyl-2-erucoyl-PA, dierucoyl-PA, and 1-erucoyl-2-oleoyl-PA. In a test of substrate selectivity using a fixed combined concentration, but varying proportions, of 1-oleoyl-LPA and 1-erucoyl-LPA, and of oleoyl CoA and erucoyl CoA, the enzyme showed a pattern of acyl preference similar to that observed in the test of substrate specificity, but the preference toward oleoyl moiety in the substrates was slightly stronger. The meadowfoam microsomes could convert ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate to diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the presence of erucoyl CoA.

  14. Acaricidal constituents isolated from Sinapis alba L. seeds and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-11-12

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) were isolated from Sinapis alba L. seeds and their effects against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were evaluated using the impregnated fabric disk method. The LD 50 values of their compounds and derivatives were then compared with those of a commercial acaricide, benzyl benzoate. On the basis of the LD 50 values against D. farinae, PEITC (0.21 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by benzyl isothiocyanate (0.55 microg/cm(2)), phenyl isothiocyanate (1.09 microg/cm(2)), butyl isothiocyanate (1.24 microg/cm(2)), and AITC (1.36 microg/cm(2)); acetyl isothiocyanate (195.01 microg/cm(2)) was the least toxic. In addition, the acaricidal effects of AITC and PEITC against D. farinae were 7.4- and 47.8-fold greater than those of benzyl benzoate, respectively. Against D. pteronyssinus, PEITC was the most toxic (0.19 microg/cm(2)), followed by benzyl isothiocyanate (0.77 microg/cm(2)), phenyl isothiocyanate (1.37 microg/cm(2)), butyl isothiocyanate (1.50 microg/cm(2)), and AITC (2.88 microg/cm(2)); acetyl isothiocyanate (168.82 microg/cm(2)) was the least toxic. AITC and PEITC were 3.3- and 50.4-fold more active than benzyl benzoate against D. pteronyssinus, respectively. Taken together, these findings indicate that AITC, PEITC, and partial derivatives may be useful as preventive agents against dust mites. In addition, these results indicate that structure-activity is related to the aromatic structure, the number of carbon atoms, and the compounds hydrophobicity. PMID:18844359

  15. Activity of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal Glucolimnanthin Degradation Products against Soil-Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    ZASADA, INGA A; WEILAND, JERRY E; REED, RALPH L; STEVENS, JAN F

    2014-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oil seed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soil-borne pathogens. To maximize the pest suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soil-borne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soil-borne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic compound against all of the soil-borne pathogens with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC50 values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20 to 40 times lower than estimated EC50 mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

  16. The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P.; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

  17. La posesión como hecho punible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Christian Schroeder

    Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

  18. Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings (Tyto alba): insurance against scarcity of energy or water?

    PubMed

    Durant, Joël M; Landys, Meta M; Handrich, Yves

    2008-07-01

    European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors and seabirds). To experimentally determine whether the overshoot in body mass in juvenile European barn owls (Tyto alba) may act as an energy reservoir, we compared the body composition of owl chicks raised on an ad libitum diet to those fed a restricted diet designed to eliminate the overshoot. Chicks raised on the two diets were also compared for differences in maturation of diverse functions (e.g., locomotion) and tissues (e.g., skeletal development). Contrary to expectations, our results on body composition in juvenile barn owls indicate that the mass overshoot prior to fledging is primarily comprised of an increased water compartment. Thus, we suggest that the mass overshoot in owls (and possibly in other species) does not serve as an energy reservoir but, rather, may function as an insurance against dehydration when hot in-nest conditions force chicks to rely on evaporative cooling: temperatures in barn owl nests can reach up to 43 degrees C. We found no significant differences in maturation indexes between diet treatments at the time of fledging. PMID:18196248

  19. A regulatory approach on low temperature induced enzymatic and anti oxidative status in leaf of Pui vegetable (Basella alba)

    PubMed Central

    Shahidul Haque, Md.; Monirul Islam, Md.; Abdur Rakib, Md.; Asraful Haque, Md.

    2013-01-01

    Basella alba is a soft green vegetable, survives in adverse environmental circumstances, for example, very cold temperature although the mechanism and the temperature sensitivity in this species are not clarified. Pot experiment for cultivation of B. alba was carried out to examine the effects of low temperature on the synthesis of two enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) in leaf of this plant. They were exposed to 8 °C for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h periods and the respective controls were kept in ambient room temperature for the above mentioned time. Low temperature causes the higher activity of PPO and the threshold level was found after 48 h period when compared to the respective controls. The activity was higher at 10 mM catechol, substrate for this enzyme, than 100 mM and 200 mM concentration, however, the three doses yielded the gradual increase in activity. Similar stimulatory effects on peroxidase (POD) activity in leaf were observed whenever the plants were exposed to cold for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h periods and maximal after 48 h period. Our findings demonstrate that the higher activity of these enzymes in leaf might be an index for the regulatory mechanism of the survival of these species in such adverse environment. PMID:25183947

  20. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

    2013-03-01

    Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

  1. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Pattiram, Parveen Devi; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and ?-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25609924

  2. Forces and deformations of the abdominal wall--a mechanical and geometrical approach to the linea alba.

    PubMed

    Förstemann, T; Trzewik, J; Holste, J; Batke, B; Konerding, M A; Wolloscheck, T; Hartung, C

    2011-02-24

    Force-elongation responses of the human abdominal wall in the linea alba region were determined by tensile tests in which the linea alba was seen to exhibit a nonlinear elastic, anisotropic behavior as is frequently observed in soft biological tissues. In addition, the geometry of the abdominal wall was determined, based on MRI data. The geometry can be specified by principal radii of curvature in longitudinal of approximately 470 mm and in the transverse direction of about 200 mm. The determined radii agree with values found in other studies. Mechanical stresses, deformations and abdominal pressures for load cases above 6% elongation can be related using Laplace's formula and our constitutive and geometrical findings. Results from uni- and biaxial tensile tests can thus be compared using this model. Calculations confirm that abdominal pressures of approximately 20 kPa correspond to related biaxial forces of about 3.4N/mm in the transverse and 1.5 N/mm in the longitudinal direction. Young's moduli can be calculated with respect to the uniaxial as well as the biaxial loading. At these physiological loadings, a compliance ratio of about 2:1 between the longitudinal and transversal directions is found. Young's moduli of about 50 kPa occur in transversal direction and of about 20 kPa in longitudinal direction at transverse and longitudinal strains both in the order of 6%. These findings coincide with results from other investigations in which the properties of the abdominal wall have been examined. PMID:21130459

  3. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Pattiram, Parveen Devi; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and ?-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25609924

  4. Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials Materials and methods In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Results All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains. Conclusion The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections. PMID:22364123

  5. Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl, Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre Roulin

    2004-01-01

    When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Tyto alba) broods, I assessed the role of

  6. Monitoring non-natural mortality in the barn owl ( Tyto alba), as an indicator of land use and social awareness in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iñigo Fajardo

    2001-01-01

    Non-natural mortality patterns in the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in Central Spain between 1990 and 1999. The data are compared to those from the same area in the previous decade (1983–1989). Seasonal mortality has changed significantly presumably due to the recent plagues of field voles (Microtus arvalis). Results show a clear shift in mortality patterns, with reduced levels

  7. RNA synthesis in the cells of the apical meristem of Sinapis alba during transition from the vegetative to the reproductive condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bronchart; G. Bernier; J.-M. Kinet; A. Havelange

    1970-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Sinapis alba, a long-day species, were induced to flower by exposure to a single 20-hr long day. RNA synthesis in the apical meristem of vegetative (control) and induced plants was investigated by using 3H-uridine and autoradiography of sections.

  8. The influences of increased CO 2 and water supply on growth, biomass allocation and water use efficiency of Sinapis alba L. grown under different wind speeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Retuerto; F. I. Woodward

    1993-01-01

    We examined how independent and interactive effects of CO2 concentrations, water supply and wind speed affect growth rates, biomass partitioning, water use efficiency, diffusive conductance and stomatal density of plants. To test the prediction that wind stress will be ameliorated by increased CO2 and\\/or by unrestricted water supply we grew Sinapis alba L. plants in controlled chambers under combinations of

  9. Salicylic acid-mediated establishment of the compatibility between Alternaria brassicicola and Brassica juncea is mitigated by abscisic acid in Sinapis alba.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Das, Srirupa; Saha, Upala; Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Bannerjee, Kaushik; Basu, Debabrata

    2013-09-01

    This work addresses the changes in the phytohormonal signature in the recognition of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by susceptible Brassica juncea and resistant Sinapis alba. Although B. juncea, S. alba and Arabidopsis all belong to the same family, Brassicaceae, the phytohormonal response of susceptible B. juncea towards this pathogen is unique because the latter two species express non-host resistance. The differential expression of the PR1 gene and the increased level of salicylic acid (SA) indicated that an SA-mediated biotrophic mode of defence response was triggered in B. juncea upon challenge with the pathogen. Compared to B. juncea, resistant S. alba initiated enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses following challenge with this pathogen, as revealed by monitoring the expression of ABA-related genes along with the concentration of ABA and JA. Furthermore, these results were verified by the exogenous application of ABA on B. juncea leaves prior to challenge with A. brassicicola, which resulted in a delayed disease progression, followed by the inhibition of the pathogen-mediated increase in SA response and enhanced JA levels. Therefore, it seems that A. brassicicola is steering the defence response towards a biotrophic mode by mounting an SA response in susceptible B. juncea, whereas the enhanced ABA response of S. alba not only counteracts the SA response but also restores the necrotrophic mode of resistance by enhancing JA biosynthesis. PMID:23770593

  10. Prokaryotic features of a nucleus-encoded enzyme. cDNA sequences for chloroplast and cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from mustard (Sinapis alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William MARTIN; Riidiger CERFF

    1986-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, encoding cytosolic and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) from mustard (Sinapis alba), have been identified and sequenced. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with one another and with the GAPDH sequences from animals, yeast and bacteria demonstrates that nucleus- encoded subunit A of chloroplast GAPDH is distinct from its cytosolic counterpart and the other eukaryotic sequences and

  11. Phytochrome action in light-grown plants: the influence of light quality and fluence rate on extension growth in Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Wall; C. B. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Using light-grown plants of Sinapis alba an analysis has been made of the effect on extension growth of adding far red light to a background photosynthetic source. It has been possible to distinguish between the increase in fluence rate and the reduction of the amount of phytochrome present as Pfr, which are both consequences of the addition of supplementary far

  12. First joint record of Mesopithecus and cf. Macaca in the Miocene David M. Alba a,b,*, Eric Delson c,d

    E-print Network

    Delson, Eric

    First joint record of Mesopithecus and cf. Macaca in the Miocene of Europe David M. Alba a Available online 15 December 2013 Keywords: Colobinae Cercopithecinae Fossil monkeys Miocene Moncucco-evaporitic Messinian (5.40e5.33 Ma, MN13, latest Turolian, latest Miocene) locality of Moncucco Torinese (Tertiary

  13. Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Botelho, Marco A.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; da Costa, José Galberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis. Objective: This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact. Results: The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. PMID:22262937

  14. A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, J.

    1980-03-01

    Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

  15. Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) Has Equivalent Effects to Green and Black Tea Decoctions on Antioxidant Processes and Some Metabolic Parameters in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakia Ben Abid; Moncef Feki; Abderrazek Hédhili; Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to compare the long-term effects of Artemisia herba-alba Asso decoction with a green or black tea decoction, prepared without sugar, on the antioxidant processes in rats. Methods: The direct parameters used in the control of antioxidant processes were total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase activity and conjugated dienes, as early markers of lipid peroxidation. However, the indirect

  16. Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea: Patterns of Spore Deposition in Experimental Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janis Antonovics; Helen Miller Alexander

    1992-01-01

    Experimental populations of Silene alba consisting of healthy individuals and individuals infected by the anther-smut fungus Ustilago violacea were used to examine the effect of density and frequency of diseased individuals on spore deposition on healthy flowers. The results showed increasing spore deposition with increasing frequency but not density. Similar trends were observed for pollen deposition on females. The results

  17. UPLC-PDA determination of paeoniflorin in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba and its effects on rats with collagen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    WU, DAN; CHEN, JIANG; ZHU, HAO; XIONG, XIN-GUI; LIANG, QING-HUA; ZHANG, YANG; ZHANG, YONG; WANG, YANG; YANG, BO; HUANG, XI

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease with characteristics of chronic, progressive inflammatory joint synovial damage, which mainly encroaches upon the synovium of the joint. The use of traditional medicine to treat RA slows the development of RA to a certain extent; however, it often has numerous side-effects. Therefore, the focus of RA research is the identification of a new, safe and effective medicine. The aim of the present study was to use an ultra performance liquid chromatography and photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) method to detect the paeoniflorin component in a Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction and in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction. In addition, the effects of paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats were investigated. The results indicate that a UPLC-PDA method for determining the presence of paeoniflorin in the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction was successfully established. The method was fast, simple, sensitive, precise and valid. Paeoniflorin was shown to be a bioactive component of the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction that was absorbed into rat plasma. Paeoniflorin significantly improved the disease resistant ability of RA rats and reduced the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1? and TNF-?, thereby inhibiting inflammation and bone erosion in the rats with CIA. The observations are likely to lay the foundation for further study of the mechanism of paeoniflorin in the treatment of RA. PMID:24348792

  18. The parallel expression of metal tolerance in pollen and sporophytes of Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., S. alba (mill.) krause and Mimulus guttatus DC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Searcy; D. L. Mulcahy

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine if heavy metal tolerance was expressed in pollen and if its expression was correlated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Clones of Silene dioica, tolerant to zinc, closely related but nontolerant S. alba and clones of Mimulus guttatus tolerant and sensitive to copper were grown in the greenhouse in either standard

  19. Análisis comparado de las regurgitaciones de la lechuza de los campanarios tyto alba (aves: Strigiformes, tytonidae) en el partido de general alvarado, provincia de buenos aires, argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María S. Bargo

    1987-01-01

    In a sample of 91 pellets of the Barn Owl Tyto alba a total of 232 small mammals could be identified. They belong to the didelphid Monodelphis dimidiata, the caviids Cavia aperea and Galea musleloides, the cricetids Akodon azarae, Calomys spec., Cabreramys obscurus, Reithrodon auritus, Oxymycterus rutilans, and the murid Mus musculus. The pellets were collected on the coastal cliff

  20. FOOD NICHE OF ATHENE NOCTUA (SCOPOLI, 1769) AND TYTO ALBA (SCOPOLI, 1769) (AVES: STRIGIFORMES) CO-EXISTING IN ONE REGION OF THE UPPER TRACIAN VALLEY (SOUTH BULGARIA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    The method of pellet content analysis was used to study the two co- existing owlsspecies diets in a village region (Trankovo village, Upper Tracian Valley, South Bulgaria, UTM: MG08). More than 350 pellets (minimum 802 diet components) from Athene noctua and Tyto alba were gathered and analyzed after the autumn-winter periods of 1999 and 2003. The main prey, most similarity

  1. Plasticity of morphological and physiological traits in response to different levels of irradiance in seedlings of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Robakowski; Pierre Montpied; Erwin Dreyer

    2003-01-01

    The ability of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) to acclimate to different levels of irradiance was tested with 3-year-old seedlings, grown for 2 years in a nursery close to Nancy (eastern France) under 100, 48, 18 and 8% of incident irradiance (neutral shade nets). Growth, total nutrients in needles, maximal carboxylation rate ( V cmax), maximal light driven electron flow

  2. Figure 1. Current species distribution and modern pollen samples available for: a) the silver fir (Abies alba); b) the beech (Fagus sylvatica); c) the spruce (Picea abies). Projection

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    calibrated with fossil data and projected on current climate for the spruce (Picea abies). Results (Abies alba); b) the beech (Fagus sylvatica); c) the spruce (Picea abies). Projection: Albers equal area conic; datum: European 1950. #12;#12;Figure 2a. SDMs calibrated with fossil data and projected

  3. Testing the potential of White mustard (Sinapis alba) and Sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima) as trap crops for the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten de Groot; Karin Winkler; Roel P. J. Potting

    Ideal characteristics of a plant species implemented in a trap cropping strategy are a high attractivity to ovipositing adults, and a low suitability for larval development. The potential of the crucifers Sinapis alba (L.) and Lobularia maritima (L.) as trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was evaluated. The larval performance on the trap crop plants

  4. Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples. PMID:24381637

  5. LA BIOÉTICA COMO QUEHACER FILOSÓFICO

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jorge José

    2009-01-01

    El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

  6. Can the Hyperaccumulating Plant Arabidopsis halleri in Feed Influence a Given Consumer Organism (Rattus norvegicus var. alba)?

    PubMed

    Válek, Petr; Sloup, Vladislav; Jankovská, Ivana; Langrová, Iva; Száková, Ji?ina; Miholová, Daniela; Horáková, Barbora; K?ivská, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Zinc and cadmium concentrations in rat (Rattus norvegicus var. alba) tissues were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Rats were fed the zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulating plant, Arabidopsis halleri. When compared to the control group, a Cd increase in all tissues (liver, kidneys, small intestine, spleen, testes, muscle), with the exception of bone tissue was observed. In comparison to the control group, the kidneys, liver and small intestine contained 375, 162, and 80 times more Cd, respectively. Differences between zinc concentrations in rats fed with A. halleri and those of the control group were significant only in the small intestine and kidney tissues. Results suggest using the hyperaccumulating plant A. halleri as a feed stresses the consumer organism not through its Zn content, but through its Cd content. PMID:25917848

  7. Transfer of resistance to the beet cyst nematode ( Heterodera Schachtii Schm.) from Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) to the Brassica napus L. gene pool by means of sexual and somatic hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. C. Lelivelt; E. H. M. Leunissen; H. J. Frederiks; J. P. F. G. Helsper; F. A. Krens

    1993-01-01

    Sexual and somatic hybrid plants have been produced between Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) and Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape), with the aim to transfer resistance to the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schm. (BCN) from white mustard into the oil-seed rape gene pool. Only crosses between diploid accessions of S. alba (2n = 24, Sa1Sa1) as the pistillate parent

  8. Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the ALBA synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuní, Guifré; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolás, Josep; Lidón, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

  9. Proteomic differences in seed filling between yellow-seeded progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba (Brassicaceae) and black-seeded parent B. napus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Wang, J; Li, A; Zhang, Y; Sokolov, V; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    Comparative proteomics of seed filling between yellow-seeded progeny from somatic hybrids Brassica napus-Sinapis alba and black-seeded parent (B. napus) were taken out using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The process indicated distinct differences in 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 weeks after fertilization (WAF) and mature seed. A total of 8 out of the 27 discriminate proteins were identified by mass spectrum analysis and MASCOT comparison, including protein kinase, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and dioxygenase. PCR primers contrived for the putative genes were applied for further identification of progenies and both parents, which indicated that spot A3-5 might be the novel protein of intergeneric hybrid, i.e., A5-2 derived from S. alba. Applying these specific primers, this study demonstrates that the new yellow-seeded germplasm is different from the existing yellow seed materials of rapeseed. PMID:22730767

  10. Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence mixed deciduous forests became important. Preliminary results of palynological analyses for a section of the core S2 (35.04 - 18.12 m), show Late Glacial sediments in the depth of 35.04 - 31.16 m, due to vegetation changes related to natural climatic variability, with an alternation of communities typical of cold (Poaceae, Artemisia, Juniperus, Pinus and Betula) and temperate climates (e.g. Quercus). Later, during the Holocene, forests composed by mostly deciduous broadleaves and Abies alba expanded. During the mid and late Holocene human impact increased and modified vegetation. This is shown by the increase of herbs and heliofilous shrubs (26.51 m), typical of deforested spaces for fields and pastures. Human exploitation of wood is represented for example by the dramatic decline of Abies alba (24.97 m). Finally, the increase of Cerealia (19.39 m) is clearly related to intensified agricultural activities. The results of further paleobotanical and geophysical analyses which are in progress will be presented during the conference. Moreover, geochemical measurements (e.g., XRF) will be performed in future for core S2. Researches realized within the project of Italy-Switzerland Cooperation SITINET "Censimento, valorizzazione e messa in rete di siti geologici e archeologici" (Census, increase of value and computerization of geological and archaeological sites). Interreg IV A "Geo-Archeositi dell'Insubria" (Geo-Archaeosites of Insubria).

  11. The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). I: Total heat loss, boundary layer and total resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

    1997-01-01

    1.1. The sensible heat loss and thermal resistance of a barn owl (Tyto alba) were determined using a heat transfer model in a wind tunnel.2.2. Heat loss was a linear function of wind speed and increased by 60% between 0 and 7 m s?1. Wetting the model increased heat loss by 30%.3.3. Boundary layer resistance of the model decreased from

  12. A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blackstock

    1980-01-01

    Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from\\u000a industrial installations.Glycera alba (Mller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding\\u000a metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase\\u000a activities were

  13. Prospective clinical and histological study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a targeted high?intensity narrow band UVB\\/UVA1 therapy for striae alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil S. Sadick; Cynthia Magro; Alison Hoenig

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a targeted narrow band UVB\\/UVA1 therapy for the treatment of striae alba. Methods: Fourteen individuals with skin types II-VI were enrolled in this 22-week trial that consisted of up to 10 treatments with a combination of UVB\\/UVA1 (MultiClear2, Curelight Ltd, Israel). Participants were treated with a

  14. Detection of celery ( Apium graveolens ), mustard ( Sinapis alba , Brassica juncea , Brassica nigra ) and sesame ( Sesamum indicum ) in food by real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mustorp; C. Engdahl-Axelsson; U. Svensson; A. Holck

    2008-01-01

    Legislation requires labelling of foods containing allergic ingredients, amongst them celery, mustard and sesame. Here we\\u000a present robust quantitative and sensitive methods for real-time PCR detection of celery, mustard (Sinapis alba and Brassica sp.) and sesame in food. The development of the DNA-based assays was part of an effort to generate alternative detection\\u000a methods for allergens for which effective protein-based

  15. Sucrose increase during floral induction in the phloem sap collected at the apical part of the shoot of the long-day plant Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Lejeune; Georges Bernier; Marie-Christine Requier; Jean-Marie Kinet

    1993-01-01

    Sinapis alba L., a long-day plant, has been induced to flower either by a single 22-h-long photoperiod or by an 8-h short photoperiod displaced by 10 h in a 24 h cycle. The ehtylenediametetraacetate method previously used for leaf exudation was modified to collect phloem sap at the apical part of the shoot. Carbohydrates in the phloem sap have been

  16. Appearance of nitrite reductase in cotyledons of the mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) seedling as affected by nitrate, phytochrome and photooxidative damage of plastids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Rajasekhar; H. Mohr

    1986-01-01

    Nitrite reductase (NIR; EC 1.7.7.1) is a central enzyme in nitrate assimilation and is localized in plastids. The present study concerns the regulation of the appearance of NIR in cotyledons of the mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedling. It was shown that light exerts its positive control over the nitrate-mediated induction of NIR via the farred-absorbing form of phytochrome. Without nitrate

  17. The chloroplast tRNA Lys (UUU) gene from mustard ( Sinapis alba ) contains a class II intron potentially coding for a maturase-related polypeptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Neuhaus; Gerhard Link

    1987-01-01

    The trnK gene endocing the tRNALys (UUU) has been located on mustard (Sinapis alba) chloroplast DNA, 263 by upstream of the psbA gene on the same strand. The nucleotide sequence of the trnK gene and its flanking regions as well as the putative transcription start and termination sites are shown. The 5' end of the transcript lies 121 by upstream

  18. Phytochrome-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons. Enzymic control and differential regulation of anthocyanin and quercetin formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Beggs; Karl Kuhn; Rita Böcker; Eckard Wellmann

    1987-01-01

    Phytochrome-induced increases in enzyme activities for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and chalcone isomerase (EC 5.5.1.6), and in amounts of the related end products, anthocyanin and the flavonol, quercetin, were measured in cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.). There was no correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the rate of anthocyanin accumulation; however, some correlation was found with the

  19. Behavior of mustard seed ( Sinapis alba L.) myrosinase during temperature\\/pressure treatments: a case study on enzyme activity and stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Van Eylen; I. Oey; M. Hendrickx; A. Van Loey

    2008-01-01

    The activity of myrosinase, an enzyme found mainly in Brassicaceae, is influenced by some intrinsic (e.g. pH, ascorbic acid) and extrinsic (e.g. temperature, pressure) factors. In this study,\\u000a the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the activity of mustard seed myrosinase (Sinapis alba L.) was determined in a buffer system and in broccoli juice. Ascorbic acid and to a

  20. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  1. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds. [Lunaria annua L. ; Sinapis alba L

    SciTech Connect

    Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D. (H.P. Kaufmann Institute, Muenster (West Germany))

    1990-10-01

    Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols.

  2. The effect of soil bioaugmentation with strains of Pseudomonas on Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by Sinapis alba L.

    PubMed

    P?ociniczak, T; Kukla, M; W?troba, R; Piotrowska-Seget, Z

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of selected metal resistant strains of the Pseudomonas genus to increase Zn, Cd and Cu uptake by the metalophyte Sinapis alba L. under laboratory conditions. Moreover, the mechanisms of the plant growth promotion in the tested strains and their impact on the shoots and roots of white mustard biomass were examined. Soil inoculation with the tested strains resulted in higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in the shoots and roots of the plants in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. The highest phytoextraction enhancement was caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens MH15 which increased Zn, Cd and Cu accumulation in shoot tissue by 60%, 96% and 31%, respectively, in comparison with control plants. Moreover, all the tested strains also exhibited a significant increase of Cd translocation from roots to shoots of the white mustard. Three Pseudomonas putida (MH3, MH6, MH7) and two P. fluorescens biotype G and C (MH9 and MH15, respectively) strains had the ability to produce siderophore, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid as well as hydrocyanic acid. Additionally, P. putida strains were also capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate. The ability of the tested strains to increase the metal uptake in white mustard and their plant growth-promoting properties make them good candidates for supporting heavy metal phytoextraction as well as for plant growth promoting. PMID:23561856

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography-based method to evaluate kinetics of glucosinolate hydrolysis by Sinapis alba myrosinase.

    PubMed

    Vastenhout, Kayla J; Tornberg, Ruthellen H; Johnson, Amanda L; Amolins, Michael W; Mays, Jared R

    2014-11-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are one of several hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, plant secondary metabolites that are substrates for the thioglucohydrolase myrosinase. Recent pursuits toward the development of synthetic non-natural ITCs have consequently led to an exploration of generating these compounds from non-natural glucosinolate precursors. Evaluation of the myrosinase-dependent conversion of select non-natural glucosinolates to non-natural ITCs cannot be accomplished using established ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic methods. To overcome this limitation, an alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based analytical approach was developed where initial reaction velocities were generated from nonlinear reaction progress curves. Validation of this HPLC method was accomplished through parallel evaluation of three glucosinolates with UV-Vis methodology. The results of this study demonstrate that kinetic data are consistent between both analytical methods and that the tested glucosinolates respond similarly to both Michaelis-Menten and specific activity analyses. Consequently, this work resulted in the complete kinetic characterization of three glucosinolates with Sinapis alba myrosinase, with results that were consistent with previous reports. PMID:25068719

  4. Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-06-16

    Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E(1), E(2), E(3), and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E(1) represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E(2) and E(3) originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5' untranslated region. E(3) was identical to E(2) but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E(2) and E(3) also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E(1), but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants. PMID:24934174

  5. [Comparison of chemical composition between raw and vinegar-baked Paeoniae Radix Alba using NMR based metabolomic approach].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Ma-Li; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-02-01

    To compare the chemical change of Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) after vinegar-baking processing, as well as the effect of vinegar types exerted on the processing, 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach combined with multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the different metabolites between the raw and two vinegar-baked PRA. More than thirty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectrum of PRA, and the multivariate statistical analysis showed that raw and two vinegar-baked PRA could be separated obviously. After vinegar-baking, the contents of isoleucine, lactate, alanine, arginine, albiflorin, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) elevated, while those of sucrose, paeoniflorin and its analogues (calculated by benzoate) decreased. The chemical compositions of two vinegar-baked PRA were also different. Shanxi vinegar- baked PRA showed higher levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, and albiflorin, while rice vinegar-baked PRA contained more sucrose and paeoniflorin's analogues (calculated by benzoate). And the chemical changes in Shanxi vinegar-baked PRA were greater than those of rice vinegar-baked PRA. The results revealed the chemical differences between raw and vinegar-baked PRA, as well as the influence of vinegar type on processing, in a holistic manner, the results obtained suggested that the correlations between the chemical change and the drug action after processing, as well as the vinegar type used in processing, should be further studied. PMID:25975031

  6. Pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation between co-occurring Mussaenda pubescens var. alba and M. shikokiana (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Luo, Zhonglai; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2014-04-01

    Reproductive isolation is a fundamental requirement for speciation and includes several sequential stages. Few studies have determined the relative contributions of pre- and post-zygotic reproductive isolation in plants, especially between relative species with clear differentiation in flower form. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for reproductive isolation in sympatric Mussaenda pubescens var. alba and Mussaenda shikokiana (Rubiaceae) in Guangxi Province, China, we made observations of flowering phenology, patterns of insect visitation, and conducted pollination experiments, including artificial hybridization. The two species had overlapping flowering times and were pollinated by overlapping pollinators; however, their relative importance differed significantly with M. pubescens visited more commonly by bees and M. shikokiana more frequently by butterflies. Using vegetative and floral characters and molecular evidence based on nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacer regions we detected seven naturally occurring hybrids among a sample of approximately 125 individuals. Hybrids were characterized by morphologies that most closely resembled their maternal parents based on chloroplast evidence. Studies of artificially synthesized and natural hybrids demonstrated that hybrid seed had very low germination rates and naturally occurring hybrids exhibited pollen sterility. Post-zygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms play a primary role in limiting gene exchange between co-occurring species and maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry. PMID:24299214

  7. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Magna Galvão; Costa-Júnior, Livio Martins; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Lima, Aldilene da Silva; Menezes, Thays Saynara Alves; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Bacci, Leandro; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2015-05-30

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Lippia alba essential oil, citral chemotypes (LA-10 and LA-44 genotypes) and carvone chemotypes (LA-13 and LA-57 genotypes), as well as purified citral and enantiomers of carvone and limonene. Efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. Citral chemotypes had greater larvicidal activity than carvone chemotypes, and this was further supported by larvicidal and adulticidal activity of purified citral with LC50 values of 7.0 and 29.8mg/mL, respectively. While purified enantiomers of carvone exhibited greater larvicidal activity than those of limonene, enantioselectivity of limonene was observed with R-(+) displaying significantly higher efficacy (LC50 of 31.2mg/mL) than S-(-) (LC50 of 54.5mg/mL). The essential oils and purified compounds were much less toxic toward engorged adult females, with the exception of citral, and this may be due to limited cuticular penetration. PMID:25837783

  8. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  9. [The metabolic fingerprint of the compatibility of Radix Aconite and Radix Paeoniae Alba and its effect on CYP450 enzymes].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Zheng, Zhong; Pi, Zi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Feng-Rui

    2014-12-01

    Using a UPLC-MS/MS (MRM) and cocktail probe substrates method, the metabolic fingerprint of the compatibility of Radix Aconite (RA) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and its effect on CYP450 enzymes were investigated. These main CYP isoforms include CYP 1A2, CYP 2C, CYP 2E1, CYP 2D and CYP 3A. Compared with the inhibition effect of RA decoctions on CYP450 isoforms, their co-decoctions of RA and RPA with different proportions can decrease RA' inhibition on CYP3A, CYP2D, CYP2C and CYP1A2, but can not reduce RA' effect on CYP2E1. The metabolic fingerprints of RA decoction and co-decoctions with different proportions of RPA in CYP450 of rat liver were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Compared with the metabolic fingerprints of RA decoction, the intensity of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids decreased significantly, while the intensity of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids significantly increased in the metabolic fingerprints of co-decoctions of RA and RPA. The results suggest that RA coadministration with RPA increased the degradation of toxic alkaloid and show the effect of toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing. PMID:25920201

  10. [Capillary electrophoresis with field-enhanced stacking for determination of water-soluble active principles in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqin; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Xiaoming; Jia, Baoxiu; Qi, Yongxiu

    2011-06-01

    A simple and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method with field-enhanced stacking concentration for the analysis of protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba was developed. The separation was achieved with a fused-silica capillary (75 microm x 50.2 cm, effective length was 40 cm) and a running buffer 15 mmol x L(-1) borax (pH 10.0) containing 20% CH3 OH. The UV detection wavelength was 210 nm. The applied voltage was 28 kV, and the cartridge temperature was 25 degrees C. Water plug was introduced from the anode by 0.5 psi x 4 s before injection. Sample was injected by electrokinetic injection - 8 kV x 3 s. The linear range of protocatechuic aldehyde is 3.0-60.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.999 8); that of protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are 1.0-20.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 are 0.999 1, 0.999 4, 0.998 9 and 0.999 8, respectively), and the limits of detection of five analyts are 0.55, 0.40, 0.25, 0.32, 0.38 microg x L(-1), respectively, Stacking factor is higher and precision is satisfactory. The recoveries ranges were from 97.3% to 99.8%. The proposed method was used to determine the protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate and high sensitivity, and can be used to control of the quality of S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. PMID:22779179

  11. Competitiveness and dry matter allocation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and two mustards (Sinapis alba L. and S. arvensis L.) under water stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Maataoui, A; Talouizte, A; Benbella, M; Bouhache, M

    2005-01-01

    In Morocco, oilseed rape is commonly exposed to mustards competition which are not totally controlled by herbicides. To understand the competitiveness of each species, growth parameters should be studied notably dry matter allocation. The objective of this study was to confirm the competitiveness of oilseed rape with regard to Sinapis alba and S. arvensis and to investigate how the dry matter is allocated. A pot experiment was undertaken with a quartz sand as substrate. Two plant densities were tested (one and two plants). The binary density was either a monoculture or a mixture. Half the pots were maintained at field moisture capacity and the other half was irrigated up to 70% of its water holding capacity. Dry matter allocation of each species at density two was compared to that of the same species at density one. Results of replacement series diagrams and those of the relative crowding coefficient (based on total dry matter) showed that Brassica napus was more competitive than S. alba. S. arvensis was the least competitive. Under competition, B. napus irrigated at water holding capacity allocated more dry matter to stem when compared to its dry matter at density one. Under the same condition, when reducing water supply, B. napus allocated more dry matter to leaves. In case of S. alba, dry matter percent in leaves and roots were respectively low and high in normally irrigated plant and inversely under water shortage. S. arvensis allocated high and low dry matter percent respectively to root than to leaves when sufficiently irrigated. But no clear tendency was noticed under water shortage, for this species. PMID:16363361

  12. Isolation of methyl 5c, 13c-docosadienoate from Limnanthes alba benth. (Meadowfoam) seed oil methyl esters by silver resin chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Adlof

    1988-01-01

    Multigram quantities of methyl 5c,13c-docosadienoate were isolated from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Benth.) oil methyl esters by silver resin chromatography. The fractionation was accomplished on a 4.7 × 45 cm Michel-Miller\\u000a column packed with silver ion-saturated XN1010 resin. Meadowfoam esters (ca. 14 g) were fractionated (acetone as eluent) to\\u000a yield 2.3-2.6 g batches (98% pure) of the 5c,13c-22:2 isomer (>95% recovery).

  13. Spontaneous activity of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl (Tyto alba): analyses of interspike interval distributions.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Köppl, Christine; Heil, Peter

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrate auditory systems, the conversion from graded receptor potentials across the hair-cell membrane into stochastic spike trains of the auditory nerve (AN) fibers is performed by ribbon synapses. The statistics underlying this process constrain auditory coding but are not precisely known. Here, we examine the distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) from spontaneous activity of AN fibers of the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal avian predator whose auditory system is specialized for precise temporal coding. The spontaneous activity of AN fibers, with the exception of those showing preferred intervals, is commonly thought to result from excitatory events generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process, which lead to spikes unless the fiber is refractory. We show that the ISI distributions in the owl are better explained as resulting from the action of a brief refractory period ( approximately 0.5 ms) on excitatory events generated by a homogeneous stochastic process where the distribution of interevent intervals is a mixture of an exponential and a gamma distribution with shape factor 2, both with the same scaling parameter. The same model was previously shown to apply to AN fibers in the cat. However, the mean proportions of exponentially versus gamma-distributed intervals in the mixture were different for cat and owl. Furthermore, those proportions were constant across fibers in the cat, whereas they covaried with mean spontaneous rate and with characteristic frequency in the owl. We hypothesize that in birds, unlike in mammals, more than one ribbon may provide excitation to most fibers, accounting for the different proportions, and that variation in the number of ribbons may underlie the variation in the proportions. PMID:19357334

  14. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  15. Low glucokinase activity and high rates of gluconeogenesis contribute to hyperglycemia in barn owls (Tyto alba) after a glucose challenge.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Klasing, K C

    1999-10-01

    Barn owls (Tyto alba) and leghorn chickens were fed a low protein high glucose (33.44% protein, 23.67% glucose) or a high protein low glucose (55.35% protein, 1.5% glucose) diet. After an intravenous glucose infusion, the peak in plasma glucose was not affected by diet in either species and was 22.6 and 39.4 mmol/L in chickens and barn owls, respectively. Glucose levels returned to normal within 30 min in chickens, but remained elevated for 3.5 h in barn owls. An oral glucose challenge also resulted in greater and longer hyperglycemia in barn owls than in chickens. The activities of hepatic glucokinase, malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase of barn owls were 16, 35, and 333% of the levels in chickens. Malic enzyme (P = 0.024) was less affected by dietary glucose level in barn owls than in chickens. Cultured hepatocytes from chickens produced 43% more glucose from lactate than hepatocytes from barn owls and, conversely, barn owl hepatocytes produced 87% more glucose from threonine than chickens (P = 0.001). Gluconeogenesis from lactate was greatly suppressed by high media glucose in chicken hepatocytes but not in those of barn owls (P = 0.0001 for species by glucose level interaction). When threonine was the substrate, gluconeogenesis was suppressed by increased glucose in both species but to a greater relative extent in chickens (P = 0.007 for species by glucose level interaction). Owls were glucose intolerant at least in part because of low hepatic glucokinase activity and an inadequate suppression of gluconeogenesis in the presence of exogenous glucose, apparently because they evolved with large excesses of amino acids and limited glucose in their normal diet. PMID:10498765

  16. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

  17. Modification of thiol contents in poplars (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arisi, A C; Noctor, G; Foyer, C H; Jouanin, L

    1997-01-01

    The hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) was transformed to express the Escherichia coli gene for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2: gamma-ECS) in the cytosol. Four transformed lines of poplar were obtained. These were phenotypically indistinguishable from untransformed poplars. Three lines, ggs28 (Noctor et al. 1996, Plant Physiol 112: 1071-1078), ggs11 and ggs5 possessed high levels of bacterial gene transcripts. Line ggs17 had lower transcript levels. Antisera were prepared against bacterial gamma-ECS and bacterial glutathione synthetase (EC 6.3.2.3: GS). Using the antiserum prepared against the purified His-tagged E. coli gamma-ECS, lines ggs28, ggs11 and ggs5 were shown to possess abundant quantities of the bacterial protein, whereas ggs17 contained lower amounts. The antiserum prepared against the purified His-tagged E. coli GS was also effective in screening poplars transformed with the E. coli gene coding for this enzyme. Immunoblots of leaf extracts from poplars overexpressing GS using this antibody revealed two bands. The extractable foliar gamma-ECS activities of the gamma-ECS transformants were in quantitative agreement with the protein levels. Lines ggs28, ggs11 and ggs5 had approximately 30-fold higher gamma-ECS activity than untransformed poplars, whereas in ggs17 this activity was only augmented about 3-fold. The lines strongly overexpressing gamma-ECS, ggs28, ggs11 and ggs5, contained enhanced foliar levels of cysteine (up to 2-fold), gamma-glutamylcysteine (5- to 20-fold) and glutathione (2- to 4-fold). Foliar thiol contents in ggs17 were no different to those of untransformed plants. PMID:9431683

  18. Biochemical and genetic analysis of a cutinase-type polyesterase from a thermophilic Thermobifida alba AHK119.

    PubMed

    Thumarat, Uschara; Nakamura, Ryota; Kawabata, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kawai, Fusako

    2012-07-01

    Recombinant polyesterase (Est119) from Thermobifida alba AHK119 was purified by two chromatography steps. The final protein was observed as a single band in SDS-PAGE, and the specific activity of Est119 for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was 2.30 u/mg. Purified Est119 was active with aliphatic and aliphatic-co-aromatic polyesters. Kinetic data indicated that p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) or hexanoate was the best substrate for Est119 among p-nitrophenyl acyl esters. Calcium was required for full activity and thermostability of Est119, which was stable at 50 °C for 16 h. Three-dimensional modeling and biochemical characterization showed that Est119 is a typical cutinase-type enzyme that has the compact ternary structure of an ?/?-hydrolase. Random and site-directed mutagenesis of wild-type Est119 resulted in improved activity with increased hydrophobic interaction between the antiparallel first and second ?-sheets (A68V had the greatest effect). Introduction of a proline residue (S219P) in a predicted substrate-docking loop increased the thermostability. The specific activity of the A68V/S219P mutant on pNPB was increased by more than 50-fold over the wild type. The mutant was further activated by 2.6-fold (299 u/mg) with 300 mM Ca(2+) and was stable up to 60 °C with 150 mM Ca(2+). Another identical gene was located in tandem in the upstream of est119. PMID:22183084

  19. Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Daycem; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Amouri, Sameh; Laouini, Dhafer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-05-01

    In this study, biological activities of methanolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. plants, collected in Centre of Tunisia, were investigated. Results showed an important phenolic composition of Artemisia herba-alba (123.95±4.3g GAE/kg of dry mass). The extract of this plant showed, using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and AAPH/linoleic acid methods) and an IFN-?/LPS induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages' assay, the highest antioxidant (IC50 (DPPH assay) 20.64±0.84mg/L) and anti-inflammatory (72% inhibition at 150mg/L) activities, respectively. Excepting Peganum harmala L. extract, the two other extracts showed a high anticancer activity against several cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 and human myelogenous leukemia K562), for A. herba-laba IC50=81.59±4.4, 59.05±3.66 and 90.96mg/L respectively, but not on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities. PMID:23333573

  20. Quantitative detection of allergenic protein Sin a 1 from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Shim, Youn-Young; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2008-02-27

    Allergy to yellow mustard (YM; Sinapis alba L.) seed proteins has been reported and is currently seen as a constraint that hampers expansion of YM protein utilization. The most predominant allergenic protein of YM seed has been recognized as Sin a 1. In this study, Sin a 1 was purified ( S. alba var. Andante), rabbit polyclonal antibodies (pAb) specific to Sin a 1 were generated, and a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed to detect and quantify Sin a 1 from YM. The S-ELISA method using Sin a 1-pAb and its horseradish peroxidase conjugate resulted in a detection limit of 0.3 microg/mL for purified Sin a 1. The Sin a 1 contents of six YM lines were in the range of 0.82-2.94 mg/g when assayed by the developed S-ELISA method. The results showed that S-ELISA could distinguish Sin a 1 in YM seed-derived extracts rapidly and could be applied in controlling and/or monitoring of YM allergenic proteins. PMID:18217709

  1. Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of Essential Oils from Different Biological Parts of Artemisia herba alba and Their Cytotoxic Effect on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilaoui, Mounir; Ait Mouse, Hassan; Jaafari, Abdeslam; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carrying out the chemical composition and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells from different biological parts of Artemisia herba alba. Methods Essential oils were studied by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and their antitumoral activity was tested against P815 mastocytoma and BSR kidney carcinoma cell lines; also, in order to evaluate the effect on normal human cells, oils were tested against peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs. Results Essential oils from leaves and aerial parts (mixture of capitulum and leaves) were mainly composed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes 39.89% and 46.15% respectively; capitulum oil contained essentially monoterpenes (22.86%) and monocyclic monoterpenes (21.48%); esters constituted the major fraction (62.8%) of stem oil. Essential oils of different biological parts studied demonstrated a differential antiproliferative activity against P815 and BSR cancer cells; P815 cells are the most sensitive to the cytotoxic effect. Leaves and capitulum essential oils are more active than aerial parts. Interestingly, no cytotoxic effect of these essential oils was observed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion Our results showed that the chemical composition variability of essential oils depends on the nature of botanical parts of Artemisia herba alba. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the differential cytotoxic effect depends not only on the essential oils concentration, but also on the target cells and the botanical parts of essential oils used. PMID:26196123

  2. Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.

    PubMed

    Krasnod?bska-Ostr?ga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

    2012-05-15

    Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures. PMID:22483918

  3. An open-flower mutant of Melilotus alba: Potential for floral-dip transformation of a papilionoid legume with a short life cycle?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ann M; Lee, Angie; Deng, Weimin; Tucker, Shirley C

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes an open-flower mutant, designated opf, that we discovered in a genetic screen of fast neutron bombardment mutants in an attempt at floral-dip transformation of Melilotus alba (Fabaceae; white sweetclover), an alternative papilionoid legume host for Sinorhizobium meliloti. The opf mutant developed flowers with reflexed sepals and petals, thereby exposing the stamens and carpel, whereas wild-type sweetclover inflorescences developed closed flowers where the young stamens and carpel remain covered during the early stages of flower development. Based on crosses with the wild type, the mutant segregated as a single, Mendelian recessive. Crosses were successful only when the opf mutant served as the female parent, suggesting that the mutant was male sterile. However, no obvious differences from wild-type stamen development were observed in the opf mutant. The anther defect was due to indehiscence. However, as the plants approached the end of their life cycle, the frequency of selfing increased. We also investigated whether the opf mutant could be transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens floral-dip infiltration because open flowers like those of Arabidopsis appear to be more readily transformable. However, similar to wild-type M. alba, the opf mutant is refractory to floral-dip transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PMID:21622403

  4. Genome-wide patterns of differentiation and spatially varying selection between postglacial recolonization lineages of Populus alba (Salicaceae), a widespread forest tree.

    PubMed

    Stölting, Kai N; Paris, Margot; Meier, Cécile; Heinze, Berthold; Castiglione, Stefano; Bartha, Denes; Lexer, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Studying the divergence continuum in plants is relevant to fundamental and applied biology because of the potential to reveal functionally important genetic variation. In this context, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides the necessary rigour for uncovering footprints of selection. We resequenced populations of two divergent phylogeographic lineages of Populus alba (n = 48), thoroughly characterized by microsatellites (n = 317), and scanned their genomes for regions of unusually high allelic differentiation and reduced diversity using > 1.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from WGS. Results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. On average, 9134 high-differentiation (? 4 standard deviations) outlier SNPs were uncovered between populations, 848 of which were shared by ? three replicate comparisons. Annotation revealed that 545 of these were located in 437 predicted genes. Twelve percent of differentiation outlier genome regions exhibited significantly reduced genetic diversity. Gene ontology (GO) searches were successful for 327 high-differentiation genes, and these were enriched for 63 GO terms. Our results provide a snapshot of the roles of 'hard selective sweeps' vs divergent selection of standing genetic variation in distinct postglacial recolonization lineages of P. alba. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the origin of functionally relevant variation in temperate trees. PMID:25817433

  5. Influence of pH on the growth and leaf-maceration ability of fungi involved in the decomposition of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba in an acid water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Kok; W. Haverkamp; H. A. Van Der Aa

    1992-01-01

    Ten species of fungi were isolated from floating leaves cut from plants of Nymphma alba in various initial stages of decay, which were collected from an acidic moorland pool. None of the fungal species isolated belonged to the aquatic Hyphomycetes sensu Ingold or the aero-aquatic fungi sensu Van Bevemijk. Growth experiments were conducted with five of the species on media

  6. Larval performance of the mustard leaf beetle ( Phaedon cochleariae, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) on white mustard ( Sinapis alba) and watercress ( Nasturtium officinale) leaves in dependence of plant exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Reifenrath; Caroline Müller

    2009-01-01

    Short-term exposure to ambient or attenuated ultraviolet (UV) radiation resulted in shifts in plant metabolite concentrations of the Brassicaceae Sinapis alba and Nasturtium officinale. Leaf quality also varied between plant species and within species due to age. Larvae of the oligophagous leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae were raised on these different host leaves, in order to investigate the effects of variable

  7. Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Jaramillo, Beatriz E; Martínez, Jairo René

    2004-01-30

    Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40-57%) was the most abundant component, followed by limonene (24-37%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5-22%), piperitenone (1-2%), piperitone (ca. 1.0%), and beta-bourbonene (0.6-1.5%), in the HD, SDE, MWHD, and SFE volatile fractions. Static headspace (S-HS), simultaneous purge and trap in solvent (CH2Cl2) (P&T), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were used to sample volatiles from fresh L. alba stems and leaves. The main components isolated from the headspace of the fresh plant material were limonene (27-77%), carvone (14-30%), piperitone (0.3-0.5%), piperitenone (ca. 0.4%), and beta-bourbonene (0.5-6.5%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of L. alba essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation was evaluated by determination of hexanal, the main carbonyl compound released by linoleic acid subjected to peroxidation (1 mm Fe2+, 37 degrees C, 12 h), and by quantification of this acid as its methyl ester. Under the same conditions, L. alba HD-essential oil and Vitamin E exhibited similar antioxidant effects. PMID:14753676

  8. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2011-10-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO(x) and O(3) concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO(2) concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO(x)/O(3) concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. PMID:21749937

  9. The parallel expression of metal tolerance in pollen and sporophytes of Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., S. alba (mill.) krause and Mimulus guttatus DC.

    PubMed

    Searcy, K B; Mulcahy, D L

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine if heavy metal tolerance was expressed in pollen and if its expression was correlated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Clones of Silene dioica, tolerant to zinc, closely related but nontolerant S. alba and clones of Mimulus guttatus tolerant and sensitive to copper were grown in the greenhouse in either standard potting soil or nutrient culture. Pollen was collected shortly after dehiscence, hydrated, and tested over a broad range of metal concentrations. The tolerance of the pollen source was determined by comparing root growth in solutions with and without heavy metals. In both Silene species and M. guttatus, the tolerance of the parental clone was expressed in its pollen. Pollen from tolerant individuals was able to germinate and grow at concentrations of metals which markedly inhibited pollen from nontolerants. PMID:24254019

  10. No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cornu, Catherine; Joseph, Pierre; Gaillard, Ségolène; Bauer, Christian; Vedrinne, Catherine; Bissery, Alvine; Melot, Ghislaine; Bossard, Nadine; Belon, Philippe; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Arnica montana is a popular homoeopathic treatment with potential haemostatic and anti-inflammatory properties. A homoeopathic combination of A. montana and Bryonia alba was used in aortic valve surgery to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing bleeding, inflammation, pain and myocardial ischaemia. METHODS One day before surgery, 92 adult patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind parallel trial with either homoeopathic granules or a matching placebo until 4 days after surgery. The primary outcome was the volume of blood/liquid in the drains at their removal. The secondary outcomes included postoperative blood/liquid losses at 12 and 24 h as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), pain, temperature and plasma troponin Ic. RESULTS At 12 h and 24 h after surgery, then at drain removal, blood losses in homoeopathy and placebo groups were not statistically significant (362 ± 218, 520 ± 269 and 640 ± 297 ml vs. 456 ± 440, 620 ± 477 and 796 ± 717 ml; P= 0.19, 0.23 and 0.35, respectively). The statistical modelling did not show significantly different patterns of CRP, troponin and body temperature changes or of pain perception. The number of transfused packed red cells was not significantly different either (P= 0.58). Two patients from each group died during the study period and the number of serious adverse events was not statistically different (six in homoeopathy vs. 10 in placebo groups; Fisher's exact test P= 0.41). CONCLUSIONS In the study setting, there was no evidence of effects of A. montana and B. alba combination on bleeding, inflammation, pain or myocardial ischaemia. PMID:20233176

  11. Investigation of Four Classes of Non-nodulating White Sweetclover (Melilotus alba annua Desr.) Mutants and Their Responses to Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lum, Michelle R; Li, Ying; Larue, Thomas A; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Kapulnik, Yoram; Hirsch, Ann M

    2002-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between Rhizobiaceae and legumes is one of the best-studied interactions established between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The plant develops root nodules in which the bacteria are housed, and atmospheric nitrogen is fixed into ammonia by the rhizobia and made available to the plant in exchange for carbon compounds. It has been hypothesized that this symbiosis evolved from the more ancient arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, in which the fungus associates with roots and aids the plant in the absorption of mineral nutrients, particularly phosphate. Support comes from several fronts: 1) legume mutants where Nod(-) and Myc(-) co-segregate, and 2) the fact that various early nodulin (ENOD) genes are expressed in legume AM. Both strongly argue for the idea that the signal transduction pathways between the two symbioses are conserved. We have analyzed the responses of four classes of non-nodulating Melilotus alba (white sweetclover) mutants to Glomus intraradices (the mycorrhizal symbiont) to investigate how Nod(-) mutations affect the establishment of this symbiosis. We also re-examined the root hair responses of the non-nodulating mutants to Sinorhizobium meliloti (the nitrogen-fixing symbiont). Of the four classes, several sweetclover sym mutants are both Nod(-) and Myc(-). In an attempt to decipher the relationship between nodulation and mycorrhiza formation, we also performed co-inoculation experiments with mutant rhizobia and Glomus intraradices on Medicago sativa, a close relative of M. alba. Even though sulfated Nod factor was supplied by some of the bacterial mutants, the fungus did not complement symbiotically defective rhizobia for nodulation. PMID:21708721

  12. Cytokinin induces expansin gene expression in Melilotus alba Desr. wild-type and the non-nodulating, non-mycorrhizal (NodMyc) mutant Masym3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angie; Giordano, Walter; Hirsch, Ann M

    2008-04-01

    We previously showed that applying 10(-6) M of the cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to uninoculated roots of Masym3, a Nod(-)Myc(-)Melilotus alba (Desr.) mutant, resulted in the accumulation of MaENOD40 transcripts to levels similar to BAP-treated wild-type roots. In contrast, inoculation with a Nod(-)S. meliloti mutant expressing the trans-zeatin synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Nod(-)/pTZS(+)) did not induce MaENOD40 transcript accumulation in either wild-type or Masym3 roots. However, Masym3 root hairs became swollen at their tips following inoculation with wild-type or Nod(-)/pTZS(+) rhizobia. Because root hair distention and elongation are often correlated with increased expansin activity, we investigated whether BAP treatment or inoculation with Nod(-)/pTZS(+)S. meliloti upregulated the expression of expansin mRNAs. We first determined that treating wild-type roots with 10(-5) or 10(-6) M BAP resulted in greater MaEXPA1 transcript accumulation than treating roots with comparable concentrations of the auxin NAA. When Masym3 roots were treated with 10(-6) M BAP, MaEXPA mRNAs accumulated to levels comparable to wild-type roots. We then showed that MaEXPA1 mRNAs accumulated in wild-type M. alba roots in response to the Nod(-)/pTZS(+)S. meliloti strain. Masym3 mutant roots inoculated with Nod(-)/pTZS(+) rhizobia were also upregulated for MaEXPA1 expression. PMID:19513217

  13. ENOD40 Gene Expression and Cytokinin Responses in the Nonnodulating, Nonmycorrhizal (NodMyc) Mutant, Masym3, of Melilotus alba Desr.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angie; Lum, Michelle R; Hirsch, Ann M

    2007-01-01

    Several nonnodulating, nonmycorrhizal (Nod(-)Myc(-)) mutants of Melilotus alba Desr. (white sweetclover) have been described. However, the details of their responses to Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been fully elucidated. We investigated rhizobial entry and colonization using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy on the Masym1-5 mutants and isolated an early nodulin (ENOD40) gene from wild-type M. alba. We focused on Masym3, the least responsive of the mutants to S. meliloti and VA-fungi, to determine its response to cytokinin. Cytokinin appears to be a downstream signal in the nodule developmental pathway based not only on our previous observations whereby Nod(-)Myc(-) alfalfa roots treated with cytokinin accumulated several ENOD gene transcripts, but also on recent reports showing the importance of cytokinin receptors for nodulation. Here we show that applying 10(-6) M 6-benzylaminopurine to uninoculated Masym3 roots elicited ENOD40 transcript accumulation. In addition, Masym3 root hairs inoculated with either wild-type S. meliloti or Nod(-)S. meliloti expressing the trans-zeatin synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens exhibited tip swelling, suggesting that cytokinin mediated this response. However, Masym3 root hair tips swelled following inoculation with Nod(-)S. meliloti or after mock-inoculation, a response resembling the phenotype of root hairs, after handling, of the Medicago truncatula mutant, dmi2. Mtdmi2 is Nod(-)Myc(-) due to a defect in a gene encoding a Nodule Receptor Kinase (NORK). Like Mtdmi2, the root hair swelling response appears in part to be mediated by touch because Masym3 root hairs not contacted by either bacteria or drops of water or buffer remain elongated and do not exhibit tip swelling. PMID:19516966

  14. Circadian oscillations of a transcript encoding a germin-like protein that is associated with cell walls in young leaves of the long-day plant Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Heintzen; Ruth Fischer; Siegbert Melzer; Stefan Kappeler; Klaus Apel; Dorothee Staiger

    1994-01-01

    As part of an attempt to analyze rhythmic phenomena in the long-day plant Sinapis alba L. at the molecular level, we have searched for mRNAs whose concentration varies as a function of time of day. Differential screening of a cDNA library established from mRNAs expressed at the end of the daily light phase with probes representing transcripts expressed predominantly in

  15. Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena E Stashenko; Beatriz E Jaramillo; Jairo René Mart??nez

    2004-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40–57%) was the most abundant

  16. Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN NUTRITIVA DEL FOLLAJE DE SEIS ESPECIES FORRAJERAS CON ÉNFASIS EN SUS PERFILES POLIFENÓLICOS. Nutritional Characterization of Six Fodder Species Foliage With Emphasis in Their Polyphenolic Profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Luis José Cova; Carlos Domínguez; Alfredo Baldizán; Rafael Rangel

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in order to evaluated the DM ru- minal degradability parameters (a, b, a+b and c), 48 hours deg- radation of DM, CP and NDF and CP intestinal digestibility in matures sheep of Enterolobium contortisilicum, Lysiloma latis- iliquum, Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Schizolobium excelsum and Trichantera gigantea at Trujillo State, Venezuela. All for- ages showed substantial

  18. Integration of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and chemical elicitors for induction of systemic resistance in mulberry against multiple diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; Sidhartha Mishra; N. B. Chowdary; G. S. Vindhya; R. K. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    In mulberry (Morus alba L.), various individual strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and synthetic analogs of naturally occurring plant activators have demonstrated their potential to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against either brown leaf spot (Cercospora moricola) or leaf rust (Cerotelium fici) diseases. However, these biological and chemical elicitors have not been evaluated so far against multiple infections of

  19. PVAc TUTKALI KULLANILARAK YAPI?TIRILMI? LAM?NE AH?AP YAPI ELAMANLARININ YANMA ÖZELL?KLER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramazan ÖZEN; Burhanettin UYSAL; Z. K. Ü. Safranbolu; Meslek Yüksekokulu

    In this study, the combustion properties of three ply laminated wood material has been searched. In the produce of laminated wood material, scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been used for faces ply. Lime-tree (Morus alba L.), white mulberry (Tillia perfifolia Ehrh), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.) and Uluda? fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) have been used for core ply of

  20. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ( and ). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

  1. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

  2. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Mary B; Cooper, Laurel D; Kishore, Venkata K; Knapp, Steven J; Kling, Jennifer G

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the ?5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA ?5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), ?5 desaturase (?5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  3. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Quercus alba Seedlings in Nutrient-Poor Soil 1

    PubMed Central

    Norby, Richard J.; O'Neill, Elizabeth G.; Luxmoore, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO2. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO2 enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO2. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO2, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO2. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO2-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO2 concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO2 may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO2 enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand. PMID:16665028

  4. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel D.; Kishore, Venkata K.; Knapp, Steven J.; Kling, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the ?5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA ?5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), ?5 desaturase (?5DS), lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT), and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT). Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG), and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM). The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop. PMID:26038713

  5. Evaluation of agricultural reuse practices and relevant guidelines for the alba rancho WWTP (primary and secondary facultative ponds) in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Zabalaga, J; Amy, G; von Münch, E

    2007-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries are experiencing high population growth, which is generating chaotic and unplanned development, reducing land areas available for agriculture, and polluting surface and groundwater. Consequently, the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing in arid and semi-arid regions in developing countries. Cochabamba city in Bolivia also has a high population growth. The climatic characteristics and the lack of clean water sources in this city are forcing the agriculture sector to use treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation. We investigated the effluent quality of the Alba Rancho Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and the existing effluent reuse practices for irrigation of fodder crops in the surrounding agricultural land (La Mayca area). The plant uses primary and secondary facultative ponds, and does not achieve the required effluent quality (according to Bolivian environmental law) for effluent BOD, COD, TDS and faecal coliforms. This paper also includes a brief comparison of guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture from several developing and developed countries, comparing the parameters measured as pollution indicators. It appears that for developed countries, the main concern is the health risk that reuse can cause to the farmers and consumers. For developing countries on the other hand, pollution reduction is currently the major aim in their guidelines and standards. PMID:17305172

  6. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75?mg/kg) or captopril (15?mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75?mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

  7. Social Calls Produced within and near the Roost in Two Species of Tent-Making Bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Erin H.; Chaverri, Gloriana; Montero, Karina; Sagot, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Social animals regularly face the problem of relocating conspecifics when separated. Communication is one of the most important mechanisms facilitating group formation and cohesion. Known as contact calls, signals exchanged between conspecifics that permit group maintenance are widespread across many taxa. Foliage-roosting bats are an excellent model system for studying the evolution of contact calling, as there are opportunities to compare closely related species that exhibit major differences in ecology and behavior. Further, foliage-roosting bats rely on relatively ephemeral roosts, which leads to major challenges in maintaining group cohesion. Here, we report findings on the communication signals produced by two tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba. We found that both species produced calls in the early morning near the roost that were associated with roostmate recruitment. Calling often ended once other bats arrived at the tent, suggesting that calls may be involved in roostmate recruitment and group formation. The structure and function of these calls are described and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23637893

  8. PtaRHE1, a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein of the ATL family, has a regulatory role in secondary phloem fibre development.

    PubMed

    Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Moussawi, Jihad; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Van Acker, Rebecca; Kohler, Annegret; Candiracci, Julie; Twyffels, Laure; Spokevicius, Antanas V; Bossinger, Gerd; Laurans, Françoise; Brunel, Nicole; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Boerjan, Wout; El Jaziri, Mondher; Baucher, Marie

    2015-06-01

    REALLY INTERESTING NEW GENE (RING) proteins play important roles in the regulation of many processes by recognizing target proteins for ubiquitination. Previously, we have shown that the expression of PtaRHE1, encoding a Populus tremula × Populus alba RING-H2 protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, is associated with tissues undergoing secondary growth. To further elucidate the role of PtaRHE1 in vascular tissues, we have undertaken a reverse genetic analysis in poplar. Within stem secondary vascular tissues, PtaRHE1 and its corresponding protein are expressed predominantly in the phloem. The downregulation of PtaRHE1 in poplar by artificial miRNA triggers alterations in phloem fibre patterning, characterized by an increased portion of secondary phloem fibres that have a reduced cell wall thickness and a change in lignin composition, with lower levels of syringyl units as compared with wild-type plants. Following an RNA-seq analysis, a biological network involving hormone stress signalling, as well as developmental processes, could be delineated. Several candidate genes possibly associated with the altered phloem fibre phenotype observed in amiRPtaRHE1 poplar were identified. Altogether, our data suggest a regulatory role for PtaRHE1 in secondary phloem fibre development. PMID:25912812

  9. Action Spectra for the Inhibition of Hypocotyl Growth by Continuous Irradiation in Light and Dark-Grown Sinapis alba L. Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Christopher J.; Holmes, M. Geoffrey; Jabben, Merten; Schäfer, Eberhard

    1980-01-01

    Action spectra for the inhibition by continuous (24-hour) irradiation of hypocotyl growth in 54-hour-old Sinapis alba L. seedlings were measured using seedlings which had had four different pretreatments. These seedlings were either (a) dark-grown with a high total phytochrome level, (b) dark-grown with a low total phytochrome level, (c) light-grown with chlorophyll, or (d) light-grown with no chlorophyll [treated with 4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H) -pyridazinone (San 9789)]. The resulting action spectra show that the blue, red, and far-red (716 nm) wavebands are most inhibitory for dark-grown plants with high phytochrome content, whereas hypocotyl growth in dark-grown plants with a low phytochrome content are only slightly inhibited by blue and far-red radiation. In light-grown plants, the effectiveness of blue and far-red light almost disappears. The position of red light effectiveness in chlorophyll-containing plants is shifted to lower wavelengths compared with those containing no chlorophyll. PMID:16661489

  10. Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E1, E2, E3, and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E1 represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E2 and E3 originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5? untranslated region. E3 was identical to E2 but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E2 and E3 also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E1, but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants. PMID:24934174

  11. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1?-Induced NF-?B Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1? for up to 72?h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), ?1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation by inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation, I?B? degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-?B targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1?-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, ?1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1?. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-?B plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

  13. Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

    2008-06-01

    Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

  14. Detection and molecular characterization of two FAD3 genes controlling linolenic acid content and development of allele-specific markers in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

  15. Comparison of the fractional CO2 laser and the combined use of a pulsed dye laser with fractional CO2 laser in striae alba treatment

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Nikyar, Zahra; Mokhtari, Fateme; Bahrami, Ahmadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: No ideal treatment has been established for Striae distensae (SD), particularly in the late phase (Striae Alba (SA)). Various types of lasers have been recently proposed as treatment options for SD. This study aims to compare the clinical efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser as well as a combination of fractional CO2 laser and Pulsed dye Laser (PDL) in the treatment of SA. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight SA lesions in three female patients were included. Lesions on each half of the body were randomly enrolled in each group. Group 1 (n = 44) were treated by Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing and group 2 (n = 44) by a combination of PDL and Fractional CO2 laser, alternately. Digital Photographs were taken and the surface area of each lesion was measured digitally (using the PictZar Digital Planimetry Software) at the baseline and four weeks after treatment. The clinical improvement was assessed by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment photos and the participants’ views about their degree of improvement, using a 10-point verbal analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean surface area decreased significantly in both groups after treatment. The mean difference between the pre- and post-treatment surface area was 0.62 ± 053 for group 2 and 0.41 ± 0.43 for group 1 (P-value = 0.03). Mean VAS and dermatologist assessed improvement scale in group 2 (6.68 ± 0.77 and 2.2 ± 0.76 respectively) were significantly higher than those in group 1 (5.45 ± 0.90 and 1.8±0.72 respectively, P-value <0.001 and 0.04 respectively). Conclusion: The combination of PDL and fractional CO2 laser was more effective than fractional CO2 laser alone and could be suggested as a clinical option in the treatment of SA. PMID:25250298

  16. Structural stability and Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody binding ability of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) napin during industrial-scale myrosinase inactivation process.

    PubMed

    Marambe, Harsha K; McIntosh, Tara C; Cheng, Bifang; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the structural stability of yellow mustard (YM, Sinapis alba L.) napin and the changes of its Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody-binding ability during myrosinase enzyme inactivation process. The food industry uses myrosinase-inactive non-pungent YM for uses beyond spice applications. Napin was isolated from seeds received from an industrial processor before (YM + M) and after (YM - M) myrosinase inactivation. Secondary and tertiary structural features and surface hydrophobicity parameters of napin were analyzed. The Sin a 1 content in YM seeds and the stability of Sin a 1-containing napin during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion were determined by a non-competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the Sin a 1 anti-epitope antibody (AE-Ab) as the primary Ab. YM napin retained the dominant alpha-helical components of secondary and tertiary structure folds during this process. YM - M napin showed changes in hydrophobicity parameters of the molecules and binding ability of AE-Ab: 2.19 ± 0.48 g per 100 g of YM - M seeds vs. 1.49 ± 0.16 g per 100 g YM + M seeds. YM - M proteins were more susceptible for in vitro GI digestion and also showed a 30% reduction in AE-Ab binding ability upon digestion of napins. This suggests that the myrosinase inactivation process has induced the surface modification of napin, exposing Sin a 1 epitope, leading to an increase in AE-Ab binding. However, the epitope region of YM - M napin showed improved susceptibility for hydrolysis during GI digestion resulting in fewer available epitope regions, suggesting a possible reduction in napin immune reactivity. PMID:26091085

  17. The expression of MaEXP1, a Melilotus alba expansin gene, is upregulated during the sweetclover-Sinorhizobium meliloti interaction.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Walter; Hirsch, Ann M

    2004-06-01

    Expansins are a highly conserved group of cell wall-localized proteins that appear to mediate changes in cell wall plasticity during cell expansion or differentiation. The accumulation of expansin protein or the mRNA for specific expansin gene family members has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs. Because expansin proteins are closely associated with plant cell wall expansion, and as part of a larger study to determine the role of different gene products in the legume-Rhizobium spp. symbiosis, we investigated whether a Melilotus alba (white sweetclover) expansin gene is expressed during nodule development. A cDNA fragment encoding an expansin gene (EXP) was isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti-inoculated sweetclover root RNA by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers, and a full-length sweetclover expansin sequence (MaEXP1) was obtained using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end cloning. The predicted amino acid of the sweetclover expansin is highly conserved with the various alpha-expansins in the GenBank database. MaEXP1 contains a series of eight cysteines and four tryptophans that are conserved in the alpha-expansin protein family. Northern analysis and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses indicate that MaEXP1 mRNA expression is enhanced in roots within hours after inoculation with S. meliloti and in nodules. Western and immunolocalization studies using a cucumber expansin antibody demonstrated that a cross-reacting protein accumulated in the expanding cells of the nodule. PMID:15195944

  18. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  19. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

  20. Photosynthetic responses of yellow poplar and white oak to long term atmospheric CO sub 2 enrichment in the field. [Liriondendron tulipifera L; Quercus alba L

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-05-01

    A critical consideration in evaluating forest response to rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} is whether the enhancement of net photosynthesis (P{sub N}) by elevated CO{sub 2} can be sustained over the long term. There are reports of declining enhancement of P{sub N} with duration of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}, associated with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. We investigated whether this photosynthetic acclimation occurs in two tree species under field conditions. Seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) were planted in the ground within six open-top field chambers in May 1989 and have been exposed continuously to CO{sub 2} enrichment during the last two growing seasons. The three CO{sub 2} treatment levels were: ambient, ambient +150, and ambient +300 {mu}L/L. Throughout the second season, gas exchange of upper, light-saturated leaves was surveyed periodically, and leaves of different ages and canopy positions were measured occasionally. Net photosynthesis remained higher at higher CO{sub 2} levels (28-32% higher in +150 and 49-67% higher in +300 seedlings) in both species throughout the season, regardless of increasing leaf age and duration of exposure to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Stomatal conductance remained unchanged or decreased slightly with increasing CO{sub 2}, but instantaneous water use efficiency (P{sub N}/transpiration) increased significantly with CO{sub 2}. Analysis of P{sub N} versus internal CO{sub 2} concentration indicated no significant treatment differences in carboxylation efficiency, CO{sub 2}-saturated P{sub N}, or CO{sub 2} compensation point. There was no evidence of a downward acclimation of photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} enrichment in this system.

  1. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins. PMID:19726096

  2. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba L.

    PubMed Central

    Du, L; Lykkesfeldt, J; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A

    1995-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with jasmonic acid. Formation of inhibitory glucosinolate degradation products upon tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. The biosynthetically active microsomal enzyme system converted L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and the production of oxime was strictly dependent on NADPH. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme system were 346 microM and 538 pmol per mg of protein per h, respectively. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been subject of much speculation. In the present paper, we demonstrate the involvement of cytochrome P450 by photoreversible inhibition by carbon monoxide. The inhibitory effect of numerous cytochrome P450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P450. This provides experimental documentation of similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8618930

  3. The Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration Gradient of Sinapis alba Root Hairs as Revealed by Ca2+-Selective Microelectrode Tests and Fura-Dextran Ratio Imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Felle, H. H.; Hepler, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    Using Ca2+-selective microelectrodes and fura 2-dextran ratio imaging, the cytosolic free [Ca2+] was measured in Sinapis alba root hair cells. Both methods yielded comparable results, i.e. values between 158 to 251 nM for the basal [Ca2+] of the cells and an elevated [Ca2+] of 446 to 707 nM in the tip region. The zone of elevated [Ca2+] reaches 40 to 60 [mu]m into the cell and is congruent with the region of inwardly directed Ca2+ net currents measured with an external Ca2+- selective vibrating electrode. The channel-blocker La3+ eliminates these currents, stops growth, and almost completely eliminates the cytosolic [Ca2+] gradient without affecting the basal level of the ion. Growth is also inhibited by pressure-injected dibromo-1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, which causes a decrease in the [Ca2+] in the tip in a concentration-dependent manner. Indole-3-acetic acid, used as a model stimulus, decreases cytosolic free [Ca2+] by 0.2 to 0.3 pCa units in the tip, but only by about 0.1 pCa unit in the shank. Nongrowing root hairs may or may not display a [Ca2+] gradient, but still reversibly respond to external stimuli such as La3+, Ca2+, or indole-3-acetic acid with changes in cytosolic free [Ca2+]. During short time periods, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which stops growth, does not abolish the [Ca2+] gradient, nor does it change significantly the basal [Ca2+] level. We conclude that the cytosolic [Ca2+] gradient and an elevated [Ca2+] in the tip, as in other tip-growing cells, is essential for tip growth in root hairs; however, its presence does not indicate growth under all circumstances. We argue that with respect to Ca2+, tip growth regulation and responses to external signals may not interfere with each other. Finally, we suggest that the combination of the methods applied adds considerably to our understanding of the role of cytosolic free [Ca2+] in signal transduction and cellular growth. PMID:12223687

  4. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

  5. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

  6. Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba).

    PubMed

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-07-14

    Fifty-seven samples have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 as well as the composition of polymeric procyanidins. Fifty-two samples were found to contain polymeric procyanidins. In most of the samples, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant unit present. In white willow bark (Salix alba), however, large amounts of (+)-catechin (81.0%) were determined by means of phloroglucinolysis. White willow bark has therefore been used for the semisynthetic formation of dimeric procyanidins B3 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(+)-C)], B4 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(-)-EC)], B6 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(+)-C)], and B8 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(-)-EC)]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale. PMID:20533825

  7. Salix alba and Populus nigra seedlings resistance to physical hydro-sedimentary stresses: nursery experimental approach compared to in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data on the seedlings survival once buried during a flood event. Genetic diversity of the seed lots will be investigated via biomass and shoot / root ratio. Results reveal that willow seedlings have a higher density of roots compared to poplar. In sand mixture, poplar has a taproot system; in sand-gravel mixture, taproot is divided into several roots which leads to a branched root system. The required forces to uprooting are twice much important for sand-gravel mixture. In situ measurements detail the sediment dynamics and morphological evolution during and after floods (topography, scour/fill processes, grain size surveys, flow velocity, sediment transport rates) on a managed alluvial bar. Results associated with floods occurring after fluvial management works highlight the rapid regeneration of bedforms associated with sedimentary and hydraulics constraints. This leads to the development of new morphological and sedimentological units, suitable for seedlings recruitment. Thirty plots measurements of seedlings (densities and species) established were associated with these news physical conditions over the bar. Black poplar and white willow appeared for a wide range of grain sizes and on specific morphological units. Seedlings survival will be analyzed with regard to physical constraints determined for each plot from measurements of hydro-sedimentary dynamics and then compared to ex situ results.

  8. C-prolinylquercetins from the yellow cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikara Hirayama; Hiroshi Ono; Yasumori Tamura; Masatoshi Nakamura

    2006-01-01

    Two flavonoids containing the l-proline moiety, 6-C-[(2S,5S)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin A) and 6-C-[(2S,5R)-prolin-5-yl] quercetin (prolinalin B), were isolated from the cocoon shell of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Their structural elucidation was achieved by application of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods. These compounds were not found in the leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.), the host plant of the silkworm, suggesting that

  9. Effect of replacement of concentrate mixture with isonitrogenous leaf meal mixture on growth, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit Pal; R. K. Sharma; Ravindra Kumar; K. Barman

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing concentrate mixture with leaf meal mixture of Leucaena leucocephala–Melia azedarach–Morus alba in equal proportion on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen metabolites in growing goats using completely randomized design. Twelve male non-descript goats were divided into two groups, control and experimental, consisting of six animals in each group. The control

  10. Surface ultrastructure of the uredinial stage of Cerotelium fici and its infection process on mulberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gupta; S. K. Tewari; R. K. Datta

    1994-01-01

    Surface morphology of uredinia and urediniospores ofCerotelium fici (Cast.) Arth., and its infection process in mulberry (Morus alba L.) have been described using the scanning electron microscope. The uredinia ofC. fici are paraphysate and bear pedicellate urediniospores. The surface morphology of urediniospore is similar to most of the rust fungi which have pedicellate urediniospores. The infection process ofC. fici on

  11. Assessment of fodder quality of leaves of multipurpose trees in subtropical humid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chander Datt; M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of 12 species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Azadirachta\\u000a indica, Eucalyptus hybrida, Gmelina arborea, Michelia champaca, Morus alba, and Tectona grandis) of Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) grown in the agroforestry arboretum were evaluated for their nutritional characteristics\\u000a in terms of proximate composition, cell wall constituents, total tannins, major (Ca and

  12. Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripcin

    E-print Network

    Como Solicitar Los Beneficios del Seguro del Desempleo Transcripción Bienvenido a uno de los de desempleo en California, usted ha venido al lugar correcto, y aquí estamos para servirle. Este es a recibir sus beneficios del desempleo. Cuando usted hace una llamada u oprime su botón en su computadora

  13. LA GESTIÓN DE LOS EVENTOS COMO UN PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Fernández González; Jorge Luis Borroto Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Los viajes que se producen en el mundo, son realizados por diferentes motivaciones, necesidades e intereses, variables que son de constantes investigaciones y evaluaciones por los actores que intervienen en el proceso del turismo internacional, para poder satisfacerlas, como es el caso de los eventos. Los eventistas viajan motivados por el evento y sus temáticas y pagan por ello pero

  14. La tipología en la vivienda como precedente sustentable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selenne Galeana Cruz

    1970-01-01

    El presente artículo intenta realizar una aportación para el análisis tipológico de la\\u000avivienda, en particular a la vivienda social. Esta intención se enmarca en el análisis de las\\u000acaracterísticas de la vivienda adecuada, que se inscribe como uno de los Objetivos del Milenio\\u000apropuesto por la ONU, cuya evaluación y monitoreo ha sido responsabilidad del Programa UNHABITAT.\\u000aPara su

  15. Sensitivity of Hydrologic Partitioning to Snowpack Dynamics, Como Creek, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, T. B.; Molotch, N. P.; Harpold, A. A.; Knowles, J. F.; Anderson, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Snowmelt is the primary source of surface water in the western United States and many other regions on Earth. Climate warming is forecast to impact the amount of precipitation that falls as snow and forms the mountain snowpack. Climate change induced alterations to snowpack translate to changes in snowpack magnitude, the timing of snowmelt, and changes in snowmelt rate. We ask how these perturbations may impact how snowmelt is partitioned between evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff (R) at Como Creek, a snowmelt dominated catchment on the Colorado Front Range. Como Creek is a 4.5 km2 headwater catchment spanning 2900-3560 m and is part of the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. We use observations of snow water equivalent (SWE), ET, and precipitation (P) from Niwot Ridge, CO, and discharge from Como Creek to explore relationships between snowpack dynamics and snowmelt partitioning. Measurements of ET are collected adjacent to Como Creek at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and are assumed representative of the hydrologic fluxes in Como Creek. Analyses from point data show that years with higher peak SWE/P ratios partition proportionally more snowmelt to ET (pValue: 0.045). For example, water year (WY) 2005 has a peak SWE/P ratio of 0.49 and a growing season ET normalized by WY precipitation (ET/P) ratio of 0.48 while WY 2008 has a peak SWE/P ratio of 0.83 and an ET/P ratio of 0.82. Observations also show that years that experience later peak SWE (DOY=142) partition proportionally less snowmelt into ET (ET/P=0.42) compared to years that experience earlier peak SWE (DOY=86) and partition proportionally more snowmelt to ET (ET/P=0.56). Further point analyses also suggest that more rapid snowmelt results in proportionally less snowmelt partitioned to ET and more partitioned to runoff. To explore the underlying processes responsible for these relationships at the catchment scale we use the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) to model how snowmelt is partitioned between ET and R under observed conditions and under a variety of climate change induced snowmelt timing, magnitude, and rate scenarios.

  16. El teatro como reflexión colectiva: Conversación con Sergio Corrieri

    E-print Network

    Luzuriaga, Gerardo

    1983-04-01

    gente del Escambray se nos queja. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes, a mi modo de ver, de la experiencia del Teatro Escambray es que todo este proceso se ha ido haciendo sobre la marcha, ha ido surgiendo, como tú decías hace poco, de la práctica... grandes rasgos, por supuesto. Por nuestra convivencia en la zona y por los multiples canales naturales que eso nos brinda, nosotros estamos actualizados de la problemática. Aparte, con el tiempo, el Escambray ha ido perdiendo artistas particulares en el...

  17. Zimmermannella helvola gen. nov., sp. nov., Zimmermannella alba sp. nov., Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov., Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. and Leucobacter albus sp. nov., novel members of the family Microbacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chueh; Uemori, Kazunori; de Briel, Dominique A; Arunpairojana, Vallapa; Yokota, Akira

    2004-09-01

    Seven strains of actinobacteria, isolated from soil, wounds, urine, cow faeces, human blood and butter, were characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic position. On the basis of chemotaxonomy, 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA relatedness, strain IAM 14851T can be classified within the cluster of the genus Leucobacter and is proposed as a novel species, Leucobacter albus sp. nov., with strain IAM 14851T (=TISTR 1515T) as the type strain. The other six strains formed a phylogenetically separate branch in the family Microbacteriaceae, having the following characteristics: the major menaquinones are MK-8 to MK-10, the DNA G + C content ranges from 62 to 68 mol%, the diamino acid in the cell wall is diaminobutyric acid and the muramic acid in the peptidoglycan is of the acetyl type. The major fatty acids are 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (anteiso-C(15 : 0)), hexadecanoic acid (C(16 : 0)), 14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (iso-C(16 : 0)) and 14-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (anteiso-C(17 : 0)). On the basis of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, the novel genus Zimmermannella gen. nov. is proposed for these six strains. Four novel species are proposed: Zimmermannella helvola sp. nov. (type species; type strain IAM 14726T = NBRC 15775T = DSM 20419T = TISTR 1509T), Zimmermannella alba sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14724T = NBRC 15616T = TISTR 1510T), Zimmermannella bifida sp. nov. (type strain IAM 14848T = TISTR 1511T) and Zimmermannella faecalis sp. nov. (type strain IAM 15030T = NBRC 15706T = ATCC 13722T = TISTR 1514T). PMID:15388726

  18. [Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Víctor; Loaiza, Jorge; Bonilla, Roberto; Barrios, Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts. Hydro-alcohol extracts of ten tropical plants were tested by the immersion method on mature ticks (Boophilus microplus Canestrini 1887). The biological evaluation was made with raw hydro alcoholic extracts (R-OH) to determine the most promissory compounds, which later were fractioned in their polar and non-polar parts. The polar parts showed a significantly inferior effect. The species that produced the highest mortality were Zizigium aromaticum, Morus alba, Piper nigrum and the mixture of Allium sativum- Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on oviposition: M. alba, P. nigrum and the mixture of A. sativum - Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on eclosion: P. nigrum, Z. aromaticum, Echinacea angustiofilia, Poligonum punctatum, M. alba and the mixture of A. sativum-Z. aromaticum (all non-polar): on control percentage: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum and M. alba (all non-polar, except for M. alba in which both fractions showed important activity); and finally, on the percentage of oviposition inhibition: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum, Gliricidia sepium and M. alba. PMID:18624244

  19. ANALISIS DE LA MADUREZ COMO CLASE PROFESIONAL DE LOS ESPECIALISTAS DE LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACION GEOGRAFICA

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    ANALISIS DE LA MADUREZ COMO CLASE PROFESIONAL DE LOS ESPECIALISTAS DE LOS SISTEMAS DE INFORMACION ramatos@pupr.edu Es interesante observar como los profesionales de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica

  20. Die Lautäußerungen der Schleiereule ( Tyto alba )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Bühler; Wolfgang Epple

    1980-01-01

    Zusammenfassung An zwei Brutplätzen wildlebender Schleiereulen wurde erstmalig mit Video-Überwachungsanlagen und Infrarotlicht eine störungsfreie Beobachtung über Fernsehschirm „rund-um-die-Uhr“ durchgeführt und durch Magnetbandaufzeichnungen von Bild und Ton ergänzt. Die verschiedenen Lautäußerungen (insgesamt 18) konnten so in ihrem jeweiligen ethologischen Zusammenhang, in der sich verändernden Häufigkeit während der Brutphase, in ihrer ontogenetischen Entwicklung und als Klangspektrogramme erfaßt werden. Ergänzend wurden Befunde von

  1. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account. PMID:17040567

  2. K.K. Gan Como05 1 The Ohio State University

    E-print Network

    Gan, K. K.

    consumption! Use IBM 0.25 µm CMOS Use Truelight high-power oxide common cathode VCSEL array VDC: VCSEL Pixel Detector #12;K.K. Gan Como05 2 Outline Introduction Proton Irradiation Studies Production Status Summary #12;K.K. Gan Como05 3 ATLAS Pixel Detector Inner most tracking detector Pixel size: 50

  3. Sobre Como Varian las Firmas Manuscritas con el Tiempo: una Modelizacion Sigma Lognormal

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    de edad basado en los par´ametros del modelo. 1 Introducci´on Como en cualquier nuevo ´area de- conocimiento, con el objetivo de conseguir menores tasas de error. Como conse- cuencia, se han pasado por alto nueva aproximaci´on para el estudio de firmas pertenecientes a grupos de edades dis- tintas. #12;La

  4. DE VIAJES Y MIEDOS: LA AGORAFOBIA COMO UNA FORMA DE CONTROL ECONÓMICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es describir casos análogos de fobia o miedo a los viajes en otras culturas y tiempos diferente a los modernos. En este sentido, consideramos que tanto la cultura aymará como la vida en la antigua roma nos proveen de ejemplos suficientes para considerar a la fobia a los viajes como un problema en extensión. Por

  5. Análisis económico de la “bio-carbonización” como práctica de manejo agrícola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Andrés Ramírez; Ramón Rosales

    2009-01-01

    Las altas concentraciones de gases de efecto invernadero, específicamente CO2, han sido señaladas como la principal causa del cambio climático. La adopción de prácticas agrícolas capaces de incrementar el contenido de carbono en el suelo, ha sido propuesta como una estrategia de bajo costo y disponibilidad inmediata para enfrentar este fenómeno. La Bio-carbonización es una de estas prácticas agrícolas, la

  6. Constituents of the cultivated mulberry tree.

    PubMed

    Nomura, T; Fukai, T; Matsumoto, J; Imashimizu, A; Terada, S; Hama, M

    1982-11-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of root bark of the Japanese cultivated mulberry tree (a variety of Morus alba L.), a novel chalcone derivative with a fused dihydrochalcone partial moiety was isolated and named kuwanon I. The structure was shown to be I on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Kuwanon I (I) is the first example which is regarded biogenetically as a Diels-Alder adduct of a prenylchalcone derivative and a dehydroprenylchalcone derivative. NMR variable temperature studies of I suggested that kuwanon I (I) exists as an equilibrium mixture of conformational isomers in solution. PMID:17396966

  7. EFFECTS OF H2S ADDITION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FRESH VS. USED CoMo CATALYSTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lillian A. Rartkel

    1991-01-01

    When a Co\\/Mo catalyst is used for processing vanadium-containing heavy oils, vanadium deposits on the catalyst. As the amount of vanadium on the CoMo catalyst increases, the catalytic effects of CoMo decline and the presence of vanadium starts to influence the hydroprocessing products. Model feeds have been used to explore the changes in the catalytic activity of CoMo, aged CoMo,

  8. AFINALES DE 1974, despus de una desas-trosa combinacin de enfermedades como el

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    alimento y refu- gio del hurón. En 1988, el descubrimiento de las colonias más extensas de perros llaneros(Cynomys ludovicianus) en Norteamérica en la región de Janos- Casas Grandes,nos llevó a proponer este sitio como un área

  9. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-04-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  10. LA AUDITORÍA COMO UNA DISCIPLINA DENTRO DE LAS CIENCIAS CONTABLES. ENFOQUES TEÓRICOS Y METODOLÓGICOS DE SU PRAXIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niurdis Cudeiro Rodríguez; Ninel Rafael Díaz Martínez; Yudy Aguila Cudeiro

    2012-01-01

    La Contabilidad, como Ciencia Social, presenta entre sus disciplinas la Auditoría, la cual se manifiesta como praxis de sus principios teóricos y metodológicos. La Auditoría tiene entre sus premisas la obtención y evaluación de evidencias que presenten la realidad económica de las empresas, validando su capacidad para la realización de los procesos mercantiles tanto interno como externo. La génesis del

  11. El espacio dramático como signo: La noche de los asesinos de José Triana

    E-print Network

    Melé ndez, Priscilla

    1983-10-01

    FALL 1983 25 El espacio dramático como signo: La noche de los asesinos de José Triana Priscilla Meléndez Las nuevas corrientes que caracterizan el teatro moderno han demostrado una profunda preocupación por concebir el acto teatral en todas sus... in the concrete domain (p. 72). La importancia de la estructura en La noche de los asesinos radica fundamen talmente en lo que se concibe como el espacio dramático de la obra, que a un primer nivel se trata de un espacio físicamente cerrado en el cual...

  12. Mtodo de Fibonacci Como no mtodo da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Método de Fibonacci Como no método da "Golden Section" o procedimento de procura de Fibonacci faz incerteza varia duma iteração para outra. O procedimento é baseado na sequência de Fibonacci Fn{ } definida acontece com os métodos da procura dicotómica e de "Golden section", o método de Fibonacci requer que o

  13. COMPETENCIA TEXTUAL1 Y ENSEÑANZA DEL ESPAÑOL COMO SEGUNDA LENGUA 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROCÍO LINEROS QUINTERO

    Contrariamente a lo que parece sugerir el título de esta investigación, su objetivo no es convertirse en una de las muchas aportaciones, más o menos eruditas, que relacionan la enseñanza de segundas lenguas con la capacidad de ejercer, eficazmente, un ilimitado número de estrategias y habilidades tanto psicológicas como educativas. Con sus consiguientes avances y retrocesos, el pensamiento educativo nos

  14. Interface observation of heat-treated Co/Mo2C multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yanyan; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel; Mény, Christian; Ulhaq, Corinne; Galtayries, Anouk; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    We study the interface evolution of a series of periodic Co/Mo2C multilayers as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600 °C. Different complementary techniques are implemented to get information on the phenomenon taking place at the interfaces of the stack. The periodical structure of Co/Mo2C multilayer is proven by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiles which demonstrate the formation of an oxide layer at both air/stack and stack/substrate interfaces. From Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, we observed the intermixing phenomenon of Co and C atoms for the as-deposited sample, and then at annealing temperature above 300 °C Co and C atoms separate from their mixed regions. Comparison of NMR results between Co/Mo2C and Co/C references confirms this phenomenon. This is in agreement with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements. Furthermore the calculation of the Co-C, Co-Mo and Mo-C mixing enthalpy using Miedema's model gives a proof of the demixing of Co and C atoms present within the stacks above 300 °C. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, we found the presence of some crystallites within the as-deposited sample as well as the mainly amorphous nature of all layers. This is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns which also demonstrate the growth of crystallites induced upon annealing.

  15. PROPOSTA CURSO DE VERN: A DIVULGACIN COMO PONTE ENTRE CIENCIA E SOCIEDADE

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    PROPOSTA CURSO DE VERÁN: A DIVULGACIÓN COMO PONTE ENTRE CIENCIA E SOCIEDADE 2 e 3 de xullo de 2014 BEATRIZ HERVELLA NOGUEIRA. Licenciada en Ciencias Físicas pola USC e cofundadora de 4gotas atmosfera y CONFERENCIA - ESPECTÁCULO RICARDO PAREDES PAMPÍN. Licenciado en Ciencias Físicas pola USC e profesor de

  16. EL “WIKI” COMO RECURSO PARA DESARROLLAR COMPETENCIAS EN EL PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mabel López García; José María Souvirón Morenilla

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza la utilidad de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC), y específicamente del “Wiki”, como herramienta para el modelo de enseñanza-aprendizaje derivado del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES). Se realiza una aproximación al significado del EEES y al modelo de enseñanza que propone, en el que lo relevante no es tanto

  17. LAS INTELIGENCIAS EMOCIONAL Y SOCIAL COMO COMPLEMENTO A LA RACIONAL PARA FACILITAR EL DESARROLLO PROFESIONAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Manuel García López

    2010-01-01

    En este documento se analiza lo importante que resulta el tener un buen manejo de las emociones y de las relaciones sociales o interpersonales como estrategia para tener éxito personal o profesional, dado que en la actualidad son dos características adicionales a la inteligencia racional muy valoradas en las organizaciones y que permiten a los individuos tener mayores o mejores

  18. La hipnosis como adjunto en el tratamiento del hábito de fumar. Estudio de caso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Elena; Mendoza Figueroa

    2000-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 33 años con dependencia a la nicotina que lle vaba 9 años fu- mando una media de 35 cigarrillos diarios. Intentó dejarlo hace 3 años pero tuvo una recaída a los seis meses por problemas de ansiedad y continuó con su adicción. El tr atamiento tuvo como objetivo que la paciente dejara

  19. CURSO DE INICIACIN A LA ENSEANZA DEL ESPAOL COMO LENGUA EXTRANJERA-FORMACIN DE PROFESORADO

    E-print Network

    CURSO DE INICIACIÓN A LA ENSEÑANZA DEL ESPAÑOL COMO LENGUA EXTRANJERA-FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORADO o grado)*: o En curso (especificar curso y carrera)*: Otros: *Será necesario acreditar los estudios curso. FORMALIZACIÓN DE LA MATRÍCULA Para formalizar la matrícula del curso es necesario realizar el

  20. El estudio de caso como metodología de investigación: teoría, mecanismos causales, validación

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Yacuzzi

    2005-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta el método del caso como herramienta de investigación en las ciencias sociales. Desde el diseño hasta la presentación de sus resultados, el método está estrechamente vinculado con la teoría. Una teoría es una respuesta a una pregunta del tipo \\

  1. El hogar como un contexto sociocultural de prácticas de lectoescritura de inmigrantes mexicanos en Canadá

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Eugenia De Luna Villalón

    2009-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio es investigar, describir y explicar cuáles son las prácticas de lectoescritura en el hogar de cuatro familias mexicanas inmigrantes en Canadá; conocer la interrelación de las prácticas de lectoescritura en el hogar y las prácticas de lectoescritura escolar; el papel que juega la familia como mediadora en el ejercicio de las prácticas de lectoescritura y

  2. LA BIBLIOTECA UNIVERSITARIA COMO APOYO AL APRENDIZAJE EN EL ESPACIO EUROPEO DE ENSEANZA SUPERIOR

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    LA BIBLIOTECA UNIVERSITARIA COMO APOYO AL APRENDIZAJE EN EL ESPACIO EUROPEO DE ENSEÑANZA SUPERIOR proceso de transformación ante el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES). Este nuevo marco implica bibliotecas universitarias deben adaptar sus espacios y servicios a las nuevas necesidades docentes

  3. Avaliação tardia por tomografia computadorizada espiral de enxertos de pericárdio bovino liso como substitutos aórticos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato A. K. Kalil; Carlos Jader Feldman; Fernando W. B. Ludwig; Alessandro D'Avila da Silva; Paulo Roberto Prates; João R. M. Sant'Anna; Ivo A. Nesralla

    1997-01-01

    Objetivo - Avaliar, morfologicamente, por tomo- grafia computadorizada espiral, enxertos de pericárdio bovino liso empregados como substitutos aórticos. Métodos - Dez pacientes foram submetidos a exame por tomografia computadorizada espiral para reconsti- tuição da imagem dos enxertos. Os critérios de seleção fo- ram tempo de seguimento superior a 2 anos, enxertos de pericárdio liso não revestido, implantados na aorta ascen-

  4. Hydrologic flowpaths and biogeochemical cycles in the subalpine Como Creek catchment, Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, R. M.; Williams, M. W.; Zeliff, M. M.; Parman, J.

    2011-12-01

    An outstanding question for snowmelt-dominated watersheds of the western US are the responses of biogeochemical processes to two major drivers of environmental change: directional changes in climate and increasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in wetfall. In the Colorado Front Range, atmospheric deposition of DIN has increased several-fold in the last 25 years. In response, nitrate concentrations at the alpine Green Lakes 4 (GL4) catchment have increased from 1985 to 2009 by 0.27 ?eq L-1 yr-1. In contrast, we see no directional change in either nitrate concentrations or fluxes in the subalpine Como Creek catchment. We hypothesize that differences in surface/groundwater interactions result in the differing behavior of stream nitrate between the alpine and subalpine catchments that are receiving similar amounts of DIN from atmospheric deposition. For both basins we sampled precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, surface water, and subsurface waters. All water samples are analyzed for geochemical, nutrient and isotopic (?18O, ?D) composition. Stream chemistry data from the last ten years at Como Creek show increases in nitrate concentration during baseflow conditions and then a sharp decline during snowmelt. In contrast, in the alpine basin there is sharp increase in surface water nitrate during snowmelt. Hydrograph separation at the alpine GL4 using end member mixing analysis (EMMA) shows that stream flow is a mixture of three components, groundwater, talus, and new snowmelt that each contribute to roughly a third of discharge, with talus flow supplying the majority of nitrate. In contrast, and somewhat surprisingly, EMMA shows that for the subalpine Como Creek basin, annual streamflow is a mixture of only two components, groundwater and new snowmelt. During snowmelt the groundwater and snow contributions are nearly equal and subsurface flows dominate the remainder of the year. Newly installed piezometers at Como Creek provide evidence that the basin is largely a losing reach during snowmelt, with water levels in the piezometers increasing 5-7 m. After peak snowmelt however, Como Creek becomes a gaining stream, with piezometer levels dropping. Thus, both EMMA and piezometers show that surface-groundwater interactions are tightly coupled during snowmelt, with snowmelt at Como first replenishing the subsurface water deficit and increasing groundwater levels before contributing to discharge. Thus, in contrast to the alpine GL4 basin, DIN released in snowmelt is assimilated belowground as snowmelt infiltrates the subsurface in the subalpine basin. Interestingly, at the subalpine Como Creek basin, isotopic and geochemical solute concentrations undergo shifts during periods of winter baseflow prior to snowmelt. In winter much of the stream is frozen and we hypothesize that cryo-concentration of solutes and fractionation of isotopes may influence the concentrations of winter stream samples.

  5. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  6. Deactivation and attrition of CoMo catalyst during H-Coal operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Kang; E. S. Johanson

    1977-01-01

    The observed causes for the deactivation of the Co-Mo catalyst in the H-Coal process are related to sintering, metal deposition, and carbon deposition. The relative importance of these effects depends on the type of coal employed and the process conditions. In the H-Coal process, which has been under development for over ten years, coal is dried, pulverized, and slurried with

  7. K.K. Gan Como03 1 The Ohio State University

    E-print Network

    Gan, K. K.

    Optical Receiver IC 40 MHz clock command BPM #12;K.K. Gan Como03 7 l Training period: ~25 ms of 20 MHz.25 mm CMOS rad-hard process (2.5 V) q enclosed layout transistors and guard rings for improved radiation hardness l IBM 5e: April 2003 engineering run q convert 3-layer to 5-layer layout for submission with pixel

  8. Meu trabalho como ornitloga abrange reas do comportamento animal, distribuies geogrficas e estudos sobre ecologia de populaes, incluindo biologia

    E-print Network

    Hrbek, Tomas - Department of Biology, Universidad de Puerto Rico

    família Pipridae, como modelos. Estas aves frugívoras ocorrem somente em florestas Neotropicais, e formam de estudos sobre o comportamento de corte em si, estes pássaros são modelos para estudos de dinâmica populacional em sistemas poligâmicos, além de estudos de interações ecológicas diversas, como a utilização do

  9. Magnetically induced phase separation and magnetic properties of Co-Mo hexagonal-close-packed structure thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, K.; Qin, G. W.; Sato, M.; Kitakami, O.; Shimada, Y.; Sato, J.; Fukamichi, K.; Ishida, K.

    2003-08-01

    Magnetically induced phase separation along the Curie temperature in the hexagonal-close-packed phase of a Co-Mo binary system has been predicted by thermodynamic calculations. Furthermore, the phase separation and magnetic properties of Co-Mo sputtered thin films have been investigated. Nanoscale compositional fluctuation caused by the magnetically induced phase separation has been confirmed in the films deposited on a heated substrate in the same manner as Co-Cr-based alloys. The magnetic anisotropy constant of the Co-Mo films is larger than that of Co-Cr films. From these results, it is concluded that the Co-Mo system is promising for use as a base alloy system for high density recording media.

  10. Characterization and Hydrodesulfurization Activity of CoMo Catalysts Supported on Boron-Doped Sol-Gel Alumina

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    desulfurization character of the CoMo catalysts supported on the B- Al2O3 supports, because high hydrogenation of sulfur tolerated in gasoline in the US has been decreased to 15 ppm [2], and that in all

  11. Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

    2005-01-01

    A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

  12. Beiträge zur Großgefiedermauser der Schleiereule, Tyto alba guttata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Schönfeld; Rudolf Piechocki

    1974-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Großgefiedermauser der Schleiereule wurde von 1969 bis 1972 an 34 Exemplaren untersucht. Die erste Mauser der Jungvögel dauerte drei Jahre und unterschied sich im Rhythmus von der der Altvögel, jedoch nicht im Modus. Die erste Vollmauser kann in drei Mauserphasen, die dem zweiten bis vierten Lebensjahr entsprechen, eingeteilt werden. Sie verlief bei den Handschwingen von einem Focus bei

  13. Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center

    E-print Network

    Lagergren, Jens

    on the use of protein engineering technology to develop and investigate biomolecules for different are developed using combinatorial protein engineering principles, involving the construction of large Prof. Stefan Ståhl (stefans@biotech.kth.se) Medical applications for combinatoral protein engineering

  14. Ecology of invasive Melilotus alba on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover has recently invaded glacial river floodplains in Alaska. We sampled vegetation and measured environmental variables along transects located along the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to describe plant communities and to determine the effects of white sweetclover on other plan...

  15. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  16. Food and energy requirements of captive barn owls Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K L

    1985-01-01

    Food and energy requirements of captive barn owls were determined at 5, 15 and 25 degrees C. Food consumption, gross energy intake, dry matter intake, and existence metabolism increased as ambient temperature decreased. Barn owl energy assimilation efficiencies at the three test temperatures were approximately 78%. An increase in bioenergetic parameters might be anticipated when a bird is cold-stressed and must increase its metabolism for thermoregulation. PMID:2858314

  17. A synoptic study of phytoplankton in the deep lakes south of the Alps (lakes Garda, Iseo, Como, Lugano and Maggiore)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico SALMASO; Giuseppe MORABITO; Rosario MOSELLO; Letizia GARIBALDI; Marco SIMONA; Fabio BUZZI; Delio RUGGIU

    This paper presents a synoptic account of the most important results emerging from studies on the phytoplankton communities in the deep southern subalpine lakes Garda, Iseo, Como, Lugano and Maggiore (DSL) in the second half of the 1990s. At present, the trophogenic layers of these lakes are trophically different, ranging from the oligo-mesotrophy of lakes Maggiore and Garda to the

  18. Analise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1

    E-print Network

    Cirne, Walfredo

    An´alise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac¸~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1 Luiz Alves favoritos. Neste trabalho analisamos o impacto da rede de contatos na avaliac¸~ao de fotos utilizando dados da rede social Flickr1 , um dos mais importantes sites de compartilhamento de fotos, que possui milh

  19. EL PORTAFOLIO VIRTUAL COMO ESTRATEGIA DIDACTICO-METODOLÓGICA Y DE EVALUACIÓN EN LA ENSEÑANZA UNIVERSITARIA SEMIPRESENCIAL Y A DISTANCIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Pérez Pérez

    Resumo: Na atualidade a educação superior se vê submetida a numerosos processos de mudança que vêm determinados por múltiplas variáveis que a fazem mais complexa, adicionando assim complexidade os processo que devem acontecer no sala de aula com relação ao que cabe esperar tanto do corpo discente como do próprio professorado. A globalização, a competitividade, as exigências dos sistemas de

  20. Las regiones Objetivo 1 españolas en la sociedad de la información: el comercio electrónico como elemento de desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Bernal Jurado; Juan Carlos Rodríguez Cohard

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN Las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) constituyen una de las principales fuerzas de la globalización. El comercio electrónico aprovecha Internet para mejorar la competitividad de las empresas y territorios. En un escenario como el actual, este canal, por un lado, abre posibilidades de desarrollo para las regiones Objetivo 1, pero, por otro, refuerza los factores de crecimiento

  1. Las mesas de trabajo ambiental como estrategia de autoformaciòn y fortalecimiento del liderazgo docente: una experiencia de cooperaciòn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Antonio pupo Gomez; Marìa Teresa Holguìn Aguirre

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Para el desarrollo de los Proyectos Ambientales Escolares en la Localidad de Suba, se implementó como estrategia de trabajo participativo la Mesa Educación Ambiental Local - MEAL, en donde participan las instituciones educativas de la Localidad de Suba Bogotá D.C., bajo la orientación del Centro Administrativo de Educación Local - CADEL 11 y la Universidad Libre, en el marco

  2. GESTIÓN EMPRESARIAL ORIENTADA AL VALOR DEL CLIENTE COMO FUENTE DE VENTAJA COMPETITIVA. PROPUESTA DE UN MODELO EXPLICATIVO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LESLIER VALENZUELA; EDUARDO TORRES

    2008-01-01

    La globalización y el entorno altamente competitivo exigen a las empresas estar orientadas al mercado y gestionar su cartera de clientes como un activo estratégico clave para aumentar la rentabilidad del negocio y lograr una ventaja competitiva sostenible en el tiempo. El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir con una propuesta de modelo basado en el valor de la cartera

  3. La valoraciòn econòmica de bienes y servicios ambientales como herramienta estrategica para la conservaciòn y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ADOLFO CARBAL HERRERA

    2010-01-01

    Resumen El trabajo corresponde a un estudio piloto hacia la implementación de una metodología que permita aproximar el valor monetario de los Bienes y Servicios Ambientales (BSA) ofertados por un ecosistema hídrico, caso “Ciénaga de la Caimanera, municipio de Coveñas, departamento de Sucre-Colombia”, como herramienta estratégica para incentivar la conservación y uso sostenible de los ecosistemas. Avanzar en procesos de

  4. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine.

    PubMed

    Lemus, I; García, R; Delvillar, E; Knop, G

    1999-03-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of a 20% dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans Benth. (Leguminosae), Galega officinalis L. (Leguminosae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), used for diabetes in Chilean popular medicine, was evaluated in alloxan and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic rats. In normal rats the different infusions did not modify significantly the glycaemia in the period studied, but in diabetic rats different results were observed, depending on the diabetogenic drug used. B. candicans and R. ulmifolius infusions elicited remarkable hypoglycaemic effects in both experimental models. B. candicans presented a greater decrease of glycaemia in alloxan diabetic rats (39%) and R. ulmifolius showed a similar activity in both alloxan and streptozotocin diabetic rats (28% and 29%). Activity-guided fractionation of R. ulmifolius showed that petroleum ether extracts elicited a marked hypoglycaemic effect (35%) in the streptozotocin induced model. PMID:10190178

  5. University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carr, Gerald D.

    Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur Cronquistâ??s classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant familiesâ?? are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

  6. Anti-microbial principles of selected remedial plants from Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Tirupathi, Rao G; Suresh, Babu K; Ujwal, Kumar J; Sujana, P; Raoa, A Veerabhadr; Sreedhar, AS

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the anti-bacterial activity of leaf extracts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Piper betel L. (Piperaceae), and seed extracts of Bombax ceiba L. (Borabacaceae). Methods We have partially purified plant extracts by solvent extraction method, and evaluated the effect of individual fractions on bacterial growth using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacterial strains. Results Compared with Morus and Bombax fractions, Piper fractions showed significant growth inhibition on all the three types of bacteria studied. The EtOAc-hexane fractions of Piper leaves exhibited significant anti-bacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 50 µg/mL culture against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The EtOAc-fractions I, II, and IV inhibited bacterial colony formation on soft agar in addition to growth inhibition. A combination treatment of piper fractions with ampicillin resulted in significant growth inhibition in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and combination with anticancer drug geldanamycin (2µg/mL) showed selective growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Three major compounds, i.e., eugenol, 3-hexene-ol and stigmasterol, were primarily identified from Piper betel leaf extractions. Among the individual compounds, eugenol treatment showed improved growth inhibition compared with stigmasterol and 3-hexene-ol. Conclusions We are reporting potential anti-bacterial compounds from Piper betel against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria either alone or in combination with drug treatment. PMID:23569779

  7. Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

  8. Comparison and performance of different sulphided Ti-loaded mesostructured silica-supported CoMo catalysts in deep HDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Zepeda

    2008-01-01

    Ti-loaded mesostructured silica materials (HMS, MCM-41 and SBA-15), with Si\\/Ti atomic ratio of 40, were used for the preparation of supported CoMo catalysts. The catalysts were tested in the reaction of HDS of 4,6-DMDBT carried out in a continuous-flow microreactor in the liquid-phase. The samples were characterized by DRS UV-Vis, XPS, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, SBET, XRD, TPR, FT-IR of adsorbed NO

  9. 1 Introduc~ao A Mec^anica Estatistica usa como premissas basicas o conhecimento de alguns detalhes mi-

    E-print Network

    Kik, Pieter

    a descri¸c~ao de propriedades e fen^omenos em escala termodin^amica, como equa¸c~oes de estado´iculas que formam um sistema pode mudar radi- calmente as propriedades termodin^amicas. Al´em de abrir: Termodin^amica Neste cap´itulo n´os nos preocuparemos em usar apenas conceitos e leis da Termodin^amica. O

  10. Estudio de NIH indica que la actividad física en tiempo libre alarga la vida tanto como 4,5 años

    Cancer.gov

    La actividad física en tiempo libre está asociada con una expectativa de vida más larga, aun en un grado de actividad relativamente bajo e independientemente del peso corporal, de acuerdo con un estudio llevado a cabo por un equipo de investigadores del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI), el cual forma parte de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud, (NIH). El estudio, el cual encontró que las personas que realizaron actividad física en tiempo libre ganaron en su expectativa de vida tanto como 4,5 años, se publicó el 6 de noviembre de 2012, en la revista PloS Medicine.

  11. En un solemne acto que se celebr el pasado 15 de marzo, Eu-genio Tras Sagnier y Jos Saramago fueron investidos como doc-

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    como "una de las figuras más destacadas de la filosofía de nuestro tiempo. La aparición de sus primeros Albaladejo realizó un extenso viaje por la vida y la obra del escritor, destacando su vinculación con la

  12. La dramatizacin de una conversin al catolicismo en el auto de Caldern La protestacin de la fe (1656): el sueo como espacio de transmisin del dogma.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1656-01-01

    (1656): el sueño como espacio de transmisión del dogma. Françoise GILBERT Fundamentado en un hecho espacio-temporales de la acción, mientras la cuarta sintetiza la trayectoria dramática de los como espacio de transmisión del dogma", Toulouse : France (2007)" #12;2 Religión a la cena de la

  13. Metabolic Effects of Mulberry Leaves: Exploring Potential Benefits in Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Hunyadi, A.; Liktor-Busa, E.; Márki, Á.; Martins, A.; Jedlinszki, N.; Hsieh, T. J.; Báthori, M.; Hohmann, J.; Zupkó, I.

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Morus alba L. have a long history in Traditional Chinese Medicine and also became valued by the ethnopharmacology of many other cultures. The worldwide known antidiabetic use of the drug has been suggested to arise from a complex combination effect of various constituents. Moreover, the drug is also a potential antihyperuricemic agent. Considering that type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia are vice-versa in each other's important risk factors, the use of mulberry originated phytotherapeutics might provide an excellent option for the prevention and/or treatment of both conditions. Here we report a series of relevant in vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of an extract of mulberry leaves and its fractions obtained by a stepwise gradient on silica gel. In vivo antihyperglycemic and antihyperuricemic activity, plasma antioxidant status, as well as in vitro glucose consumption by adipocytes in the presence or absence of insulin, xanthine oxidase inhibition, free radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were tested. Known bioactive constituents of M. alba (chlorogenic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin, and loliolide) were identified and quantified from the HPLC-DAD fingerprint chromatograms. Iminosugar contents were investigated by MS/MS, 1-deoxynojirimycin was quantified, and amounts of 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and fagomine were additionally estimated. PMID:24381639

  14. Como funciona un extintor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-28

    In this Spanish-language chemistry activity, learners use simple materials to explore how fire extinguishers work to put out fires. Safety note: this activity involves the use of a small candle with a burning flame.

  15. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto; Maria Inés Genovese; Franco Maria Lajolo

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of uptake of anthocyanins (as well as the type) from food in the intestine is not clear. Anthocyanin-rich extract from wild mulberry, composed of cyanidin-3-glucoside (79%) and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cy-3-rut) (19%), was orally administered to Wistar rats, and their concentrations were determined in plasma, kidney, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The 2 glycosylated forms showed maximum concentration at 15

  16. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry ( Morus species)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Mamrutha; T. Mogili; K. Jhansi Lakshmi; N. Rama; Dylan Kosma; M. Udaya Kumar; Matthew A. Jenks; Karaba N. Nataraja

    2010-01-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC,

  17. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

  18. Respeito às Normas e Crescimento Econômico: Como Promotores Públicos Garantem o Cumprimento das Leis e Promovem o Crescimento Econômico no Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salo Vinocur Coslovsky

    2008-01-01

    Esta pesquisa examina como os membros do Ministério Público (MP) brasileiro conseguem que empresas instaladas em território nacional cumpram com a legislação trabalhista e ambiental sem perder a competitividade. Nos casos analisados, promotores e procuradores percebem que os gargalos que dificultam o cumprimento da lei estão freqüentemente fora das empresas infratoras e de suas respectivas cadeias de valor, e que,

  19. O ensino itinerante como suporte para a inclusão de pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais na rede pública de ensino: uma abordagem etnográfica1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcia Denise Pletsch; Rosana Glat

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir o papel e atribuições cotidianas do professor itinerante — professor especialista em Educação Especial que dá suporte a escolas que têm alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais incluídos em classes regulares. O texto está fundamentado nos dados obtidos em uma pesquisa realizada na Rede Pública de Ensino da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  20. 4 Jornada de Educao em Sensoriamento Remoto no mbito do Mercosul 11 a 13 de agosto de 2004 So Leopoldo, RS, Brasil UTILIZAO DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO COMO

    E-print Network

    ­ São Leopoldo, RS, Brasil UTILIZAÇÃO DE SENSORIAMENTO REMOTO COMO FERRAMENTA DE TRABALHO NO ENSINO BRITO" R. Antonio Eras, n° 107 Jardim Colinas Cep 12.242-190 São José dos Campos ­ SP, Brasil Tel (12 agosto de 2004 ­ São Leopoldo, RS, Brasil tempo de vida útil, se existe um local proposto para

  1. Da 17/01/2014 -11.49h Identifican las sustancias qumicas que las reinas de especies como hormigas, abejas y

    E-print Network

    Wenseleers, Tom

    como las abejas, avispas, abejorros y algunas hormigas utilizan la La reina del sexo: por qué solo una puede reproducirse - ABC.es http://www.abc.es/ciencia/20140117/abci-reina-sexo-solo-puede-201... 1 of 3 dificultades que encontró Darwin", La reina del sexo: por qu

  2. Instrues de utilizao O badge do Centenrio do IST --que se apresenta e configura como um hyperlink para o respectivo website comemorativo

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    como um hyperlink para o respectivo website comemorativo --, será a forma oficial de associação dos diversos websites dos serviços e/ou iniciativas do IST ao mesmo, por forma a assegurar uma consistência no canto superior direito do website. Assegure-se --através do visionamento do código-fonte-- que está

  3. IDENTIFICANDO LUGARES CON LA GENTE DEL 1ER FESTIVAL DE LA CALLE LOZA: EL USO DE MAPAS PARTICIPATIVOS COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA RECOPILAR Y CREAR

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    por la toma de decisiones en torno al uso y transformación del espacio. Por tanto, resulta de los actores locales como un criterio fundamental para la toma de decisiones. Los mapas para comunicar, educar y facilitar la toma de decisiones en torno a la planificación, uso y manejo de

  4. Ante as noticias aparecidas nos medios de comunicacin as como os rumores que circulan por diversos mbitos, o Comit de Empresa do Persoal Laboral da

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    de alzada por parte do Comité ten como intención a axilización do proceso, pois non facelo suporía tarde, e algúns deles directamente no contencioso-administrativo. O recurso do Comité pretende que o non está interesado na dilación do proceso, polo que en ningún caso acudirá aos tribunais reclamando

  5. La Dialéctica dllo\\/subdllo como expresión de la vocación expansiva del capitalismo: hacia un análisis comparativo de las teorías de la dependencia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac Enríquez Pérez

    2009-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un análisis comparativo de las teorías de la dependencia y el enfoque del posdesarrollo partiendo del reconocimiento de sus contribuciones, alcances y limitaciones, así como de la revisión del concepto de desarrollo que postulan en sus sistemas teóricos. Se destaca que ambas perspectivas interpretan que la génesis del subdesarrollo se encuentra en la vocación expansiva del

  6. Lugares materiales, memoria y espacio social , Anthropos. Huellas del conocimiento (Barcelone), dossier special Maurice Halbwachs. La memoria como proyecto , n218,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    « Lugares materiales, memoria y espacio social », Anthropos. Huellas del conocimiento (Barcelone-35. LUGARES MATERIALES, MEMORIA Y ESPACIO SOCIAL. El recuerdo de los campos anexos de Drancy en París* Sarah a menudo remitida a los trabajos de Maurice Halbwachs. En "la memoria colectiva y el espacio", así como en

  7. A comparative study of the catalytic performance of CoMo and Co(Ni)-W carbide catalysts in the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) reaction of pyridine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid A. Al-Megren; Sergio L. González-Cortés; Tiancun Xiao; Malcolm L. H. Green

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the HDN catalytic behaviour of Co-Mo carbide catalysts and Co(Ni)-W carbide catalysts is compared in order to establish a rational effect of cobalt (or nickel) over Mo and W carbide HDN catalysts. The bimetallic and trimetallic catalysts were characterized by using elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and measurements of BET specific

  8. La vivienda urbana como espacio social, económico y privado, e instrumento para la movilidad social. El ejemplo de artesanos y comerciantes en la Murcia del siglo XVII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Miralles Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Artesanos y mercaderes residían en un espacio urbano debido a las características de su trabajo, pero el lugar de residencia también fue utilizado, especialmente por los mercaderes, como estrategia para la movilidad social; para ambos grupos constituyó un lugar predilecto para las relaciones sociales. Las estrategias de sociabilidad coadyuvan a esa finalidad. \\u000a\\u000aLa vivienda y el hogar desempeñan varias funciones:

  9. Percepción de competencia y adiestramiento profesional especializado relativos al VIH/SIDA en estudiantes y profesionales de la salud: el estigma como un indicador de necesidad

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ, Yarimar ROSA; DÍAZ, Nelson VARAS

    2009-01-01

    El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud. PMID:20011236

  10. Surface structure of the oxidic precursor of CoMo/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Delannay, F.; Haeussler, E.N.; Delmon, B.

    1980-12-01

    An ion scattering spectrometry (ISS), which is known to provide a surface sensitivity limited to the first atomic monolayer of the surface catalysts while allowing depth profiling by gradual erosion of the successive layers, was used in this investigation. These measurements give striking evidence that the Co-Mo double layer is made of an oxidic molybdenum layer on top of an oxidic cobalt layer. The oxidic precursor sample investigated was prepared by successive deposition of Mo and Co on 160m/sup 2/g/sup -1/ ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ support in powder form. The measurements were performed on a 3M Company model 535 BX instrument. The spectra were obtained with /sup 3/He/sup +/ at 2 keV with a beam current of 200 nA. The ISS results indicate the structure of the Co-Mo double layer. The work confirms the extreme surface selectivity of the method and shows the fine information which can be obtained from the interpretation of depth profiling measurements at the scale of a few surface monolayers. (DP) 2 figures.

  11. Tal Como Somos/Just As We Are: An Educational Film to Reduce Stigma towards Gay and Bisexual Men, Transgender Individuals & Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes towards gay and bisexual men and transgender women (GBT) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively impact attitudes towards GBT and PLWHA. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  12. Tal Como Somos/just as we are: an educational film to reduce stigma toward gay and bisexual men, transgender individuals, and persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Manjarrez, Dianna

    2014-04-01

    In this article, the authors describe the development and dissemination of a film-based educational intervention to reduce negative attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS in Latino communities, with a focus on youth. The intervention, Tal Como Somos/Just as We Are, is based on stigma and attribution theories, extensive formative research, and community input. Evaluation findings among educators and school youth suggest the film has the potential to effectively influence attitudes toward gay and bisexual men, transgender women, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The film and intervention are being disseminated using diffusion of innovations theory through community-based organizations, schools, television broadcasting, and film festivals. PMID:24377496

  13. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

  14. 'Cortar na investigao como queimar

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    estar à espera de receber algo em troca' A conferência promovida pela Fundação Francisco Manuel dos problema que afeta vá- rios países, na Europa. O que é algo que me preocupa. Antes de mais, é preciso cultura, por exemplo, é a sociedade estar à espera de receber algo em troca. A ci- ência melhora a nossa

  15. ARTICLE Soil characteristics of Rocky Mountain National Park grasslands invaded by Melilotus officinalis and M. alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Wolf; S. W. Beatty; T. R. Seastedt

    Aim Invasion of nitrogen-fixing non-native plant species may alter soil resources and impact native plant communities. Altered soils may be the driving mechanism that provides a suitable environment to facilitate future invasions and decrease native biodiversity. We hypothesized that Melilotus invasion would increase nitrogen availability and produce soil microclimate and biochemical changes, which could in turn alter plant species composition

  16. Local adaptation maintains clinal variation in melanin-based coloration of European barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Burri, Reto; Fumagalli, Luca; Goudet, Jérôme; Roulin, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    Ecological parameters vary in space, and the resulting heterogeneity of selective forces can drive adaptive population divergence. Clinal variation represents a classical model to study the interplay of gene flow and selection in the dynamics of this local adaptation process. Although geographic variation in phenotypic traits in discrete populations could be remainders of past adaptation, maintenance of adaptive clinal variation requires recurrent selection. Clinal variation in genetically determined traits is generally attributed to adaptation of different genotypes to local conditions along an environmental gradient, although it can as well arise from neutral processes. Here, we investigated whether selection accounts for the strong clinal variation observed in a highly heritable pheomelanin-based color trait in the European barn owl by comparing spatial differentiation of color and of neutral genes among populations. Barn owl's coloration varies continuously from white in southwestern Europe to reddish-brown in northeastern Europe. A very low differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggests that substantial gene flow occurs among populations. The persistence of pronounced color differentiation despite this strong gene flow is consistent with the hypothesis that selection is the primary force maintaining color variation among European populations. Therefore, the color cline is most likely the result of local adaptation. PMID:20148951

  17. Tonotopic and Somatotopic Representation in the Nucleus basalis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Wild; M. F. Kubke; C. E. Carr

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the somatosensory and auditory representations in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl. In pigeons and finches, the nucleus basalis contains a representation of the beak and an auditory area. In the barn owl, the nucleus basalis also contains a complete somatotopic map of the head and body (as in the budgerigar), with a tonotopically organized auditory

  18. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; de Roos, Andre M

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predators and thus can be expected to influence their population dynamics and persistence. The barn owl, for example, shows large fluctuations in breeding success that correlate with the dynamics in voles, their main prey species. Analysis of the impact of fluctuations in vole abundance (their amplitude, peaks and lows, cycle length and regularity) with a simple predator prey model parameterized with literature data indicates population persistence is especially affected by years with low vole abundance. In these years the population can decline to low owl numbers such that the ensuing peak vole years cannot be exploited. This result is independent of the length and regularity of vole fluctuations. The relevance of this result for conservation of the barn owl and other birds of prey that show a numerical response to fluctuating prey species is discussed. PMID:17594062

  19. Target-approaching behavior of barn owls (Tyto alba): influence of sound frequency.

    PubMed

    Singheiser, Martin; Plachta, Dennis T T; Brill, Sandra; Bremen, Peter; van der Willigen, Robert F; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-03-01

    We studied the influence of frequency on sound localization in free-flying barn owls by quantifying aspects of their target-approaching behavior to a distant sound source during ongoing auditory stimulation. In the baseline condition with a stimulus covering most of the owls hearing range (1-10 kHz), all owls landed within a radius of 20 cm from the loudspeaker in more than 80% of the cases and localization along the azimuth was more accurate than localization in elevation. When the stimulus contained only high frequencies (>5 kHz) no changes in striking behavior were observed. But when only frequencies from 1 to 5 kHz were presented, localization accuracy and precision decreased. In a second step we tested whether a further border exists at 2.5 kHz as suggested by optimality models. When we compared striking behavior for a stimulus having energy from 2.5 to 5 kHz with a stimulus having energy between 1 and 2.5 kHz, no consistent differences in striking behavior were observed. It was further found that pre-takeoff latency was longer for the latter stimulus than for baseline and that center frequency was a better predictor for landing precision than stimulus bandwidth. These data fit well with what is known from head-turning studies and from neurophysiology. PMID:20140676

  20. In-flight corrections in free-flying barn owls (Tyto alba) during sound localization tasks.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Laura; Plachta, Dennis T T; Singheiser, Martin; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    Barn owls localize a stationary auditory target with high accuracy. They might also be able to hit a target that is intermittently moving while the owl is approaching. If so, there should be a critical delay before strike initiation, up to which the owl can adapt its flight path to a new stimulus position. In this study, this critical stimulus delay was determined in a three-dimensional free-flight paradigm. Barn owls localized a pulsed broadband noise while sitting on a perch in total darkness. This initial signal stopped with the owl's take-off and an in-flight stimulus (target sound), lasting 200 ms, was introduced at variable time delays (300-1200 ms) during the approximate flight time of 1300 ms. The owls responded to the in-flight signal with a corrective head and body turn. The percentage of trials in which correction turns occurred (40-80%) depended upon the individual bird, but was independent of the stimulus delay within a range of 800 ms after take-off. Correction turns strongly decreased at delays >or=800 ms. The landing precision of the owls, defined as their distance to the in-flight speaker, did not decrease with increasing stimulus delay, but decreased if the owl failed to perform a correction turn towards that speaker. Landing precision was higher for a short (50 cm) than for a large (100 cm) distance between the initial and the new target. Thus, the ability of barn owls to adapt their flight path to a new sound target depends on the in-flight stimulus delay, as well as on the distance between initial and novel targets. PMID:18775935

  1. Breeding success of barn owls ( Tyto alba ) fed low levels of DDE and dieldrin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian M. Mendenhall; Erwin E. Klaas; M. Anne R. McLane

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of two organochlorine pesticides in the recent reproductive failure of raptors was investigated. Captive barn owls were fed 3.0 ppm DDE and 0.5 ppm dieldrin; doses were given separately and in combination for two years. Breeding success was followed from the laying of eggs through natural incubation and rearing of young. DDE was associated with significant eggshell

  2. DIET OF THE BAP, N OWL (TYTO ALBA TUIDARA) IN NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINE PATAGONIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTA S. PILtDO; ANA TREJO

    where nwas the nnmber of individuals of the ith species and w, was the mean weight. We also determined the mean length of rodents consunred after .Jaksiet al. (1977): MLR =  fx\\/m, where f was the frequency of the i species in the diet, x, was mean body length, and m the total number of identified rodents. Mean weight

  3. SALMONELLA SPP. IN NESTLING COMMON BARN-OWLS (TYTO ALBA) FROM SOUTHWESTERN NEW JERSEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E. Kirkpatrick; Bruce A. Colvin

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in nestling common barn-owls was investigated in southwestern New Jersey during the summer of 1985. Of 94 owls sampled by swabbing the cloaca, eight (8.5%) were found to harbor Salmonella spp. Three serotypes-S. thompson, S. tutndorp, and S. typhimurium-were identified. Five (20%) of the 25 nest sites examined (all of them in or near farm

  4. Neuroethology of prey capture in the barn owl (Tyto alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann; Kettler, Lutz; Orlowski, Julius; Tellers, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Barn owls are a model system for studying prey capture. These animals can catch mice by hearing alone, but use vision whenever light conditions allow this. The silent flight, the frontally oriented eyes, and the facial ruffs are specializations that evolved to optimize prey capture. The auditory system is characterized by high absolute sensitivity, a use of interaural time difference for azimuthal sound-localization over almost the total hearing range up to at least 9 kHz, and the use of interaural level difference for elevational sound localization in the upper frequency range. Response latencies towards auditory targets were shortened by covert attention, while overt attention helped to orient towards salient visual objects. However, only 20% of the fixation movements could be explained by the saliency of the fixated objects, suggesting a top-down control of attention. In a visual-search experiment the birds turned earlier and more often towards and spent more time at salient objects. The visual system also exhibits high absolute sensitivity, while the spatial resolution is not particularly high. Last but not least, head movements may be classified as fixations, translations, and rotations combined with translations. These motion primitives may be combined to complex head-movement patterns. With the expected easy availability of genetic techniques for specialists in the near future and the possibility to apply the findings in biomimetic devices prey capture in barn owls will remain an exciting field in the future. PMID:22510644

  5. Variation and covariation in survival, dispersal, and population size in barn owls Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Res Altwegg; Alexandre Roulin; Matthias Kestenholz; Lukas Jenni

    2003-01-01

    Summary 1. Population dynamics are the result of variation in survival, recruitment, emigration and immigration rates. Covariation between these demographic rates critically affects the dynamics and magnitude of fluctuations in population size. Such covariation can arise by environmental factors affecting several rates in similar ways. Also demographic processes, such as the source-sink and the balanced dispersal process, are expected to

  6. Adaptation in the auditory midbrain of the barn owl (Tyto alba) induced by tonal double stimulation.

    PubMed

    Singheiser, Martin; Ferger, Roland; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    During hunting, the barn owl typically listens to several successive sounds as generated, for example, by rustling mice. As auditory cells exhibit adaptive coding, the earlier stimuli may influence the detection of the later stimuli. This situation was mimicked with two double-stimulus paradigms, and adaptation was investigated in neurons of the barn owl's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Each double-stimulus paradigm consisted of a first or reference stimulus and a second stimulus (probe). In one paradigm (second level tuning), the probe level was varied, whereas in the other paradigm (inter-stimulus interval tuning), the stimulus interval between the first and second stimulus was changed systematically. Neurons were stimulated with monaural pure tones at the best frequency, while the response was recorded extracellularly. The responses to the probe were significantly reduced when the reference stimulus and probe had the same level and the inter-stimulus interval was short. This indicated response adaptation, which could be compensated for by an increase of the probe level of 5-7 dB over the reference level, if the latter was in the lower half of the dynamic range of a neuron's rate-level function. Recovery from adaptation could be best fitted with a double exponential showing a fast (1.25 ms) and a slow (800 ms) component. These results suggest that neurons in the auditory system show dynamic coding properties to tonal double stimulation that might be relevant for faithful upstream signal propagation. Furthermore, the overall stimulus level of the masker also seems to affect the recovery capabilities of auditory neurons. PMID:22288481

  7. Characterisation and modelling of white mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) emergence under several sowing conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fruck Dorsainvil; Carolyne Dürr; Eric Justes; Aude Carrera

    2005-01-01

    White mustard is sown as a catch crop in Northern Europe to limit nitrate leaching during winter. Its crop establishment is difficult to control as growers attempt to drill at minimum cost, and the weather may be hot, dry, or with rainstorms. This study was carried out to characterise the sensitivity of emergence of white mustard to sowing conditions. Sowing

  8. Die Regulation von Fettabbau und Atmung bei Senfkeimlingen durch Licht ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hock; E. Kühnert; H. Mohr

    1965-01-01

    1.In the present experiments on control by light of fat degradation and respiration only far-red light has been used because it exerts the strongest effect on morphogenesis without having any photosynthetic activity (Bertsch and Mohr 1965). There is good evidence (Mohr, Wagner and Hartmann 1965) that the effect of far-red is mediated exclusively through phytochrome.2.The process of fat degradation is

  9. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically 'hunting' barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Sparkes, Emily L; Weller, Renate

    2014-09-01

    Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting 'strike' onto an acoustically targeted - and potentially entirely hidden - prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the leap and strike. Leaping performance was similar to reported values for guinea fowl. This is likely achieved despite the owl's considerably smaller size because of its relatively long legs and use of wing upstroke. Strikes appear deliberately forceful: impulses could have been spread over larger periods during greater deflections of the centre of mass, as observed in leaping and an alighting landing measurement. The strike, despite forces around 150 times that of a mouse body weight, is not thought to be crucial to the kill; rather, forceful strikes may function primarily to enable rapid penetration of leaf litter or snow cover, allowing grasping of hidden prey. PMID:24948629

  10. Irradiance dependency of the phytochrome system in cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schiller; H. Mohr

    1974-01-01

    Summary  The irradiance dependency of the phytochrome system in the cotyledons of the mustard seedling has been analyzed, using the\\u000a steady state level of total phytochrome (P\\u000a tot) under continuous far red light as a parameter. The steady state level was found to be proportional to the reciprocal of\\u000a the irradiance of the far red light. This is in quantitative agreement

  11. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-?B p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  12. Mustard seeds (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haifeng; Zhu, Minggu; Guo, Wen; Jin, Ling; Chen, Weihong; Brunk, Ulf T; Zhao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Mustard seeds (MS), which are consumed in considerable amounts by the Japanese people that, interestingly, have the longest life expectancy in the world, are known to contain a number of yet not fully defined but quite powerful anti-oxidants. A suspension of extracted MS was found to suppress oxidized-LDL-induced macrophage respiratory burst in vitro, to prevent growth, and to induce apoptotic death of SW480 cells (a human colon cancer cell line), while no such effects were found for normal 3T3 cells. A diet enriched with MS decreased plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in mice exposed to the colon cancer-inducer azoxymethane (AOM). Such a diet also dose-dependently enhanced the activity of several anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GSH-peroxidase and, moreover, reduced AOM-mediated formation of colon adenomas by about 50%. Further studies are required to detail and explore the beneficial effects of MS and their rich content of powerful anti-oxidants. PMID:21605497

  13. Über die Wirkung einiger Verbindungen der Pyridinreihe auf das Wachstum von Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Vaculík; Lud?k Šindelá?; Olga Makovcová

    1966-01-01

    Abstrakt  In dieser Arbeit wurde die Wirkung von 55 Verbindungen der Pyridinreihe in der Konzentration 10?3\\u000a m geprüft. Bei diesen Untersuchungen wurde die Grundgruppierung. die der Träger der Phytotoxizität ist, gefunden. Es wird die\\u000a abhängigkeit dieser Wirkung von der Konstitution der Substanzen solehen Typus diskutiert. Verbindungen vom Typus VII verursachen\\u000a eine Wachstumshemmung der Hypokotylen und besonders eine sehr starke Hemmwirkung des

  14. Nachweis einer Schwellenwertsregulation durch Phytochrom bei der Photomodulation des Hypokotylstreckungswachstums von Senfkeimlingen ( Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schopfer; Heidemarie Oelze-Karow

    1971-01-01

    The inhibition of hypocotyl lengthening in intact mustard seedlings is controlled by two photosensitive systems which can be experimentally separated.1.Kinetics of the growth response in the dark after red and far-red irradiation (Figs. 1, 2) demonstrate the operation of Pfr in the ground state via a threshold mechanism similar to the regulation of lipoxygenase synthesis in the mustard cotyledons (c.

  15. Pattern formation underlying phytochrome-mediated anthocyanin synthesis in the cotyledons of Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Steinitz; R. Bergfeld

    1977-01-01

    The ability to respond to phytochrome (Pfr, the far-red light absorbing from of phytochrome) with anthocyanin synthesis appears first in some marginal regions of the abaxial epidermis of the mustard cotyledons and from there spreads gradually over the entire tissue (transient phase). The pertinent pattern is independent of environmental influences such as light quality and nutritional culture conditions. The competence

  16. Transcription factor phosphorylation by a protein kinase associated with chloroplast RNA polymerase from mustard (Sinapis alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha Baginsky; Kai Tiller; Gerhard Link

    1997-01-01

    The chloroplast transcription machinery involves multiple components with both catalytic and regulatory functions. Here we describe a serine-specific protein kinase activity that is associated with the major chloroplast RNA polymerase and phosphorylates sigma-like transcription factors in vitro. The kinase activity can be assigned to a 54 kDa polypeptide of partially purified RNA polymerase (KPC, kinase polymerase complex). This polypeptide is

  17. Teratomas of Drosera capensis var. alba as a source of naphthoquinone: ramentaceone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Krolicka; Anna Szpitter; Krzysztof Stawujak; Rafal Baranski; Anna Gwizdek-Wisniewska; Anita Skrzypczak; Marian Kaminski; Ewa Lojkowska

    2010-01-01

    Plants belonging to genus Drosera (family Droseraceae) contain pharmacologically active naphthoquinones such as ramentaceone and plumbagin. Hairy root cultures\\u000a obtained following Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have been reported to produce elevated levels of secondary compounds as well as exhibit desirable\\u000a rapid biomass accumulation in comparison to untransformed plants. The aim of this study was to establish hairy root or teratoma\\u000a cultures

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 ?g/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 ?m and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  19. 10?m thin transmissive photodiode produced by ALBA Synchrotron and IMB-CNM-CSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Jover-Manas, G.; Matilla, O.; Avila, J.; Juanhuix, J.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Rodriguez, J.

    2015-03-01

    Thin silicon photodiodes are common X-ray beam diagnosis devices at synchrotron facilities. Here we present a new device featuring an extremely thin layer that allows X-ray transmission over 90% for energies above 10 keV. The diode has a radiation-hard silicon junction with silicon dioxide passivation and a protective entrance window. These outstanding features make this device suited for diagnostic applications in X-ray synchrotron beamlines. Hereby preliminary results of X-ray transmission, responsivity and uniformity are presented.

  20. Corresponding patterns of geographic variation among populations of Silene latifolia (= S. alba = S. pratensis ) ( Caryophyllaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Mastenbroek; H. C. Prentice; J. Heringa; P. Hogeweg

    1984-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical data were analysed from 30 greenhouse-grown populations of EuropeanSilene latifolia. Six separate character sets (flavones, seed, pollen, capsules, male and female flower morphology) were used in the analyses. There was broad-scale congruence between trends of geographic variation in most character sets, with the populations being assigned to western (or southern and western) and eastern clusters. The eastern

  1. Los discursos sobre sexualidad en la obra de Alicia Gaspar de Alba

    E-print Network

    Vivancos P?erez, Ricardo F

    2002-01-01

    sexualidad que mas han influido en las dos ultimas decadas del siglo XX, hasta llegar a formulaciones sobre el deseo lesbico. En la segunda parte recojo las teorizaciones y conceptos encontrados y los aplico al estudio de la construccion de los discursos... publicos mas amplios. Al igual que en las secciones previas, conecto en todo momento sus escritos con otras obras de feministas-lesbianas chicanas, sobre todo con las de Cherrie Moraga, Gloria Anzaldua y Emma Perez en el ambito literario. A Mari siempre...

  2. Reproductive Peformance of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at High Island, Texas 

    E-print Network

    McInnes, Andrew

    2012-02-14

    guild were: bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus), spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), inland silverside...

  3. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically ‘hunting’ barn owl (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James R.; Sparkes, Emily L.; Weller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting ‘strike’ onto an acoustically targeted – and potentially entirely hidden – prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the leap and strike. Leaping performance was similar to reported values for guinea fowl. This is likely achieved despite the owl's considerably smaller size because of its relatively long legs and use of wing upstroke. Strikes appear deliberately forceful: impulses could have been spread over larger periods during greater deflections of the centre of mass, as observed in leaping and an alighting landing measurement. The strike, despite forces around 150 times that of a mouse body weight, is not thought to be crucial to the kill; rather, forceful strikes may function primarily to enable rapid penetration of leaf litter or snow cover, allowing grasping of hidden prey. PMID:24948629

  4. Hyperspectral Proximal Sensing of Salix Alba Trees in the Sacco River Valley (Latium, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are ‘healthier’ than those downstream. PMID:24172281

  5. Effects of stress ethylene inhibitors on sweet clover (Melilotus Alba L.) seedling growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brown, Christopher S.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous experiments from our lab have shown that seeds of sweet clover, when germinated and grown within the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) on a slow rotating clinostat produce significantly greater levels of the volatile stress hormone, ethylene, when compared to seeds treated the same but without clinorotation. In both conditions, carbon dioxide levels reached high levels and seedling growth was inhibited. However, clinorotation inhibited growth to a greater extent. To help determine to what extent microgravity influences stress ethylene production and to what extent ethylene inhibits seedling growth, we have extended the above experiments by growing sweet clover in the presence of aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), inhibitors of stress ethylene biosynthesis and action, respectively. Seeds of sweet clover were germinated and grown for five days in the FPA under two gravity conditions: under stationary conditions on Earth and in microgravity onboard the space shuttle, Discovery (STS-63), which launched Feb. 3, 1995. Upon recovery, gas samples were aspirated from the growth chambers and carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph. Then the tissue was weighed, photographed and fixed, and is current undergoing further morphological and microscopic characterization.

  6. Extreme water stress and photosynthetic activity of the desert plant Artemisia herba-alba asso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Kappen; O. L. Lange; E.-D. Schulze; M. Evenari; U. Buschbom

    1972-01-01

    During the dry season in the Negev desert (Israel) Artemisia herbaalba in its natural habitat has a very low water content. It shows values of negative hydrostatic pressure in the xylem down to -163 bars and an extreme of osmotic potential in the leaves of -92 bars. The diurnal water stress does not decrease strongly in the night. Under these

  7. Los discursos sobre sexualidad en la obra de Alicia Gaspar de Alba 

    E-print Network

    Vivancos P?erez, Ricardo F

    2002-01-01

    chicanas / latinas que se identifican corno lesbianas o son percibidas corno lesbianas, pero que caen fuera de mis limites en este trabajo. " El caso de Ana Castillo merece especial atencion. Queda claro que no se identifica camo heterosexual, pero...

  8. ALBA COUNTY: THE ROLE OF THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS WITHIN THE SOCIAL COHESION STRATEGY

    E-print Network

    the identity and the cultural diversity of the mountain population. Structure of the paper: The paper contains culture and tradition. Within the territorial strategy, elaborate by the County these days, the balance situation and the competitive factors of the county. The chapter two encompasses the integrated policy

  9. Evaluating Esters Derived from Mustard Oil ( Sinapis alba ) as Potential Diesel Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Titipong Issariyakul; Ajay K. Dalai; Prabhat Desai

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced from mustard oil utilizing transesterification with methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol to evaluate\\u000a the characteristics of mustard biodiesel as an additive to regular diesel. Mustard oil was transesterified with alcohol at\\u000a 6:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio, using KOH as a catalyst at 1 wt%. The maximum ester content achieved by this method was only\\u000a 66%. Distillation

  10. Special issue: Bio-inspired algorithms with structured populations Bernabe Dorronsoro Enrique Alba

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and path relinkingEDITORIAL Special issue: Bio-inspired algorithms with structured populations Bernabe´ Dorronsoro in Evolu- tionary Algorithms (EAs) and other metaheuristicas are well known today, not only

  11. WHOLE-STEM WATER RELTIONS IN WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA L.) CAROL ELAINE GORANSON

    E-print Network

    Teskey, Robert O.

    into the atmosphere through open stomata while carbon dioxide diffuses into the leaf. In order to take in carbon through the stomata for tree growth or maintenance of tissues, there must be an adequate supply of water

  12. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  13. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

  14. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  15. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  16. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  17. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  18. Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.

    PubMed

    Sardari, Soroush; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghavami, Ghazaleh

    2009-10-01

    Bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. In this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. Several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. Complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal MIC tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibility with RBC of herbal extracts. Final findings may point at selective activity of herbal extracts Rheum ribes, Ficus bengalensis, Morus alba, Musa sapientum, Arnebia decumbens, Citrus limon, Fraxinus excelsior, Rumex acetosella, Arnebia echioides in inducing cytotoxicity on cancerous cell lines. In the present research, in vitro results confirmed predicted findings from our in silico work. Complementary assays including antifungal MIC and hemolytic tests were carried out also to determine selectivity of herbal extracts. Findings resulted from hemolytic test showed that candidate herbal extracts did not induce hemolysis similar to negative control, also antifungal test results indicated that six herbal extracts had antifungal activity in concentration of 250 microg/ml. PMID:19602433

  19. [Screening of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Chinese dietary herbs].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Kaibin; Ji, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanwen; Jeffrey, Zidichouski; Tong, Yan; Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Zhimin

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. Orlistat and acarbose were used as two positive controls. The extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Curcuma longa, Piper longum and Morus alba showed strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects with IC50 at (28.00 +/- 5.51), (5.24 +/- 0.51), (14.76 +/- 2.58), (4.78 +/- 0.58), (3.41 +/- 0.67) mg x L(-1), respectively. These extracts also showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 at (1.98 +/- 0.13), (0. 18 + 0.007), (0.71 +/- 0.08), (0.077 +/- 0.005), (0.089 +/- 0.006) g x L(-1), respectively. The results provide useful information for developing new drugs or natural health products for hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia from Chinese dietary herbs. PMID:22803384

  20. Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants used against livestock infections by the people living around Indus River.

    PubMed

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

  1. Mulberroside A protects against ischemic impairment in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Lu-Zhong; Li, Gui-Cai; Shi, Yun-wei; Li, Jian-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Fei; Liang, Xin-Miao

    2014-07-01

    Mulberroside A is a natural polyhydroxylated stilbene compound present at relatively high abundance in the roots and twigs of Morus alba L. It is known for its nephroprotective, hypoglycemic, and antidiabetic effects. Because its metabolite, oxyresveratrol, possessed purported anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we proposed that mulberroside A may elicit neuroprotective effects that can be used in the treatment of brain ischemic injury. Therefore, we decided to investigate the pharmacological properties of mulberroside A in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R), evaluating its ability to counteract the hypoxia-ischemia impairment. The results showed that mulberroside A elicited neuroprotective effects comparable to nimodipine. The mechanistic studies showed that mulberroside A decreased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 and inhibited the activation of NALP3, caspase-1, and nuclear factor-?B and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, exhibiting anti-inflammatory antiapoptotic effects. Our results also further demonstrate that the proinflammatory cytokines of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? are promising targets for treatment of cerebral ischemic injury. Although further investigation is required for its development, all of these findings led us to speculate that mulberroside A is a candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke, which would act as a multifactorial neuroprotectant. PMID:24687774

  2. Mori Folium and Mori Fructus Mixture Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Uk; Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hocheol; Lim, Yunsook; Oh, Myung Sook

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global health problem, contributing to various diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and dementia. Increasing evidence suggests that obesity can also cause neuronal damage, long-term memory loss, and cognitive impairment. The leaves and the fruits of Morus alba L., containing active phytochemicals, have been shown to possess antiobesity and hypolipidemic properties. Thus, in the present study, we assessed their effects on cognitive functioning in mice fed a high-fat diet by performing immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against c-Fos, synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density protein 95 and a behavioral test. C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 21 weeks exhibited increased body weight, but mice coadministered an optimized Mori Folium and Mori Fructus extract mixture (2?:?1; MFE) for the final 12 weeks exhibited significant body weight loss. Additionally, obese mice exhibited not only reduced neural activity, but also decreased presynaptic and postsynaptic activities, while MFE-treated mice exhibited recovery of these activities. Finally, cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet were recovered by cotreatment with MFE in the novel object recognition test. Our findings suggest that the antiobesity effects of MFE resulted in recovery of the cognitive deficits induced by the high-fat diet by regulation of neural and synaptic activities. PMID:25945108

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2005-08-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

  4. Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

    2013-10-01

    As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be considered when assessing potential changes to the distribution and characteristics of habitats from increased anthropogenic disturbances such as large scale offshore wind, wave and tidal renewable deployments.

  5. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)alba cortex (0.0625 mg/ml)=Siegesbeckia pubescens aerial part (0.0625 mg/ml)alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B. cereus in foods. PMID:23290233

  6. Dinámica del sistema agroforestal de chagras como eje de la producción indígena en el Trapecio Amazónico (Colombia) Chagras' agroforestal system dynamics as the basis for indigenous production in the Amazonian Trapezium (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Amparo Triana-Moreno; Nohra Cecilia Rodríguez; Jesús García

    Resumen: La tradición indígena, la pertenencia a la cuenca Amazónica y la cercanía a un importante centro urbano como Leticia (Amazonas, Colombia) son factores que aportan elementos característicos al sistema de producción de Ciudad Jitoma y lo dife- rencian de otras formas de producción indígena y no-indígena, incluso dentro de la misma región ama- zónica. En el presente estudio se

  7. O TelEduc como recurso virtual de aprendizagem e apoio ao ensino presencial: relato de uma experiência de uso em um curso semi-presencial de Ensino Superior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Italo Oscar; Riccardi Leon; Teresinha F. Nogueira

    Resumo: Nas atuais propostas educativas brasileiras há uma discussão vigente que está em andamento nos cursos de graduação e começa a destacar-se pelos diversos resultados qualitativos e possibilidades de aplicação no ensino superior. Trata-se do uso dos ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem (AVA) -concebidos como recursos tecnológicos ou ferramentas digitais de comunicação utilizados para mediar a aprendizagem- que podem complementar e\\/ou

  8. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    We occasionally include projects in our learner-centered introductory astronomy college course to enable non-science major students explore some astronomical concepts in more detail than otherwise. Such projects also highlight ongoing or upcoming astronomical events. We hope that students will feel more interested in astronomy through projects tied to astronomical events. In Spring 2012, we offered short essays focused on eclipses, transits and occultations to promote the rare transit of Venus that occurred on June 5th, 2012. We asked students to write two short essays from three that were offered. The essays contained descriptive and conceptual parts. They were meant to serve as teaching tools. 62% of 106 essays from 55 students earned A, B or C grades. 21% of 47 feedback survey respondents felt the essays increased their interest in astronomy. 49% of respondents felt that the essays were not educationally beneficial and should not be offered again. The most common written response to our survey indicated that students need more guidance and better preparation in writing successful essays. Since students found the conceptual parts of the essays difficult, in the future we will provide relevant activities prior to essay deadlines to help students create successful essays. Ocasionalmente, incluimos proyectos en nuestro curso de introducción a la astronomía universitario centrado en el alumno para permitir que los estudiantes de carreras no científicas exploren algunos conceptos astronómicos en más detalle que lo habitual. Estos proyectos también ponen en relevancia eventos astronómicos en curso o futuros. Esperamos que los estudiantes se sientan más interesados en la astronomía a través de proyectos vinculados a eventos astronómicos. En el período de primavera de 2012 (EUA), propusimos breves ensayos centrados en los eclipses, tránsitos y ocultaciones para promover el raro tránsito de Venus que se produjo el 5 de junio de 2012. Le pedimos a los estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os ensaios não eram benéficos para a educação e que não devem ser propostos novamente. As resp

  9. The trigger for barn owl (Tyto alba) attack is the onset of stopping or progressing of the prey.

    PubMed

    Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

    2009-05-01

    Aiming at the question of whether barn owls favor to strike a moving or a stationary prey, we scrutinized the timing of launching 50 attacks of five barn owls (10 attacks/owl) in a captive environment. Attacks on stationary voles outnumbered attacks on moving voles, but this could merely reflect the higher portion of time during which voles were stationary. Notably, the majority of attacks (85-100%) were launched in less than 2s (measured at accuracy of 0.04 s) after the voles ceased to progress or initiated progression. Therefore, the trigger for launching an attack is the transition of the prey from locomotion to still posture or vice versa. PMID:19429208

  10. On the origin of the extracellular field potential in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Paula T; Wagner, Hermann; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E; Kempter, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The neurophonic is a sound-evoked, frequency-following potential that can be recorded extracellularly in nucleus laminaris of the barn owl. The origin of the neurophonic, and thus the mechanisms that give rise to its exceptional temporal precision, has not yet been identified. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the activity of afferent axons, synaptic activation of laminaris neurons, or action potentials in laminaris neurons. To identify the generators, we analyzed the neurophonic in the high-frequency (>2.5 kHz) region of nucleus laminaris in response to monaural pure-tone stimulation. The amplitude of the neurophonic is typically in the millivolt range. The signal-to-noise ratio reaches values beyond 30 dB. To assess which generators could give rise to these large, synchronous extracellular potentials, we developed a computational model. Spike trains were produced by an inhomogeneous Poisson process and convolved with a spike waveform. The model explained the dependence of the simulated neurophonic on parameters such as the mean rate, the vector strength of phase locking, the number of statistically independent sources, and why the signal-to-noise ratio is independent of the spike waveform and subsequent filtering of the signal. We found that several hundred sources are needed to reach the observed signal-to-noise ratio. The summed coherent signal from the densely packed afferent axons and activation of their synapses on laminaris neurons are alone sufficient to explain the measured properties of the neurophonic. PMID:20685926

  11. Neurons Selective for Orientation and Binocular Disparity in the Visual Wulst of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Pettigrew; Masakazu Konishi

    1976-01-01

    The visual response properties of single neurons in the owl's visual Wulst suggest that this forebrain structure is an analog of the mammalian visual cortex. Features in common with the cat and the monkey visual cortex include a precise topographic organization, a high degree of binocular interaction, and selectivity for orientation, direction of movement, and binocular disparity of straight-line contours.

  12. The effect of barn owls ( Tyto alba ) on the activity and microhabitat selection of Gerbillus allenbyi and G. pyramidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Abramsky; E. Strauss; A. Subach; A. Riechman; B. P. Kotler

    1996-01-01

    Predation plays an important role in ecological communities by affecting prey behavior such as foraging and by physical removal of individual prey. In regard to foraging, animals such as desert rodents often balance conflicting demands for food and safety. This has been studied in the field by indirectly manipulating predatory risk through the alteration of cues associated with increased risk

  13. Wait before running for your life: defensive tactics of spiny mice ( Acomys cahirinus ) in evading barn owl ( Tyto alba ) attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amiyaal Ilany; David Eilam

    2008-01-01

    Raptor–prey encounters were studied to evaluate the strategies and success rate of both predator attack and prey defense.\\u000a We compared the success of barn owls in catching stationary simulated prey (food item) with that of moving prey (food item\\u000a that was pulled in various directions). We also tracked real encounters between barn owls and spiny mice in a captive environment.

  14. The use of IR thermography to measure the radiative temperature and heat loss of a barn owl ( Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor; G. F. Boddie

    1998-01-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography was used to identify the major sites of heat loss from a female barn owl at an air temperature of 17.6°C. When perched, the mean radiative temperature of the owl was 21.1°C (SD=3.5). The facial disc averaged 23.9°C (SD=9.1) and the temperature of the eyes was greater than 33°C. Images showed an area on the lower abdomen

  15. Multiple maps and activity-dependent representational plasticity in the anterior Wulst of the adult barn owl (Tyto alba)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Manger; Guy N. Elston; John D. Pettigrew

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we addressed the issue of somatosensory representation and plasticity in a nonmammalian species, the barn owl. Multiunit mapping techniques were used to examine the representation of the specialized receptor surface of the claw in the anterior Wulst. We found dual somatotopic mirror image representations of the skin surface of the contralateral claw. In addition, we examined

  16. Neural correlates of binaural masking level difference in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Ali; Endler, Frank; Nelken, Israel; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-08-01

    Humans and animals are able to detect signals in noisy environments. Detection improves when the noise and the signal have different interaural phase relationships. The resulting improvement in detection threshold is called the binaural masking level difference. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying the release from masking in the inferior colliculus of barn owls in low-frequency and high-frequency neurons. A tone (signal) was presented either with the same interaural time difference as the noise (masker) or at a 180 degrees phase shift as compared with the interaural time difference of the noise. The changes in firing rates induced by the addition of a signal of increasing level while masker level was kept constant was well predicted by the relative responses to the masker and signal alone. In many cases, the response at the highest signal levels was dominated by the response to the signal alone, in spite of a significant response to the masker at low signal levels, suggesting the presence of occlusion. Detection thresholds and binaural masking level differences were widely distributed. The amount of release from masking increased with increasing masker level. Narrowly tuned neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus had detection thresholds that were lower than or similar to those of broadly tuned neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Broadly tuned neurons exhibited higher masking level differences than narrowband neurons. These data suggest that detection has different spectral requirements from localization. PMID:20618828

  17. Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.

    1984-01-01

    Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

  18. Phytochrome-mediated transformation of glyoxysomes into peroxisomes in the cotyledons of mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schopfer; D. Bajracharya; R. Bergfeld; H. Falk

    1976-01-01

    The specific changes in the temporal pattern of glyoxysomal and peroxisomal enzymes in dark-grown and continuously far-red irradiated mustard seedlings are accompanied by specific changes in the spatial associations of microbodies with other cell organelles which can be quantitatively estimated from electron micrographs. The association (surface contact) with oleosomes (lipid bodies) and with plastids have been used as operational criteria

  19. The effects of light and cotyledon age on growth and root formation in excised cotyledons of Sinapis alba L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lovell; Keith Moore

    1969-01-01

    Root formation on excised mustard cotyledons was found to be determined by cotyledon age at excision and by light. Light treatment after excision enhanced root production in cotyledons excised 6 hours to 6 days after the start of imbibition and was essential for root production in cotyledons older than 6 days at excision. Three or more 12 hour light periods

  20. Ein Beitrag zur Interpretation der Dunkelrotbande der Hochenergiereaktion bei der Photomorphogenese (Lichtabhängige Anthocyansynthese bei Senfkeimlingen, Sinapis alba L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bertsch; H. Mohr

    1965-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthesis in mustard seedlings is known to be controlled by phytochrome and by a hypothetical “high energy reaction” (Mohr 1957). This “high energy reaction” (=HER) is characterized by an action spectrum with peaks in the far-red and in the blue range of the visible spectrum (Fig. 2). Photosynthesis is not involved (Bertsch and Mohr 1965).