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1

In Vitro Modification of Sex Expression in Mulberry ( Morus Alba ) by Ethrel and Silver Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a dioecious plant. In vitro sex modification in mulberry by using two chemicals, viz., ethrel and silver nitrate, is described. 2-Chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethrel) and silver nitrate were filter sterilized and added to Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 5 µM 6-benzyl amino purine (BA). Ethrel applied at different concentrations produced female, male and mixed

T. Dennis Thomas

2004-01-01

2

Biotransformation of mulberroside A from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberroside A, a glycosylated stilbene, was isolated and identified from the ethanol extract of the roots of Morus alba. Oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of mulberroside A using the commercial\\u000a enzyme Pectinex®. Mulberroside A and oxyresveratrol showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 53.6 and 0.49 ?M, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity

Jeong-Keun Kim; Mijin Kim; Ssang-Goo Cho; Myung-Kyoo Kim; Suhng Wook Kim; Young-Hee Lim

2010-01-01

3

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

4

Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified com- pounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Methods: The effect of crude extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against oral pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with

Barira Islam; Shahper N. Khan; Irfanul Haque; M. Alam; M. Mushfiq; Asad U. Khan

2008-01-01

5

Six New Record Species of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Morus alba in China.  

PubMed

To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided. PMID:25368095

Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

2014-01-01

6

Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adaptogenic property of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of methanol extract of Morus alba roots against a rat model of chronic stress (CS). Materials and Methods: Rats were exposed to stress procedure for 21 days. The stress procedure was mild, unpredictable footshock, administered for 1 h once daily for 21 days. Rats were administered with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg p.o) 1 h before footshock for 21 days and behavioral parameters were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction and depression using elevated plus maze and despair swim test, respectively. On day 21, rats were sacrificed immediately after stress and blood was collected for biochemical estimation. The adrenal gland and spleen were dissected for organ weight and the stomach was dissected for ulcer score. Results: CS significantly induced cognitive deficit, mental depression and hyperglycemia and increased blood corticosterone levels, gastric ulcerations and adrenal gland weight, but decreased the splenic weight. Pre-treatments with the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanol extract of M. alba roots (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the CS-induced perturbations. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the standard antistress drug. Conclusion: The results indicate that M. alba possesses significant adaptogenic activity, indicating its possible clinical utility as an antistress agent. PMID:20407553

Nade, Vandana S.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Naik, Rashmi A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

2009-01-01

7

[Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

8

Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract.  

PubMed

Antivenom therapy is the current best therapy available for the treatment of fatal snake envenomation. However, the antivenom offers less or no protection against local effects such as extensive edema, hemorrhage, dermo-, myonecrosis and inflammation at the envenomed region. Viperidae snakes are highly known for their violent local effects and such effects have been commonly treated with plant extracts without any scientific validation in rural India. In this investigation Morus alba plant leaf extract has been studied against the Indian Vipera/Daboia russelii venom induced local and systemic effects. The extract completely abolished the in vitro proteolytic and hyaluronolytic activities of the venom. Edema, hemorrhage and myonecrotic activities were also neutralized efficiently. In addition, the extract partially inhibited the pro-coagulant activity and completely abolished the degradation of Aalpha chain of human fibrinogen. Thus, the extract processes potent antisnake venom property, especially against the local and systemic effects of Daboia russelii venom. PMID:19235141

Chandrashekara, K T; Nagaraju, S; Nandini, S Usha; Kemparaju, K

2009-08-01

9

Purification of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) polyphenol oxidase by affinity chromatography and investigation of its kinetic and electrophoretic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS–poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. Optimum PPO activity as a function of pH and temperature was determined using

Oktay Arslan; Mahmut Erzengin; Selma Sinan; Ozen Ozensoy

2004-01-01

10

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Zivoslav Lj

2015-03-15

11

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

12

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells. PMID:23433072

2013-01-01

13

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

14

Effects of Morus alba L. and Natural Products Including Morusin on In Vivo Secretion and In Vitro Production of Airway MUC5AC Mucin  

PubMed Central

Background It is valuable to find the potential activity of regulating the excessive mucin secretion by the compounds derived from various medicinal plants. We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root bark of Morus alba L. (AMA), kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, and morusin significantly affect the secretion and production of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods Effect of AMA was examined on hypersecretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced acute bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, or morusin for 30 minutes and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hours. The MUC5AC mucin secretion and production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results AMA stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G and morusin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that extract of the root bark and the natural products derived from Morus alba L. can regulate the secretion and production of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the folk use of extract of Morus alba L. as mucoregulators in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

Lee, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Jiho; Park, Su Hyun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Kim, A Ryun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Ju-Ock; Hong, Jang-Hee

2014-01-01

15

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

2014-01-01

16

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

17

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-10-01

18

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-06-01

19

Polyphenols from the stems of Morus alba and their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Microglial cells, the main immune cells of the central nervous system, represent a target of interest to search for naturally occurring anti-inflammatory products. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols obtained from the stems of Morus alba. This edible species, known as white mulberry, is frequently studied because of its traditional use in Asian medicine and its richness in different types of polyphenols, some of which are known to be phytoalexins. One new coumarin glycoside, isoscopoletin 6-(6-O-?-apiofuranosyl-?-glucopyranoside) (1) was mainly isolated by CPC (centrifugal partition chromatography) from this plant, together with seven known polyphenols (2-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including extensive 2D NMR studies. The eight isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. The absence of cell toxicity is checked by a MTT assay. PMID:24912117

Rivière, Céline; Krisa, Stéphanie; Péchamat, Laurent; Nassra, Merian; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Axel; Badoc, Alain; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

2014-09-01

20

Effect of increasing levels of white mulberry leaves (Morus alba) on ruminal dry matter degradability in lambs.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) degradability in the rumen of lambs offered a basal soybean meal and sorghum grain diet with three levels of white mulberry (WM) leaves (Morus alba). Diets consisted of 90% concentrate and 10% sorghum straw, which was incrementally replaced by WM leaves at 0% (control diet, T1), 2.5% (T2), and 5% (T3) of the total ration. Crude protein (CP) in WM was 21.8% (DM basis). Diets had equal CP (14% DM basis) and metabolizable energy (10.8 MJ/kg DM) content. Three non-castrated Pelibuey male lambs fitted with permanent rumen cannula were utilized in a 3?×?3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 10 days of adaptation followed by sampling. DM degradability was determined using the nylon bag technique. Bags contained the experimental diets offered in each period and were incubated in rumen in pairs for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The potential degradation was higher (P?

Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Castillo-Martínez, Omar; Ramirez-Bribiesca, J Efren; Mellado, Miguel

2011-06-01

21

Repeated ingestion of the leaf extract from Morus alba reduces insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that repeated ingestion of diet containing the leaf extract from a Morus alba (LEM) maintains the postprandial hypoglycemic response and suppresses the progression of insulin resistance in high-sucrose diet-fed KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This hypothesis is based on our previous studies where LEM competitively inhibited intestinal disaccharidases and suppressed the elevation of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. Ten KK-Ay mice in each group were raised on 0%, 3%, or 6% LEM powder-containing high-sucrose diets for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at weeks 2, 4, and 7 after the start of feeding. Urinary glucose excretion was monitored as a parameter of insulin resistance in 3-day intervals. Fasting plasma glucose level and urinary glucose excretion were significantly lower in both 3% and 6% LEM groups compared with the control group throughout the experiment. The plasma insulin of the 6% LEM group was significantly lower compared with the 3% LEM and control groups. Maintenance of low blood glucose and insulin delayed the onset time of urinary glucose excretion and were reflected by the ratio of additional LEM to sucrose in the diet. We observed the suppressive effects on the progression of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in the repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet. Namely, repeated ingestion of the LEM-containing diet reduces insulin resistance and may delay the appearance of DM, especially type 2 DM. Therefore, daily intake of LEM may be suitable for the prevention of obesity and DM. PMID:22118756

Tanabe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Sadako; Omagari, Katsuhisa; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2011-11-01

22

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia capillaris [corrected] improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with these events. Mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks exhibited increases in body weight gain and adipose tissue mass compared with mice fed a low fat diet. However, feeding a high-fat diet supplemented with Ob-X significantly reduced these effects. Ob-X treatment also decreased the circulating levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation. Ob-X supplementation was found to increase the hepatic mRNA levels of PPARalpha target enzymes responsible for fatty acid beta-oxidation. Moreover, Ob-X elevated the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing three copies of a PPAR response element (PPRE) in NMu2Li liver cells. These data demonstrate that Ob-X regulates body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and lipid metabolism in part through changes in the expression of hepatic PPARalpha target genes. PMID:18023310

Lee, Jinmi; Chae, Kyungsil; Ha, Juran; Park, Byung-Young; Lee, Hee Suk; Jeong, Sunhyo; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

2008-01-17

23

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-03-01

24

Effect of Kuwanon G Isolated from the Root Bark of Morus alba on Ovalbumin-induced Allergic Response in a Mouse Model of Asthma.  

PubMed

The root bark of Morus alba L. (Mori Cortex Radicis; MCR) is traditionally used in Korean medicine for upper respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the antiasthmatic effect of kuwanon G isolated from MCR on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Kuwanon G (1 and 10?mg/kg) was administered orally in mice once a day for 7?days during OVA airway challenge. We measured the levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in the sera or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and also counted the immune cells in BAL fluids. Histopathological changes in the lung tissues were analyzed. Kuwanon G significantly decreased the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the sera and BAL fluids of asthma mice. Kuwanon G reduced the numbers of inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids of asthma mice. Furthermore, the pathological feature of lungs including infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickened epithelium of bronchioles, mucus, and collagen accumulation was inhibited by kuwanon G. These results indicate that kuwanon G prevents the pathological progression of allergic asthma through the inhibition of lung destruction by inflammation and immune stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25116225

Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, Jong Seong; Kim, A Ryun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Park, Yong-Ki

2014-11-01

25

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lü, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-07-01

26

Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)*  

PubMed Central

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal sequences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demonstrated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon. PMID:25001221

Liu, Chang-ying; Lu, Rui-hua; Li, Jun; Zhao, Ai-chun; Wang, Xi-ling; Diane, Umuhoza; Wang, Xiao-hong; Wang, Chuan-hong; Yu, Ya-sheng; Han, Shu-mei; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Mao-de

2014-01-01

27

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) attenuate atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The effects of dietary consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves and their major flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside) (Q3MG), on the development of atherosclerotic lesions, in relation to the susceptibility of plasma LDL to oxidative modification, was studied in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. Male mice aged 8 wk were randomly assigned to 4 groups (control, quercetin, Q3MG, and mulberry). The control group was fed an atherogenic-diet containing 3 g cholesterol and 15 g cocoa butter/100 g. The other experimental groups were fed the same atherogenic diet supplemented with 0.05 g quercetin/100 g for the quercetin group, 0.05 g Q3MG/100 g for the Q3MG group, and 3 g dried mulberry-leaf powder/100 g for the mulberry group. The mice were fed their respective diets for 8 wk. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification was significantly decreased in the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice, as evidenced by the 44.3 and 42.2% prolongation of the lag phase for conjugated diene formation compared with that of the control mice. The atherosclerotic lesion area in both the Q3MG- and mulberry-treated mice was significantly reduced by 52% compared with that of the controls. However, in the quercetin group, no protective effects were observed against LDL oxidation or atherosclerotic lesion formation. In conclusion, mulberry leaves attenuated the atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLR-/- mice through enhancement of LDL resistance to oxidative modification, and these antioxidative and antiatherogenic protective effects were attributed mainly to Q3MG, the quantitatively major flavonol glycoside in mulberry leaves. PMID:15795425

Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Katsube, Takuya; Kitajima, Keiko; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Yamane, Yosuke

2005-04-01

28

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/? bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5?- and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit peptide sequence) of the full length cDNA from M. alba. PMID:23284650

Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

2012-01-01

29

Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus alba has a natural range from Texas, north through Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, and Ontario, east throughout the rest of the United States, including Ontario and Quebec in Canada (USDA 2011).

Janice Coons; Nancy Coutant; Wesley Whiteside

2011-01-01

30

Alba Patera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

28 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows much of Alba Patera, a low, broad shield volcano in northern Tharsis. The caldera complex--the pits formed by collapse at the volcano summit -- is located toward the bottom center of this image. Alba Patera is located at 41oN, 111oW. The area shown here is approximately 430 km (270 mi) across and illuminated from the lower left.

2004-01-01

31

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

32

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species  

PubMed Central

Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species into distinct clusters. Conclusion We report a total of 188 genomic and genic SSR markers in Morus alba L. A large proportion of these markers (164) were polymorphic both among mulberry species and genotypes. A substantial number of these markers (149) were also transferable to other related species like Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. The extent of polymorphism revealed and the ability to detect heterozygosity among the cross pollinated mulberry species and genotypes render these markers an invaluable genomic resource that can be utilized in assessing molecular diversity as well as in QTL mapping and subsequently mulberry crop improvement through MAS. PMID:24289047

2013-01-01

33

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-09-01

34

Statistical modeling of process parameters for the recovery of polysaccharide from Morus alba leaf.  

PubMed

A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, particle size of mulberry leaf, number of extraction and water to the mulberry leaf ratio on extraction yield of mulberry leaf crude polysaccharides (MLCP). The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant quadratic regression equation with high R(2) (=0.9782) was successfully fitted for extraction yield of MLCP as function of independent variables. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of extraction time 5h, extraction temperature 85 °C, particle size of mulberry leaf (mesh) 40, number of extraction 4 and water to mulberry leaf ratio 18. At this optimum point, extraction yield of MLCP was 12.0017±0.42%. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found between the actual and predicted (11.6286±0.19) values. The results demonstrated that MLCP had strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, MLCP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries. PMID:23987414

Samavati, Vahid; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed

2013-10-15

35

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

36

Influence of Three Morus Species Extracts on ?-Amylase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases and its type II is the major form of diabetes, accounting for 90% of cases worldwide. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase can be an important strategy in the control of blood glucose levels in patients with type II diabetes. In this investigation, three Morus species, M.

Bahman Nickavar; Golboo Mosazadeha

37

Lipids of Bryonia alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of the roots ofBryonia alba (Cucurbitaceae) have been studied: It consists of fractions of 3-acyloxy-24-alkyl(alkenyl)-cholest-7-enes (I), triacylglycerols\\u000a (II), 1,2-diacyl-3-monoglycopyranosyl-sn-glycerols (III), 1,2-diacyl-3-diglycopyranosyl-sn-glycerols (IV), 1,3-bis(3-sn-phosphatidyl)glycerols\\u000a (V), 3-sn-phosphatidylethanolamines (VI), 3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (VII), and methyl esters of fatty acids (VIII). The amount\\u000a of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid fractions (I–VIII) is 60–94%, the main component being linolenic acid.

A. G. Panosyan; G. M. Avetisyan; M. N. Nikishchenko; V. A. Mnatsakanyan

1980-01-01

38

Alba Patera Windstreaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

39

Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composed of North American volunteers, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was one of several international brigades that fought on the side of the Republicans against Franco's fascist Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). The ALBA was founded in 1975 by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) to preserve the history of the Brigade's actions in Spain and the post-war activities of its veterans in America. Part of ALBA's mission includes supervising the comprehensive archive of materials related to the North American involvement in the Spanish Civil War at Brandeis University. At the ALBA site, users will find exhibits of posters and photos brought back by volunteers; contact information for researchers interested in using the archive; a high school curriculum entitled "Between the World Wars," downloadable in .pdf format; a brief history of the VALB and recent issues of its journal, The Volunteer (in .pdf format); a discussion list; and related links.

40

Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was

D. N. Duvick; T. J. Blasing

1983-01-01

41

Aithisg Bhliadhnail Coilltearachd na h-Alba  

E-print Network

Aithisg Bhliadhnail �ghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail 2007-2008 #12;�ghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail 2007-08 1 | �ghdarras Coilltearachd na h-Alba Lèirmheas Bliadhnail Leasachadh coimhearsnachd 11 Ruigsinneachd agus slàinte 14 Càileachd na h-àrainneachd 17 Bith-iomadachd 19 Mu

42

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing.  

PubMed

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-12-01

43

Chemical constituents of Morus alba L. and their inhibitory effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Mulberry leaf, an important traditional Chinese medicine, possesses many biological activities, including effects of anti-obesity. However, which constituents of mulberry leaf are responsible for its anti-adipogenic action is unclear. This study primarily investigated the chemical constituents from mulberry leaf and their bioactivity on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A new flavane derivative, (2S)-4'-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-prenylflavan (1), together with twelve known compounds including three flavanes (2-4), three chalcones (5-7), two flavones (8-9), two benzofurans (10-11) and two coumarin (12-13) was isolated from mulberry leaf. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including UV, HR-ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR and CD. The results of activity screening showed that compound 2, 6 and 7 inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:25128426

Yang, Yongyu; Yang, Xiding; Xu, Bing; Zeng, Guangyao; Tan, Jianbing; He, Xi; Hu, Changping; Zhou, YingJun

2014-10-01

44

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

45

Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba  

SciTech Connect

Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was also found which was more than 300 years old. Ring widths from the white oaks are well correlated with total precipitation for the twelve months preceding completion of ring formation in July. Reconstructions of annual (August-July) precipitation for 1680-1979, based on the tree rings, indicate that the driest annual period in Iowa was August 1799-July 1800, and that the driest decade began about 1816. Climatic information of this kind, pre-dating written weather records, can be used to augment those records and provide a longer baseline of information for use by climatologists and hydrologic planners.

Duvick, D.N.; Blasing, T.J.

1983-01-01

46

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.  

E-print Network

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

Alvarez, Nadir

47

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate Alexandre Roulin*  

E-print Network

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources Alexandre Roulin* , Mathias K�lliker to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence; barn owl; begging; parent^o¡spring con£ict; sibling competition; Tyto alba 1. INTRODUCTION Models

Alvarez, Nadir

48

Polygenic eruptions on Alba Patera, Mars  

SciTech Connect

A new model for the evolution of the martian volcano Alba Patera is constructed. Numerous digitate channel networks on the flanks of the volcano are interpreted to be carved by sapping due to the release of nonjuvenile water from unconsolidated flank deposits. The particle size of these deposits is estimated to be 3-10 microns, which, together with theoretical modelling of the disperison of explosively derived volcanic materials, leads to the conclusion that the flank deposits on Alba Patera are low-relief pyroclastic flows. The recognition of numerous late-stage summit and subterminal lava flows thus makes Alba Patera a unique martian volcano that is transitional between the older pyroclastic-dominated highland paterae and the more recent effusive central-vent volcanoes such as the Tharsis Montes. 61 refs.

Mouginis-Mark, P.J.; Wilson, L.; Zimbelman, J.R. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA))

1988-01-01

49

Shadow prices for LLR and ALBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

hadow prices are calculated for least loaded routing (LLR) and aggregated least busy alternative (ALBA) routing in circuit-switched networks for the blocking probability obtained from fixed point algorithms. Numerical results are presented for the calculation of these shadow prices in small networks. As an application of these shadow prices, we also formulate a constrained optimization problem to calculate the sum

Cesar Vargas; Manjunath V. Hegde; Morteza Naraghi-Pour; Paul S. Min

1996-01-01

50

Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

1991-01-01

51

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of the 18 prenylated flavonoids, which were purified from five different medicinal plants, was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution methods against four bacterial and two fungal microorganisms (Candida albicans, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus). Papyriflavonol A, kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D and sophoraisoflavanone A exhibited a good antifungal activity with

H.-Y. Sohn; K. H. Son; C.-S. Kwon; G.-S. Kwon; S. S. Kang

2004-01-01

52

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

53

Sterols and sterol glycosides of Bryonia alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the roots ofBryonia alba contain cholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-methylenecholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylidenecholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethyl-4-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylidene-4-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, and also previously undescribed 3-O-ß-glucopyranosides of the above-mentioned sterols.

A. G. Panosyan; G. M. Avetisyan; V. A. Mnatsakanyan

1977-01-01

54

The Alba ray tracing code: ART  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alba ray tracing code (ART) is a suite of Matlab functions and tools for the ray tracing simulation of x-ray beamlines. The code is structured in different layers, which allow its usage as part of optimization routines as well as an easy control from a graphical user interface. Additional tools for slope error handling and for grating efficiency calculations are also included. Generic characteristics of ART include the accumulation of rays to improve statistics without memory limitations, and still providing normalized values of flux and resolution in physically meaningful units.

Nicolas, Josep; Barla, Alessandro; Juanhuix, Jordi

2013-09-01

55

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

56

Habitat differentiation and the ecological costs of hybridization: the effects of introduced mulberry (Morus alba) on a native congener (M. rubra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The effects of hybridization on the abundance of parental taxa depends on their relative frequency, the viability of hybrid offspring and the degree of ecological differ- entiation among parental and hybrid taxa. Habitat overlap can facilitate competition for suitable sites and threaten the persistence of parental taxa, especially those in small populations. 2 Here we examine ecological differentiation

KEVIN S. BURGESS; BRIAN C. HUSBAND

2006-01-01

57

In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

1989-01-01

58

[Experience of using phytopreparation Alba (root extract of the Potentilla alba) in complex treatment of thyroid pathology in children and adolescents].  

PubMed

This article presents the background for including phytopreparation Alba (root extract of the Potentilla alba) into complex treatment of thyroid pathology. The findings confirm visible reduction of size of the thyroid gland and normalizing its functions in children and adults with the thyroid gland with normal or enhanced function treated by Alba per oral. PMID:25286612

Turchaninova, L I

2014-01-01

59

Flavone C-glycosides from Bryonia alba and B. dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutonarin was isolated from Bryonia alba and B. dioica. Five further C-glycosides: vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, saponarin were isolated from B. dioica together with saponarin caffeic ester, a new natural product.

Miroslawa Krauze-Baranowska; Wojciech Cisowski

1995-01-01

60

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

61

Induction of Biologically Active Flavonoids in Cell Cultures of Morus nigra and Testing their Hypoglycemic Efficacy  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic activity of both leaves and MJ-treated cell cultures of Morus nigra was evaluated after their oral administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic activity of extracts from leaves given to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for 10 days increased with increasing doses of leaves extract up to 500 mg/kg/day. The administration of 500 mg/kg/day of leaves extract reduced the concentration of glucose from 370 ± 7.31 mg/dl (control) to 154 ± 6.27 mg/dl, and a significant increase in the insulin level from 11.3 ± 0.31 ?U/ml (control) to 14.6 ± 0.43 ?U/ml was recorded. Cell suspension cultures were established from the young leaves of Morus nigra cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg/l 6-(furfurylamino)purine (kinetin). The changes in cell weight and flavonoid content were monitored between day zero and 12. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to flavonoids production. Cell cultures treated with 100 ?M methyl jasmonate for 24 hours showed a noticeable increase in level of flavonoids and significant and more effective hypoglycemic activity than that for extract from leaves. The major flavonoids were isolated by TLC and HPLC and identified as rutin, quercetin, Morusin and cyclomorusin by co-chromatography and mass spectrometry in comparison to samples of authentic reference compounds. PMID:22145117

Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Mohamed, Khaled M.; Mostafa, Ashraf M.

2011-01-01

62

Prediction of the Physicochemical Properties of Spray-Dried Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra ) Juice using Artificial Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict quality changes of spray-dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) powder. In this study, the effects of inlet-air temperature (110, 130, and 150 °C), compressed air flow rate (400, 600,\\u000a and 800 L\\/h), and concentration of different carrier types such as 6, 9, and 20 dextrose equivalent maltodextrins, and Arabic\\u000a gum (8, 12, and 16%),

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Zahra Emam-Djomeh; Mahmoud Omid; Ahmad Kalbasi-Ashtari

63

2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)  

E-print Network

2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British at the northern limit of its distribution. The Barn Owl (Tyto alba pratincola) is classified as "uncommon to very

64

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1*  

E-print Network

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1* , Thomas W. Jungi2 , Hedi P that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black

Richner, Heinz

65

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013 Abstract Winter weather has a strong influence on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology season place constraints on Barn Owl reproduction. Keywords Climate Á Reproduction Á Tyto alba Á Weather

Alvarez, Nadir

66

SENSITIVITY OF NESTING GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) AND WHITE IBISES (EUDOCIMUS ALBUS)  

E-print Network

SENSITIVITY OF NESTING GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) AND WHITE IBISES (EUDOCIMUS ALBUS) TO REDUCED PREY las diferencias en la ecología de anidación de dos especies simpátricas de aves vadeadoras (Ardea alba://www.ucpressjournals. com/reprintInfo.asp. DOI: ./auk.. Sensibilidad de Individuos de Ardea alba y Eudocimus albus que se

Gawlik, Dale E.

67

WHOLE-STEM WATER RELTIONS IN WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA L.) CAROL ELAINE GORANSON  

E-print Network

WHOLE-STEM WATER RELTIONS IN WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA L.) by CAROL ELAINE GORANSON (Under use. INDEX WORDS: Quercus alba, TDR, water relations, heartwood, sap flux #12;WHOLE-STEM WATER RELATIONS IN WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA L.) by CAROL ELAINE GORANSON B. A., The Colorado College, 2002 A Thesis

Teskey, Robert O.

68

J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 3. Tree density (stems ha-1) by  

E-print Network

walnut (Juglans nigra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) have519 388 219 175 J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 3. Tree density (stems ha-1 100 Survival(%) J. nigra Q. alba Q. rubra P. serotina Figure 4. Survival (% ± SE) by species

69

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment and restoration  

E-print Network

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment and regeneration dynamics. We characterized seedling success of the savanna- forming species Quercus alba within transplanted along transects radiating from tree boles of overstory Q. alba trees to inter-canopy gaps

70

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

PubMed

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

71

A new endornavirus species infecting Malabar spinach (Basella alba L.).  

PubMed

A putative new endornavirus was isolated from Malabar spinach (Basella alba). The viral dsRNA consisted of 14,027 nt with a single ORF that coded for a polyprotein of 4,508 aa. The genome organization was similar to that of four other endornaviruses. Conserved domains for helicase-1, capsular synthase, UDP-glucose-glycosyltransferase (UGT), and RdRp were detected. Infected plants were phenotypically undistinguishable from healthy ones. The name Basella alba endornavirus is proposed for the virus isolated from Malabar spinach. PMID:24122112

Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Toshiyuki, Fukuhara; Valverde, Rodrigo A

2014-04-01

72

Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis).  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinformatics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes. PMID:24304637

Ma, Bi; Luo, Yiwei; Jia, Ling; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-09-01

73

Identification and molecular characterization of an Alba-family protein from human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the DNA-binding nature as well as the function of a putative Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity) family protein (PfAlba3) from Plasmodium falciparum. PfAlba3 possesses DNA-binding property like Alba family proteins. PfAlba3 binds to DNA sequence non-specifically at the minor groove and acetylation lowers its DNA-binding affinity. The protein is ubiquitously expressed in all the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and it exists predominantly in the acetylated form. PfAlba3 inhibits transcription in vitro by binding to DNA. Plasmodium falciparum Sir2 (PfSir2A), a nuclear localized deacetylase interacts with PfAlba3 and deacetylates the lysine residue of N-terminal peptide of PfAlba3 specific for DNA binding. PfAlba3 is localized with PfSir2A in the periphery of the nucleus. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed the presence of PfAlba3 in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions. ChIP and ChIP ReChIP analyses further confirmed that PfAlba3 binds to the telomeric and subtelomeric regions as well as to var gene promoter. PMID:22006844

Goyal, Manish; Alam, Athar; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Dey, Sumanta; Bindu, Samik; Pal, Chinmay; Banerjee, Anindyajit; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

2012-01-01

74

Temporal modulation transfer functions in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barn owls (Tyto alba) have evolved several specializations in their auditory system to achieve the high sensory acuity required for prey capture, including superior processing of interaural time differences and phase coding in the auditory periphery. Here, we tested whether barn owls are capable of high temporal resolution that may be a prerequisite for the accuracy in binaural processing. Temporal

Micheal L. Dent; Georg M. Klump; Christian Schwenzfeier

2002-01-01

75

Barn owls ( Tyto alba ) use accommodation as a distance cue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the role of ocular accommodation in the distance estimation during pecking in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Owls were trained to peck at pieces of food presented on a small platform (Fig. 2) while one eye was occluded to eliminate binocular distance cues (Fig. 1). The other eye was defocussed by spectacle lenses ( -4, -2, +2

Hermann Wagner; Frank Schaeffel

1991-01-01

76

Chemical composition and antigenotoxic properties of Lippia alba essential oils  

PubMed Central

The present work evaluated the chemical composition and the DNA protective effect of the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. EO constituents were determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds encountered being citral (33% geranial and 25% neral), geraniol (7%) and trans-?-caryophyllene (7%) for L. alba specimen COL512077, and carvone (38%), limonene (33%) and bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8%) for the other, COL512078. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of EO and the compounds citral, carvone and limonene, were assayed using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. The EOs were not genotoxic in the SOS chromotest, but one of the major compound (limonene) showed genotoxicity at doses between 97 and 1549 mM. Both EOs protected bacterial cells against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity. Antigenotoxicity in the two L. alba chemotypes was related to the major compounds, citral and carvone, respectively. The results were discussed in relation to the chemopreventive potential of L. alba EOs and its major compounds. PMID:21931523

Lopez, Molkary Andrea; Stashenko, Elena E.; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

2011-01-01

77

Path-based Hardware Loop Prediction Marcos R. de Alba  

E-print Network

Path-based Hardware Loop Prediction Marcos R. de Alba David R. Kaeli Department of Electrical loop iterations using a hardware mechanism. To begin to design such a mechanism, we have evaluated of candidate instructions from which to issue from. With loop prediction, we can predict the number of times

Kaeli, David R.

78

Circumferential graben and the structural evolution of Alba Mons, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba Mons is a unique, very extensive but shallow volcanotectonic construct in northern Tharsis, Mars. Numerous models have been presented to explain the formation of Alba Mons and its most characteristic feature, a wristwatch-like pattern of radial and circumferential graben. We used a wide selection of topographic datasets to characterize the fault throw variation on nine topographic transects across the circumferential graben in order to provide observational constraints for the different formation models, and to gain further insight into the evolution of Alba Mons. In most of the transects, summed throws from outwards-facing (away from the center of the volcano) faults are larger than from the inwards-facing (towards the center) ones. Only the very gently sloping western transects show the opposite, emphasizing the east-west-asymmetry of Alba Mons. 10-40% of the observed topographic relief of Alba Mons along the nine transects can be accounted for by this throw difference between the inwards- and outwards-facing faults. These results are consistent with predictions of models suggesting an uplift mechanism to explain the formation of the circumferential graben, but not with models invoking central subsidence. Horizontal extensional strain along the transects varies between 0.5% and 2%, consistent with strain predictions of the late-stage sill complex inflation model of McGovern et al. (McGovern, P.J., Solomon, S.C., Head J.W. III, Smith, D.E., Zuber M.T., Neumann, G.A. [2001]. J. Geophys. Res. 106(E10), 23769-23809).

Öhman, Teemu; McGovern, Patrick J.

2014-05-01

79

Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.  

PubMed

Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. PMID:24139877

Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

2013-12-15

80

[Phenolic constituents from stem bark of Morus wittiorum and their anti-inflammation and cytotoxicity].  

PubMed

To search for the chemical constituents possessing anti-inflammatory or cytotoxic activities from plants, Morus wittiorum was investigated for the first time. The stem bark of M. wittiorum was extracted with 95% EtOH. The EtOH extract was fractionationed on silica gel by eluting with petroleum ehter, CHCl3 and EtOAc successively. The further isolation and purification of the EtOAc fraction of 95% EtOH extract was performed by various column chromatography such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP-C18 column chromatography and so on. The structures of compounds were determined on the basis of spectral analysis such as NMR, MS etc. As a result, nine compounds were isolated including six flavonoids and three stilbenoids and elucidated as quercetin (1), 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone (2), norartocarpanone (3), dihydrokaempferol (4), euchrenone a7 (5), morachalcone A (6), resveratrol (7), oxyresveratrol (8), 4'-prenyloxyresveratrol (9). Compounds 1-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time, among which compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities, respectively. Wherein compounds 6 and 8 showed inhibition to the release of beta-glucuronidase from rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) at a concentration of 10(-5) mol x L(-1). The inhibitory ratios were 76.8%, 94.2% individually. Compounds 2 and 8 exhibited selective cytotoxicity agaist human ovarian cancer (A2780) and human gastric cancer (BGC-823) with IC50 values as 0.66, 1.31 micromol x L(-1) individually. PMID:21246822

Tan, Yongxia; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ruoyun

2010-10-01

81

Mining area environmental mercury assessment using Abias alba  

SciTech Connect

Several Hg biomonitors are used for environmental mercury assessment in mining areas. Among these, lichens are those most studied but other vegetal organisms are also employed, such as brooms, pine needles, and many other species. This paper reports the results of a mercury assessment at Mt. Amiata (Italy) based on the metal concentration in needles of Abies alba. Mt. Amiata is an area of Tuscany characterized by the presence of cinnabar deposits. The mercury extraction activity was ended in 1975, but the environment is still contaminated by the metal. Albies alba is a widespread conifer tree in Italy whose needles live about fourteen years. It is present not only in the woods but also in many parks and gardens. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Barghigiani, C.; Bauleo, R. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)

1992-07-01

82

Age-specific responses to climate identified in the growth of Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine whether the dendroclimatic responses of young Quercus alba (aged 29–126 years) differ from those of old Q. alba (149–312 years). We collected Q. alba increment cores across a range of size classes from Buffalo Mountain Natural Area Preserve, an oak-hickory forest in southcentral\\u000a Virginia, USA. Tree cores were crossdated and raw ring widths were

Carolyn A. CopenheaverChristopher; Christopher J. Crawford; Todd M. Fearer

2011-01-01

83

Genetic variation and putative hybridization in Salix alba and S. fragilis ( Salicaceae ): Evidence from allozyme data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variability was estimated by enzyme electrophoresis in 239 Belgian clones from theSalix alba-S. fragilis complex. This morphological complex suggested a high frequency of hybrids. To test this hypothesis, the clones were pooled as a single co-adapted species complex and secondly as belonging to either species, i.e. beingS. alba-like orS. fragilis-like. The standard genetic variability measures showed higher values for

L. Triest; B. Greef; S. Vermeersch; J. Slycken; E. Coart

1999-01-01

84

Directional hearing in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical properties of the external ear of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by measuring sound pressure in the ear canal and outer ear cavity. Under normal conditions, pressure amplification by the external ear reaches about 20 dB between 3–9 kHz but decreases sharply above 10 kHz. The acoustic gain curve of the outer ear cavity alone is

Roger B. Coles; Anna Guppy

1988-01-01

85

Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We investigated the mechanisms by which the barn owl (Tyto alba) determines the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Our measure of localizing ability was the accuracy with which the owl oriented its head to a sound source.2.When localizing tonal signals, the owl committed the smallest errors at frequencies between 4 and 8 kHz. The azimuthal component of these

Eric I. Knudsen; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

86

Mixotrophic and heterotrophic growth of Beggiatoa alba in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beggiatoa alba strain B18LD was grown in continuous culture under heterotrophic conditions on acetate or acetate and asparagine and under mixotrophic conditions on acetate plus either 1 mM sodium sulfide or 1 mM sodium thiosulfate. Considerable differences were observed between the yields and the cell compositions of heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures at all dilution rates tested. The dry weight yield

Hans Gtide; William R. Strohl; John M. Larkin

1981-01-01

87

ALBA: A Political Tool for Venezuela’s Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its founding by Hugo Chávez on the heels of the failed Free Trade Area for the Americas (FTAA) negotiations which took place November 2003, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA, as it is known for its Spanish acronym) has evolved into a political tool that uses “social power” to facilitate Venezuela?s positioning as the leader of the anti-U.S.

Erich de la Fuente

2011-01-01

88

Storage Behaviour of Salix alba and Salix matsudana Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of dehydration, storage temperature and humidification on germination of Salix alba andS. matsudana seeds were studied. Newly released seeds showed 100% germination before and after dehydration to 11–12% moisture content. Germination of the high vigour lot (100% initial normal germination) was not affected by dehydration to 6.7% moisture content but germination decreased with further dehydration to 4.3%. The lower

H. L. Maroder; I. A. Prego; G. R. Facciuto; S. B. Maldonado

2000-01-01

89

Cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Populus nigra and Salix alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooted cuttings of Populus nigra L. clone Poli and Salix alba L. clone SS5 were treated for three weeks with 50 ?M CdSO4 in nutrient solution. The willow showed a far higher Cd tolerance, expressed as tolerance index (Ti), than the poplar in\\u000a both roots and leaves. The root Cd content was higher in poplar than in willow, whereas in

M. Zacchini; V. Iori; G. Scarascia Mugnozza; F. Pietrini; A. Massacci

2011-01-01

90

Chemical constituents of Osyris alba and their antiparasitic activities.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of Osyris alba L. (Santalaceae) of Jordanian origin resulted in the isolation and identification of one new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, osyrisine (1), together with 16 other known compounds. The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Osyrisine, catechin, and catechin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside exhibited a significant level of antiparasitic activity against two parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis. PMID:20839131

Al-Jaber, Hala I; Mosleh, Ibrahim M; Mallouh, Abdallah; Abu Salim, Omar M; Abu Zarga, Musa H

2010-09-01

91

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

92

ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS IN THE GULF OF  

E-print Network

ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS--Through the analysis of 458 barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets collected between 1981 and 1995 on 2 islands in the northern regurgitaciones de lechuza (Tyto alba) colectadas entre 1981 y 1995 en 2 islas del norte del Golfo de California

Medellín, Rodrigo

93

Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996  

E-print Network

Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996 I. Newton, I. Wyllie, and L. Dale1 Abstract.--During 1963-1996, 1,101 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) carcasses Owls (Tyto alba) breeding in Britain and some other parts of western Europe have declined during

94

Cytogenetic characterization of Lippia alba and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics of Brazilian Lippia alba (Mill) N. E. Brown and Lantana camara Plum. that could be useful for future characterization of these genera. Our analyses revealed that Li. alba has 2n=30 chromosomes consisting of ten metacentric and five submetacentric pairs, while La. camara has 44 metacentric chromosomes. The large blocks

Aline Dias Brandão; Lyderson Facio Viccini; Fátima Regina Gonçalves Salimena; André Luiz Laforga Vanzela; Shirlei Maria Recco-Pimentel

2007-01-01

95

Genetic evaluation of Prosopis alba (algarrobo) in Argentina for cloning elite trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algarrobo (Prosopis alba) is an important nitrogen-fixing tree adapted to the semiarid regions of northwestern Argentina. The tree provides fuelwood and dimensionally stable lumber for flooring and furniture; its pods that have a high sugar content are consumed by livestock and humans. P. alba has been one of the most heavily harvested species. This paper reports on the evaluation of

P. Felker; C. Lopez; C. Soulier; J. Ochoa; R. Abdala; M. Ewens

2001-01-01

96

Biomass productivity and phytoremediation potential of Salix alba and Salix viminalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine selected Salix clones’ capacities for biomass production and accumulation of heavy metal ions. Determination of the relationship between sorption of metals and biomass productivity was a further purpose of this study. Eight Salix viminalis cultivars and one Salix alba cultivar were analyzed. The taxa characterized by greatest biomass production were S. alba

Miros?aw Mleczek; Pawe? Rutkowski; Iwona Rissmann; Zygmunt Kaczmarek; Piotr Golinski; Kinga Szentner; Katarzyna Stra?y?ska; Agnieszka Stachowiak

2010-01-01

97

Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

Muhr, Thomas

2010-01-01

98

[Treatment of linea alba hernia and diastasis of rectus abdominis].  

PubMed

The asynchronous development of structural and metabolic disorders of aponeurosis, leading to the development of defects in sheath of the rectus abdominis is the major factor of hernia of linea alba formation. Development of diastasis of m. rectus abdominis is caused by primary structural and metabolic changes of myocytes caused by the extreme overload. The important factor of the operation is restoration of anatomic and physiologic parameters of the abdominal wall by bringing mm. rectus abdominis together, shortening and enforsing of aponeurosis makes it possible to distribute regularly the load on the aponeurotic sheath of musculi recti. PMID:9379607

Gireev, G I; Zagirov, U Z; Shakhnazarov, A M

1997-01-01

99

Mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba, against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The probable chemical structure was determined by using various spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion technique, pH sensitivity, chemotaxis, and crystal violet assays. Eclalbasaponin showed clear zone of inhibition against both Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibited growth inhibition at the pH range of 5.5-9.0. The isolated saponin exhibited its positive chemoattractant property for both bacterial strains. Results of crystal violet assay and the presence of UV-sensitive materials in the cell-free supernatant confirmed the cellular damages caused by the treatment of Eclalbasaponin. The release of intracellular proteins due to the membrane damage was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Changes in the cell surface structure and membrane disruption were further revealed by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The present study suggests that the isolated saponin from E. alba causes the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane which leads to the loss of bacterial cell viability. PMID:24013881

Ray, A; Bharali, P; Konwar, B K

2013-12-01

100

The mosaic of ancestral karyotype blocks in the Sinapis alba L. genome.  

PubMed

The organisation of the Sinapis alba genome, comprising 12 linkage groups (n = 12), was compared with the Brassicaceae ancestral karyotype (AK) genomic blocks previously described in other crucifer species. Most of the S. alba genome falls into conserved triplicated genomic blocks that closely match the AK-defined genomic blocks found in other crucifer species including the A, B, and C genomes of closely related Brassica species. In one instance, an S. alba linkage group (S05) was completely collinear with one AK chromosome (AK1), the first time this has been observed in a member of the Brassiceae tribe. However, as observed for other members of the Brassiceae tribe, ancestral genomic blocks were fragmented in the S. alba genome, supporting previously reported comparative chromosome painting describing rearrangements of the AK karyotype prior to the divergence of the Brassiceae from other crucifers. The presented data also refute previous phylogenetic reports that suggest S. alba was more closely related to Brassica nigra (B genome) than to B. rapa (A genome) and B. oleracea (C genome). A comparison of the S. alba and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes revealed many regions of conserved gene order, which will facilitate access to the rich genomic resources available in the model species A. thaliana for genetic research in the less well-resourced crop species S. alba. PMID:21217804

Nelson, Matthew N; Parkin, Isobel A P; Lydiate, Derek J

2011-01-01

101

Estimates of Lava Eruption Rates at Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian volcanic complex Alba Patera exhibits a suite of well-defined, long and relatively narrow lava flows qualitatively resembling those found in Hawaii. Even without any information on the duration of the Martian flows, eruption rates (total volume discharge/duration of the extrusion) estimates are implied by the physical dimensions of the flows and the likely conjecture that Stephan-Boltzmann radiation is the dominating thermal loss mechanism. The ten flows in this analysis emanate radially from the central vent and were recently measured in length, plan areas, and average thicknesses by shadow measurement techniques. The dimensions of interest are shown. Although perhaps morphologically congruent to certain Hawaiian flows, the dramatically expanded physical dimensions of the Martian flows argues for some markedly distinct differences in lava flow composition for eruption characteristics.

Baloga, S. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1985-01-01

102

Isolation and Characterization of Vacuoles from Melilotus alba Mesophyll 1  

PubMed Central

Methods for the preparation of protoplasts and vacuoles from mesophyll tissues of sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desr.) are described. Vacuoles are obtained using a new procedure which involves lysis of the plasmalemma during a brief centrifugation of protoplasts through a diethylaminoethyl dextran layer. This method combines the release of vacuoles and their purification in one step. The contamination of vacuole preparations was found to be low, as judged by enzymic markers and microscopic inspection. The method described is rapid and gives a good yield of vacuoles without causing changes in osmotic pressure. Several hydrolases were found to be located in vacuoles from sweet clover, which were also examined for their amino acid content. Images PMID:16662107

Boudet, Alain M.; Canut, Hervé; Alibert, Gilbert

1981-01-01

103

Über die Großgefieder-Mauser eines gekäfigten Paares der Schleiereule (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Mauser des Großgefieders vonTyto alba wurde an 2 gekäfigten Nestgeschwistern in 5 auf das Geburtsjahr folgenden Jahren untersucht. Ein Mausercyklus dauerte 2 Jahre und läuft in 3 unterschiedlichen Phasen wie folgt ab:

Rudolf Piechocki

1974-01-01

104

Histórico demográfico e filogeografia em populações brasileiras de Ardea alba egretta.  

E-print Network

??Foram estudadas populações de Ardea alba egretta (garça-branca-grande) da família Ardeidae (Aves), amostradas em quatro regiões brasileiras, com latitudes diferentes (Rio Grande do Sul, Pantanal,… (more)

Thaís Camilo Corrêa

2009-01-01

105

Quantitative analysis of seasonal variation in the amino acids in phloem sap of Salix alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phloem sap of Salix alba L. was collected at monthly intervals between May and October. Amino acid analysis was carried out by ion exchange chromatography. The concentrations of individual amino acids are reported.

P. M. Leckstein; M. Llewellyn

1975-01-01

106

Quantitative analysis of seasonal variation in the amino acids in phloem sap of Salix alba L.  

PubMed

Phloem sap of Salix alba L. was collected at monthly intervals between May and October. Amino acid analysis was carried out by ion exchange chromatography. The concentrations of individual amino acids are reported. PMID:24435177

Leckstein, P M; Llewellyn, M

1975-01-01

107

Analysis and description of first year's growth of Salix alba L. clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To distinguish twelve clones of Salix alba L. in the first year of growth, three major characters were selected by numerical analysis: length\\/width ratio of leaf blade, length of petiole and position of maximum width of leaf blade.

N. Groendijk-Wilders

1990-01-01

108

Sex ratio in hybrids between Silene alba and Silene dioica: evidence for Y-linked restorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex ratio in Silene alba is generally female biased, and the bias is influenced by Y-linked alleles that are polymorphic in natural populations. One interpretation of these alleles is that they enhance the production of males in female-biased populations, i.e. they are restorers. Two Silene species, S. alba and S. dioica, and their reciprocal hybrids were used to investigate the

Douglas R Taylor

1994-01-01

109

Die Bedeutung des Lichtsinnes für Aktivität und Raumorientierung der Schleiereule ( Tyto alba guttata Brehm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Research was done on the Barn-Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to discover how strongly its behavior is determined by optical information. The influence of light intensity on the behavior of the whole system, and the significance of visual perception when re-orientating, are the criterien of judgement.2.The activity phase of Tyto alba is during the darkness in an artificial light-darkness cycle. The

Hans Gerhard Erkert

1969-01-01

110

THE FOOD HABITS OF THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA AT THREE SITES ON MADAGASCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goodman, S. M., Langrand, O. & Raxworthy, C. J. 1993. The food habits of the Barn Owl Tyro alba at three sites on Madagascar. Ostrich 64:160-171.Regurgitated food remains of the Barn Owl Tyro alba were collected within the rain forest of the Eastern Region of Madagascar (Andasibe and Manombo) and in the sub-arid thorn scrub of the Western Region (Beza

Steven M. Goodman; Olivier Langrand; Christopher J. Raxworthy

1993-01-01

111

Reproductive Peformance of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at High Island, Texas  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GREAT EGRETS (Ardea alba) AT HIGH ISLAND, TEXAS A Thesis by ANDREW JOHN MCINNES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... Andrew John McInnes REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GREAT EGRETS (Ardea alba) AT HIGH ISLAND, TEXAS A Thesis by ANDREW JOHN MCINNES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

McInnes, Andrew

2012-02-14

112

Tissue immunostaining for factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of pityriasis alba skin lesions*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Pityriasis alba affects 1% of the world population and about 9.9% of the children in Brazil. However, its etiology remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of factor XIIIa in dermal dendrocytes of skin lesions of pityriasis alba. METHOD Twenty patients with pityriasis alba and 20 patients with atopic dermatitis underwent biopsy. The dermal dendrocytes marked by factor XIIIa were counted by means of immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS The mean amount of dermal dendrocytes found in the patients with pityriasis alba was 2, whereas in the patients with atopic dermatitis it was 4, with a statistically significant difference between them. A cutoff point of 3 cells/square inch was established to differentiate pityriasis alba from atopic dermatitis, with 80% sensibility and 90% specificity. CONCLUSION We believe that pityriasis alba and atopic dermatitis should be considered different clinical forms within the spectrum of atopic disease, in which sun radiation plays an important role by modulating the progression of the disease. PMID:24770500

Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; do Amaral, Gabriela Borborema; Mendes, Maiana Darwich; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

2014-01-01

113

Extra-pair paternity, testes size and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba  

E-print Network

in the barn owl Tyto alba Alexandre Roulin, Wendt Mu¨ller, Lajos Sasva´ri, Cor Dijkstra, Anne-Lyse Ducrest and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 35: 492Á/500 in the barn owl Tyto alba in which coloration varies from reddish-brown to white. This trait is heritable

Alvarez, Nadir

114

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Celine; Waldvogel, Celine; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

115

Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

116

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes.  

PubMed Central

The good genes hypothesis of sexual selection postulates that ornamentation signals superior genetic quality to potential mates. Support for this hypothesis comes from studies on male ornamentation only, while it remains to be shown that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black spots on their plumage than males. The expression of this plumage trait has a genetic basis and it has been suggested that males prefer to mate with females displaying more black spots. Given the role of parasites in the evolution of sexually selected traits and of the immune system in parasite resistance, we hypothesize that the extent of female plumage 'spottiness' reflects immunological defence. We assessed the genetic variation in specific antibody production against a non-pathogenic antigen among cross-fostered nestlings and studied its covariation with the plumage spottiness of genetic parents. The magnitude of the antibody response was positively correlated with the plumage spottiness of the genetic mother but not of the genetic father. Our study thereby provides the first experimental support, to our knowledge, for the hypothesis that female ornamentation signals genetic quality. PMID:10853738

Roulin, A; Jungi, T W; Pfister, H; Dijkstra, C

2000-01-01

117

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.  

PubMed Central

Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle contests over prey items to be delivered next by a parent. This 'sibling negotiation hypothesis' proposes that offspring use each others' begging vocalization as a source of information about their relative willingness to contest the next prey item delivered. In line with the hypothesis we found that (i) a nestling barn owl refrains from vocalization when a rival is more hungry, but (ii) escalates once the rival has been fed by a parent, and (iii) nestlings refrain from and escalate vocalization in experimentally enlarged and reduced broods, respectively. Thus, when parents are not at the nest a nestling vocally refrains when the value of the next delivered prey item will be higher for its nest-mates. These findings are the exact opposite of what current models predict for begging calls produced in the presence of the parents. PMID:10737402

Roulin, A; Kölliker, M; Richner, H

2000-01-01

118

Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more female-like  

E-print Network

Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more-individual fluctuations and their covariation with fitness-related traits. In barn owls (Tyto alba), individuals vary from

Alvarez, Nadir

119

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

120

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Mortality Along Motorways in Bourgogne-Champagne: Report and Suggestions  

E-print Network

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Mortality Along Motorways in Bourgogne accounted for 81.5 percent of the birds. The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) were in northeastern France. Birds Total Tyto alba 674 Asio otus 300 Strix aluco 53 Athene noctua 1 Buteo buteo 213

121

Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect of winter  

E-print Network

Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect Owls Tyto alba. This species shows pronounced inter-annual variation in population size (Taylor 1994 In the temperate zone, food availability and winter weather place serious constraints on European Barn Owl Tyto

Alvarez, Nadir

122

Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

Muhr, Thomas

2008-01-01

123

Alba Patera, Mars: Topography, structure, and evolution of a unique late Hesperian-early Amazonian shield volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

New spacecraft data, especially MOLA topography, reveal important characteristics of Alba Patera that were either unknown or poorly resolved in previous data sets. The major and consistent breaks of slope and the specific pattern of lava flows within a broad region around Alba Patera permit division of this area into two major parts that appear to be related to different

Mikhail A. Ivanov; James W. Head

2006-01-01

124

Alba Patera, Mars: Topography, structure, and evolution of a unique late Hesperian–early Amazonian shield volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

New spacecraft data, especially MOLA topography, reveal important characteristics of Alba Patera that were either unknown or poorly resolved in previous data sets. The major and consistent breaks of slope and the specific pattern of lava flows within a broad region around Alba Patera permit division of this area into two major parts that appear to be related to different

Mikhail A. Ivanov; James W. Head

2006-01-01

125

Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

126

Endophytic-Host Selectivity of Discula umbrinella on Quercus alba and Quercus rubra Characterized by Infection, Pathogenicity and Mycelial Compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal endophytic–host relationships of Discula umbrinella and two oak species, Quercus alba and Quercus rubra, were characterized on the basis of endophytic infection, pathogenicity, and mycelial compatibility. Isolates of D. umbrinella were cultured from leaves of Q. alba and Q. rubra collected from a hardwood forest located in Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Endophytic infection was

Susan D. Cohen; USDA APHIS

2004-01-01

127

Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1988-01-01

128

The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

1999-01-01

129

Rapid temperature acclimation of leaf respiration rates in Quercus alba and Quercus rubra.  

PubMed

We conducted controlled (chamber) and natural (field) environment experiments on the acclimation of respiration in Quercus alba L. and Quercus rubra L. Three-year-old Louisiana, Indiana and Wisconsin populations of Q. alba were placed in growth chambers and exposed to alternating 5-week periods of cool (20 degrees C mean) and warm (26 degrees C mean) temperatures. We measured respiration rates on fully expanded leaves immediately before and approximately every 2 days after a switch in mean temperature. In a second chamber experiment, 3-year-old potted Q. alba seedlings were exposed to alternating warm (26 degrees C mean) and cool (16 degrees C mean) temperatures at 4-day intervals. Leaf dark respiration rates were measured on days 2, 3 and 4 after each change in temperature. In a third, field-based study, we measured leaf respiration rates in the same three sources of Q. alba and in Arkansas, Indiana and Minnesota sources of Q. rubra before and after a natural 16 degrees C change in mean daily ambient temperature. We observed rapid, significant and similar acclimation of leaf respiration rates in all populations of Q. alba and Q. rubra. Cold-origin populations were no more plastic in their acclimation responses than populations from warmer sites. All geographic sources showed lower respiration rates when measured at 24 degrees C after exposure to higher mean temperatures. Respiration rates decreased 13% with a 6 degrees C increase in mean temperature in the first chamber study, and almost 40% with a 10 degrees C increase in temperature in the second chamber study. Acclimation was rapid in all three studies, occurring after 2 days of exposure to changed temperature regimes. Acclimation was reversible when changes in ambient temperature occurred at 4-day intervals. Respiration response functions, ln(R) = ln(beta0) + beta1T, were statistically different among treatments (cool versus warm, first chamber study) and among sources in a pooled comparison. Pair-wise comparisons indicated statistically significant (P<0.05) differences in cool- versus warm-measured temperature/respiration response functions for Indiana and Wisconsin sources of Q. alba. Log-transformed base respiration rates were significantly lower during periods of higher mean temperatures. Indiana Q. alba showed a significantly higher beta1 when plants were grown at 16 degrees C than when grown at 26 degrees C. Acclimation in Q. alba was unaccompanied by changes in leaf nitrogen concentration, but was associated with a change in leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration. Total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was slightly, but statistically, lower (13.6 versus 12%, P<0.05) after a 10 degrees C increase in temperature. PMID:12952783

Bostad, Paul V; Reich, Peter; Lee, Tali

2003-10-01

130

Sex ratio in hybrids between Silene alba and Silene dioica: evidence for Y-linked restorers.  

PubMed

Sex ratio in Silene alba is generally female biased, and the bias is influenced by Y-linked alleles that are polymorphic in natural populations. One interpretation of these alleles is that they enhance the production of males in female-biased populations, i.e. they are restorers. Two Silene species, S. alba and S. dioica, and their reciprocal hybrids were used to investigate the inheritance of sex ratio and the relationship between sex ratio and male fertility. Sex ratio was paternally inherited (i.e. Y-linked), but was also strongly influenced by the maternal parent through an interaction with the Y chromosome. These results corroborate previous work on the inheritance of sex ratio within S. alba, and suggest that sex ratio in S. alba and S. dioica has a similar genetic basis. Examination of the maternal by Y chromosome interaction revealed that the Y chromosome of each species produced a more severe female bias in crosses with females of the opposite species. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the alleles expressed in the maternal parent cause the female bias, while the Y-linked alleles tend to restore sex ratio toward equality. PMID:7960924

Taylor, D R

1994-11-01

131

On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

2011-01-01

132

Rejoinder: On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses--"Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We commend the measured tone and clearly stated arguments in Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on our article. It is particularly welcome because, in combination with our own conclusions, it lays out before the relevant audiences the substance of the debate in this field. Based on the commentary's opening statement, it would appear that there…

Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

2011-01-01

133

Food supply differentially affects sibling negotiation and competition in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to most birds, nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) vocalise not only when parents are at the nest but also in their absence. Calls produced in their absence have been shown to facilitate sibling negotiation over the impending food resource. Since nestlings vocalise more vigorously in the presence of parents, they may be calling not to negotiate resources but

A. Roulin

2001-01-01

134

Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in

Alexandre Roulin; Christian Riols; Cor Dijkstra; Anne-Lyse Ducrestd

2001-01-01

135

Agri-environment schemes and foraging of barn owls Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barn owl Tyto alba has been in decline throughout much of its range largely as a consequence of loss of foraging habitat resulting from agricultural intensification. The recent introduction of agri-environment schemes in the UK has resulted in the reinstatement of substantial areas of rough grassland which may be of benefit to small mammals and their avian predators. In

Nicholas P. Askew; Jeremy B. Searle; Niall P. Moore

2007-01-01

136

Analysis of mammal remains from owl pellets ( Tyto alba), in a suburban area in Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed 108 owl pellets of the barn owl, Tyto alba, collected daily in winter, from December 1998 to March 1999. Pellet analysis gave us the opportunity to study variation in daily diet relative to effects of lunar phases, and to evaluate owl preference for rodents in urban or rural areas. The nest was in a suburban area, 200m from

Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda; Natali Cárdenas; Lia Méndez

2004-01-01

137

Nonrandom pairing by male barn owls (Tyto alba) with respect to a female plumage trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socially monogamous species it is rare for females to be more intensely colored than males. The barn owl (Tyto alba) is one of the exceptions, as females usually exhibit more and larger black spots on the plumage. The evolution of sexual dimorphism in plumage traits is commonly assumed to be the result of sexual selection. I therefore examined the

Alexandre Roulin

1999-01-01

138

Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

1998-01-01

139

Delayed maturation of plumage coloration and plumage spottedness in the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) varies in plumage from dark reddish-brown to white, and from heavily marked with black spots to immaculate. Males are commonly lighter coloured and less spotted than females. I assessed whether male and female Barn Owls delay the full expression of plumage coloration and spottedness to the second year of life. In Switzerland, I quantified

Alexandre Roulin

1999-01-01

140

Healing potential of Datura alba on burn wounds in albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Datura alba Nees (Solanaccae) is popular all over the world for its medicinal uses in asthma, muscle spasm, whooping cough, hemorrhoids, skin ulcers, etc. In India, it is widely used traditionally for the relief of rheumatism and other painful affections. Ayurveda and Siddha practitioners use oil based preparations of this plant from ancient days to till date for all types

K. Shanmuga Priya; A Gnanamani; N Radhakrishnan; Mary Babu

2002-01-01

141

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina; Tesevic, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

142

Los discursos sobre sexualidad en la obra de Alicia Gaspar de Alba  

E-print Network

In this study, I approach the works of Alicia Gaspar de Alba (1958- )--poet, fiction writer and cultural critic--by focusing on the construction of the discourses of gender and sexuality in her writings. In this analysis of poems, short stories...

Vivancos P?erez, Ricardo F

2012-06-07

143

Structure of 22-deoxocucurbitacins isolated from Bryonia alba and Ecbalium elaterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

22-Deoxocucurbitacin D (II), dihydrocucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin L, and the previously unknown rhamnoglucosyl-22-deoxo-16,23-epoxycucurbitosides\\u000a A (III) and B (IV) have been isolated from the roots ofBryonia alba and identified. Glucoside (III) has also been identified in the fruit ofEcbalium elaterium L.

A. G. Panosyan; M. N. Nikishchenko; G. M. Avetisyan

1985-01-01

144

Analysis of the biosynthesis of antibacterial cyclic dipeptides in Nocardiopsis alba.  

PubMed

Nocardiopsis alba is frequently isolated from environment and has recently been suggested as a casual symbiotic actinobacterium of diverse invertebrates. Using activity-guided fractionation, we purified two antibacterial cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(?Phe-?Leu) (albonoursin) and cyclo(?mTyr-?Leu), from a culture of Nocardiopsis alba ATCC BAA-2165. Analysis of N. alba genome revealed genetic information similar to albonoursin biosynthetic gene cluster, albABC. An albABC gene deletion mutant of N. alba was generated. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the mutant could not produce the cyclic dipeptides. Cyclic dipeptide production in the mutant was restored by genetic complementation with the albABC cloned in a native plasmid of Nocardiopsis. ?-Glucuronidase reporter assays with a second mutant construct, in which albABC promoter is transcriptionally fused to the reporting gene gusA, indicated that albABC gene expression was subject to osmoregulation. The system presented will be used to study the metabolic and genetic control of cyclic dipeptide biosynthesis in Nocardiopsis. PMID:25048158

Li, Yongli; Lai, Ying-Mi; Lu, Yi; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chen, Shawn

2014-11-01

145

Effects of human activity on the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization and coastal development has dramatically reduced the beach habitat available for foraging shorebirds worldwide. This study tested the general hypothesis that recreational use of shorebird foraging areas adversely affects the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba. Observations conducted on two central California beaches from January through May and September through December of 1999 showed that number and activity of

Kate Thomas; Rikk G Kvitek; Carrie Bretz

2003-01-01

146

Essential oils and isolated compounds from Lippia alba leaves and flowers: Antimicrobial activity and osteoclast apoptosis.  

PubMed

In the present study, essential oils extracted from the leaves and flowers of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. (L. alba) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity and their effects on osteoclasts. The periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans; ATCC 43717), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum; ATCC 25586) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis); ATCC 33277) were used in antimicrobial activity assays for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), whereas Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis; ATCC 25285) was used as the control microorganism. Osteoclast (OC) apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Fas receptor expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. The analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that P. gingivalis had the lowest MIC values, whereas A. actinomycetemcomitans had the highest. L. alba essential oils were found to be toxic to human cells, although the compounds, carvone, limonene and citral, were non-toxic and induced apoptosis in the OCs. This study demonstrates that L. alba has potential biotechnological application in dentistry. In fact periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, and the immune response to microbial challenge leads to osteoclast activation and the resorption of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss. PMID:25384405

Lima Juiz, Paulo José; Lucchese, Angelica Maria; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Di Ciano, Martina; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Silva, Franceli; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

2015-01-01

147

You Need Company in the Dark: Building the House of Bernarda Alba at HMP Holloway Prison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is about the production of The House of Bernarda Alba in Her Majesty's Prison Holloway in London England. It is written from a personal perspective and focuses on the following topics, collaboration, a brief comparison of prison life in the US and the UK, the successful and unsuccessful experiences of participants, and their insights…

Williams, Rachel Marie-Crane

2003-01-01

148

The importance of micro-habitat in the breeding of Barn Owls Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule?Habitat parameters associated with 706 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) nesting boxes in Israel were analysed. Pairs bred in 259 of the boxes. The intensity of agricultural practices at nestbox sites were shown to have only a weak effect on aspects of Barn Owl breeding in this region.

Motti Charter; Yossi Leshem; Kobi Meyrom; Ori Peleg; Alexandre Roulin

2012-01-01

149

MOLA Topographic Constraints on Lava Tube Effusion Rates for Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using high resolution MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) topographic data to accurately model flow rates, we find that Alba Patera tube-fed flows within the mid to lower flanks could accommodate flow rates between 10 Pa s to 1.308 x 10(exp 6) Pa s. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Riedel, S. J.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

2002-01-01

150

Competitive Effects of Native and Exotic Shrubs on Quercus alba Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic shrub Lonicera tatarica (Tartarian honeysuckle) has aggres- sively invaded woodlands and forests in central and eastern North America; however, its impacts on native plant species are not well understood. We used a greenhouse seedling experiment to examine the effects of L. tatarica on Quercus alba (white oak), the presettlement dominant tree of many of these forests. Growth- related

Lars A. Brudvig; Christopher W. Evans

2006-01-01

151

Research Report Age Dependence of Spiral Grain in White Oaks (Quercus alba L.) in Southwestern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrochronologists have used the presence of spiral grain as an indicator of old trees for most of the history of the field, although this relationship has been little studied. We examined cross-sections from dead trees and used a 12-mm Haglof Swedish Increment borer to collect cores from living white oak (Quercus alba L.) trees in an Eastern Deciduous Forest stand

Julia Rauchfuss; JAMES H. SPEER

2006-01-01

152

Spatial Variation in Top-down Direct and Indirect Effects on White Oak (Quercus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attention has been paid to spatial variation in the direct and indirect effects of trophic interactions. Because abundances of predators and prey vary naturally through space, their interactions and the effects of these interactions may vary as well. We conducted a bird exclosure experiment on white oak (Quercus albaL.) using a randomized block design to assess how the direct

Nicholas A. Barber; Robert J. Marquis

2009-01-01

153

Winter season corticular photosynthesis in Cornus florida, Acer rubrum, Quercus alba, and Liriodendron tulipifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter season corticular photosynthesis was studied in four species of deciduous trees: dogwood (Cornus florida), red maple (Acer rubrum), white oak (Quercus alba), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Techniques included measuring COâ uptake at varying light intensities, relating the apparent photosynthetic capacities to seasonal changes in chlorophyll content of twigs and determining the fate of assimilated carbon over time. Dogwood was

J. M. Coe; S. B. McLaughlin

1980-01-01

154

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment and restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scattered tree layer that defines savannas is important for structuring the understory community and determining patterns of overstory recruitment. However, encroachment by woody plants has altered overstory tree densities and regeneration dynamics. We characterized seedling success of the savanna-forming species Quercus alba within Midwestern (USA) oak savannas that had been degraded by encroachment (control; n=4) or experimentally restored by

Lars A. Brudvig; Heidi Asbjornsen

2009-01-01

155

Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on Salix alba and S. matsudana seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature seeds of Salix alba L. and Salix matsudana Koidz. are exendospermous and consist of an embryo and a seed coat. Ultrastructural studies show the presence of protein bodies, lipid bodies, chloroplasts, and a nucleus in the cells of most of the embryo tissues. Protein bodies always contain two or more globoid crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of globoid crystals revealed

Horacio Maroder; Imelda Prego; Sara Maldonado

2003-01-01

156

Distribution, movement and availability of Cd and Zn in a dredged sediment cultivated with Salix alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Willows occur as volunteer vegetation on sediment-derived soils, such as dredged sediments, landfill cover or stockpile deposits, and are used as phytoremediators on such soils. The present study evaluates growth and metal uptake by Salix alba grown on a contaminated dredge sediment for 209 days under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the study, the aerial parts of the S.

Jean-Philippe Bedell; Xavier Capilla; Claire Giry; Christophe Schwartz; Jean-Louis Morel; Yves Perrodin

2009-01-01

157

Effects of tannery waste on growth dynamics and metal uptake in Salix alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at providing a preliminary study of the effects of different doses of tannery waste containing high amounts of organic substances, mineral elements and heavy metals on growth dynamics and metal accumulation in willow plants. Scions of Salix alba L., clone S61-02, were grown in the open near Pisa (Italy), in pots filled with a natural soil. Willows

G. Giachetti; L. Sebastiani

2007-01-01

158

Riparian Salix alba: Scrubs of the Po lowland (N-Italy) from an European perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with riverine Salix alba – scrubs of the Po plain (northern Italy). They were compared with analogous formations of many other European countries to study similarities and differences. Demographic concentration and intense human activities (agriculture, industry) in the basin of the Po River are among the highest in Europe, with the remarkable consequence that all hygrophilous woods and bushes

L. Poldini; M. Vidali; P. Ganis

2011-01-01

159

Gleichzeitiger Nachweis von phenolarmen und phenolreichen Phasen in den Blattepidermiszellen von Salix alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Strongly and weakly refractive phases occur in many vacuoles of the upper leaf epidermis ofSalix alba L. Different secondary vacuolar substances could be demonstrated separately in the interior of single cells by vital staining with brillant cresyl blue as well as by various microchemical assays. Only flavonoids (substances containing few phenolic OH-groups) could be detected in the weakly refractive

Birgit Kartusch

1975-01-01

160

Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.  

PubMed

A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time. PMID:17487617

Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

2007-05-01

161

Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

Qizhen Du; Gerold Jerz; Lianqing Shen; Lili Xiu; Peter Winterhalter

2007-01-01

162

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-10-01

163

Inverse Relationship Between Evolutionary Rate and Age of Mammalian M. Mar Alba`* and Jose Castresana  

E-print Network

Inverse Relationship Between Evolutionary Rate and Age of Mammalian Genes M. Mar Alba`* and Jose into four different age groups and estimate evolutionary rates in human and mouse orthologs. We show belonging to a given functional class are considered. One way to explain this relationship is by assuming

Castresana, Jose

164

Biomonitoring heavy metals using the barn owl (Tyto alba guttata) : Sources of variation especially relating to body condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to monitor environmental quality in the Netherlands was investigated, using Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe as indicators for environmental contamination.

H. Esselink; F. M. van der Geld; L. P. Jager; G. A. Posthuma-Trumpie; P. E. F. Zoun; A. J. Baars

1995-01-01

165

PRIMEROS ANTECEDENTES DE LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA DE CAMPANARIO (TYTO ALBA) EN EL DEPARTAMENTO —EEMBUC? (PARAGUAY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIRST REPORT ON THE DIET OF THE COMMON BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) FROM —EEMBUC? DE- PARTMENT, PARAGUAY.ó We report the food habits of the Common Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Pilar, —eembucœ Department, Paraguay (26?52'S, 58?23'O). By inspecting 35 pellets we found 107 prey items. The diet consisted mainly of muroid rodents, with low frequencies of marsupials, bats, and birds.

PABLO TETA; JULIO R. CONTRERAS

166

Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

2014-02-01

167

Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

1994-01-01

168

Isolation and identification of (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile as a phytotoxin from meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seedmeal.  

PubMed

Ethyl ether, ethanol, and water extracts of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal were prepared and bioassayed against velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. "Cardinal"). Both the ethyl ether and ethanol fractions, but not the water extract, inhibited velvetleaf and wheat radicle elongation. Fractionation of the extracts indicated that (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (3-MPAN) was the active compound from both extracts, comprising >97% of the active ethanol fraction. 3-Methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which had been previously shown to be the major breakdown product of glucolimnanthin, the majorL. alba glucosinolate, was not detected in either extract. Radicle elongation of velvetleaf and wheat were inhibited by 3-MPAN with I50 (the concentration required to inhibit growth by 50%) values of approximately 4 × 10(-4) M (velvetleaf) and 7×10(-4) M (wheat). PMID:24227117

Vaughn, S F; Boydston, R A; Mallory-Smith, C A

1996-10-01

169

Two flavonoids from Artemisia herba-alba Asso with in vitro GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor activity.  

PubMed

An ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia herba-alba was partitioned by HPLC in 10 fractions that were tested in the [(3)H]-flumazenil radioligand assay, for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor. Two fractions showed activity from which hispidulin and cirsilineol were isolated. The structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR. The IC(50) values were 8 microM for hispidulin and 100 microM for cirsilineol. PMID:15848034

Salah, Sam Medhat; Jäger, Anna Katharina

2005-05-13

170

Emmetropization and optical development of the eye of the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have studied the development of the refractive state in young barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola). Strikingly, the eyes had severe refractive errors shortly after lid opening (which occurred around day 14 after hatching; average from 6 owls: 13.83 ± 1.47 days). Refractive errors vanished in the subsequent one or two weeks (Fig. 1, Fig. 2).2.Refractive errors did not differ

F. Schaeffel; H. Wagner

1996-01-01

171

Ultrastructural and molecular study of plastid inheritance in Abies alba and some Abies hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of egg cells in Abies alba was examined to elucidate the lack of maternal inheritance of plastids. Before fertilization, maternal plastids are absent\\u000a in the perinuclar zone containing mainly mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. During egg cell development the maternal\\u000a plastids are transformed into large inclusions which are situated mostly towards the periphery of the egg cell, and

J. Salaj; Alena Kosová; Andrej Kormuták; Björn Walles

1998-01-01

172

Initial Evaluation of Prosopis alba Griseb Clones Selected for Growth at Seawater Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous article, growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis were measured in a greenhouse hydroponic system in which the salinities were increased from 10 to 45 dS m. Twenty-one of the Prosopis alba seedlings that grew at the 45 dS m salinity were propagated by rooting cuttings and a seed orchard\\/long-term evaluation trial established. To develop predictors and\\/or correlations

Peter Felker; Mauricio Ewens; Marcelo Velarde; Diego Medina

2008-01-01

173

[Normalizing effect of Bryonia alba L. on blood phospholipids in alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

Alloxane diabetes in rats was accompanied by a distinct increase in total content of phospholipids and their fractions (especially of acid phospholipids) in whole blood; the ratio of neutral phospholipids/acid phospholipids was decreased. Content of phospholipids was distinctly normalized in rat blood after intramuscular administration of Bryonia alba extract into the diabetic animals at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g of body mass. PMID:7281556

Vartanian, G S; Karagezian, K G

1981-01-01

174

Possible genotoxic activity of extracts of Bryonia alba roots on human lymphocytes and transformed cells.  

PubMed

Bryonia alba roots (BAR) are widely used as an adaptogenic and restorative drug with immunomodulatory and stress-protective properties that increase the non-specific resistance of an organism toward harmful stimuli. Potential genotoxic activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of BAR was studied on human normal (lymphocytes) and transformed (HeLa and Caco-2) cells using single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay). The results obtained did not show any evidence of genotoxic effects of BAR. PMID:12088103

Nersesyan, A K; Collins, A R

2002-01-01

175

Exploring the metal phytoremediation potential of three Populus alba L. clones using an in vitro screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work was planned for providing a useful screening tool for the selection of Populus alba clones suitable for phytoremediation techniques. To this aim, we investigated variation in arsenic, cadmium, copper, and\\u000a zinc tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three poplar clones through an in vitro screening. Poplars have been widely\\u000a proposed for phytoremediation, as they are adaptable to grow on

Sara Di Lonardo; Maurizio Capuana; Miluscia Arnetoli; Roberto Gabbrielli; Cristina Gonnelli

2011-01-01

176

Root system architecture and gravity perception of a mangrove plant, Sonneratia alba J. Smith  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the features of the root system and the gravitropism of roots produced bySonneratia alba. The root system consists of four root types with different growth directions: (a) Pneumatophores, which are negatively orthogravitropic\\u000a and their statocytes are very large (922 ?m2) and the statolith is located near the proximal wall, (b) Cable roots and (c) Feeding roots which are

Hery Purnobasuki; Mitsuo Suzuki

2004-01-01

177

Monoterpene hydrocarbon contents of the resin from seeds of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using gas-chromatographic methods, the variability of the contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (a-pinene, ß-pinene, ?3carene and limonene) in the resin of silver fir seeds (Abies alba Mill.) was studied. Resin cavities were characterized according to their position on the seed surface. It was estabilished that the terpene content of the resin of cavities localized on the abaxialadaxial surfaces of the seed

J. ?ermák

1987-01-01

178

Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

179

Novel and cross-species microsatellite markers for parentage analysis in Sanderling Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and tested six novel microsatellite loci in Sanderling (Calidris alba) from Greenland for paternity analyses. In addition, we tested 11 already published microsatellite markers which were originally\\u000a developed for the congeneric species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos). All loci were polymorphic, but five of the cross-species loci were not scorable due to suboptimal amplification patterns.\\u000a The 12 successful

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen; Anneke Bol; Harry Witte; Judith van Bleijswijk; Oliver Haddrath; Allan J. Baker; Theunis Piersma; Jeroen Reneerkens

2011-01-01

180

POPULATION, BIOMETRICS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE SANDERLING CALIDRIS ALBA IN SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summers, R. W., Underhill, L. G, Waltner, M. & Whitelaw, D. A. 1987. Population, biometrics and movements of the Sanderling Calidris alba in southern Africa. Ostrich 58:24-39.The Sanderling in southern Africa is restricted to coastal habitats. The population during the austral summer was estimated to be 78000. Highest densities occurred along the west coast where the Benguela Up-welling System gives

R. W. Summers; L. G. Underhill; M. Waltner; D. A. Whitelaw

1987-01-01

181

Sound localization by the barn owl ( Tyto alba ) measured with the search coil technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The dynamics and accuracy of sound localization by the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by exploiting the natural head-orienting response of the owl to novel sound stimuli. Head orientation and movement were measured using an adaptation of the search coil technique which provided continous high resolution azimuthal and elevational information during the behavior.2.The owls responded to sound sources with

Eric I. Knudsen; Gary G. Blasdel; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

182

Influence of ultrasounds on some mechanical properties of fir wood (Abies alba Mill). Microscopic sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was found that as a result of ultrasonic treatment fir wood (Abies alba Mill) shows the effects of homogenization, and the modulus of elasticity for static flexure drops on an average by 50% for 45 min of treatment. The drop is more pronounced for test pieces with 8 to 12 annual rings. Study of microscopic sections disclosed that early wood with one annual ring undergoes the most powerful effect.

Parpala, V.; Pastirnac, A.; Paraschiv, N.

1974-01-01

183

Habitat, breeding performance, diet and individual age in Swiss Barn Owls ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensification of farming over the past 50 years has homogenised the landscape structure and contributed to the decline of\\u000a bird populations in Europe. To better target the conservation of the Barn Owl Tyto alba, we assessed the influence of the landscape structure on breeding performance in western Switzerland. The analyses considered\\u000a a 23-year dataset of breeding parameters collected in an area

Caroline Frey; Caroline Sonnay; Amélie Dreiss; Alexandre Roulin

2011-01-01

184

How much energy do barn owls ( Tyto alba) save by roosting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The energy savings associated with the roosting behaviour of barn owls (Tyto alba) were determined with a biophysical model using measurements of microclimate from a roost and nest site in SW Scotland (55°10? N 3°12? W) from April 1991–March 1992. (2) The roost building provided complete shelter from wind and precipitation. Air temperature inside the roost building was 1.4°C

Dominic J. McCafferty; John B. Moncrieff; Iain R. Taylor

2001-01-01

185

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) Food Habits in West-Central Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted on Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Arkansas to investigate the food habits of the common barn owl (Tyto alba). Three hundred thirty-eight pellets were collected from four barn owl nest boxes yielding the remains of 1003 individual prey items. Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were eaten most frequent- ly, comprising 46.8%of the diet by

R. M. Huston; T. A. Nelson

1994-01-01

186

Growth enhancement of Quercus alba saplings by CO[sub 2] enrichment under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

White oak (Quercus alba L.) trees were grown in soil under field conditions for four growing seasons in open-top chambers containing ambient air continuously enriched with 0, 150, or 300 [mu]mol\\/mol CO[sub 2]. The trees were significantly larger in elevated CO[sub 2]: whole-tree mass (including woody roots) was 36% greater in +150 and 140% greater in +300 compared to ambient-grown

R. J. Norby; E. G. ONeill; S. D. Wullschleger; C. A. Gunderson; C. T. Nietch

1993-01-01

187

Molecular and structural modeling of the Phanerochaete flavido - alba extracellular laccase reveals its ferroxidase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Phanerochaete flavido-alba is highly efficient in the oxidation of olive oil wastewater-derived polyphenols. This capability is largely due to the action\\u000a of a multicopper-oxidase (MCO), encoded by the pfaL gene. We describe the sequence and organization of pfaL gene and the biochemical characterization and predicted 3D structural model of the encoded protein. pfaL gene organization and peptide sequence

Francisco Rodríguez-Rincón; Antonio Suarez; Mathias Lucas; Luis Fernando Larrondo; Teresa de la Rubia; Julio Polaina; José Martínez

2010-01-01

188

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow ( Salix alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal\\u000a pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two\\u000a regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level

Tatiana Wuytack; Kris Verheyen; Karen Wuyts; Fatemeh Kardel; Sandy Adriaenssens; Roeland Samson

2010-01-01

189

Hybridization in staminate and pistillate Salix alba and S. fragilis (Salicaceae): morphology versus RAPDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?The polyploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the characters have a low diagnostic\\u000a value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures. Morphology and molecular\\u000a variation determined with random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were investigated in a set of staminate and pistillate\\u000a willows from Belgium. A

L. Triest

2001-01-01

190

Monographie der Salix alba L. spec. plant. (1753) unter Berücksichtigung genetischer und züchterischer Aspekte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Die Weißweide (Salix alba L.) weist ein sehr großes natürliches Verbreitungsgebiet auf, das sich über wesentliche Teile der euroasiatischen Landmasse\\u000a erstreckt und sogar bis Nordafrika reicht. Im allgemeinen werden von dieser Baumart sowie von ihren Varietäten, Formen und\\u000a Bastarden die Fluß-und Seeniederungen bevorzugt, wo sie als sogenannte Baumweiden mit beachtlichen Wuchs- und Formeigenschaften\\u000a am Aufbau der Auwälder hervorragend beteiligt sind.

E. Weber

1974-01-01

191

Micropropagation method for a hybrid willow (Salix matsudana × alba NZ1002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for rapid in vitro multiplication of a hybrid willow (S. matsudana × alba NZ-1002). On Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) containing benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 0.1 mg\\/l and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg\\/l a 4-fold shoot multiplication can be achieved in 4 weeks. The isolated shoots produced in this way, after being rooted on MS containing

Sant S. Bhojwani

1980-01-01

192

Die Wirkung von „Störlicht” auf die Blütenbildung von Sinapis alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of flowering in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) was studied by means of night-breaks (“Störlicht”). The plants were cultivated under fully controlled conditions: 8000 Lux white light (mixed fluorescent and incandescent) 18°C, 80% relative humidity. Raised under our conditions in short days (8 hours of white light) mustard behaved as a quantitative long-day plant (Fig. 2). Flowering can be

J. Hanke; K. M. Hartmann; H. Mohr

1969-01-01

193

Biochemical characterization of Silene alba alpha4-fucosyltransferase and Lewis a products.  

PubMed

alpha1,4-Fucosylation has been recently detected in Arabidopsis thaliana [Leonard et al. (2002), Glycobiology 12: 299-306], and corresponding enzymes have also been characterized in Beta vulgaris [Bakker et al. (2001), FEBS Lett, 507: 307-312], and Lycopersicum aesculentum [Wilson (2001), Glycoconjugate J., 18: 439-447]. Here we demonstrated fucosyltransferase activity (FucT) in Silene alba cells and tissues. The Fuc linkage to GlcNAc residues of the lactosamine moiety of the Type I acceptor was confirmed by mass spectrometry experiments. Le(a)-glycoconjugates are found in the Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane of plant cells. In planta, the highest levels of activity were detected in seedlings, young roots and male flowers. The enzyme was stable up to 45( composite function)C and the optimum pH of reaction was 8.0. The enzyme required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) for activity and was inhibited by Zn(2+) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Chemical modification of the enzyme with group-selective reagents revealed that selective modifications of arginine and lysine residues had no effect on enzyme activity. However the enzyme contains histidine and tryptophan residues that are essential for its activity. In contrast to human FUT3, the S. alba alpha4-FucT was insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment. Measurement of enzyme activity in S. alba cell fractions indicated that the enzyme is bound to microsomal membranes, furthermore a soluble isoform of the protein may be present. PMID:15864437

Léonard, R; Lhernould, S; Carlué, M; Fleurat, P; Maftah, A; Costa, G

2005-02-01

194

Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.  

PubMed

Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions. PMID:20616300

Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

2010-08-01

195

Effects of phytohormones and jasmonic acid on glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Although some study have established hairy root cultures from brassicaceous plants with glucosinolates (GS) as characteristic secondary metabolite, studies are missing which compare hairy roots with the corresponding mother plants. Therefore, two different plant species-Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa subsp. rapa pygmeae teltoviensis-were transformed with the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Aliphatic and indolyl GS were present in B. rapa, exhibiting larger quantities in leaves than in roots. Aromatic p-hydroxybenzyl GS were found particularly in the leaves of S. alba. However, the proportion of indolyl GS increased suddenly in transformed hairy roots of S. alba and B. rapa. Cultivation with the phytohormone kinetin (0.5 mg?L(-1)) enhanced GS accumulation in B. rapa hairy roots, however not in S. alba, but 2,4-D (0.4 mg?L(-1)) induced de-differentiation of roots in both species and reduced GS levels. GS levels especially of 1-methoxyindol-3ylmethyl GS increased in hairy roots in response to JA, but root growth was inhibited. While 2 weeks of cultivation in 100 to 200 ?M JA were determined at optimum for maximum GS yield in S. alba hairy root cultures, 4 weeks of cultivation in 50 to 100 ?M JA was the optimum for B. rapa. PMID:23269631

Kastell, Anja; Smetanska, Iryna; Ulrichs, Christian; Cai, Zhenzhen; Mewis, Inga

2013-01-01

196

Growth rates of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Psammobiidae) in an intermittent estuary of southern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caging and a mark-recapture design were used to estimate the growth rate of the brittle, infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba in the Hopkins River estuary. The growth of both caged and uncaged individuals was monitored at three sites near the mouth of the estuary over 180 days. Growth rates did not differ for caged and uncaged bivalves, or for bivalves subject to different amounts of handling, or between sites. Growth did differ between consecutive time intervals, which was attributable to negligible growth occurring during the colder months of autumn/winter. Comparisons of the condition (as indicated by total mass for length 3) of S. alba were inconsistent between sites for caged and uncaged bivalves and for those subject to different amounts of handling. Soletellina alba is a rapidly growing bivalve with mean growth rates for the three time intervals being 0.04±0.002 mm day-1 in summer, 0.02±0.001 mm day-1 in autumn and 0.03±0.001 mm day-1 from summer to winter. Using existing literature, it was shown that a significant relationship exists between maximum shell length and onset of sexual maturity in bivalve molluscs. This relationship predicts that S. alba should reach the onset of sexual maturity at 15.8 mm length. Therefore, it appears that it may be possible for juvenile S. alba (<1 mm) to grow, reach sexual maturity and reproduce in between annual mass-mortality events caused by winter flooding.

Matthews, Ty G.; Fairweather, Peter G.

2003-12-01

197

Variação sazonal na sociabilidade de forrageamento das garças Ardea alba (Linnaeus, 1758) e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in the foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil. The seasonal variation of foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) on the lagoons of the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil, was analyzed. Quarterly samplings of birds were

Márcio Rodrigo

198

Canopy disturbance history of old-growth Quercus alba sites in the eastern United States: Examination of long-term trends and broad-scale patterns  

E-print Network

Canopy disturbance history of old-growth Quercus alba sites in the eastern United States through time. We analyzed tree-ring series from 44 Quercus alba old-growth sites located throughout Keywords: Disturbance regimes Quercus (oak) Succession Dendroecology Hardwood forests a b s t r a c

Hart, Justin

199

Relative contributions of sexual and asexual regeneration strategies in Populus nigra and Salix alba during the first years of establishment on a braided gravel bed river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus nigra L. var betulifolia and Salix alba L. var alba are early successional riparian tree species threatened throughout Continental Europe by significant changes to the natural physical processes governing their natural habitat – geomorphologically active floodplains. River management activities have dramatically altered natural patterns of river flow and rates of sediment delivery along rivers, with possible consequences for the

Nadia Barsoum

2001-01-01

200

GDK: 81+561.24:176.1 Abies alba (045)=163.6 Prispelo / Recived: 05. 11. 2009 Izvirni znanstveni clanek  

E-print Network

fir, Abies alba, wood, structure, properties, Norway spruce, Picea abies, dendrochronology, wood. WOOD AS RAW MATERIAL AND TREE TISSUE Abstract We present the structure, properties and use of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood, which is known for its uncoloured heartwood, medium density

Cufar, Katarina

201

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

202

Structural identification and bioactivities of red-violet pigments present in Basella alba fruits.  

PubMed

Mature Basella alba L. fruit, with dark blue skin and deep red-violet flesh, is a potential source of natural colorants. Its pigment components and bioactivities deserve particular attention and investigation. In this study, fruit flesh was extracted with 80% methanol (containing 0.2% formic acid) and subjected to solid-phase extraction, semipreparative HPLC isolation, mass spectrophotometric analysis, and structural elucidation. The major red pigment was identified as gomphrenin I. Its quantity increased with the increase of fruit maturity. The gomphrenin I extract yield from ripe fruits was 36.1 mg/100 g of fresh weight. In addition to gomphrenin I, betanidin-dihexose and isobetanidin-dihexose were also detected. The antioxidant activities of gomphrenin I determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and antioxidative capacity assays were equivalent to 534 ?M Trolox, 103 ?M butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 129 ?M ascorbic acid, and 68 ?M BHT at 180, 23, 45, and 181 ?M, respectively. The anti-inflammatory function was tested at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 ?M in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results revealed that gomphrenin I suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased PGE(2) and IL-1? secretions at the highest concentration tested. The transcriptional inhibitory activities of gomphrenin I on the expression of inflammatory genes encoding iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 were also observed. It is of merit to identify gomphrenin I as a principal pigment of B. alba fruits and as a potent antioxidant and inflammatory inhibitor. These findings suggest that B. alba fruit is a rich source of betalains and has value-added potential for use in the development of food colorants and nutraceuticals. PMID:20839771

Lin, Shu-Mei; Lin, Bo-Hong; Hsieh, Wan-Mei; Ko, Huey-Jiun; Liu, Chi-Dong; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chiou, Robin Y-Y

2010-10-13

203

Heat shock protein 47 expression in aged normal human fibroblasts: modulation by Salix alba extract.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a specific chaperone of procollagen. This heat shock protein is responsible for the correct three-dimensional organization of procollagen and its control-quality prior secretion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the level of HSP 47 in aged, photoaged, and senescent fibroblasts and its modulation by a plant extract (Salix alba). The level of HSP 47 and/or procollagen expression in fibroblasts was measured by real-time RT-PCR (mRNA transcripts) and by flow cytometry (immunochemistry technique for measurement of arbitrary fluorescence intensity). Immunochemistry techniques and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the cellular localization of HSP 47 and procollagen. These parameters were compared with different age donors, nonsenescent, and senescent fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were irradiated by a noncytotoxic dose of UVA (6 J/cm(2)), and HSP 47 level was evaluated. S. alba extract was tested for its capacity to modulate HSP 47 expression. Colocalization of HSP 47 and procollagen was shown by confocal microscopy, indicating that HSP 47 could play a role of procollagen molecular chaperone in the cellular model. It was also shown that the HSP 47 level is decreased in old-donor cells, senescent, and irradiated cells. This decrease can be modulated by a S. alba extract (polyphenols rich) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of HSP 47 expression in the experimental conditions can lead to a new approach of aging and photoaging, pointing out the implication of this chaperone in these pathophysiologic phenomena. Modulation of HSP 47 expression by this family of molecules could be of cosmetic and/or dermatologic interest. PMID:15247019

Nizard, Carine; Noblesse, Emmanuelle; Boisdé, Cécille; Moreau, Marielle; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Mahé, Christian

2004-06-01

204

Isolation and characterization of 21 microsatellite markers in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

We report 21 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European barn owl (Tyto alba). The polymorphism of the reported markers was evaluated in a population situated in western Switzerland and in another from Tenerife, Canary Islands. The number of alleles per locus varies between two and 31, and expected heterozygosity per population ranges from 0.16 to 0.95. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Two loci exhibit a null allele in the Tenerife population. PMID:21585946

Burri, R; Antoniazza, S; Siverio, F; Klein, A; Roulin, A; Fumagalli, L

2008-09-01

205

Laparoscopic plication of the linea alba as a repair for diastasis recti - a mesh free approach.  

PubMed

Distasis recti is a common occurrence in multiparous women (1), caused by repeated stretching of the abdominal wall by the gravid uterus. A small proportion of patients have a persisting weakness which may be symptomatic and present to the surgeon. We would like to present a case which, thus far, has had a successful outcome from laparoscopic plication of the linea alba without mesh. The benefits of this approach are as for any laparoscopic versus open technique, most notably improved recovery time, reduced pain and wound infection. Furthermore, avoidance of a mesh negates the risks associated with insertion of a foreign body. PMID:24946321

Siddiky, A H; Kapadia, C R

2010-01-01

206

Laparoscopic plication of the linea alba as a repair for diastasis recti - a mesh free approach  

PubMed Central

Distasis recti is a common occurrence in multiparous women (1), caused by repeated stretching of the abdominal wall by the gravid uterus. A small proportion of patients have a persisting weakness which may be symptomatic and present to the surgeon. We would like to present a case which, thus far, has had a successful outcome from laparoscopic plication of the linea alba without mesh. The benefits of this approach are as for any laparoscopic versus open technique, most notably improved recovery time, reduced pain and wound infection. Furthermore, avoidance of a mesh negates the risks associated with insertion of a foreign body. PMID:24946321

Siddiky, A.H; Kapadia, C.R

2010-01-01

207

Impact of flowering phenology of Silene alba and S-dioica on susceptibility to fungal infection and seed predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timing of the production of susceptible host stages can have a large impact on a plant's probability of infection by pathogens and on the extent of damage caused by herbivores. In the closely related plant species Silene alba and S. dioica, flowers are the site of infection by the host-sterilizing anther smut fungus Ustilago violacea, as well as the site

A. Biere; S. C. Honders

1996-01-01

208

The fine sand Abra alba community of the bay of morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977–1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results

J-C Dauvin

1998-01-01

209

Small Mammal Taphonomy: Intraspecific Bone Assemblage Comparison between South and North American Barn Owl, Tyto alba , Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actualistic studies of small mammal taphonomy usually describe interspecific bone patterns of contemporary agents of bone deposition. These studies assume that each agent produces one specific bone pattern. Here we examine intraspecific bone patterning for bone assemblages produced by different barn owl,Tyto alba, populations. We analyse bone completeness and fragmentation patterns produced by this raptor between three Chilean and four

Bárbara Saavedra; Javier A. Simonetti

1998-01-01

210

Diet of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) in wetlands of northeastern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) were studied through pellet analysis in four northeastern Greek wetlands. Results from the months February-September showed that in all areas, the most important prey for the Barn Owl were small mammals (mainly Mus spp., Microtus rossiaemeridionalis , Crocidura spp. and Apodemus spp.) The

Vassilis Goutner; Haralambos Alivizatos

211

Micromammalian distribution and abundance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, as evidenced by Barn owls Tyto alba (Scopoli)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of Western Cape mammalogy began almost 200 years ago with Thunberg (1811) and has been augmented periodically ever since. The present paper follows Vernon (1972) and Grindley et al. (1973) in eliciting information from material in Barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli) pellets. Analyses are based on identified and counted mandibles and maxillae. The Laminate vlei rat, Otomys laminatus

D. M. Avery; G. Avery; N. G. Palmer

2005-01-01

212

ROEDORES EN LA DIETA DE DOS AVES RAPACES NOCTURNAS (BUBO VIRGINIANUS Y TYTO ALBA) EN EL NORESTE DE DURANGO, MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the diet of two species of owls, and assessed the rodents communities and their relative densities from March 1996 through February 1997 in the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve, Durango, México: Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba). The objectives were to understand the predator-prey relationships by comparing the availability and use of rodents by these owls.

Elizabeth E. ARAGÓN; Benjamín CASTILLO; Alfredo GARZA

213

Functional analysis of the promoter of a glycosyl hydrolase gene induced in resistant Sinapis alba by Alternaria brassicicola.  

PubMed

A putative family 3 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene showed significant differential expression in resistant Sinapis alba, compared with the susceptible Brassica juncea, as part of the initial responses during interaction with the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. To understand the mechanism of induction, the promoter was isolated and deletion analysis carried out. All the promoter fragments were fused with the ?-glucuronidase gene and the expressions were studied in stable B. juncea transgenics and transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis of the expression of the promoter showed the presence of functional abscisic acid (ABA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and salicylic acid (SA)-responsive cis elements. Interestingly, the promoter was found to be induced in both S. alba and B. juncea upon challenge with A. brassicicola but, in S. alba, SA had an inhibitory effect on the pathogen-induced expression of the gene whereas, in B. juncea, SA did not have any negative effect. Therefore, the SA-mediated inhibition in S. alba indicates that the induction is probably through JA or ABA signaling. The difference in the mechanism of induction of the same promoter in the resistant and susceptible plants is probably due to the differential hormonal responses initiated upon challenge with A. brassicicola. PMID:23550974

Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Basu, Debabrata

2013-08-01

214

An energy-circuit population model for Great Egrets ( Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake

Jeff P. Smith

1997-01-01

215

GROWTH OF WHITE OAK (QUERCUS ALBA L.) IN RELATION TO SOIL AND SITE PROPERTIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the Appalachian Mountains in eastern Kentucky with the objective of relating basic soil properties and other measured site characteristics to the growth of white oak (_uercus alba L.). A range of three soil series and three slope positions were investigated. A white oak height prediction equation was developed based on data from 39 sites. It

C. W. Honeycutt; R. L. Blevins; R. F. Wittwer

216

Net production relations of three tree species at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. [Liriodendron tulipifera; Quercus alba; Pinus echinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of productivity of forests is a difficult problem which has been variously approached. Results from an exploratory application of one approach (Whittaker 1961) to trees of three species - Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree or yellow poplar), Quercus alba (white oak), and Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) - are reported here. The trees were felled in a logging operation at Oak

R. H. Whittaker; N. Cohen; J. S. Olson

2009-01-01

217

Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the extent that resources, conditions and herbivory limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine–hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorus, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next

Joseph M. Riley; Robert H Jones; H. Robert

2003-01-01

218

Modification of Vascular Tissue in Midvein of Quercus Alba Leaves Induced by Gall Development of Cynips Pezomachoides Erinacei  

Microsoft Academic Search

1n the autumn of 1933 Miss Agatba Griffin (3) studied the influence of interrupted translocation on loss of chlorophyll in leaves before autumn coloration. During the course of the observation, it was noted that a gall on the vein of leaves of Quercus alba produced strikingly similar results as cutting of a vein, i. e., in both cases the area

E. F. Kenoyer

1936-01-01

219

Erwinia salicis as the cause of dieback in Salix alba in the Netherlands and its identity with Pseudomonas saliciperda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on a bacterial disease of willow (Salix alba) has been carried out in the Netherlands. Isolations made from diseased branches yielded a peritrichous bacterium which proved to beErwinia salicis (Day) Chester. Evidence of its identity withPseudomonas saliciperda Lindeijer is demonstrated.

J. Gremmen; M. De Kam

1970-01-01

220

Genetic characterization of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. are two closely related willow species whose phenotypic features, showing a large and continuous variation, have a low diagnostic value for identifying pure species and interspecific hybrids. In this paper, the effectiveness of different multilocus PCR-based molecular markers, such as I-SSRs, RAPDs and AFLPs in detecting genetic polymorphisms able to discriminate the two

S. Meneghetti; G. Barcaccia; P. Paiero; M. Lucchin

2007-01-01

221

Pityriasis Alba  

MedlinePLUS

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222

Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

1991-01-01

223

Effects of the methanol extract of Basella alba L (Basellaceae) on steroid production in Leydig cells.  

PubMed

In this study, Leydig cells were purified from 70 day-old Sprague Dawley male rats and incubated with 10 and 100 ?g/mL of methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) for 4 hours followed by the evaluation of cell viability, steroid (testosterone and estradiol) production, and the level of aromatase mRNA. Results showed that MEBa did not affect Leydig cell viability. At the concentration of 10 ?g/mL, MEBa significantly stimulated testosterone and estradiol production (p < 0.01 and p < 0.03, respectively), and enhanced aromatase mRNA level (p < 0.04). These observations suggest that MEBa directly stimulated testosterone, estradiol and aromatase mRNA levels in isolated Leydig cells. PMID:21339992

Nantia, Edouard Akono; Travert, Carine; Manfo, Faustin-Pascal T; Carreau, Serge; Monsees, Thomas K; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

2011-01-01

224

Growth enhancement of Quercus alba saplings by CO[sub 2] enrichment under field conditions  

SciTech Connect

White oak (Quercus alba L.) trees were grown in soil under field conditions for four growing seasons in open-top chambers containing ambient air continuously enriched with 0, 150, or 300 [mu]mol/mol CO[sub 2]. The trees were significantly larger in elevated CO[sub 2]: whole-tree mass (including woody roots) was 36% greater in +150 and 140% greater in +300 compared to ambient-grown trees. There were no significant effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on root-to-shoot or leaf area ratios. The stimulatory effect of CO[sub 2] occurred during seedling establishment, and there was no effect of CO[sub 2] on relative growth rate after the first field season. However, photosynthesis remained consistently higher in elevated CO[sub 2], foliar respiration was reduced, and fine root density and CO[sub 2] efflux from the soil were higher, as previously reported with yellow- poplar trees.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Gunderson, C.A.; Nietch, C.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-06-01

225

Winter season corticular photosynthesis in Cornus florida, Acer rubrum, Quercus alba, and Liriodendron tulipifera  

SciTech Connect

Winter season corticular photosynthesis was studied in four species of deciduous trees: dogwood (Cornus florida), red maple (Acer rubrum), white oak (Quercus alba), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). Techniques included measuring CO/sub 2/ uptake at varying light intensities, relating the apparent photosynthetic capacities to seasonal changes in chlorophyll content of twigs and determining the fate of assimilated carbon over time. Dogwood was the most photosynthetically active of the four species studied; however, gross photosynthesis did not exceed respiration in any of the four species. Photosynthetic activity of dogwood twigs was estimated at 10% of that of dogwood leaves on a weight basis and 85% on a surface area basis. Photosynthetic activity was generally related to shade tolerance ranking and was on the order of dogwood much greater than red maple much greater than white oak approx. = yellow-poplar. Little change in chlorophyll content occurred over the January-April 1979 study interval.

Coe, J.M. (Centre Coll. of Kentucky, Danville); McLaughlin, S.B.

1980-12-01

226

Effects of the Methanol Extract of Basella alba L (Basellaceae) on Steroid Production in Leydig Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, Leydig cells were purified from 70 day-old Sprague Dawley male rats and incubated with 10 and 100 ?g/mL of methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) for 4 hours followed by the evaluation of cell viability, steroid (testosterone and estradiol) production, and the level of aromatase mRNA. Results showed that MEBa did not affect Leydig cell viability. At the concentration of 10 ?g/mL, MEBa significantly stimulated testosterone and estradiol production (p < 0.01 and p < 0.03, respectively), and enhanced aromatase mRNA level (p < 0.04). These observations suggest that MEBa directly stimulated testosterone, estradiol and aromatase mRNA levels in isolated Leydig cells. PMID:21339992

Nantia, Edouard Akono; Travert, Carine; Manfo, Faustin-Pascal T.; Carreau, Serge; Monsees, Thomas K.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

2011-01-01

227

Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-04-01

228

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

229

Pharmacokinetic properties of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin after oral gavage of extracts of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyTo establish a HPLC–MS method and investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin and the pharmacokinetics difference of Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba.

Chao Feng; Man Liu; Xiaowei Shi; Wei Yang; Dezhi Kong; Kunfeng Duan; Qiao Wang

2010-01-01

230

Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smits, A.J.M., de Lyon, M.J.H., van der Velde, G., Steentjes, P.L.M. and Roelofs, J.G.M., 1988. Distribution of three nymphaeid macrophytes (Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze) in relation to alkalinity and uptake of inorganic car- bon. Aquat. Bot., 32: 45-62. The presence\\/absence data of Nymphaea alba L., Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. and Nymphoides

A. J. M. SMITS; M DELYON; G. VAN DER VELDE; P. L. M. STEENTJES; J ROELOFS

1988-01-01

231

Gene expression profiling of Sinapis alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions with Illumina deep sequencing.  

PubMed

Sinapis alba has many desirable agronomic traits including tolerance to drought. In this investigation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of S. alba leaves under drought stress and rewatering growth conditions in an attempt to identify candidate genes involved in drought tolerance, using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. The comparative analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression level attributable to the drought stress, which resulted in the down-regulation of 309 genes and the up-regulation of 248 genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell division and catalytic and metabolic processes. Our results provide useful information for further analyses of the drought stress tolerance in Sinapis, and will facilitate molecular breeding for Brassica crop plants. PMID:22207172

Dong, Cai-Hua; Li, Chen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Shun-Mou; Huang, Jin-Yong; Wang, Li-Jun; Guo, Rui-Xing; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Fang, Xiao-Ping; Wei, Wen-Hui

2012-05-01

232

In vitro regeneration of the important North American oak species Quercus alba , Quercus bicolor and Quercus rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American oak species, with their characteristic strong episodic seasonal shoot growth, are highly problematic for clonal\\u000a micropropagation, resulting in the inability to achieve a stabilized shoot multiplication stage. The potential for initiating\\u000a and proliferating shoot cultures derived from Quercus alba, Q. bicolor and Q. rubra explants was investigated, and a micropropagation method for these species was developed. Branch segments

A. M. Vieitez; E. Corredoira; A. Ballester; F. Muñoz; J. Durán; M. Ibarra

2009-01-01

233

The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). II: Coat resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The thermal resistance of barn owl (Tyto alba) plumage was determined from measurements of heat flux and temperature using a model in a wind tunnel.2.2. The mean resistance of four barn owl coats was 398 s m?1 and wetting the coat reduced coat resistance to 374 s m?1. Resistance decreased linearly with increasing wind speed from 0–7 m s?1.3.3.

D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

1997-01-01

234

Quantitative Analysis of the Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer and Optic Nerve of the Barn Owl Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual capacity of the common barn owl (Tyto alba) was studied by quantitative analysis of the retina and optic nerve. Cell counts in the ganglion cell layer of the whole-mounted retina revealed a temporal area centralis with peak cell density of 12,500 cells\\/mm2 and a horizontal streak of high cell density extending from the area centralis into the nasal

John C. Wathey; John D. Pettigrew

1989-01-01

235

Rapid determination of volatile constituents of Michelia alba flowers by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with solid-phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of Michelia alba flowers, including fresh flowers, frozen flowers and withered flowers, were investigated by GC–MS. The volatiles in a simulated natural environment were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME), with a 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane fiber at 25±5°C for 4 h. The fibers were desorbed in a GC injection liner at 250°C for 3 min. With headspace SPME–GC–MS

Chunqing Shang; Yaoming Hu; Chunhui Deng; Keji Hu

2002-01-01

236

[Effect of trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids from Bryonia alba L. on the activity of glycogen metabolism enzymes in alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

It was shown previously in experiments on white rats with alloxan diabetes that trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids from Bryonia alba L. have a hypoglycemic action. The present paper is concerned with the effects of the above-indicated compounds on the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (a- and b-forms), phosphoprotein phosphatase and hexokinase in liver and muscle tissues of white rats with alloxan diabetes. One of the possible mechanisms of the hypoglycemic action of trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids is discussed. PMID:6322880

Vartanian, G S; Parsadanian, G K; Karagezian, K G

1984-03-01

237

Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings ( Tyto alba ) : insurance against scarcity of energy or water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic\\u000a food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of\\u000a this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors

Joël M. Durant; M?ta M. Landys; Yves Handrich

2008-01-01

238

Effects of atmospheric COâ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of COâ. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, COâ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems.

R. J. Norby; E. G. ONeill; R. J. Luxmoore

1986-01-01

239

Carbon-nutrient interactions in response to COâ enrichment: physiological and long-term perspectives. [Quercus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of forest trees to atmospheric COâ enrichment will depend in part on carbon-nutrient linkages. Insights into the possible long-term ecological consequences of COâ enrichment can be gained from studying physiological responses in short-term experiments. One-year-old white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were grown in an unfertilized forest soil for 40 weeks in controlled-environment chambers with ambient (362 ..mu..L.L⁻¹)

R. J. Norby; J. Pastor; J. M. Melillo

1985-01-01

240

Dark respiration and carbohydrate status of two forest species grown in elevated carbon dioxide. [Liriodendron tulipifera L. ; Quercus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon assimilation is often increased by COâ enrichment, but the response of dark respiration and carbohydrate metabolism to elevated COâ is less well documented. The authors examined the diurnal response of these two processes in yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedling exposed to COâ enrichment under field conditions. One-year-old seedlings of yellow-poplar and white oak

S. D. Wullschleger; R. J. Norby; D. L. Hendrix

1991-01-01

241

Characterisation and inheritance of nuclear microsatellite loci for use in population studies of the allotetraploid Salix alba – Salix fragilis complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present nine polymorphic di- and tri-nucleotide repeat nuclear microsatellite markers selected specifically for their use\\u000a in high throughput studies concerning the dioecious allotetraploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis willow complex. These taxa and their hybrids are difficult to discriminate using morphological characters. Thus, multiplex\\u000a reactions were developed for these microsatellite loci and their effectiveness to distinguish individuals, especially hybrids,\\u000a and their

Robert Andrew King; Sarah L. Harris; Angela Karp; Jacqueline H. A. Barker

2010-01-01

242

Symplastic isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the phloem of Ricinus communis and Salix alba stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical and physiological isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex (se-cc complex) was investigated in stems of Ricinus communis L. and Salix alba L. In Ricinus, the plasmodesmatal frequencies were in the proportions 8:1:2:30, in the order given, at the interfaces between sieve tube-companion cell, sieve tube-phloem parenchyma cell, companion cellphloem parenchyma cell, and phloem parenchyma cellphloem parenchyma cell.

Aart J. E. Bel; Ronald Kempers

1991-01-01

243

Projected benefit-cost analysis of agri-silvicultural system: vegetable crops intercropping with Salix alba (Willow)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment upon an agri-silvicultural system involving Willow (Salix alba) tree, Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and Knol khol (Brassica oleracea var. caularapa) was laid in randomized block designed at farmers’ willow field at Shalimar near Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural\\u000a Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar India during 2005 and 2006. The main plot was divided into sub-spots with 8

Aijaz Hussain Mir; M. A. Khan

2008-01-01

244

Chemical Composition, Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities of Essential Oils from (Tunisian) Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition from the aerial parts of Artemisia campestris var. glutinosa Gay ex Bess and Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) of Tunisian origin has been studied by GC and GC\\/MS. The main constituents of the oil from A. campestris collected in Benguerdane (South of Tunisia) were found to be ?-pinene (41.0%), p-cymene (9.9%), ?-terpinene (7.9%), limonene (6.5%), myrcene (4.1%),

Neffati Aicha; Skandrani Ines; Ben Sghaier Mohamed; Bouhlel Ines; Kilani Soumaya; Ghedira Kamel; Neffati Mohamed; Chraief Imed; Hammami Mohamed; Chekir-Ghedira Leila

2008-01-01

245

Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) in Sagami Bay, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life history and vertical distribution of the mesopelagic fish Cyclothone alba (family Gonostomatidae) are described on the basis of over 4000 specimens taken during a series of 15 cruises from December 1982 to December 1984 at a station near the center of Sagami Bay, Central Japan. C. alba does not undertake diel vertical migrations, being concentrated in the mesopelagic zone between 300 and 500 m, with peak abundance at 350 m both day and night. Spawning occurs mainly during the late spring and summer months in Sagami Bay. C. alba is semelparous, releasing about 200-650 eggs at the end of its life. Duration of the egg and larval stages is estimated to be about 2-3 months. Many males and some females mature at 1 year, and all individuals mature by 2 years of age. Sexual dimorphism in smaller males and larger females results from an earlier decline of growth rate in males: on the average, males reach 17.5 mm SL (standard length) in 1 year and 21 mm SL in 2 years, whereas females reach 19 mm SL in 1 year and 26 mm SL in 2 years. It is suggested that such precocious maturation, together with its small larvalized form, is attained through progenesis.

Miya, Masaki; Nemoto, Takahisa

1986-08-01

246

Do Uniparental Sanderlings Calidris alba Increase Egg Heat Input to Compensate for Low Nest Attentiveness?  

PubMed Central

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs. PMID:21347377

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-01-01

247

Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.  

PubMed

For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms. PMID:23615168

Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

2013-01-01

248

Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges. PMID:20552203

Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

2010-09-01

249

How barn owls (Tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (Microtus socialis) before attacking them.  

PubMed

The present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. The working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. To test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (Tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. Bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of movements revealed that owl head movements increased in amplitude parallel to the vole's direction of movement (sideways or away from/toward the owl). However, the owls also performed relatively large repetitive horizontal head movements when the voles were progressing in any direction, suggesting that these movements were critical for the owl to accurately locate the prey, independent of prey behavior. From the pattern of head movements we conclude that owls orient toward the prospective clash point, and then return to the target itself (the vole) - a pattern that fits an interception rather than a tracking mode of following a moving target. The large horizontal component of head movement in following live prey may indicate that barn owls either have a horizontally narrow fovea or that these movements serve in forming a motion parallax along with preserving image acuity on a horizontally wide fovea. PMID:19577583

Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

2009-09-01

250

Effects of environmental temperature on thyroid hormones in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The basic patterns of thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)] and the T4 and T3 responses induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) are reported in captive female barn owls (Tyto alba) during the non-breeding period. The main findings of the study, conducted on a total of 10 owls, are as follow: (1) The thyroid gland of barn owl can be stimulated by the classical TRH stimulation test. (2) T3 response was much more pronounced both under cold (around 10 degrees C) and warm (around 20 degrees C) conditions, whereas T4 response ranged so widely that we could not point out any significant change in it. (3) Basal T3 plasma level was significantly (p = 0.036) higher in birds exposed to cold temperature, and they responded to TRH treatment with a lower plasma T3 elevation than the birds kept in a warm chamber. This pattern, however, cannot be explained by increased food intake, but is in agreement with the fact that enhanced T3 level may account for higher avUCP mRNA expression, which results in higher heat production on the cell level. From the results it is concluded that altering T3 plasma level plays a significant role in cold-induced thermoregulation. PMID:17020136

Klein, A; Kulcsár, Margit; Krízsik, Virág; Mátics, R; Rudas, P; Török, J; Huszenicza, G

2006-09-01

251

Biosynthesis of C20 and C22 Fatty Acids by Developing Seeds of Limnanthes alba  

PubMed Central

The storage triacylglycerols of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seeds are composed essentially of C20 and C22 fatty acids, which contain an unusual ?5 double bond. When [1-14C]acetate was incubated with developing seed slices, 14C-labeled fatty acids were synthesized with a distribution similar to the endogenous fatty acid profile. The major labeled product was cis-5-eicosenoate, with smaller amounts of palmitate, stearate, oleate, cis-5-octadecenoate, eicosanoate, cis-11-eicosenoate, docosanoate, cis-5-docosenoate, cis-13-docosenoate, and cis-5,cis-13-docosadienoate. The label from [14C]acetate and [14C]malonate was used preferentially for the elongation of endogenous oleate to produce cis-[14C]11-eicosenoate, cis-13-[14C]docosenoate, and cis-5,cis-13-[14C]docosadienoate and for the elongation of endogenous palmitate to produce the remaining C20 and C22 acyl species. The ?5 desaturation of the preformed acyl chain and chain elongation of oleate and palmitate were demonstrated in vivo by incubation of the appropriate 1-14C-labeled free fatty acids. Using [1-14C]acyl-CoA thioesters as substrates, these enzyme activities were also demonstrated in vitro with a cell-free homogenate. PMID:16661496

Pollard, Michael R.; Stumpf, Paul K.

1980-01-01

252

Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and osteoclastic differentiation by Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba extract  

PubMed Central

Background: Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (ARA) has been used in Korean folk medicine for constipation, dizziness, and anticancer agent. In the present study, we performed to test whether the methanolic extract of ARA has antioxidant and antiosteoclastogenesis activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacities were tested by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, reducing power, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Antiosteoclastogenesis activity was evaluated by performing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase assay in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Results: The extract exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and NO radical scavenging activity, and it exerted dramatic reducing power. Induction of iNOS and NO by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the ARA extract inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Strikingly, the ARA extracts substantially inhibited the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand-induced osteclastic differentiation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The ARA extract contains a significant amount of antioxidant components, including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggest that the methanolic extract of ARA exerts significant antioxidant activities potentially via inhibiting free radicals and iNOS induction, thereby leading to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.

Choi, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

253

Do uniparental sanderlings Calidris alba increase egg heat input to compensate for low nest attentiveness?  

PubMed

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs. PMID:21347377

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-01-01

254

Sanderlings (Calidris alba) have a magnetic compass: orientation experiments during spring migration in Iceland.  

PubMed

The migratory orientation of sanderlings (Calidris alba) was investigated with cage experiments during the spring migration in southwest Iceland. Sanderlings were exposed to 90 degrees counterclockwise-shifted magnetic fields under both clear skies and natural overcast. Clear sky control tests resulted in a northerly mean direction, in agreement with predictions based on ringing recovery data and earlier visual observations of departing flocks. Sanderlings closely followed experimental deflections of magnetic fields when tested under clear skies. Control experiments under natural overcast resulted in a bimodal distribution approximately coinciding with the magnetic north-south axis. Overcast tests did not reveal any predictable response to the experimental treatment, but instead resulted in a non-significant circular distribution. The time of orientation experiments in relation to the tidal cycle affects the motivation of the birds to depart, as shown by the lower directional scatter of headings of individuals tested within the appropriate tidal window under clear skies. Sanderlings were significantly more likely to become inactive under overcast conditions than under clear sky conditions. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that a wader species such as the sanderling possesses a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary directional importance. However, overcast experiments indicate that both celestial and geomagnetic information are needed for sanderlings to realize a seasonally appropriate migratory orientation. PMID:11003824

Gudmundsson, G A; Sandberg, R

2000-10-01

255

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).  

PubMed

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality. PMID:20033771

Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

2010-12-01

256

Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Caltha palustris var. alba Kashmir, India.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract obtained from the root portion of Caltha palustris var. alba was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep under both in vitro and in vivo conditions using worm motility inhibition (WMI) assay and fecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay, respectively. The extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method against different bacterial strains. In addition the extract was evaluated for cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against cultured THP-1(Leukemia), A-549 (Lung), HCT-15 (Colon), Cervix (HeLa) and PC-3(Prostrate) cell lines by SRB and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The extract used resulted in mean %WMI of 94.44%, as observed when the worms were put in lukewarm buffer for 30 min after exposure to different treatments. The mean mortality index of the sample was 0.95. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 0.11 mg·mL(-1). Cell lines were exposed to concentration of 100 ?g·mL(-1) of extract for 48 h, which reduced the viability of these cell lines. The same plant extract also showed 55.58% DPPH radical scavenging activity. PMID:25156281

Mubashir, Sofi; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Lone, Bashir A; Zargar, M Iqbal; Shah, Wajaht A

2014-08-01

257

The radical SAM enzyme AlbA catalyzes thioether bond formation in subtilosin A.  

PubMed

Subtilosin A is a 35-residue, ribosomally synthesized bacteriocin encoded by the sbo-alb operon of Bacillus subtilis. It is composed of a head-to-tail circular peptide backbone that is additionally restrained by three unusual thioether bonds between three cysteines and the ?-carbon of one threonine and two phenylalanines, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that these bonds are synthesized by the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme AlbA, which is encoded by the sbo-alb operon and comprises two [4Fe-4S] clusters. One [4Fe-4S] cluster is coordinated by the prototypical CXXXCXXC motif and is responsible for the observed S-adenosylmethionine cleavage reaction, whereas the second [4Fe-4S] cluster is required for the generation of all three thioether linkages. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose a new radical mechanism for thioether bond formation. In addition, we show that AlbA-directed substrate transformation is leader-peptide dependent, suggesting that thioether bond formation is the first step during subtilosin A maturation. PMID:22366720

Flühe, Leif; Knappe, Thomas A; Gattner, Michael J; Schäfer, Antje; Burghaus, Olaf; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A

2012-04-01

258

Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  

PubMed

The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

2012-07-01

259

Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85?g; 10.15 ± 0.95?cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABAA receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABAA receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish. PMID:22473320

Heldwein, C.G.; Silva, L.L.; Reckziegel, P.; Barros, F.M.C.; Burger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B.; Mallmann, C.A.; Schmidt, D.; Caron, B.O.; Heinzmann, B.M.

2012-01-01

260

The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH.

Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nadia Accioly P.; de Cassia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Civita Teixeira; Batista, Valeria Chaves Vasconcelos

2014-01-01

261

The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

2014-01-01

262

Zhihengliuella alba sp. nov., and emended description of the genus Zhihengliuella.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, non-motile, white-pigmented, short rod actinobacterium, designated YIM 90734T, was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from Ganjiahu Suosuo Forest National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang province, north-west China, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain YIM 90734T grew optimally at 28-37 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0 and in 5% (w/v) NaCl. The peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu and tyvelose and mannose were the major cell-wall sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10 and MK-9. Major cellular fatty acids (>10% of total) were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown phospholipid and two unknown glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 70.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 90734T belonged to the genus Zhihengliuella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain YIM 90734T and the type strain of the only recognized Zhihengliuella species, Zhihengliuella halotolerans, was 97.7%. However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness of the two strains was 41.4%. The DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain YIM 90734T could be differentiated from Z. halotolerans. On the basis of the data presented, strain YIM 90734T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Zhihengliuella, for which the name Zhihengliuella alba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 90734T (=KCTC 19375T=DSM 21143T). The description of the genus Zhihengliuella has also been emended. PMID:19567565

Tang, Shu-Kun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Yun; Lou, Kai; Cao, Lan-Lan; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-08-01

263

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

2014-06-01

264

Effects of desiccation on the physiology and biochemistry of Quercus alba acorns.  

PubMed

Seeds that lose viability when dried to a water content of less than 12% are said to be recalcitrant. We subjected acorns of Quercus alba L., a species with recalcitrant seeds, to desiccation to determine the effects of drying on lipids, proteins and carbohydrates of the embryonic axis and cotyledon tissues. Samples of fresh seed and seed dried for selected intervals were analyzed for water content and germination, and for lipids, proteins and carbohydrates by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were further analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The FT-IR analysis revealed that membrane lipid structure initially exhibited reversible shifts between gel and liquid crystalline phases in response to drying and rehydration; however, reversibility declined as viability was lost. Changes in carbohydrate concentration were observed based on peak height comparisons; sucrose concentration in the embryonic axis increased dramatically after 5 days of drying. The most sensitive indicator of desiccation damage was the irreversible change in protein secondary structure in embryonic axes and cotyledon tissue. These changes were illustrated by shifts in amide absorbance near 1650 cm(-1). Gas chromatography indicated an abundance of sucrose in both the embryonic axes and the cotyledon tissue. Although sucrose concentrations in these tissues were initially similar, sucrose concentration in the embryonic axes became significantly greater than in the cotyledons as the acorns dried. We hypothesize that, in drying acorns, increased concentration of sucrose does not prevent loss of viability, but acts as a glycoprotectant against cell collapse and cell wall membrane damage as water stress increases. PMID:14522720

Connor, Kristina F; Sowa, Sharon

2003-11-01

265

Lysophosphatidate acyltransferase in the microsomes from maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba)  

SciTech Connect

Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthese alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of the two acyl acceptors and oleoyl CoA, but only the meadowfoam enzyme could use erucoyl CoA as the acyl donor to produce dierucoyl phosphatidic acid (PA). The meadowfoam enzyme was studied further. It had an optimal activity at pH 7 to 8, and its activity was inhibited by 1 millimolar MnCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, or p-chloromercuribenzoate. In a test of substrate specificity using increasing concentrations of either 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and either oleoyl CoA or erucoyl CoA, the enzyme activity in producing PA was highest for dioleoyl-PA, followed successively by 1-oleoyl-2-erucoyl-PA, dierucoyl-PA, and 1-erucoyl-2-oleoyl-PA. In a test of substrate selectivity using a fixed combined concentration, but varying proportions, of 1-oleoyl-LPA and 1-erucoyl-LPA, and of oleoyl CoA and erucoyl CoA, the enzyme showed a pattern of acyl preference similar to that observed in the test of substrate specificity, but the preference toward oleoyl moiety in the substrates was slightly stronger. The meadowfoam microsomes could convert ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate to diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the presence of erucoyl CoA.

Cao, Yizhi; Oo, Khaikcheang; Huang, A.H.C. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1990-11-01

266

Decomposers and root feeders interactively affect plant defence in Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

Aboveground herbivory is well known to change plant growth and defence. In contrast, effects of soil organisms, acting alone or in concert, on allocation patterns are less well understood. We investigated separate and combined effects of the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and the root feeding nematode species Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita on plant responses including growth and defence metabolite concentrations in leaves of white mustard, Sinapis alba. Soil biota had a strong impact on plant traits, with the intensity varying due to species combinations. Nematode infestation reduced shoot biomass and nitrogen concentration but only in the absence of earthworms. Earthworms likely counteracted the negative effects of nematodes. Infestation with the migratory lesion-nematode P. penetrans combined with earthworms led to increased root length. Earthworm biomass increased in the presence of this species, indicating that these nematodes increased the food resources of earthworms-presumably dead and decaying roots. Nitrogen-based defence compounds, i.e. glucosinolates, did not correlate with nitrogen levels. In the presence of earthworms, concentrations of aromatic glucosinolates in leaves were significantly increased. In contrast, infection with P. penetrans strongly decreased concentrations of glucosinolates (up to 81%). Infestation with the sedentary nematode M. incognita induced aromatic glucosinolates by more than 50% but only when earthworms were also present. Myrosinase activities, glucosinolate-hydrolysing enzymes, were unaffected by nematodes but reduced in the presence of earthworms. Our results document that root-feeding nematodes elicit systemic plant responses in defence metabolites, with the responses varying drastically with nematode species of different functional groups. Furthermore, systemic plant responses are also altered by decomposer animals, such as earthworms, challenging the assumption that induction of plant responses including defence traits is restricted to herbivores. Soil animals even interact and modulate the individual effects on plant growth and plant defence, thereby likely also influencing shoot herbivore attack. PMID:19252930

Lohmann, Maité; Scheu, Stefan; Müller, Caroline

2009-05-01

267

Activity of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal Glucolimnanthin Degradation Products against Soil-Borne Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oil seed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soil-borne pathogens. To maximize the pest suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soil-borne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soil-borne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic compound against all of the soil-borne pathogens with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC50 values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20 to 40 times lower than estimated EC50 mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

ZASADA, INGA A; WEILAND, JERRY E; REED, RALPH L; STEVENS, JAN F

2014-01-01

268

Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).  

PubMed

We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n?=?1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls. PMID:21564947

Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

2009-11-01

269

Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in the Barn owl (Aves: Tyto alba).  

PubMed

We isolated major histocompatibility complex class II B (MHCIIB) genes in the Barn owl (Tyto alba). A PCR-based approach combined with primer walking on genomic and complementary DNA as well as Southern blot analyses revealed the presence of two MHCIIB genes, both being expressed in spleen, liver, and blood. Characteristic structural features of MHCIIB genes as well as their expression and high non-synonymous substitution rates in the region involved in antigen binding suggest that both genes are functional. MHC organization in the Barn owl is simple compared to passerine species that show multiple duplications, and resembles the minimal essential MHC of chicken. PMID:18548243

Burri, Reto; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Roulin, Alexandre; Fumagalli, Luca

2008-09-01

270

Preparation of Three Flavonoids from the Bark of Salix alba by High?Speed Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main flavonoids from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae) were separated on preparative scale using high?speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). In each separation, 1.0 g crude extract was applied to yield pure eriodictyol (120 mg), 5,7?dihydroxychromen?4?one (29.5 mg), and naringenin (50 mg), respectively, while water–methanol–ethyl acetate–n?hexane (3:2:2:2, v\\/v) was used for a two?phase solvent system. The chemical structures of three flavonoids were elucidated

Qizhen Du; Gerold Jerz; Peter Winterhalter

2005-01-01

271

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

2013-03-01

272

Systenostrema alba Larsson 1988 (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae) in the Dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Odonata, Aeshnidae) from South Siberia: morphology and molecular characterization.  

PubMed

An octospore microsporidium was found in the nymphs of Aeshna viridis, collected in intermittent streams near Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia in 2003. Spores were uninucleate and measured 6.1+/-0.07 x 3.0+/-0.04 microm on fresh smears. The polar filament was anisofilar having 10-11 anterior coils (thicker filament diam.) and 10-11 posterior (thinner filament diam.) coils. Sporophorous vesicles were persistent and measured 12.3+/-0.23 x 11.9+/-0.20 microm. The infection was restricted to the adipose tissue and caused the formation of whitish "cysts" containing mature octospores. Based on ultrastructural similarity we consider this Siberian isolate to be Systenostrema alba, a species described from Aeshna grandis collected in Sweden (Larsson 1988). Maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and maximum parsimony analyses of the small subunit rDNA all placed Systenostrema alba (Accession no. AY953292) as the sister taxon to a clade consisting of Thelohania solenopsae, Tubulinosema ratisbonensis, and Tubulinosema acridophagus. PMID:16441586

Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Kryukova, Nataliya A; Glupov, Viktor V; Fuxa, James R

2006-01-01

273

Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings (Tyto alba): insurance against scarcity of energy or water?  

PubMed

European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors and seabirds). To experimentally determine whether the overshoot in body mass in juvenile European barn owls (Tyto alba) may act as an energy reservoir, we compared the body composition of owl chicks raised on an ad libitum diet to those fed a restricted diet designed to eliminate the overshoot. Chicks raised on the two diets were also compared for differences in maturation of diverse functions (e.g., locomotion) and tissues (e.g., skeletal development). Contrary to expectations, our results on body composition in juvenile barn owls indicate that the mass overshoot prior to fledging is primarily comprised of an increased water compartment. Thus, we suggest that the mass overshoot in owls (and possibly in other species) does not serve as an energy reservoir but, rather, may function as an insurance against dehydration when hot in-nest conditions force chicks to rely on evaporative cooling: temperatures in barn owl nests can reach up to 43 degrees C. We found no significant differences in maturation indexes between diet treatments at the time of fledging. PMID:18196248

Durant, Joël M; Landys, Meta M; Handrich, Yves

2008-07-01

274

Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the detection of white mustard (Sinapis alba) in foods.  

PubMed

This paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the detection of traces of white mustard ( Sinapis alba ) in complex food matrices. The primers and the probe are targeted at the gene coding for S. alba MADS D. The real-time PCR method was found to be specific for white mustard and did not show any cross-reactivity with 67 biological species, including 12 members of the Brassicaceae family. The limit of detection, determined by analyzing serially diluted white mustard DNA extracts, was 1 pg of white mustard DNA/?L, corresponding to 5 pg of white mustard DNA. In model sausages, the limit of detection was found to be 0.001% white mustard (corresponding to 10 ppm or 10 mg/kg). The real-time PCR method was applied to verify the correct declaration of 20 foodstuffs purchased from Austrian supermarkets. White mustard DNA was detected in one of three samples labeled with "may contain traces of mustard" and in one of seven samples without any information on the presence of mustard. PMID:20925382

Fuchs, Magdalena; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

2010-11-10

275

Subcellular Localization of 2-(?-d-Glucosyloxy)-Cinnamic Acids and the Related ?-glucosidase in Leaves of Melilotus alba Desr. 1  

PubMed Central

The distribution of the glucosides of trans- and cis-2-hydroxy cinnamic acid and of the ?-glucosidase which hydrolyzes the latter glucoside was examined in preparations of epidermal and mesophyll tissue obtained from leaves of sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desr.). The concentrations of glucosides in the two tissues were about equal when compared on the basis of fresh or dry weight. Inasmuch as the epidermal layers account for no more than 10% of the leaf volume, the mesophyll tissue contains 90% or more of the glucosides. Vacuoles isolated from mesophyll protoplasts contained all of the glucosides present initially in the protoplasts. The specific activities of the ?-glucosidase in the two tissues were also similar; thus, most of the enzyme is contained in mesophyll tissue. However, the amount of enzyme in mesophyll protoplast extracts amounts to only 1 to 2% of the activity present in leaf homogenates when chlorophyll was the basis for comparison. (This small amount of coumarin-?-glucosidase present in protoplasts is not associated with chlorophyll-containing fractions.) In contrast, 90% of the uridine diphosphate glucose-o-coumaric acid glucosyl transferase activity present in leaf homogenate was recoverable in protoplasts prepared from intact leaves. Such results indicate that most of the coumarin-?-glucosidase in M. alba leaves is located in the extracytoplasmic space. Only a small fraction (7%) of this extra cytoplasmic ?-glucosidase was associated with individual cells or cell clusters isolated from clover leaves. PMID:16662108

Oba, Kazuko; Conn, Eric E.; Canut, Hervé; Boudet, Alain M.

1981-01-01

276

Investigation of the Chemical Changes from Crude and Processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma Herbal Pair Extracts by Using Q Exactive High-Performance Benchtop Quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS  

PubMed Central

The Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair is mainly used for regulating the functions of liver and spleen, benefiting qi, and nourishing blood. However, the bioactive compounds for the pharmacological activities of the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts are still unclear to date. In the present study, Q Exactive high-performance benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap LC-MS/MS was applied to identify the complicated components from crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba, crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, and their crude and processed herbal pair extracts. 123 and 101 compounds were identified in crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba samples, respectively. Meanwhile, 32 and 26 compounds were identified in crude and processed Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma samples, respectively. In the crude and processed Paeoniae Radix Alba-Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma herbal pair extracts, co-decoction could significantly change the chemical composition of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma in solution. The developed method may provide a scientific foundation for deeply elucidating the processing and compatibility mechanism of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma. PMID:24876867

Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang

2014-01-01

277

The parallel expression of metal tolerance in pollen and sporophytes of Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., S. alba (mill.) krause and Mimulus guttatus DC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to determine if heavy metal tolerance was expressed in pollen and if its expression was correlated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Clones of Silene dioica, tolerant to zinc, closely related but nontolerant S. alba and clones of Mimulus guttatus tolerant and sensitive to copper were grown in the greenhouse in either standard

K. B. Searcy; D. L. Mulcahy

1985-01-01

278

The Distribution of Mating-Type Bias in Natural Populations of the Anther-Smut Ustilago violacea on Silene alba in Virginia  

E-print Network

from natural populations of its host, Silene alba. The bias was usually to mating type A1, but the frequency of bias and its spatial distribution varied from region to region. Populations with high frequencies of bias still showed high rates of disease...

Oudemans, Peter V.; Alexander, Helen M.; Antonovics, Janice; Altizer, S.; Thrall, Peter H.; Rose, L.

1998-05-01

279

Monitoring non-natural mortality in the barn owl ( Tyto alba), as an indicator of land use and social awareness in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-natural mortality patterns in the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in Central Spain between 1990 and 1999. The data are compared to those from the same area in the previous decade (1983–1989). Seasonal mortality has changed significantly presumably due to the recent plagues of field voles (Microtus arvalis). Results show a clear shift in mortality patterns, with reduced levels

Iñigo Fajardo

2001-01-01

280

A biochemical approach to assessment of effects of organic pollution on the metabolism of the non-opportunistic polychaete, Glycera alba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loch Creran and Loch Eil, sea lochs in the west of Scotland, both receive discharges of particulate organic effluent from industrial installations. Glycera alba (Müller) is widely distributed in the sediments of both lochs, and assays of activities of enzymes associated with energy-yielding metabolism have been done on crude extracts of specimens collected from variously affected areas. Mean phosphofructokinase activities were low in extracts of G. alba collected some 400 m from the source of effluent from a seaweed processing factory, increased to a maximum at 900 m and declined slightly at 1150 m where the sediment is little affected by the effluent. Pyruvate kinase activities exhibited qualitatively similar changes of lesser magnitude and no differences in a-glycerophosphate or malate dehydrogenase activities were observed. In G. alba from Loch Eil a relationship was established between phosphofructokinase activity and Eh at 4 cm in the sediment and the maximum change in phosphofructokinase was found at low Eh, below -50 mV. The data are interpreted with reference to results from biological and environmental monitoring in Lochs Eil and Creran. It is suggested that the low phosphofructokinase activities in G. alba from the most affected areas of each loch may constitute a consistent biochemical response to effects of the organic inputs.

Blackstock, J.

1980-03-01

281

[Effect of an extract from the roots of bryony (Bryonia alba) on lipid peroxidation in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

The authors examined the action of Bryonia alba root extract on lipid peroxidation in microsomes and on fatty acid composition of individual lipid fractions in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes. Administration of the extract was found to produce an appreciably normalizing effect on the biochemical indices of liver function. PMID:7295964

Karagezian, K G; Vartanian, G S; Panosian, A G

1981-08-01

282

Digital Alba Iulia. The System Integrate for Regional E-government SIRE-Integrating Information Technology and Social Science Research for Effective  

E-print Network

information technology While e-government is often thought of as "online government" or "Internet (where non-online e- voting is being considered), TV and radio-based delivery of government services1 Digital Alba Iulia. The System Integrate for Regional E-government SIRE- go Integrating

283

Distribution of heavy metals and their age-related changes in the eastern great white egret, Egretta alba modesta , in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ and tissue distribution of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg) and their age-related changes were investigated in the chick and adult eastern great white egret,Egretta alba modesta, collected in Korea. High concentrations of the metals were found in the liver, kidney, feathers, bone, and skin; low values were found in the muscle and brain. A

Katsuhisa Honda; Byung Yoon Min; Ryo Tatsukawa

1986-01-01

284

The dieback of fir Abies alba Mill. and changes in the Pino-Quercetum stands in the Ojców National Park (Southern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ojców National Park, 22 km NNW of Cracow (Kraków), is subjected to the influence of very strong air pollution. Coniferous trees, especially the silver fir Abies alba and the Scots pine Pinus sylvestric suffer seriously under these conditions. The individual tolerance of fir to the stress factors proved to be very differenciated and only to a small degree connected

Anna Medwecka-Korna?; Stefan Gawrofiski

1990-01-01

285

A method for the detection of non-random associations among flocking birds and its application to sanderlings Calidris alba wintering in N.E. England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of association are frequently used in studies of social behaviour. Observed association indices may be compared with those obtained from computer randomizations of the data in order to test whether any two individuals in a population tend to occur together more than would be expected by chance. Data for individually-identifiable colour-ringed sanderlings Calidris alba are presented to illustrate the

Gilbert Roberts; Peter R. Evans

1993-01-01

286

CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND INSECTISIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THREE PLANTS ARTEMISIA SP: ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA, ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM AND ARTEMISIA PONTICA (MOROCCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of the three plants Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia Pontica have been collected in the region of Guigou and Errachidia (Morocco) and then dried in the open air for fifteen days and kept fresh for extraction. The essential oils have been extracted by hydrodistillation method and analysed by the chromatographic techniques in the gas phase (GC-FID) and

Elhoussine Derwich; Zineb Benziane; Abdellatif Boukir

287

Salicylic acid-mediated establishment of the compatibility between Alternaria brassicicola and Brassica juncea is mitigated by abscisic acid in Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

This work addresses the changes in the phytohormonal signature in the recognition of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by susceptible Brassica juncea and resistant Sinapis alba. Although B. juncea, S. alba and Arabidopsis all belong to the same family, Brassicaceae, the phytohormonal response of susceptible B. juncea towards this pathogen is unique because the latter two species express non-host resistance. The differential expression of the PR1 gene and the increased level of salicylic acid (SA) indicated that an SA-mediated biotrophic mode of defence response was triggered in B. juncea upon challenge with the pathogen. Compared to B. juncea, resistant S. alba initiated enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses following challenge with this pathogen, as revealed by monitoring the expression of ABA-related genes along with the concentration of ABA and JA. Furthermore, these results were verified by the exogenous application of ABA on B. juncea leaves prior to challenge with A. brassicicola, which resulted in a delayed disease progression, followed by the inhibition of the pathogen-mediated increase in SA response and enhanced JA levels. Therefore, it seems that A. brassicicola is steering the defence response towards a biotrophic mode by mounting an SA response in susceptible B. juncea, whereas the enhanced ABA response of S. alba not only counteracts the SA response but also restores the necrotrophic mode of resistance by enhancing JA biosynthesis. PMID:23770593

Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Das, Srirupa; Saha, Upala; Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Bannerjee, Kaushik; Basu, Debabrata

2013-09-01

288

Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl, Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Tyto alba) broods, I assessed the role of

Alexandre Roulin

2004-01-01

289

The influences of increased CO 2 and water supply on growth, biomass allocation and water use efficiency of Sinapis alba L. grown under different wind speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how independent and interactive effects of CO2 concentrations, water supply and wind speed affect growth rates, biomass partitioning, water use efficiency, diffusive conductance and stomatal density of plants. To test the prediction that wind stress will be ameliorated by increased CO2 and\\/or by unrestricted water supply we grew Sinapis alba L. plants in controlled chambers under combinations of

R. Retuerto; F. I. Woodward

1993-01-01

290

Tinggianthura alba: A New Genus and Species of Anthuridae (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia with an Updated Key to the Genera of Anthuridae  

PubMed Central

A new anthurid isopod from dead coral rubble and stones in the intertidal area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia, is described. It is placed in a new genus and species, Tinggianthura alba. Tinggianthura is characterized by: (1) subtriangular carpus shape of pereopods 4–7, (2) pereopod 1 propodus palm without prominent tooth or steps and (3) maxillipedal palp 2-articled. PMID:24914642

Chew, Melvin; Abdul Rahim, Azman; Haji Ross, Othman bin

2014-01-01

291

The geography of white oak's ( Quercus alba L.) response to climatic variables in North America and speculation on its sensitivity to climate change across its range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrochronological analysis is used to determine white oak's (Quercus alba L.) sensitivity to mean monthly temperature and monthly precipitation for the entirety of its range in the United States. Throughout much of its range, white oak is sensitive to summer precipitation (positive), summer temperature (negative), and previous season late-summer and fall precipitation (positive). Spatially, populations of white oak in the

David Goldblum

2010-01-01

292

Radial growth and climate responses of white oak (Quercus alba) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at the northern distribution limit of white oak in Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare radial growth patterns between white oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) growing at the northern distribution limit of white oak; and (2) to assess if the radial growth of white oak at its northern distribution limit is controlled by cold temperature. Location The study was

J. C. Tardif; F. Conciatori; P. Nantel; D. Gagnon

2006-01-01

293

Lichens, tree growth, and foliar symptoms of air pollution: are the stories consistent. [Acer saccharum Fraxinus spp. ; Liriodendron tulipifera; Quercus alba; Quercus rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichen communities, tree growth, and foliar symptoms of Acer saccharum Fraxinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus alba, and the Quercus rubra group were studied in relation to air pollutants in southern Indiana and Illinois. Both study areas receive regional pollutants, but only one is close to a large coal-fired utility, which results in a high dose of SOâ and its reaction

P. S. Muir; B. McCune

2009-01-01

294

RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba–Salix fragilis complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyploid Salix alba–Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the features have a low diagnostic value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures, though morphological traits have proved to be useful in making a hybrid index. Morphology and molecular variation from RAPDs were investigated in several case

Ludwig Triest; Bart de Greef; Ruth de Bondt; Jos van Slycken

2000-01-01

295

Concerning the question of the chemical nature of the volatile substances in the leaves of some plants. [Salix alba; Populus simonii; Populus sosnowskyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the leaves of willow (Salix alba) and two species of poplar (Populus simonii and Populus sosnowskyi) was performed to determine the gases that are evolved from them. The experiments were carried out during the autumal period of growth using mass-spectrometric methods. Results revealed the presence of methane, ethane, propane, butane, and other heavier substances in the gases

G. A. Sanadze; G. M. Dolidze

1960-01-01

296

Antiestrogenic and antigenotoxic activity of bee pollen from Cystus incanus and Salix alba as evaluated by the yeast estrogen screen and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogenic\\/antiestrogenic activity and the genotoxicity\\/antigenotoxicity of bee pollen from Salix alba L. and Cystus incanus L. and its derivative extracts in yeast and human cells was investigated. All samples showed a marked inhibitory effect on the activity of the natural estrogen 17 ?-estradiol (higher than 90% for extracts 2) and failed to cause estrogenic activity and chromosome damage. At

Barbara Pinto; Francesca Caciagli; Elisabetta Riccio; Daniela Reali; Ana Šari?; Tihomir Balog; Saša Liki?; Roberto Scarpato

2010-01-01

297

Mechanical Root-Disruption Practices and Their Effect on Circling Roots of Pot-Bound Tilia Cordata Mill. and Salix Alba L. 'Niobe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot-bound Tilia cordata Mill. and Salix alba L. 'Niobe' were planted in a Waukegan silt loam soil in June 2003 at the University of Minnesota TRE nursery in St. Paul, Minnesota. Before planting, the root balls of the container-grown plants were mechanically disrupted using one of three standard root pruning practices recommended to correct circling roots: scoring (slicing), butterfly pruning,

Patrick J. Weicherding; Chad P. Giblin; Jeffrey H. Gillman; David L. Hanson; Gary R. Johnson

2007-01-01

298

The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%,

Tatiana Wuytack; Karen Wuyts; Stefan Van Dongen; Lander Baeten; Fatemeh Kardel; Kris Verheyen; Roeland Samson

2011-01-01

299

DISTRIBUTION OF OROBAMCHE ALBA STEPHAN EX WILLD - POTENTIAL HOST OF PHYTOPHAGOUS ANIMALS AND PATHOGENS ATTACKING THE PEST OROBANCHE RAMOSA L. IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During 2002 and 2003, the survey of distribution of wild broomrapes (Orobanche sp.), as potential hosts of phytophagous animals and pathogens, was done in Slovakia. 50 localities were checked and broomrapes occurred on 30 of them. One of the most abundant broomrape species was Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., which infested plants from the genus Thymus L. and was

Peter TÓTH; A. Hlinku

300

Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids.  

PubMed

Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex includes closely related dioecious polyploid species, which are obligate outcrossers. Natural populations of these willows and their hybrids are represented by a mixture of highly heterozygous genotypes sharing a common gene pool. Since nothing is known about their genomic constitution, tetraploidy (2n=4x=76) in willow species makes basic and applied genetic studies difficult. We have used a two-way pseudotestcross strategy and single-dose markers (SDMs) to construct the first linkage maps for both pistillate and staminate willows. A total of 242 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 50 selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers, which showed 1:1 segregation in the F(1) mapping populations, were used in linkage analysis. In S. alba, 73 maternal and 48 paternal SDMs were mapped to 19 and 16 linkage groups covering 708 and 339 cM, respectively. In S. fragilis, 13 maternal and 33 paternal SDMs were mapped in six and 14 linkage groups covering 98 and 321 cM, respectively. For most cosegregation groups, a comparable number of markers linked in coupling and repulsion was identified. This finding suggests that most of chromosomes pair preferentially as occurs in allotetraploid species exhibiting disomic inheritance. The detection of 10 pairs of marker alleles from single parents showing codominant inheritance strengthens this hypothesis. The fact that, of the 1122 marker loci identified in the two male and female parents, the vast majority (77.5%) were polymorphic and as few as 22.5% were shared between parental species highlight that S. alba and S. fragilis genotypes are differentiated. The highly difference between S. alba- and S. fragilis-specific markers found in both parental combinations (on average, 65.3 vs 34.7%, respectively) supports the (phylogenetic) hypothesis that S. fragilis is derived from S. alba-like progenitors. PMID:12634824

Barcaccia, G; Meneghetti, S; Albertini, E; Triest, L; Lucchin, M

2003-02-01

301

Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most important. To establish these species in mesic upland coastal plain sites, we recommend planting immediately after clearcutting.

Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

2003-01-01

302

Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23884844

Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

2014-01-01

303

Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the Alba Synchrotron  

PubMed Central

BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuni, Guifre; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolas, Josep; Lidon, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

2014-01-01

304

Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the ALBA synchrotron.  

PubMed

BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuní, Guifré; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolás, Josep; Lidón, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

2014-07-01

305

Proteomic differences in seed filling between yellow-seeded progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba (Brassicaceae) and black-seeded parent B. napus.  

PubMed

Comparative proteomics of seed filling between yellow-seeded progeny from somatic hybrids Brassica napus-Sinapis alba and black-seeded parent (B. napus) were taken out using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The process indicated distinct differences in 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 weeks after fertilization (WAF) and mature seed. A total of 8 out of the 27 discriminate proteins were identified by mass spectrum analysis and MASCOT comparison, including protein kinase, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and dioxygenase. PCR primers contrived for the putative genes were applied for further identification of progenies and both parents, which indicated that spot A3-5 might be the novel protein of intergeneric hybrid, i.e., A5-2 derived from S. alba. Applying these specific primers, this study demonstrates that the new yellow-seeded germplasm is different from the existing yellow seed materials of rapeseed. PMID:22730767

Jiang, J; Wang, J; Li, A; Zhang, Y; Sokolov, V; Wang, Y

2012-04-01

306

Antiestrogenic and antigenotoxic activity of bee pollen from Cystus incanus and Salix alba as evaluated by the yeast estrogen screen and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity and the genotoxicity/antigenotoxicity of bee pollen from Salix alba L. and Cystus incanus L. and its derivative extracts in yeast and human cells was investigated. All samples showed a marked inhibitory effect on the activity of the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (higher than 90% for extracts 2) and failed to cause estrogenic activity and chromosome damage. At least one preparation from each species showed a marked antigenotoxic effect against the action of the anticancer drugs mytomicin C, bleomycin, and vincristine. Bee pollens from C. incanus and S. alba were found to be neither genotoxic nor estrogenic as well as effective estrogen inhibitors, and able to reduce the chromosome damage induced by the three cancer drugs used, thus supporting their use as a safe food supplement and future chemoprotective/chemopreventive agents. PMID:20598400

Pinto, Barbara; Caciagli, Francesca; Riccio, Elisabetta; Reali, Daniela; Sari?, Ana; Balog, Tihomir; Liki?, Sasa; Scarpato, Roberto

2010-09-01

307

The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). I: Total heat loss, boundary layer and total resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The sensible heat loss and thermal resistance of a barn owl (Tyto alba) were determined using a heat transfer model in a wind tunnel.2.2. Heat loss was a linear function of wind speed and increased by 60% between 0 and 7 m s?1. Wetting the model increased heat loss by 30%.3.3. Boundary layer resistance of the model decreased from

D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

1997-01-01

308

Activity of myrosinase from Sinapis alba seeds immobilized into Ca-polygalacturonate as a simplified model of soil-root interface mucigel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-polygalacturonate is a demethoxylated component of pectins which are constitutive of plant root mucigel. In order to define\\u000a the role of root mucigel in myrosinase immobilization and activity at root level, a myrosinase enzyme which had been isolated\\u000a from Sinapis alba seeds was immobilized into Ca-polygalacturonate. The activity profile for the immobilized and free enzyme was evaluated using\\u000a the pH-Stat

Ilaria Braschi; Onofrio Leoni; Susanna Cinti; Sandro Palmieri; Carlo Emanuele Gessa

2011-01-01

309

Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar ( Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time\\u000a (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg,

D. M. Markovi?; I. Novovi?; D. Viloti?; Lj. Ignjatovi?

2007-01-01

310

Tree ring-based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the South-Central United State from 1750 to 1980. [Quercus stellata; Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and

T. J. Blasing; D. W. Stahle; D. N. Duvick

1988-01-01

311

A comparison of ring-width and event-year chronologies derived from white oak ( Quercus alba) and northern red oak ( Quercus rubra), southwestern Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dendrochronology, ring width has been a variable of choice when assessing the radial growth–climate association of tree species. We compared ring-width and event-year chronologies from a dendroclimatic perspective using both white oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). The study was conducted in three regions of the Ottawa valley in southern Québec. Twelve mixed red

J. C. Tardif; F. Conciatori

2006-01-01

312

Climatic signal in annual growth variation of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) and spruce ( Picea abies Karst.) from the French Permanent Plot Network (RENECOFOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the growth\\/climate relationships in earlywood, latewood and total ring-width chronologies of five Norway\\u000a spruce (Picea abies) and six silver fir (Abies alba) stands sampled in the French permanent plot network (RENECOFOR) (327 trees). The relationships between climate and ring\\u000a widths were analyzed using extreme growth years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients).\\u000a Monthly climatic regressors

François Lebourgeois

2007-01-01

313

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and\\u000a National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria\\u000a (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency

Anshu S. Chatli; Viraj Beri; B. S. Sidhu

2008-01-01

314

Biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli AB1157 cultures submitted to the action of stannous chloride.  

PubMed

Stannous chloride (SnC12) is used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to obtain technetium-99m-radiopharmaceuticals. It have been reported that natural products might reduce the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects related to SnC12. This work evaluated the biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) AB1157 (wild type) cultures submitted to the action of SnC12. E. coli AB1157 cultures (exponential growth phase) were collected by centrifugation, washed and resuspended in 0.9% NaCl. Samples were incubated in water bath shaker with: (a) SnC12 (25 microg/ml), (b) Salix alba extract(11.6 mg/ml) and (c) SnC12 (25 microg/ml) + Salix alba extract (11.6 mg/ml). Incubation with 0.9% NaCl was also carried out (control). At 60 min intervals, aliquots were withdrawn, diluted, spread onto Petri dishes with solid LB medium and incubated overnight. The colonies formed were counted and the survival fractions calculated. The extract was not able to protect the E. coli cultures against the lesive action of SnC12. The extract also did not interfere with the survival of the cultures. It suggested that the substances present in the Salix alba aqueous extract did not interfere strongly with cellular metabolism and did not alter the survival fractions of E. coli AB 1157. It is speculated that this extract cannot interfere with the generation of free radicals, the possible main agent responsible for SnC12 lesive action. PMID:19746265

Souza, Raphael S S; Almeida, Marcela C; Manoel, Cristiano V; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D; Fonseca, Adenilson S; Bernardo Filho, Mario

2009-01-01

315

Citral and carvone chemotypes from the essential oils of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown: composition, cytotoxicity and antifungal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenacea), the carvone and citral chemotypes and 15 of their compounds were evaluated to determine cytotoxicity and antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity assays for both the citral and carvone chemotypes were carried out with tetrazolium-dye, which showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells. Interestingly, this effect on the evaluated cells (HeLa and

Ana Cecilia Mesa-Arango; Jehidys Montiel-Ramos; Bibiana Zapata; Camilo Durán; Liliana Betancur-Galvis; Elena Stashenko

2009-01-01

316

Effect of NaCl on ionic content and distribution in suspension-cultured cells of the halophyte Sonneratia alba versus the glycophyte Oryza sativa.  

PubMed

The effect of a high concentration of NaCl on the intra- (cytoplasmic matrix and vacuole) and extracellular (cell wall) distribution of Na, Cl, K, Mg, Ca, S, and P was investigated in suspension-cultured cells of the mangrove halophyte Sonneratia alba and compared to cultured cells of glycophytic rice (Oryza sativa). No significant differences were observed in ultrastructural features of cluster cells of both species cultured with and without 50mM NaCl. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of cryosections of the cells cultured in the presence of 50mM NaCl showed that the Na concentration ([Na]) and Cl concentration ([Cl]) significantly increased in all three cell components measured. In S. alba, the [Na] was highest in the vacuole and lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix, while the [Cl] was highest in the cell wall and lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix. In O. sativa, however, the [Na] and [Cl] were highest in the cell wall, and the [Na] was lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix. Thus, the possible activities for Na and Cl transport from the cytoplasmic matrix into the vacuole were greater in S. alba than in O. sativa, suggesting that halophilic mangrove cells gain salt tolerance by transporting Na and Cl into their vacuoles. In O. sativa, the addition of NaCl to the culture medium caused no significant changes to the intracellular concentrations of various elements, such as K, P, S, Ca, and Mg, which suggests the absence of a direct relationship with the transport Na and Cl. In contrast, a marked decrease in the Ca concentration ([Ca]) in the cytoplasmic matrix and vacuole and an approximately two-fold increase in the P concentration ([P]) in the cytoplasmic matrix were found in S. alba, suggesting that the decrease in the [Ca] is related to the halophilic nature of S. alba (as indicated by the inward movement of Na(+) and Cl(-)). The possible roles of a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange mechanism in halophilism and the effect of the [P] on the metabolic activity under saline conditions are discussed. PMID:25062529

Hayatsu, Manabu; Suzuki, Suechika; Hasegawa, Ai; Tsuchiya, Shinpei; Sasamoto, Hamako

2014-09-15

317

Dark respiration and carbohydrate status of two forest species grown in elevated carbon dioxide. [Liriodendron tulipifera L. ; Quercus alba L  

SciTech Connect

Carbon assimilation is often increased by CO{sub 2} enrichment, but the response of dark respiration and carbohydrate metabolism to elevated CO{sub 2} is less well documented. The authors examined the diurnal response of these two processes in yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedling exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment under field conditions. One-year-old seedlings of yellow-poplar and white oak were grown in open-top chambers and exposed to ambient, +150 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, or +300 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} concentrations. After 24 weeks, mature leaves of yellow-poplar and white oak seedlings grown at high CO{sub 2} showed a 37% and 52% reduction in nighttime respiration, respectively. Morning starch levels for yellow-poplar and white oak grown at +300 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1} increased 72% and 40%, respectively, compared to ambient-grown plants. Yellow-poplar and white oak seedlings grown at high CO{sub 2} contained 17% and 27% less morning sucrose, respectively than did plants grown at ambient CO{sub 2} concentration. Starch accumulation and the subsequent depletion of sucrose for plants grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, resulted in a pronounced rise in the starch/sucrose ratio with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. The diurnal pattern of dark respiration suggested that a relationship with carbohydrate status might exist.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hendrix, D.L. (Western Cotton Research Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1991-05-01

318

Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.  

PubMed

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. PMID:24933908

Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

2014-01-01

319

Thallium uptake by white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown on moderately contaminated soils--agro-environmental implications.  

PubMed

The work focused on Tl uptake by white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown on moderately contaminated soils with different characteristics. The data presented here clearly demonstrate the ability of white mustard to (hyper)accumulate Tl. Substantially higher Tl levels were was found in mustard grown on the Arenosol as compared to the carbonate-rich Leptosol; a relationship between the content of labile Tl (adsorbed, bound to carbonates etc.) in soil and its uptake by the plant is suggested. Approximately 3-fold lower concentrations of Tl in roots and stems of the mature mustard (compared to the young plant) indicate a decreasing trend of Tl uptake with the age of the plant. The exchangeable/acid-extractable and reducible Tl fractions were evaluated as the dominant fractions controlling Tl transfer from both contrasting soils. Thallium associated with the residual fraction (e.g., incorporated into silicates) was rather stable in the rhizosphere, proving a negligible influence of root exudates on Tl release from such an operationally defined fraction, despite the anthropogenic origin of Tl. Regarding our results, when mustard is cultivated for nutrition purposes and/or as green manure, it may pose an important source of Tl introduction into the food chain. PMID:20605066

Vanek, Ales; Komárek, Michael; Chrastný, Vladislav; Becka, David; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Panusková, Gabriela; Schusterová, Zuzana

2010-10-15

320

Histological, cytological and biochemical alterations induced by microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin in white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings.  

PubMed

This study compares the histological, cytological and biochemical effects of the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, with special regard to the developing root system. Cyanotoxins induced different alterations, indicating their different specific biochemical activities. MCY-LR stimulated mitosis of root tip meristematic cells at lower concentrations (1 ?g ml-1) and inhibited it at higher concentrations, while CYN had only inhibitory effects. Low CYN concentrations (0.01 ?g ml-1) stimulated lateral root formation, whereas low MCY-LR concentrations increased only the number of lateral root primordia. Both inhibited lateral root development at higher concentrations. They induced lignifications, abnormal cell swelling and inhibited xylem differentiation in roots and shoots. MCY-LR and CYN induced the disruption of metaphase and anaphase spindles, causing altered cell divisions. Similar alterations could be related to decreased protein phosphatase (PP1 and PP2A) activities in shoots and roots. However, in vitro phosphatase assay with purified PP1 catalytic subunit proved that CYN in contrast to MCY-LR, decreased phosphatase activities of mustard in a non-specific way. This study intends to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of toxic effects of a protein phosphatase (MCY-LR) and a protein synthesis (CYN) inhibitory cyanotoxin in vascular plants. PMID:23567832

Máthé, C; Vasas, G; Borbély, G; Erd?di, F; Beyer, D; Kiss, Andrea; Surányi, G; Gonda, S; Jámbrik, Katalin; M-Hamvas, Márta

2013-03-01

321

Biodegradation of oak (Quercus alba) wood during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes): a molecular approach.  

PubMed

The chemical transformations that occur during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) on oak (Quercus alba) were investigated to improve mushroom cultivation and utilization of the spent substrate. Oak logs were decayed by L. edodes over 8 years, during which time they were sampled at six intervals (30, 40, 66, 76, 77, and 101 months). Fresh and decayed oak samples were analyzed using solid-state (13)C NMR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Degraded oak exhibited lower carbon contents and increased oxygen content compared to the control. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis revealed that polysaccharides were the major component of both fresh and decayed oak but that L. edodes mediated the preferential loss of cellulose and xylans as compared to lignin, which remained in an altered form. Several trends point toward the degradation of lignin, including a decrease in the proportion of syringyl units as compared to guaiacyl units and a reduction in side-chain length. An increase in guaiacyl and syringyl acid-to-aldehyde ratios occurred with growth, which suggested that the fungus had caused oxidation of Calpha-Cbeta bonds. The overall effect of L. edodes on oak is similar to that of many white-rot fungi, which simultaneously degrade all cell wall components. PMID:12568554

Vane, Christopher H; Drage, Trevor C; Snape, Colin E

2003-02-12

322

Seedling tree responses to nutrient stress under atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Quercus alba; Liriodendron tulipifera; Pinus virginiana  

SciTech Connect

Three species of seedling trees were grown in pots containing low-nutrient soil for periods of up to 40 weeks under a range of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. In all cases, total dry weight increased with CO/sub 2/ enrichment, with a greater relative increase in root weight than shoot weight. In an experiment with Pinus virginiana in open-top field chambers, phosphorus and potassium uptake did not increase with an increase in CO/sub 2/ from 365 to 690 ..mu..L/L, even though dry matter gain increased by 37% during the exposure period. In experiments with Quercus alba and Liriodendron tulipifera under controlled environment conditions there were obvious symptoms of nitrogen deficiency and total nitrogen uptake did not increase with CO/sub 2/ enrichment. However, dry weight gain was more than 90% higher at 690 ..mu..L/L CO/sub 2/. The three experiments with CO/sub 2/ enrichment treatments demonstrate that increases in plant dry weight can occur without increased uptake of some nutrients from the low-nutrient soil. A mechanism for these responses may involve increased mobilization of nutrients in association with increased sucrose transport under elevated CO/sub 2/ conditions.

Luxmoore, R.J.; Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.

1986-01-01

323

Symplastic isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex in the phloem of Ricinus communis and Salix alba stems.  

PubMed

The anatomical and physiological isolation of the sieve element-companion cell complex (se-cc complex) was investigated in stems of Ricinus communis L. and Salix alba L. In Ricinus, the plasmodesmatal frequencies were in the proportions 8?1?2?30, in the order given, at the interfaces between sieve tube-companion cell, sieve tube-phloem parenchyma cell, companion cellphloem parenchyma cell, and phloem parenchyma cellphloem parenchyma cell. The membrane potentials of the se-cc complex and the surrounding phloem-parenchyma cells sharply contrasted: the membrane potential of the se-cc complex was about twice as negative as that of the phloem parenchyma. Lucifer Yellow CH injected into the sieve element or into the companion cell remained within the se-cc complex. Dye introduced into phloem parenchyma only moved (mostly poorly) to other phloem-parenchyma cells. The distribution of the plasmodesmatal frequencies, the differential dye-coupling and the sharp discontinuities in membrane potentials indicate that the se-cc complexes constitute symplast domains in the stem phloem. Symplastic autonomy is discussed as a basic necessity for the functioning of the se-cc complex in the stem. PMID:24193535

van Bel, A J; Kempers, R

1991-12-01

324

Multiplication and growth of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) shoots on a hormone-free medium.  

PubMed

The present study explored an alternative approach for poplar micropropagation, based on the restriction of gas exchange between inside and outside environments of culture vessel, rather than on the application of exogenous hormones. Apical and nodal stem segments (explants) excised from in vitro-developed shoots of hybrid white poplar (Populus alba L. × P. tremula L.) were incubated in either sealed (with Parafilm) or unsealed capped glass culture tubes (150 × 20 mm) on a hormone-free Woody Plant Medium. Shoot proliferation on apical explants was observed in sealed culture tubes but not in the unsealed ones; the difference between these two samples in respect of shoot number increased in the course of time and became threefold after three months of culture, with 3.2 ± 0.4 (mean ± SE) shoots per explant in the sealed tubes versus 1.1 ± 0.1 in the unsealed ones (for comparison, the mean shoot numbers on nodal explants were 2.4 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 in the unsealed and sealed culture tubes, respectively). Moreover, the shoots taken from the sealed culture tubes could be distinguished by superior shoot length, if compared to the shoots from the unsealed tubes, during the subsequent culture stage under uniform conditions. PMID:25194737

Ziauka, J; Kuusien?, Sigut?

2014-09-01

325

Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.  

PubMed

An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location. PMID:18351436

Markovi?, D M; Novovi?, I; Viloti?, D; Ignjatovi?, Lj

2009-04-01

326

Barrier to gene flow between two ecologically divergent Populus species, P. alba (white poplar) and P. tremula (European aspen): the role of ecology and life history in gene introgression.  

PubMed

The renewed interest in the use of hybrid zones for studying speciation calls for the identification and study of hybrid zones across a wide range of organisms, especially in long-lived taxa for which it is often difficult to generate interpopulation variation through controlled crosses. Here, we report on the extent and direction of introgression between two members of the "model tree" genus Populus: Populus alba (white poplar) and Populus tremula (European aspen), across a large zone of sympatry located in the Danube valley. We genotyped 93 hybrid morphotypes and samples from four parental reference populations from within and outside the zone of sympatry for a genome-wide set of 20 nuclear microsatellites and eight plastid DNA restriction site polymorphisms. Our results indicate that introgression occurs preferentially from P. tremula to P. alba via P. tremula pollen. This unidirectional pattern is facilitated by high levels of pollen vs. seed dispersal in P. tremula (pollen/seed flow = 23.9) and by great ecological opportunity in the lowland floodplain forest in proximity to P. alba seed parents, which maintains gene flow in the direction of P. alba despite smaller effective population sizes (N(e)) in this species (P. alba N(e)c. 500-550; P. tremula N(e)c. 550-700). Our results indicate that hybrid zones will be valuable tools for studying the genetic architecture of the barrier to gene flow between these two ecologically divergent Populus species. PMID:15773935

Lexer, C; Fay, M F; Joseph, J A; Nica, M-S; Heinze, B

2005-04-01

327

Spatial and temporal changes in abundance of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba (Lamarck, 1818) during a time of drought in the seasonally-closed Hopkins River Estuary, Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba is susceptible to mass mortalities during annual winter flooding in the Hopkins River Estuary, southern Australia. Periods of low salinity (?1) are the likely cause of these mass mortality events, which can occur in seasonally-closed estuaries when high winter flows are sufficient to flush all salt water from the estuary. Core samples of S. alba were collected from two water depths across four times and at three sites near the mouth of the estuary. Minimal to zero abundances of large S. alba (>1 mm) were expected to be sampled, particularly at the shallower water depth, during a typical winter flood event. However, the present study occurred during a period of drought, which led to the absence of winter flooding. This absence of winter flooding prevented the occurrence of lethal salinities (i.e. ?1) in the estuary during this period and a greater number of living S. alba adults were sampled. Abundances of juvenile and adult S. alba were still variable, even in the absence of winter flooding, and reflected an interaction between date, site and water depth. However, no mass mortalities of adults were observed during the drought conditions in contrast to what occurs during typical winter flood events and provides support for the hypothesis that winter flooding is responsible for past mass mortalities.

Matthews, Ty. G.

2006-01-01

328

Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence mixed deciduous forests became important. Preliminary results of palynological analyses for a section of the core S2 (35.04 - 18.12 m), show Late Glacial sediments in the depth of 35.04 - 31.16 m, due to vegetation changes related to natural climatic variability, with an alternation of communities typical of cold (Poaceae, Artemisia, Juniperus, Pinus and Betula) and temperate climates (e.g. Quercus). Later, during the Holocene, forests composed by mostly deciduous broadleaves and Abies alba expanded. During the mid and late Holocene human impact increased and modified vegetation. This is shown by the increase of herbs and heliofilous shrubs (26.51 m), typical of deforested spaces for fields and pastures. Human exploitation of wood is represented for example by the dramatic decline of Abies alba (24.97 m). Finally, the increase of Cerealia (19.39 m) is clearly related to intensified agricultural activities. The results of further paleobotanical and geophysical analyses which are in progress will be presented during the conference. Moreover, geochemical measurements (e.g., XRF) will be performed in future for core S2. Researches realized within the project of Italy-Switzerland Cooperation SITINET "Censimento, valorizzazione e messa in rete di siti geologici e archeologici" (Census, increase of value and computerization of geological and archaeological sites). Interreg IV A "Geo-Archeositi dell'Insubria" (Geo-Archaeosites of Insubria).

Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

2012-04-01

329

Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves on ethanol-induced gastric damage in rats.  

PubMed

The gastroprotective effect of tannic acid and the aqueous extract of Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba-alba Asso leaves was investigated in the rat against ethanol-induced damage. Tannic acid, Q. ilex and P. granatum extracts gave 100% precipitation of ovine haemoglobin in vitro, whereas A. herba-alba extract was devoid of any protein-binding property. Oral administration of these plant extracts or tannic acid induced a significant decrease in gastric lesions (47.7%-76%). The observed protection was more pronounced when the test solution was given at the same time with ethanol, except for Q. ilex extract. The acid content of the stomach was significantly increased by P. granatum (368%) and A. herba-alba (251%) extracts prepared in ethanol. It is suggested that monomeric and polymeric polyphenols can strengthen the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:10189949

Gharzouli, K; Khennouf, S; Amira, S; Gharzouli, A

1999-02-01

330

[Capillary electrophoresis with field-enhanced stacking for determination of water-soluble active principles in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba].  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method with field-enhanced stacking concentration for the analysis of protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in Salvia miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba was developed. The separation was achieved with a fused-silica capillary (75 microm x 50.2 cm, effective length was 40 cm) and a running buffer 15 mmol x L(-1) borax (pH 10.0) containing 20% CH3 OH. The UV detection wavelength was 210 nm. The applied voltage was 28 kV, and the cartridge temperature was 25 degrees C. Water plug was introduced from the anode by 0.5 psi x 4 s before injection. Sample was injected by electrokinetic injection - 8 kV x 3 s. The linear range of protocatechuic aldehyde is 3.0-60.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 = 0.999 8); that of protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are 1.0-20.00 mg x L(-1) (R2 are 0.999 1, 0.999 4, 0.998 9 and 0.999 8, respectively), and the limits of detection of five analyts are 0.55, 0.40, 0.25, 0.32, 0.38 microg x L(-1), respectively, Stacking factor is higher and precision is satisfactory. The recoveries ranges were from 97.3% to 99.8%. The proposed method was used to determine the protocatechuic aldehyde, protocatechuic acid, danshensu, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate and high sensitivity, and can be used to control of the quality of S. miltiorrhiza var. miltiorrhiza f. alba. PMID:22779179

Li, Yuqin; Cui, Yingjie; Zhao, Xiaoming; Jia, Baoxiu; Qi, Yongxiu

2011-06-01

331

Spontaneous activity of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl (Tyto alba): analyses of interspike interval distributions.  

PubMed

In vertebrate auditory systems, the conversion from graded receptor potentials across the hair-cell membrane into stochastic spike trains of the auditory nerve (AN) fibers is performed by ribbon synapses. The statistics underlying this process constrain auditory coding but are not precisely known. Here, we examine the distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) from spontaneous activity of AN fibers of the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal avian predator whose auditory system is specialized for precise temporal coding. The spontaneous activity of AN fibers, with the exception of those showing preferred intervals, is commonly thought to result from excitatory events generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process, which lead to spikes unless the fiber is refractory. We show that the ISI distributions in the owl are better explained as resulting from the action of a brief refractory period ( approximately 0.5 ms) on excitatory events generated by a homogeneous stochastic process where the distribution of interevent intervals is a mixture of an exponential and a gamma distribution with shape factor 2, both with the same scaling parameter. The same model was previously shown to apply to AN fibers in the cat. However, the mean proportions of exponentially versus gamma-distributed intervals in the mixture were different for cat and owl. Furthermore, those proportions were constant across fibers in the cat, whereas they covaried with mean spontaneous rate and with characteristic frequency in the owl. We hypothesize that in birds, unlike in mammals, more than one ribbon may provide excitation to most fibers, accounting for the different proportions, and that variation in the number of ribbons may underlie the variation in the proportions. PMID:19357334

Neubauer, Heinrich; Köppl, Christine; Heil, Peter

2009-06-01

332

Biochemical and genetic analysis of a cutinase-type polyesterase from a thermophilic Thermobifida alba AHK119.  

PubMed

Recombinant polyesterase (Est119) from Thermobifida alba AHK119 was purified by two chromatography steps. The final protein was observed as a single band in SDS-PAGE, and the specific activity of Est119 for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was 2.30 u/mg. Purified Est119 was active with aliphatic and aliphatic-co-aromatic polyesters. Kinetic data indicated that p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) or hexanoate was the best substrate for Est119 among p-nitrophenyl acyl esters. Calcium was required for full activity and thermostability of Est119, which was stable at 50 °C for 16 h. Three-dimensional modeling and biochemical characterization showed that Est119 is a typical cutinase-type enzyme that has the compact ternary structure of an ?/?-hydrolase. Random and site-directed mutagenesis of wild-type Est119 resulted in improved activity with increased hydrophobic interaction between the antiparallel first and second ?-sheets (A68V had the greatest effect). Introduction of a proline residue (S219P) in a predicted substrate-docking loop increased the thermostability. The specific activity of the A68V/S219P mutant on pNPB was increased by more than 50-fold over the wild type. The mutant was further activated by 2.6-fold (299 u/mg) with 300 mM Ca(2+) and was stable up to 60 °C with 150 mM Ca(2+). Another identical gene was located in tandem in the upstream of est119. PMID:22183084

Thumarat, Uschara; Nakamura, Ryota; Kawabata, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kawai, Fusako

2012-07-01

333

Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.  

PubMed

Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

2014-05-15

334

Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Hubbell, Christopher A [ORNL; Samuel, Reichel [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Ding, Shi-You [ORNL; Zeng, Yining [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Sykes, Virginia R [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

335

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

336

Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.  

PubMed

Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures. PMID:22483918

Krasnod?bska-Ostr?ga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

2012-05-15

337

Se(IV) phytotoxicity for monocotyledonae cereals (Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L.) and dicotyledonae crops (Sinapis alba L., Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of Se(IV) was determined through root and shoot growth inhibition, biomass (dry (DM), fresh (FM)) production, water content, photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) levels and Se accumulation in the roots and shoots. The sensitivities of monocotyledonae (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) and dicotyledonae plants (Sinapis alba, Brassica napus) were also compared. Except for H. vulgare, Se(IV) inhibited root growth more than shoot growth. As for biomass production, Se reduced both FM and DM of all studied plants' roots. Although in shoots FM was decreased with increased Se concentration, DM was reduced only in monocotyledonae plants (H. vulgare, T. aestivum). No significant differences between roots and shoots were confirmed for the DM/FM relationship, except for S. alba seedlings. In all of the tested plants, except for B. napus, chlorophyll b was the strongest reduced pigment. Accumulation of Se was higher in the roots than in the shoots of all studied plants. Selenium concentration in the roots was at least 3-times higher than that in controls. Se(IV) accumulation in the shoots was not significantly different from that in controls. The exception was confirmed only for B. napus (87 mg Se(IV)l(-1)) and T. aestivum (36 mg Se(IV)l(-1)). PMID:19709809

Molnárová, Marianna; Fargasová, Agáta

2009-12-30

338

Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).  

PubMed

The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula?×?Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes in cell wall chemistry and ultrastructural properties of normal, opposite and tension wood in plants. PMID:23515474

Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

2013-04-01

339

An inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cultures of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris and S. ovata: development of a bioassay method for allelopathy, the protoplast co-culture method.  

PubMed

A bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'protoplast co-culture method' was developed to study the relationship between salt tolerance and allelopathy of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris, and S. ovata. Plants of S. alba grow in the seaward-side high salinity region and plants of the latter two species grow in upstream-side regions of a mangrove forest, respectively. Effects of five sea salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4 and CaCl2) on the growth of the suspension cells of the latter two species were first investigated by a small-scale method using 24-well culture plates. S. ovata cells showed higher tolerance than S. caseolaris cells to NaCl and other salts, but were not as halophilic as S. alba cells. Protoplasts isolated from suspension cells were co-cultured with lettuce protoplasts in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 1 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1 ?M benzyladenine, 3 % sucrose and 0.6-0.8 M osmoticum. S. caseolaris protoplasts had a higher inhibitory effect on lettuce protoplast cell divisions than S. alba protoplasts at any lettuce protoplast density, and the effect of S. ovata was intermediate between the two. These results were similar to those obtained from a different in vitro bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'sandwich method' with dried leaves. The inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cells of Sonneratia mangroves is discussed. PMID:25062702

Hasegawa, Ai; Oyanagi, Tomoya; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

2014-11-01

340

A Comparative Study of the Age Class Structures of Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina and Pinus rigida as an Indicator of Forest Health within the Long Island Pine Barrens Core Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the age class structure of Quercus species and Pinus rigida within the Long Island Pine Barrens Core Area is an important aspect of monitoring the health of the Pine Barrens. The age class structures of Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, and Pinus rigida are primary indicators of successful reproduction and the possibility of the successional change between

KATHRYN GUTLEBER

341

A Study of the Age Class Structure of Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea and Quercus velutina: A Comparative Analysis of Quercus Species Reproduction as an Indicator of Forest Succession within the Long Island Pine Barrens Core Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the age class structure of Quercus species within the Long Island Pine Barrens Core Area is an important aspect of monitoring the health of the Pine Barrens. The reproduction of Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea and Quercus velutina is a primary indicator of the possibility of the successional change from a pine to an oak dominated forest. The rates

KATHRYN GUTLEBER; TIMOTHY GREEEN

342

ALCANOS LINEALES DE LA CERA CUTICULAR DE HOJAS DE POPULUS ALBA, POPULUS DELTOIDES (SALICACEAE), ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA (FABACEAE), ULMUS PUMILA (ULMACEAE) Y FRAXINUS AMERICANA (OLEACEAE) EN TANDIL, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bakker M.L. & P.I. Alvarado. 2006. Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoi- des (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Darwiniana 44(1): 58-63.

María L. Bakker; Patricia I. Alvarado

343

alba36.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new international vortal portal boasts over 50,000 entries. The site indexes vertical portals (vortals), subject-specific search sites, and other key search tools in five languages (English, German, Spanish, French, and Italian). The entries are organized under six headings: Current & Regional Events, Culture, Society, Entertainment, Trade & Economics, and Knowledge, with the 36 most-requested sub-topics given pride of place on the front page. Users can also search for a category by keyword. Links can be listed in order of popularity or alphabetically by site name and include short descriptions along with flags indicating languages used at the site. Users can also subscribe to receive a free weekly email featuring "the top 36 of the best web sites." An interesting tool that is especially notable for its coverage of non-English language sites.

344

Accumulation and distribution of trivalent chromium and effects on hybrid willow (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) metabolism.  

PubMed

The metabolic response of plants to exogenous supply and bioaccumulation of trivalent chromium (Cr(3+) ) was investigated. Pre-rooted young hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with CrCl(3) at 24.0 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C for 192 hours. Various physiologic parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from Cr exposure. The transpiration rate of willows exposed to 2.5 mg Cr/L was 49% higher than that of the untreated control plants, but it was decreased by 17% when exposed to 30.0 mg Cr/L. Significant decrease (> or =20%) of soluble protein in young leaves of willows was detected in the treatment group with > or =7.5 mg Cr/L. The measured chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied with the dose of Cr, but a linear correlation could not be established. The contents of chlorophyll in leaves of willows exposed to > or =7.5 mg Cr/L were higher than that of the untreated plants but lower at 30.0 mg Cr/L. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in leaves between the treated and untreated willows did not show any significant difference, but activities of both catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in leaf cells of all treated plants were higher than those in the untreated willows. The correlation between the concentration of Cr and CAT activity in leaf cells was the highest of all toxicity assays (R ( 2 ) = 0.9096), indicating that CAT activity was most sensitive to the change in Cr(3+) doses compared with the other selected parameters. Results from the Cr uptake study showed that significant removal of Cr from hydroponic solution was observed in the presence of hybrid willows without showing detectable phytotoxicity, even at high does of Cr. More than 90% of the applied Cr(3+) was removed from the aqueous solution by willows at concentrations up to 7.5 mg Cr/L. Approximately 70% of the initial Cr was recovered in the plant materials. At the low-Cr(3+) treatment (2.5 mg Cr/L), Cr accumulation by willow materials was the greatest (92%) in roots and the lowest (0.2%) in leaves, whereas the greatest (66%) was in stems and the lowest (0.1%) in leaves of willows exposed to 30.0 mg Cr/L. The correlation between applied Cr(3+) (mg Cr/L) and Cr (mug Cr/g fresh weight [fw]) accumulated in plant materials was significant. The bioaccumulation kinetics of Cr by hybrid willows can be described by a typical saturation curve. Results also indicated that translocation of Cr from roots to shoots was possible. It is to conclude that hybrid willows have great potential as bioremediation technology in the removal of chromium (Cr(3+)) from contaminated effluents and sediments. PMID:17380236

Yu, X-Z; Gu, J-D

2007-05-01

345

The parallel expression of metal tolerance in pollen and sporophytes of Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., S. alba (mill.) krause and Mimulus guttatus DC.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to determine if heavy metal tolerance was expressed in pollen and if its expression was correlated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Clones of Silene dioica, tolerant to zinc, closely related but nontolerant S. alba and clones of Mimulus guttatus tolerant and sensitive to copper were grown in the greenhouse in either standard potting soil or nutrient culture. Pollen was collected shortly after dehiscence, hydrated, and tested over a broad range of metal concentrations. The tolerance of the pollen source was determined by comparing root growth in solutions with and without heavy metals. In both Silene species and M. guttatus, the tolerance of the parental clone was expressed in its pollen. Pollen from tolerant individuals was able to germinate and grow at concentrations of metals which markedly inhibited pollen from nontolerants. PMID:24254019

Searcy, K B; Mulcahy, D L

1985-03-01

346

Simultaneous Quantification of Sinigrin, Sinalbin, and Anionic Glucosinolate Hydrolysis Products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba Seed Extracts Using Ion Chromatography.  

PubMed

Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ?0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments. PMID:25314611

Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

2014-11-01

347

The antioxidant status and oxidative stability of muscle from lambs receiving oral administration of Artemisia herba alba and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The effect of the dietary supplementation to lambs of essential oils (EOs) from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and artemisia (Artemisia herba alba) on the antioxidant status of muscle and on meat oxidative stability was studied. Eighteen Barbarine lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 95days received oat hay and concentrates. One group (C) was not supplemented, while the other two groups received 400mg/kg of EOs from rosemary (R400) or artemisia (A400). Both EOs possessed antioxidant properties and their oral administration improved the reducing and radical scavenging capacity of the muscle compared to the C treatment (P<0.01). Nevertheless, supplementing EOs did not exert protection against lipid oxidation and did not affect the colour stability in meat over 7days of aerobic storage. PMID:24583334

Aouadi, Dorra; Luciano, Giuseppe; Vasta, Valentina; Nasri, Saida; Brogna, Daniela M R; Abidi, Sourour; Priolo, Alessandro; Salem, Hichem Ben

2014-06-01

348

Tree ring-based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the South-Central United State from 1750 to 1980. [Quercus stellata; Quercus alba  

SciTech Connect

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and historical evidence. A variance trend in the tree ring data, which may have resulted from nonclimatic factors, was removed. The reconstructed precipitation series indicates that (1) a drought which appears to have been more severe than any in the instrumental record occurred about 1860 and (2) severe and prolonged droughts comparable to twentieth century events have occurred at roughly 15- to 25-years intervals throughout the past 231 years. It follows that serious droughts in the south-central United States could be expected to recur even in the absence of projected CO/sub 2/-induced warming.

Blasing, T.J.; Stahle, D.W.; Duvick, D.N.

1988-01-01

349

The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L.  

PubMed

We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO(x) and O(3) concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO(2) concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO(x)/O(3) concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. PMID:21749937

Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

2011-10-01

350

The H+/Cl- Symporter in Root-Hair Cells of Sinapis alba (An Electrophysiological Study Using Ion-Selective Microelectrodes).  

PubMed Central

In root-hair cells of Sinapis alba, cytosolic pH, cytosolic [Cl-], membrane potential, and membrane resistance have been measured to investigate proton-driven Cl- transport across the plasma membrane. Rapid lowering of the external pH transiently increased cytosolic [Cl-] and acidified the cytoplasm. To an abrupt increase in external [Cl-] the cells reacted with a rapid initial depolarization and a subsequent slower hyperpolarization, which was accompanied by an increase in cytosolic [Cl-] and [H+]. These results are indicative of an nH+/Cl- symport with n > 1. Simultaneous recording of the membrane potential, the proton motive force, cytosolic pH, and cytosolic [Cl-] reveals that kinetically this Cl- transport depends on the pH gradient across the plasma membrane rather than on the membrane potential. PMID:12232395

Felle, H. H.

1994-01-01

351

No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery  

PubMed Central

AIMS Arnica montana is a popular homoeopathic treatment with potential haemostatic and anti-inflammatory properties. A homoeopathic combination of A. montana and Bryonia alba was used in aortic valve surgery to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing bleeding, inflammation, pain and myocardial ischaemia. METHODS One day before surgery, 92 adult patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind parallel trial with either homoeopathic granules or a matching placebo until 4 days after surgery. The primary outcome was the volume of blood/liquid in the drains at their removal. The secondary outcomes included postoperative blood/liquid losses at 12 and 24 h as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), pain, temperature and plasma troponin Ic. RESULTS At 12 h and 24 h after surgery, then at drain removal, blood losses in homoeopathy and placebo groups were not statistically significant (362 ± 218, 520 ± 269 and 640 ± 297 ml vs. 456 ± 440, 620 ± 477 and 796 ± 717 ml; P= 0.19, 0.23 and 0.35, respectively). The statistical modelling did not show significantly different patterns of CRP, troponin and body temperature changes or of pain perception. The number of transfused packed red cells was not significantly different either (P= 0.58). Two patients from each group died during the study period and the number of serious adverse events was not statistically different (six in homoeopathy vs. 10 in placebo groups; Fisher's exact test P= 0.41). CONCLUSIONS In the study setting, there was no evidence of effects of A. montana and B. alba combination on bleeding, inflammation, pain or myocardial ischaemia. PMID:20233176

Cornu, Catherine; Joseph, Pierre; Gaillard, Segolene; Bauer, Christian; Vedrinne, Catherine; Bissery, Alvine; Melot, Ghislaine; Bossard, Nadine; Belon, Philippe; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

2010-01-01

352

Restoration of the disordered glucose-fatty acid cycle in alloxan-diabetic rats by trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids from Bryonia alba, a native Armenian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

We studied how administration of trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids obtained from the roots of the native Armenian plant Bryonia alba L. (0.05 mg/kg/day for 15 days. i.m.) restores the disordered lipid metabolism of alloxan-diabetic rats. Diabetes was accompanied by an increase in total non-esterified fatty acid content of blood together with decreases in muscle and adipose tissue of total non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, together with marked alterations of phospholipid fatty acid distribution within the membranes from muscle, including increased short chain fatty acid and decreased arachidonate content. All these metabolic changes induced in diabetes were significantly restored by trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acid treatment towards their normal values (P < 0.005) with the exception of diminished triglyceride content of muscle which was not restored. In experiments on rat neutrophil leukocytes in vitro, it was found that the standardised preparation of Bryonia C-18 fatty acids (a mixture of four diastereoisomeric forms of the positional isomers I 12,13,16-trihydroxy-9Z,14E-octadecadienoic acid, II 12,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,13E-octadecadienoic acid, III 9,10, 13-trihydroxy-11E,15Z-octadecadienoic acid and IV 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10E,14Z-octadecadienoic acid) had no effect on granular enzyme secretion or 5-lipoxygenase activity at 5-50 micrograms/ml, but dose-dependently reduced thromboxane B2 generation, with a corresponding increase in prostaglandin E2 release. We conclude that trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids from B. alba can correct major metabolic abnormalities typical of severe diabetes mellitus, and that they can influence the profile of the formation of stable prostaglandins by actions downstream of prostaglandin endoperoxides. PMID:9690343

Karageuzyan, K G; Vartanyan, G S; Agadjanov, M I; Panossian, A G; Hoult, J R

1998-06-01

353

Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SOâ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens,

S. Bialobok; S. Bartkowiak; L. Rachwal

1974-01-01

354

Distribution, Status and Habitat Utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to gather information about the distribution, population, presence and habitat utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park. Surveys were usually scheduled early in the morning (5 to 8 AM) and at evening (3 to 6 PM). The areas, which Alectoris chukar occupied, had dominant vegetation of Morus alba, Barberes lycium, Acacia arabica, Ficus palmata, Acacia

MOHAMMAD NAEEM AWAN; MIR MOHAMMAD SALEEM; M. SIDDIQUE AWAN; KHAWAJA BASHARAT

355

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

356

Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants were selected for this study. They were Aegle marmelos, Allium sativum, Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Catharanthus roseus, Curcuma longa, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Mimosa pudica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Ocimum americanum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Psidium guajava, Solanum nigrum, Tridax procumban and Tylophora indica. These plants were used to

G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2007-01-01

357

CARACTERIZACIÓN NUTRITIVA DEL FOLLAJE DE SEIS ESPECIES FORRAJERAS CON ÉNFASIS EN SUS PERFILES POLIFENÓLICOS. Nutritional Characterization of Six Fodder Species Foliage With Emphasis in Their Polyphenolic Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in order to evaluated the DM ru- minal degradability parameters (a, b, a+b and c), 48 hours deg- radation of DM, CP and NDF and CP intestinal digestibility in matures sheep of Enterolobium contortisilicum, Lysiloma latis- iliquum, Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Schizolobium excelsum and Trichantera gigantea at Trujillo State, Venezuela. All for- ages showed substantial

Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Luis José Cova; Carlos Domínguez; Alfredo Baldizán; Rafael Rangel

2008-01-01

358

Effect of Chlorogenic and Caffeic Acids on Activities and Isoenzymes of G6PDH and 6PGDH of Artemisia Herba Alba Seeds Germinated for One and Three Days in Light and Dark  

Microsoft Academic Search

G6PDH and 6PGDH activities of Artemisia herba alba seeds during early stages of seed germination under conditions of light and dark were measured, in the presence of Chlorogenic or Caffeic acids; G6PDH (glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) and 6PGDH (6 phospho gluconate dehydrogenase) activities were inactivated in the presence of both phenolic acids and were stimulated upon germination in the dark

Farouk Al-Quadan; Abeer Ibrahim; Fawzia M. R. Al-Charchafchi

359

Profiling of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium, A. herba-alba, A. fragrans, Marrubium vulgare, M. astranicum, Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulossum and essential oil analysis of two Artemisia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the acetone and ethanol extracts of Artemisia absinthium, A. herba-alba, A. fragrans, Marrubium vulgare, M. astranicum, and Origanum vulgare var. glandulossum along with the essential oil of A. absinthium were investigated. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 25, 50, and 100?g\\/mL using an ELISA

I. Erdogan Orhan; R. Belhattab; F. S. ?enol; A. R. Gülpinar; S. Ho?ba?; M. Kartal

2010-01-01

360

Cloning, molecular characterization and functional analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) gene for diterpenoid tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba.  

PubMed

The enzyme 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) is a terminal-acting enzyme in the plastid MEP pathway, which produce isoprenoid precursors. The full-length cDNA of HDR, designated SmHDR1 (Genbank Accession No. JX516088), was isolated for the first time from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. SmHDR1 contains a 1389-bp open reading frame encoding 463 amino acids. The deduced SmHDR1 protein, which shows high identity to HDRs of other plant species, is predicted to possess a chloroplast transit peptide at the N-terminus and four conserved cysteine residues. Transcription pattern analysis revealed that SmHDR1 has high levels of transcription in leaves and low levels of transcription in roots and stems. The expression of SmHDR1 was induced by 0.1 mM methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), but not by 0.1 mM abscisic acid (ABA), in the hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. Complementation of SmHDR1 in the Escherichia coli HDR mutant MG1655 ara < > ispH demonstrated the function of this enzyme. A functional color assay in E. coli showed that SmHDR1 accelerates the biosynthesis of ?-carotene, indicating that SmHDR1 encodes a functional protein. Overexpression of SmHDR1 enhanced the production of tanshinones in cultured hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. These results indicate that SmHDR1 is a novel and important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of diterpenoid tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza Bge. f. alba. PMID:23770591

Hao, Gangping; Shi, Renjiu; Tao, Ru; Fang, Qian; Jiang, Xingyu; Ji, Haiwei; Feng, Lei; Huang, Luqi

2013-09-01

361

Informe Especial Supremaca de Concreto Como  

E-print Network

Informe Especial Mayo 2013 Supremacía de Concreto Como Material Estructural Paulo Helene #12;Supremacía de Concreto como Material Estructural* Paulo Helene Prof. Titular da Universidade de São Paulo Asamblea General de la FICEM. 2012. #12;3 supremacía del concreto Por Prof. Paulo Helene * Conferencia

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

362

Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.  

PubMed

Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

2006-05-01

363

On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ( and ). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

2014-01-01

364

Changes in ATP, glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(P)H cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of Abies alba Mill. embryogenic cultures.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adenosine triphospate (ATP), glucose-6-phosphate (glu-6P) and reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of Abies alba Mill. somatic embryos. For a better understanding of the dynamics of these parameters during the proliferation cycle, four embryonic cell lines were tested. During the maturation period, three independent experiments were conducted, focused on the effects of PEG-4000 (5 or 10% (w/v)) and abscisic acid (16, 32 or 64 ?M) applied together (Experiments A and B) or with addition of gibberellic acid (Experiment C) on the dynamics of bio-energetic molecules and on the mean number of cotyledonary somatic embryos. Our results demonstrated that the cellular levels of bio-energetic molecules strongly depended on the composition of maturation media. Generally, the higher the number of cotyledonary embryos produced, the higher the level of ATP observed after a 2-week maturation period. The cellular level of ATP, glu-6P and NAD(P)H increased, particularly after the transition from the proliferation to the maturation phase when the differentiation and growth of somatic embryos occurred. PMID:24200583

Krajnáková, Jana; Bertolini, Alberto; Zoratti, Laura; Gömöry, Dusan; Häggman, Hely; Vianello, Angelo

2013-10-01

365

Social Calls Produced within and near the Roost in Two Species of Tent-Making Bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba  

PubMed Central

Social animals regularly face the problem of relocating conspecifics when separated. Communication is one of the most important mechanisms facilitating group formation and cohesion. Known as contact calls, signals exchanged between conspecifics that permit group maintenance are widespread across many taxa. Foliage-roosting bats are an excellent model system for studying the evolution of contact calling, as there are opportunities to compare closely related species that exhibit major differences in ecology and behavior. Further, foliage-roosting bats rely on relatively ephemeral roosts, which leads to major challenges in maintaining group cohesion. Here, we report findings on the communication signals produced by two tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba. We found that both species produced calls in the early morning near the roost that were associated with roostmate recruitment. Calling often ended once other bats arrived at the tent, suggesting that calls may be involved in roostmate recruitment and group formation. The structure and function of these calls are described and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23637893

Gillam, Erin H.; Chaverri, Gloriana; Montero, Karina; Sagot, Maria

2013-01-01

366

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

367

On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

2014-05-01

368

Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Material and Methods: Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe: 1 ?M), EOLA (100-1000 ?g/mL) induced relaxation, where the maximal effect (Emax) was 110.8 ± 10.8%. This effect was not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 134.8 ± 16.5%), after tetraethylammonium (TEA) (Emax = 117.2 ± 4.96%), or in rings precontracted with KCl (80 mM) (Emax = 112.6 ± 6.70%). In addition, EOLA was able to inhibit the contraction caused by CaCl2 and produced a small but significant (P<0.05) additional effect (from 70.5 ± 3.4 to 105.3 ± 13.5%, n = 5) on the maximal relaxation of nifedipine (NIF: 10 ?M). Conclusions: The results demonstrated that EOLA induces endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, which appears to be caused, at least in part, by blocking Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. PMID:22144776

Maynard, Luana G.; Santos, Kátia C.; Cunha, Patrícia S.; Barreto, André S.; Peixoto, Magna G.; Arrigoni-Blank, Fátima; Blank, Arie F.; Alves, Péricles B.; Bonjardin, Leonardo R.; Santos, Márcio R.V.

2011-01-01

369

Action Spectra for the Inhibition of Hypocotyl Growth by Continuous Irradiation in Light and Dark-Grown Sinapis alba L. Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Action spectra for the inhibition by continuous (24-hour) irradiation of hypocotyl growth in 54-hour-old Sinapis alba L. seedlings were measured using seedlings which had had four different pretreatments. These seedlings were either (a) dark-grown with a high total phytochrome level, (b) dark-grown with a low total phytochrome level, (c) light-grown with chlorophyll, or (d) light-grown with no chlorophyll [treated with 4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(?,?,?-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H) -pyridazinone (San 9789)]. The resulting action spectra show that the blue, red, and far-red (716 nm) wavebands are most inhibitory for dark-grown plants with high phytochrome content, whereas hypocotyl growth in dark-grown plants with a low phytochrome content are only slightly inhibited by blue and far-red radiation. In light-grown plants, the effectiveness of blue and far-red light almost disappears. The position of red light effectiveness in chlorophyll-containing plants is shifted to lower wavelengths compared with those containing no chlorophyll. PMID:16661489

Beggs, Christopher J.; Holmes, M. Geoffrey; Jabben, Merten; Schafer, Eberhard

1980-01-01

370

Effect of methanol extract of Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) on the fecundity and testosterone level in male rats exposed to flutamide in utero.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of the methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) on testosterone level and fecundity/fertility in male rats exposed in utero to flutamide - an androgen receptor antagonist. For this purpose, 1.5- and 2.5 -month-old male rats exposed in utero to flutamide were treated with the MEBa (1 mg kg(-1) ) for 2 and 1 month respectively. Five days before the end of treatment, rats were housed with females to assess their fecundity/fertility. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and blood collected for the quantification of testosterone. Flutamide-exposed male rats showed a decrease in their ano-genital distance (AGD, P < 0.05) and were infertile. In normal (methylcellulose-exposed) animals, MEBa provoked an increase in testosterone level in 1.5- (P < 0.008) and 2.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.01) concomitantly with the improvement in their fecundity by 25%. In flutamide-exposed male rats, MEBa increased testosterone level in 1.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.001) without any effect on their fecundity; while in 2.5- month-old rats, MEBa did not affect the testosterone level but improved fecundity (by 25%) and fertility (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated the positive effect of MEBa to enhance fecundity/fertility in normal male rats and in rats exposed to the antiandrogen flutamide during their foetal life. PMID:21592171

Nantia, E A; Manfo, P F T; Beboy, N E; Travert, C; Carreau, S; Monsees, T K; Moundipa, P F

2012-02-01

371

RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex.  

PubMed

The polyploid Salix alba-Salix fragilis hybrid complex is rather difficult to study when using only morphological characters. Most of the features have a low diagnostic value for unambiguously identifying the hybrids, introgression patterns and population structures, though morphological traits have proved to be useful in making a hybrid index. Morphology and molecular variation from RAPDs were investigated in several case studies on willows from Belgium. A thorough screening of full-sib progenies of interspecific controlled crosses was made to select homologous amplification products. The selected amplified products proved to be useful in a principal coordinate analysis for the estimation of variability of hybrid progenies. On the basis of genetic similarities and ordination analysis, a method for the identification of clones in the field was established using presumed pure species and presumed introgressants. The chosen reference clones were checked against additional European samples of putative pure species to ensure the reliability of the method beyond a regional scale. The RAPDs suggested that both species have kept their gene pools well separated and that hybridization actually does not seem to be a dominating process. The observation that molecular markers do not always follow the morphological traits or allozyme data is discussed. PMID:10849080

Triest, L; De Greef, B; De Bondt, R; Van Slycken, J

2000-05-01

372

Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1?-Induced NF-?B Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1? for up to 72?h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), ?1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation by inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation, I?B? degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-?B targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1?-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, ?1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1?. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-?B plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

2012-01-01

373

Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E1, E2, E3, and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E1 represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E2 and E3 originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5? untranslated region. E3 was identical to E2 but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E2 and E3 also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E1, but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants. PMID:24934174

Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

374

Comparison of the fractional CO2 laser and the combined use of a pulsed dye laser with fractional CO2 laser in striae alba treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: No ideal treatment has been established for Striae distensae (SD), particularly in the late phase (Striae Alba (SA)). Various types of lasers have been recently proposed as treatment options for SD. This study aims to compare the clinical efficacy of a fractional CO2 laser as well as a combination of fractional CO2 laser and Pulsed dye Laser (PDL) in the treatment of SA. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight SA lesions in three female patients were included. Lesions on each half of the body were randomly enrolled in each group. Group 1 (n = 44) were treated by Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing and group 2 (n = 44) by a combination of PDL and Fractional CO2 laser, alternately. Digital Photographs were taken and the surface area of each lesion was measured digitally (using the PictZar Digital Planimetry Software) at the baseline and four weeks after treatment. The clinical improvement was assessed by comparison of the pre- and post-treatment photos and the participants’ views about their degree of improvement, using a 10-point verbal analog scale (VAS). Results: The mean surface area decreased significantly in both groups after treatment. The mean difference between the pre- and post-treatment surface area was 0.62 ± 053 for group 2 and 0.41 ± 0.43 for group 1 (P-value = 0.03). Mean VAS and dermatologist assessed improvement scale in group 2 (6.68 ± 0.77 and 2.2 ± 0.76 respectively) were significantly higher than those in group 1 (5.45 ± 0.90 and 1.8±0.72 respectively, P-value <0.001 and 0.04 respectively). Conclusion: The combination of PDL and fractional CO2 laser was more effective than fractional CO2 laser alone and could be suggested as a clinical option in the treatment of SA. PMID:25250298

Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi; Nikyar, Zahra; Mokhtari, Fateme; Bahrami, Ahmadreza

2014-01-01

375

Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

2013-02-01

376

Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate components in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is an important condiment crop for the spice trade in the world. It has lagged behind oilseed Brassica species in molecular marker development and application. Intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers are highly polymorphic, co-dominant and cost-effective. The cross-species applicability of ILP markers from Brassica species and Arabidopsis makes them possible to be used for genetic linkage mapping and further QTL analysis of agronomic traits in yellow mustard. Results A total of 250 ILP and 14 SSR markers were mapped on 12 linkage groups and designated as Sal01-12 in yellow mustard. The constructed map covered a total genetic length of 890.4 cM with an average marker interval of 3.3 cM. The QTL for erucic content co-localized with the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene on Sal03. The self-(in)compatibility gene was assigned to Sal08. The 4-hydroxybenzyl, 3-indolylmethyl and 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate contents were each controlled by one major QTL, all of which were located on Sal02. Two QTLs, accounting for the respective 20.4% and 19.2% of the total variation of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate content, were identified and mapped to Sal02 and Sal11. Comparative synteny analysis revealed that yellow mustard was phylogenetically related to Arabidopsis thaliana and had undergone extensive chromosomal rearrangements during speciation. Conclusion The linkage map based on ILP and SSR markers was constructed and used for QTL analysis of seed quality traits in yellow mustard. The markers tightly linked with the genes for different glucosinolate components will be used for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. The ILP markers and linkage map provide useful molecular tools for yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24066707

2013-01-01

377

Purification strategies, characteristics and thermodynamic analysis of a highly thermostable alkaline protease from a salt-tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycete, Nocardiopsis alba OK-5.  

PubMed

An alkaline protease from salt tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycetes, Nocardiopsis alba strain OK-5 was purified to homogeneity by 27 and 13 fold with a yield of 35 and 13% using two-steps and one-step method, respectively. The purification methods involved hydrophobic interaction on phenyl sapharose matrix. The apparent molecular mass was 20 kDa. The temperature optimum shifted from 70 to 80°C in 4M NaCl and 30% Na-glutamate, with significant stability at 60-80°C in Na-glutamate. Deactivation rate constant (K(d)) increased and half life (t(1/2)) decreased with the increasing temperatures from 37 to 80°C. The order of stability was: 30% Na-glutamate>4M NaCl>2M NaCl>0M NaCl. The enzyme was stable even at 80°C in 30% Na-glutamate with K(d) 4.11 and t(1/2) 168.64 min. The activation energies (E), enthalpy (?H*) and entropy (?S*) for protease deactivation in with Na-glutamate were 31.97 kJ/mole, 29.23 kJ/mole and -211.83 J/mole, respectively. The change in free energy (?G*) for protease deactivation at 60°C in 30% Na-glutamate was 101.70 kJ/mole. Protease had the highest activity and stability at pH 10-11. While the enzyme was highly resistant against chemical denaturation, it had varied responses to metal ions. Complete inhibition by PMSF confirmed serine nature of the protease. Na-glutamate, H(2)O(2), ?-mercaptoethanol and different surfactants enhanced the activity. PMID:22377407

Gohel, Sangeeta D; Singh, Satya P

2012-03-15

378

Detection and molecular characterization of two FAD3 genes controlling linolenic acid content and development of allele-specific markers in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

379

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)  

PubMed Central

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

380

A Novel Method HPLC-DAD Analysis of the Contentsof Moutan Cortexand Paeoniae Radix Alba with Similar Constituents-Monoterpene Glycosides in Guizhi Fuling Wan.  

PubMed

A variety of traditional Chinese medical formulations contain two or more herbs from the same genus or family. Although these herbs may have a similar appearance and constituents, they usually have different pharmacodynamic actions. A series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are developed to determine one or more compounds for quality control of medicine. As far as we know, no method has been found to determine the real ratio of the two herbs along with the prescription. In this study, we used HPLC-DAD as a way to determine the content of Moutan cortex (M) and Paeoniae radix alba (P) in GuizhiFuling Wan (GZFLW). An effective, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was developed for detecting the content of M and P in GZFLW through the analysis of four monoterpeneglycosides, namely, galloylpaeoniflorin (1), paeoniflorin (2), mudanpioside C (3) and benzoylpaeoniflorin (4). Due to the different UV characteristics of the compounds, the detection wavelength was 270 nm for 1 and 2, while 3 and 4 were monitored at 254 nm and 230 nm, respectively. Four equations were put forward to describe the relationship between content of M as well as P and the four monoterpene glycosides in GZFLW. After validation, all the accuracies of the M and P contents in GZFLW were within 10%. The result showed that the method could be successfully applied to analyze the contents of M and P in GZFLW. Moreover, our method may be more widely used to control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicines, especially for those containing the same genus or family herbs, in industrial GMP production. PMID:25375336

Wang, Shuyun; Huang, Jian; Mao, Huijuan; Wang, Yuliang; Kasimu, Rena; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Jinhui

2014-01-01

381

Carbon-nutrient interactions in response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment: physiological and long-term perspectives. [Quercus alba L  

SciTech Connect

The responses of forest trees to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment will depend in part on carbon-nutrient linkages. Insights into the possible long-term ecological consequences of CO/sub 2/ enrichment can be gained from studying physiological responses in short-term experiments. One-year-old white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were grown in an unfertilized forest soil for 40 weeks in controlled-environment chambers with ambient (362 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) or elevated (690 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) CO/sub 2/. Seedling dry weight was 85% greater in the elevated CO/sub 2/ environment, despite a severe nitrogen deficiency in all seedlings. The increase in growth occurred without a concomitant increase in nitrogen uptake, indicating an increase in nitrogen-use efficiency in elevated CO/sub 2/. The weight of new buds was greater in elevated CO/sub 2/, suggesting that shoot growth in the next year would have been enhanced relative to that of seedlings in ambient CO/sub 2/. However, there was a lower amount of translocatable nitrogen in perennial woody tissue in elevated CO/sub 2/; thus, further increases in nitrogen-use efficiency may not be possible. The leaves that abscised from seedlings in elevated CO/sub 2/ contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and tannin and a lower amount of lignin compared with amounts in abscised leaves in ambient CO/sub 2/. Based on lignin to N and lignin to P ratios, the rates of litter decomposition might not be greatly affected by CO/sub 2/ enrichment, but the total amount of nitrogen returned to soil would be lower in elevated CO/sub 2/.

Norby, R.J.; Pastor, J.; Melillo, J.M.

1985-01-01

382

Photosynthetic responses of yellow poplar and white oak to long term atmospheric CO sub 2 enrichment in the field. [Liriondendron tulipifera L; Quercus alba L  

SciTech Connect

A critical consideration in evaluating forest response to rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} is whether the enhancement of net photosynthesis (P{sub N}) by elevated CO{sub 2} can be sustained over the long term. There are reports of declining enhancement of P{sub N} with duration of exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}, associated with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. We investigated whether this photosynthetic acclimation occurs in two tree species under field conditions. Seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) were planted in the ground within six open-top field chambers in May 1989 and have been exposed continuously to CO{sub 2} enrichment during the last two growing seasons. The three CO{sub 2} treatment levels were: ambient, ambient +150, and ambient +300 {mu}L/L. Throughout the second season, gas exchange of upper, light-saturated leaves was surveyed periodically, and leaves of different ages and canopy positions were measured occasionally. Net photosynthesis remained higher at higher CO{sub 2} levels (28-32% higher in +150 and 49-67% higher in +300 seedlings) in both species throughout the season, regardless of increasing leaf age and duration of exposure to CO{sub 2} enrichment. Stomatal conductance remained unchanged or decreased slightly with increasing CO{sub 2}, but instantaneous water use efficiency (P{sub N}/transpiration) increased significantly with CO{sub 2}. Analysis of P{sub N} versus internal CO{sub 2} concentration indicated no significant treatment differences in carboxylation efficiency, CO{sub 2}-saturated P{sub N}, or CO{sub 2} compensation point. There was no evidence of a downward acclimation of photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} enrichment in this system.

Gunderson, C.A.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-05-01

383

Effects of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil  

SciTech Connect

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO/sub 2/. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO/sub 2/ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO/sub 2/. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO/sub 2/, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO/sub 2/. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO/sub 2/-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO/sub 2/ concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO/sub 2/ may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand. 30 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.

1986-01-01

384

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

385

Putative blue-light photoreceptors from Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba with a high degree of sequence homology to DNA photolyase contain the two photolyase cofactors but lack DNA repair activity.  

PubMed

The putative blue-light photoreceptor genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba (mustard) are highly homologous to the DNA repair genes encoding DNA photolyases. The photoreceptors from both organisms were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The photoreceptors contain two chromophores which were identified as flavin adenine dinucleotide and methenyltetrahydrofolate. This chromophore composition suggests that the blue light photoreceptor may initiate signal transduction by a novel pathway which involves electron transfer. Despite the high degree of sequence identity to and identical chromophore composition with photolyases, neither photoreceptor has any photoreactivating activity. PMID:7756321

Malhotra, K; Kim, S T; Batschauer, A; Dawut, L; Sancar, A

1995-05-23

386

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

387

Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

2014-07-15

388

Salix alba and Populus nigra seedlings resistance to physical hydro-sedimentary stresses: nursery experimental approach compared to in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data on the seedlings survival once buried during a flood event. Genetic diversity of the seed lots will be investigated via biomass and shoot / root ratio. Results reveal that willow seedlings have a higher density of roots compared to poplar. In sand mixture, poplar has a taproot system; in sand-gravel mixture, taproot is divided into several roots which leads to a branched root system. The required forces to uprooting are twice much important for sand-gravel mixture. In situ measurements detail the sediment dynamics and morphological evolution during and after floods (topography, scour/fill processes, grain size surveys, flow velocity, sediment transport rates) on a managed alluvial bar. Results associated with floods occurring after fluvial management works highlight the rapid regeneration of bedforms associated with sedimentary and hydraulics constraints. This leads to the development of new morphological and sedimentological units, suitable for seedlings recruitment. Thirty plots measurements of seedlings (densities and species) established were associated with these news physical conditions over the bar. Black poplar and white willow appeared for a wide range of grain sizes and on specific morphological units. Seedlings survival will be analyzed with regard to physical constraints determined for each plot from measurements of hydro-sedimentary dynamics and then compared to ex situ results.

Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc

2014-05-01

389

Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba).  

PubMed

Fifty-seven samples have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 as well as the composition of polymeric procyanidins. Fifty-two samples were found to contain polymeric procyanidins. In most of the samples, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant unit present. In white willow bark (Salix alba), however, large amounts of (+)-catechin (81.0%) were determined by means of phloroglucinolysis. White willow bark has therefore been used for the semisynthetic formation of dimeric procyanidins B3 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(+)-C)], B4 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(-)-EC)], B6 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(+)-C)], and B8 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(-)-EC)]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale. PMID:20533825

Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

2010-07-14

390

Changes in Mulberry Leaf Metabolism in Response to Water Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the water stress-induced changes in the activities of RuBP carboxylase (RuBPCO) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), photosystem 2 activity, and contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch, sucrose, amino acids, free proline, proteins and nucleic acids in mulberry (Morus alba L. cv. K-2) leaves. Water stress progressively reduced the activities of RuBPCO and SPS

P. Barathi; D. Sundar; A. Ramachandra Reddy

2001-01-01

391

Oxyresveratrol as the Potent Inhibitor on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyresveratrol (2,3?,4,5?-tetrahydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found inMorus albaL., exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis. Oxyresveratrol with 0.3 to 5 ?M exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitions (25 to 84%) on the enzyme activity, where 50% of inhibition was shown at the concentration of about 1 ?M. Oxyresveratrol

Nam-Ho Shin; Shi Yong Ryu; Eun Ju Choi; Seh-Hoon Kang; IL-Moo Chang; Kyung Rak Min; Youngsoo Kim

1998-01-01

392

(SWNTs) CVD [1][2] Co/Mo  

E-print Network

( ) ( ) ( ) * ( ) 1. (SWNTs) CVD 1-2 nm CVD 2 CoMo CO [1][2] Co/Mo [3]CoMo CVD SWNTs CVD 2. 15mm 0.5 mm 2 mm 3.6 mm Mo(0.019-1.9nm) Co(0.034-2.1nm) Cold-wall CVD H2: 100 sccm, Ar: 300 sccm 50 Torr 10 min H2 Ar 30 Torr SWNTs (: 488nm) 3. CVD SWNTs 1 CVD 700 900

Maruyama, Shigeo

393

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Como gatehouse (outlet tower) and access bridge, looking west from dam crest (Trash rack visible in reservoir pool behind and right of tower) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Como Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

394

108 Natural Areas Journal Volume 22 (2), 2002 Disturbance  

E-print Network

will be dominated by hardwoods such as black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and hickories bosque probablemente esté dominada por maderas duras, tales como Quercus velutina Lam., Quercus alba L

Stambaugh, Michael C

395

Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).  

PubMed

The climate sensitivity of carbon (?(13)C), oxygen (?(18)O) and hydrogen (?(2)H) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of Abies alba Mill. from a marginally industrialized area of Franconia (Germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. All isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 AD. After 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of ?(13)C and ?(2)H while ?(18)O - climate relations remain well pronounced. Nevertheless statistical tests implied that SO2 background emissions of West Germany had influenced isotope signatures long before 1950. The relationships between isotope values and concentrations of SO2, dust, O3 and NO2 at the regional level during the period 1979-2006 indicate that ?(13)C and ?(18)O were influenced primarily by SO2. The impact of SO2 on ?(2)H was negligible, but the observed reduction of climate sensitivity may be caused by synergic influences. The results have significant implications if isotope signatures from tree-rings from anthropogenic influenced regions are used to reconstruct past climate. PMID:24316066

Boettger, Tatjana; Haupt, Marika; Friedrich, Michael; Waterhouse, John S

2014-02-01

396

Heterologous over-expression of ACC SYNTHASE8 (ACS8) in Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 results in elevated levels of ethylene and induces stem dwarfism and reduced leaf size through separate genetic pathways  

PubMed Central

Plant height is an important agronomic and horticultural trait that impacts plant productivity, durability and esthetic appeal. A number of the plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA), auxin and ethylene have been linked to control of plant architecture and size. Reduction in GA synthesis and auxin transport result in dwarfism while ethylene may have a permissive or repressive effect on tissue growth depending upon the age of plant tissues or the environmental conditions considered. We describe here an activation-tagged mutant of Populus tremula x P. alba clone 717-1B4 identified from 2000 independent transgenic lines due to its significantly reduced growth rate and smaller leaf size. Named dwarfy, the phenotype is due to increased expression of PtaACC SYNTHASE8, which codes for an enzyme in the first committed step in the biosynthesis of ethylene. Stems of dwarfy contain fiber and vessel elements that are reduced in length while leaves contain fewer cells. These morphological differences are linked to PtaACS8 inducing different transcriptomic programs in the stem and leaf, with genes related to auxin diffusion and sensing being repressed in the stem and genes related to cell division found to be repressed in the leaves. Altogether, our study gives mechanistic insight into the genetics underpinning ethylene-induced dwarfism in a perennial model organism.

Plett, Jonathan M.; Williams, Martin; LeClair, Gaetan; Regan, Sharon; Beardmore, Tannis

2014-01-01

397

LA BIO?TICA COMO QUEHACER FILOS?FICO  

PubMed Central

El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar. PMID:20463860

Ferrer, Jorge Jose

2009-01-01

398

Lecture Notes, Como 1995 September 6, 1998 Quantum Theory  

E-print Network

Lecture Notes, Como 1995 September 6, 1998 Quantum Theory HANS DE RAEDT Institute for Theoretical. Let us try to reduce the quantum problem to a "classical mechanics problem". According to the rules, The Netherlands E-mail: deraedt@phys.rug.nl ABSTRACT The purpose of this set of lectures is to introduce

399

[Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts].  

PubMed

Control in vitro tick (Boophilus microplus; Acari: Ixodidae) through plant extracts. Hydro-alcohol extracts of ten tropical plants were tested by the immersion method on mature ticks (Boophilus microplus Canestrini 1887). The biological evaluation was made with raw hydro alcoholic extracts (R-OH) to determine the most promissory compounds, which later were fractioned in their polar and non-polar parts. The polar parts showed a significantly inferior effect. The species that produced the highest mortality were Zizigium aromaticum, Morus alba, Piper nigrum and the mixture of Allium sativum- Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on oviposition: M. alba, P. nigrum and the mixture of A. sativum - Z. aromaticum (all non-polar); on eclosion: P. nigrum, Z. aromaticum, Echinacea angustiofilia, Poligonum punctatum, M. alba and the mixture of A. sativum-Z. aromaticum (all non-polar): on control percentage: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum and M. alba (all non-polar, except for M. alba in which both fractions showed important activity); and finally, on the percentage of oviposition inhibition: P. nigrum, E. angustifolia, P. punctatum, Gliricidia sepium and M. alba. PMID:18624244

Alvarez, Víctor; Loaiza, Jorge; Bonilla, Roberto; Barrios, Mariano

2008-03-01

400

comoR: a software for disease comorbidity risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of comorbidities, which refers to the coexistence of different acute and chronic diseases, is difficult due to the modern extreme specialisation of physicians. We envisage that a software dedicated to comorbidity diagnosis could result in an effective aid to the health practice. Results We have developed an R software comoR to compute novel estimators of the disease comorbidity associations. Starting from an initial diagnosis, genetic and clinical data of a patient the software identifies the risk of disease comorbidity. Then it provides a pipeline with different causal inference packages (e.g. pcalg, qtlnet etc) to predict the causal relationship of diseases. It also provides a pipeline with network regression and survival analysis tools (e.g. Net-Cox, rbsurv etc) to predict more accurate survival probability of patients. The input of this software is the initial diagnosis for a patient and the output provides evidences of disease comorbidity mapping. Conclusions The functions of the comoR offer flexibility for diagnostic applications to predict disease comorbidities, and can be easily integrated to high–throughput and clinical data analysis pipelines. PMID:25045465

2014-01-01

401

Die Lautäußerungen der Schleiereule ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung An zwei Brutplätzen wildlebender Schleiereulen wurde erstmalig mit Video-Überwachungsanlagen und Infrarotlicht eine störungsfreie Beobachtung über Fernsehschirm „rund-um-die-Uhr“ durchgeführt und durch Magnetbandaufzeichnungen von Bild und Ton ergänzt. Die verschiedenen Lautäußerungen (insgesamt 18) konnten so in ihrem jeweiligen ethologischen Zusammenhang, in der sich verändernden Häufigkeit während der Brutphase, in ihrer ontogenetischen Entwicklung und als Klangspektrogramme erfaßt werden. Ergänzend wurden Befunde von

Paul Bühler; Wolfgang Epple

1980-01-01

402

A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

and soils,? he said. Most reclaimed water in California, Arizona and New Mexico has salinity well below 1,000 ppm, but salinities of reclaimed waters in West Texas and some areas of southern New Mexico and central Arizona usually exceed 1,000 ppm... (Morus alba), pictured at left, and Arizona Cypress (Cupressus arizonica). tx H2O | pg. 20 The second most frequent problem is soil saliniza- tion, or too much salt accumulation in the soil. This usually occurs in clayey (silty clay loam, clay loam...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

403

Efetividade da reabilitação pulmonar como tratamento coadjuvante da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Introdução: O paciente portador de DPOC diminui sua atividade física global devido a piora progressiva da função pulmonar como conseqüência de qualquer forma de esforço físico por ele realizado. A reabilitação pulmonar (RP) é utilizada nos EUA e Europa como alternativa terapêutica no tratamento da DPOC. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do programa de RP como tratamento coadjuvante da DPOC.

SÉRGIO LEITE RODRIGUES; CARLOS ALBERTO DE ASSIS VIEGAS; TEREZINHA LIMA

2002-01-01

404

IDENTIDAD DE LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA RURAL COMO CENTRO CULTURAL DE LA COMUNIDAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente artículo la autora expone como la ciencia y la cultura influye en la identidad rural de la escuela como centro cultural de la comunidad y reconocen el roll de la escuela primaria rural como institución cultural, contribuyendo a una cultura general integral, con la participación de la familia y la comunidad. Se exponen criterios sobre la formación

María Rosa Núñez González

2012-01-01

405

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-01-01

406

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

407

Oxygen-driven competition between low-dimensional structures of Sr3CoMO6 and Sr3CoMO7-? with M = Ru, Ir.  

PubMed

We have realized a reversible structure transformation of one-dimensional 1D K4CdCl6-type Sr3CoMO6 with the Co(2+)/M(4+) cation ordering into the two-dimensional 2D double layered Ruddlesden-Popper structure Sr3CoMO7-? with a random distribution of Co and M (with M = Ru, Ir) upon increasing the partial oxygen pressure. The combined soft and hard X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that under transformation, Co and M cations were oxidized to Co(3+) and M(5+). During oxidation, high-spin Co(2+) in Sr3CoMO6 first transforms into high-spin Co(3+) in oxygen-deficient Sr3CoMO7-?, and then further transforms into low-spin Co(3+) in fully oxidized Sr3CoMO7 upon further increasing the partial pressure of oxygen. The 1D Sr3CoMO6 compound is magnetically ordered at low temperatures with the magnetic moments lying along the c-axis. Their alignment is parallel for Sr3CoRuO6 and antiparallel for Sr3CoIrO6. The 2D compounds reveal a spin-glass-like behavior related to the random distribution of magnetic cations in the structure. PMID:25111502

Mikhailova, Daria; Reichel, Phillip; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Abakumov, Artem M; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Mogare, Kailash M; Schmidt, Marcus; Kuo, Chang-Yang; Pao, Chin-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hu, Zhiwei; Tjeng, Liu Hao

2014-10-01

408

A model catalyst approach to the effects of the support on Co–Mo hydrodesulfurization catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co–Mo model sulfide catalysts, in which CoMoS phases are selectively formed, were prepared by means of a CVD technique using Co(CO)3NO as a precursor of Co. It is shown by means of XPS, FTIR and NO adsorption that CoMoS phases form selectively when the Mo content exceeds monolayer loading. A single exposure of MoS2\\/Al2O3 to a vapor of Co(CO)3NO at

Yasuaki Okamoto; Takeshi Kubota

2003-01-01

409

LA CULTURA COMO INVERSIÓN TURÍSTICA. UNA REFLEXIÓN A PROPÓSITO DEL GUGGENHEIM BILBAO  

Microsoft Academic Search

El turismo, objeto de diversas disciplinas, es uno de los sectores más relevantes de la economía mundial, siendo en España la primera industria nacional. En los último años el turismo cultural se ha revelado como un motor esencial de desarrollo para bastantes territorios. Un caso sobresaliente es el conocido como «efecto Guggenheim» que desde su creación en 1997 se ha

Ainhoa Aguirregoitia Martínez

2011-01-01

410

Quercus 201 Noviembre 2002 / 39 agua como las copas de los  

E-print Network

S Quercus 201 Noviembre 2002 / 39 agua como las copas de los bosques tropicales, caso de algunos géneros de driópi- dos. Otras han ocupado las aguas freáticas o intersticia- les y muestran todas las mediterránea, y otros ambientes, como las aguas continentales, también pueden ser extraordinariamente ricos (1

Murcia, Universidad de

411

Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.  

PubMed

This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

2014-08-01

412

Castração química como pena, tratamento médico ou experimento científico : considerações bioéticas.  

E-print Network

??Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioética, 2014. A pedofilia é classificada como doença psiquiátrica e sua prática… (more)

Maia, Thais Meirelles de Sousa

2014-01-01

413

Uso de Anfibios como Indicadores del xito de la Restauracin de Ecosistemas 1  

E-print Network

y algunos vertebrados peque- ños y son presa de muchos otros animales (Fig. 1). Estas interacciones calidad de las áreas naturales existentes como de la abundancia y diversidad de plantas y animales nativos

Mazzotti, Frank

414

Presulfidation of CoMo and NiMoP Catalysts by Ammonium Thiosulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium thiosulfate ((NH4)2S2O3) was used as a sulfiding agent for presulfiding CoMo and NiMoP catalysts. The effect of the amount of (NH4)2S2O3 on hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity was investigated. For the CoMo series, the use of a proper amount of (NH4)2S2O3 gave a higher HDS activity than when the catalyst was sulfided by H2S. SO42- formed during presulfidation modified the Al2O3

Hui GE; Xuekuan LI; Guofu WANG; Zhangfeng QIN; Zhanjun LÜ; Jianguo WANG

2010-01-01

415

Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

416

AFINALES DE 1974, despus de una desas-trosa combinacin de enfermedades como el  

E-print Network

alimento y refu- gio del hurón. En 1988, el descubrimiento de las colonias más extensas de perros llaneros(Cynomys ludovicianus) en Norteamérica en la región de Janos- Casas Grandes,nos llevó a proponer este sitio como un área

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

417

Harold Varmus investido bajo juramento como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Ganador del Premio Nobel, doctor Harold E. Varmus, prestó juramento hoy como 14.º director del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI).  "Es muy estimulante que estés de regreso con nosotros", dijo la secretaria del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos Kathleen Sebelius en la ceremonia de toma de juramento. “Hoy se abre un nuevo capítulo para el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer”.

418

Autonomia e Motivação em narrativas de aprendizes de português como língua estrangeira1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neste artigo, discuto os resultados de minha pesquisa dentro do projeto AMFALE - Autonomia em um Modelo Fractal de Aquisição de Língua Estrangeira. Com base em conceitos de autonomia e motivação e na correlação entre eles, analiso narrativas de aprendizes de português como língua estrangeira em Belo Horizonte. Tais análises atestam que a experiência de aprendizagem inserida em uma comunidade

Fernanda Sousa Carvalho

419

O mercado de carbono como instrumento de conservação da floresta amazônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho analisa a questão ambiental presente nas políticas públicas para a região amazônica, incluindo a Lei de Gestão de Florestas Públicas (Lei 11.284\\/06), sancionada com o objetivo de regulamentar a gestão de florestas públicas no Brasil e promover o desenvolvimento sustentável. O Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL) do Protocolo de Kyoto é sugerido como instrumento de conservação florestal. Por

Mariano Rua Lamarca Junior; Cesar Roberto Leite da Silva

2008-01-01

420

Un estudio exploratorio sobre el desarrollo de creencias sobre síntomas como señales de hipertensión arterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aunque la hipertensión arterial es un trastorno asintomático, muchos pacientes hipertensos están con- vencidos de experimentar síntomas indicadores de los cambios en su tensión arterial (TA), y los con- sejos y prescripciones médicas pueden verse afectados por estas creencias. Diversos estudios han mos- trado que los pacientes hipertensos usan con frecuencia síntomas como indicadores del estado de su tensión arterial

Genoveva Granados Gámez; Jesús Gil Roales-Nieto; José Luis; Ybarra Sagarduy

2006-01-01

421

Como reportar quejas sobre el uso de animales en la enseanza,  

E-print Network

! Como reportar quejas sobre el uso de animales en la enseñanza, investigación, o experimentación animales usados en las investigaciones, la enseñanza o experimentación. El Comité Institucional del Cuidado y Uso de Animales (IACUC) está obligado a investigar cualquier queja relacionada al trato y cuidado

Johnston, Daniel

422

Los conceptos de "estructura" y "modelo" como ejemplo paradigmtico transdiciplinar en las Ciencias Humanas y Sociales  

E-print Network

1 Los conceptos de "estructura" y "modelo" como ejemplo paradigmático transdiciplinar en las Ciencias Humanas y Sociales Mgster. Ferro, María Virginia. Introducción: Los conceptos de "estructura" y a los diferentes sentidos de "estructura" y "modelo". Luego se presenta bajo la mirada de la Concepción

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

La hipnosis como adjunto en el tratamiento del hábito de fumar. Estudio de caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 33 años con dependencia a la nicotina que lle vaba 9 años fu- mando una media de 35 cigarrillos diarios. Intentó dejarlo hace 3 años pero tuvo una recaída a los seis meses por problemas de ansiedad y continuó con su adicción. El tr atamiento tuvo como objetivo que la paciente dejara

María Elena; Mendoza Figueroa

2000-01-01

424

Optical and structural characterization of the Co/Mo2C/Y system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal behaviour of a tri-layer multilayer, designed by inserting a third material, yttrium, into the previously studied Co/Mo2C system. The system is designed to work at near-normal incidence at the wavelength of 14.1 nm. The theoretical reflectivity of Co-based multilayer (Co/Mo2C/Y system) is improved up to 54% after the addition of yttrium. Two types of multilayers with different orders of yttrium layer are deposited: Co/Mo2C/Y and Co/Y/Mo2C. The samples are annealed up to 600 °C. The multilayers were characterized using hard x-ray and extreme ultraviolet reflectivity, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the reflectivity of the Co/Mo2C/Y multilayer is 27.5% at near normal incidence around 14.6 nm for as-deposited sample, and then it decreases gradually after annealing up to 600 °C. A significant period compression is observed from 300 °C annealing and above. The Co/Y/Mo2C multilayer shows low reflectivity, less than 2.5%. NMR spectra reveal that the pure Co layers are completely mixed with other elements since there is no signal from ferromagnetic Co in the annealing samples of the Co/Mo2C/Y multilayer and all Co/Y/Mo2C samples. Based on the NMR and XRD results, we fit the EUV data for both multilayers with two different models in one period taking into account the formation of the interfacial compounds.

Yuan, Yanyan; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel; Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao; Mény, Christian; Jonnard, Philippe

2014-10-01

425

Alejarse como proceso social: ni?os y ancianos <> en Ayacucho1  

PubMed Central

En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

Leinaweaver, Jessaca

2013-01-01

426

T-SNAKES Y TRIANGULACIN DE DELAUNAY COMO MTODO DE GENERACIN DE MALLADOS DE ESTRUCTURAS  

E-print Network

T-SNAKES Y TRIANGULACI�N DE DELAUNAY COMO M�TODO DE GENERACI�N DE MALLADOS DE ESTRUCTURAS}@opalo.ciens.ucv.ve RESUMEN La segmentación de estructuras anatómicas a partir de imágenes médicas y la reconstrucción de una representación compacta analítica de estas estructuras es un problema retador. Este trabajo utiliza la técnica de

Coto, Ernesto

427

Beiträge zur Großgefiedermauser der Schleiereule, Tyto alba guttata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Großgefiedermauser der Schleiereule wurde von 1969 bis 1972 an 34 Exemplaren untersucht. Die erste Mauser der Jungvögel dauerte drei Jahre und unterschied sich im Rhythmus von der der Altvögel, jedoch nicht im Modus. Die erste Vollmauser kann in drei Mauserphasen, die dem zweiten bis vierten Lebensjahr entsprechen, eingeteilt werden. Sie verlief bei den Handschwingen von einem Focus bei

Manfred Schönfeld; Rudolf Piechocki

1974-01-01

428

Biometrics of Sanderlings Calidris alba from the Taimyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric data were collected for Sanderlings breeding at northern Taimyr in 1982–92. They allowed the calculation of discriminant functions, using wing, bill and (or) total head lengths, for sexing Sanderlings, belonging to Siberian population. Geographic comparisons revealed that birds from Taimyr have shorter bills than birds on South African wintering grounds, which leaves the problem of origin of long?billed South?African

Mikhail Yu. Soloviev; Pavel S. Tomkovich

1995-01-01

429

Mutant Groups in Nature, Gentiana campestris var. alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. JULIAN HUXLEY (NATURE, October 3, 1925, p. 497) may be glad to know that his example of mutant white-flowered Gentiana campestris has its analogue in Zetland. There, on the slopes of Whiteness Voe, is a very large group of white-flowered specimens, outnumbering the normal form, and I saw several good-sized patches in the remote island of Balta. There is

G. Claridge Druce

1926-01-01

430

Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) of Rosales trees in Iran: two new species and three new records.  

PubMed

This paper describes two new species of Eriophyoidea associated with trees belonging to the order Rosales in the south-western portion of East Azerbaijan province, Iran, collected during a survey in 2011: Aceria lobolinguae n. sp. on Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae) and Rhinophytoptus nemalobos n. sp. on Prunus domestica L. (Rosaceae). Additionally, Phyllocoptes abaenus Keifer on Prunus armeniaca L. (Rosaceae), Aculus fockeui (Nalepa & Trouessart) on Prunus amygdalus Stokes and Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae), and Aceria mori (Keifer) on Morus alba L. (Moraceae) were collected and are new records for the mite fauna of Iran. New locality records and host plant data are provided for Eriophyes similis (Nalepa), Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) and Calepitrimerus baileyi (Keifer) which are eriophyoid species previously known from Iran.  PMID:25283393

Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Lillo, Enrico De

2014-01-01

431

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

432

University of Hawaii-Botany Department: Vascular Plant Family Access Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by botanist Dr. Gerald D. Carr of the University of Hawaii, this website is filled with great annotated photos of vascular plants. The site is organized into sections for the non-flowering and flowering plant families. The plant families are organized according to several systems including traditional presentation, Arthur CronquistâÂÂs classification scheme (1981), and the phylogenetic outline of Judd et al. (2002). The site also offers a new integrated Alphabetical Index for Flowering Plant Families. Plant familiesâ are hyperlinked to an introductory paragraph accompanied by photos and information about selected species in that group. For example, the Moraceae section includes annotated photos for jack fruit (_Artocarpus heterophyllus_), climbing fig (_Ficus pumila_), and mulberry (_Morus alba_). The site also includes diagrams depicting non-flowering vascular plants as treated by Judd et al., and flowering plant relationships according to Cronquist.

Carr, Gerald D.

433

Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from pakistan.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5-53.3%, 491-1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83-327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9-54.0%, 201-2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110-1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages. PMID:22605997

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

434

Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en H? de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en H?. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

435

Association of leaf micro-morphological characters with powdery mildew resistance in field-grown mulberry (Morus spp.) germplasm  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Micro-morphological characteristics can influence fungal infectivity. We sought links between micro-morphology and resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry with the intention of assisting selection of disease-resistant lines. Methodology Over 3 years and under field conditions, we evaluated 30 lines of mulberry with contrasting susceptibilities to powdery mildew (15 resistant and 15 susceptible). Disease severity was related statistically to stomatal area, stomatal density, stomatal index, upper and lower cuticular thicknesses, leaf thickness and trichome density. Principal results Differences between lines were significant (P <0.05) for all characters studied. Variation between the resistant and susceptible groups was statistically highly significant (P <0.01) for stomatal index, stomatal area and trichome density. The powdery mildew-resistant group was distinguished by  17.4 % lower stomatal density, 12.5 % smaller stomatal index per unit leaf area, 20.0 % greater trichome density and 18.0 % higher stomatal area compared with the susceptible group. Trichome density was negatively correlated with disease severity index and with the accumulative area under disease progression curves. Stomatal density was positively correlated with both measures of disease severity. Although stomatal area was negatively related to disease severity index (r = ?0.28; P <0.05), the correlation was weak. There was no statistically significant relationship between stomatal area and the accumulative area under disease progression curves. The germplasm was partitioned into seven sub-groups based on hierarchical cluster analysis derived from pooled disease severity index scores and three highly significant micro-morphological characters. Eighty per cent of the resistant germplasm accumulated in three cluster components (A1, A2 and B2) characterized by high trichome densities and a high stomatal density and stomatal index. Conclusions Resistance to powdery mildew in mulberry is associated with trichome and stomatal features rather than leaf and epidermal thicknesses. Trichome density, stomatal density and stomatal index are shown to be promising markers for screening powdery mildew resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:22476473

Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ali, Kabiul Akhter; Doss, S. Gandhi; Das, Nirvan K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh K.; Bandopadhyay, Tapas K.; Sarkar, A.; Bajpai, A. K.

2011-01-01

436

DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACI?N ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA  

PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil

2012-01-01

437

????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????.  

E-print Network

?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???????, ??? ????????????? (Ardea cinerea), ??? ????????????? (Egretta alba) ??? ??? ???????????? (Egretta garzetta), ?? ???… (more)

?????????, ??????????

2001-01-01

438

Embarazo heterotópico en un ciclo de concepción natural presentado como embarazo ectópico roto. Informe de un caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Introducción: El embarazo heterotópico se define como ges- tación intrauterina que coexiste con otra de tipo ectópico. Es una entidad rara, en particular en paciente sin antecedentes de tratamiento contra la infertilidad. El objetivo de esta comuni- cación es informar de una paciente sin antecedente de fertili- zación in vitro o de tratamiento para la fertilidad, quien presen- tó

Karla Elena Domínguez-Meléndez; Héctor Sastré-Gómez; Francisco Higuera-Hidalgo; Armando Vargas-Domínguez; Felipe Rafael Zaldívar-Ramírez

2008-01-01

439

Sediment input and evolution of lacustrine deltas: The Breggia and Greggio rivers case study (Lake Como, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution bathymetric survey is combined with Erosion Potential Method to unravel the spatial and time evolution of the deltas formed by the Breggia and Greggio rivers, in western branch of Lake Como (southern Alps, Italy). This data set provides information on changes in the geometry and depositional centres of these deltas from Holocene to Present. The morphology and structure

Daniela Fanetti; Luigina Vezzoli

2007-01-01

440

estudio recomendado aquellos pacientes síntomas específicos tales como: dolor extremidades pseudoclaudicación síntomas atípicos. través información espero pueda enriquecer formación quieran leerlos.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for estudio recomendado aquellos pacientes síntomas específicos tales como: dolor extremidades pseudoclaudicación síntomas atípicos. través información espero pueda enriquecer formación quieran leerlos. ?

441

A review of "Blown by the Spirit: Puritanism and the Emergence of an Antinomian Underground in Pre-Civil War England" by David Como.  

E-print Network

yeasty mix of competing discourses. Sometimes the cause is attributed, far less probably, to the proto- feminist disposition of Anne Hutchinson, considered by some to be a cultural heroine martyred by powerful elite male persecutors. Oddly, not enough... contem- plated settlement in New England as if his views would not be problematic there. Como rightly suggests that Howes? case indi- cates the blurred boundaries among competing doctrinal positions within Puritan culture. Whereas Como delves...

William J. Scheick

2004-01-01

442

Nexo casual deve ser comprovado para se caracterizar a responsabilidade do Para ficar caracterizada a responsabilidade subjetiva, assim como a objetiva, alm da  

E-print Network

primeiro grau. Para o tribunal, ficou caracterizada a responsabilidade civil do município, uma vez queNexo casual deve ser comprovado para se caracterizar a responsabilidade do Estado Para ficar caracterizada a responsabilidade subjetiva, assim como a objetiva, além da investigação de culpa do agente, tem

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

443

Da 17/01/2014 -11.49h Identifican las sustancias qumicas que las reinas de especies como hormigas, abejas y  

E-print Network

como las abejas, avispas, abejorros y algunas hormigas utilizan la La reina del sexo: por qué solo una puede reproducirse - ABC.es http://www.abc.es/ciencia/20140117/abci-reina-sexo-solo-puede-201... 1 of 3 dificultades que encontró Darwin", La reina del sexo: por qu

Wenseleers, Tom

444

Un estudio de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud indica que dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger tanto como el tratamiento completo  

Cancer.gov

Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para evaluar la eficacia de Cervarix en una población determinada.

445

Identification and expression profiling of drought-regulated genes in mulberry ( Morus sp.) by suppression subtractive hybridization of susceptible and tolerant cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry, the backbone of sericulture industry, is a rainfed crop, and its biomass production is affected adversely under\\u000a drought conditions. In this study, genes expressed differentially during drought stress response have been examined by PCR-Select\\u000a subtractive hybridization. The sensitive and tolerant genotypes were identified based on physiological evaluation by determination\\u000a of proline content, electrolyte leakage, and measurement of relative water

Vibha Gulyani; Paramjit Khurana

2011-01-01

446

Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics. PMID:20102198

Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

2010-02-24

447

Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.  

PubMed

Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343

Keena, M A

2003-02-01

448

Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

PubMed Central

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

449

Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.  

PubMed

The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well, and be used as candidate for the construction of riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. PMID:25265326

Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

2014-01-01

450

XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo \\/ Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur

C. Pichon; A. D. Gandubert; C. Legens; D. Guillaume

2007-01-01

451

Percepci?n de competencia y adiestramiento profesional especializado relativos al VIH/SIDA en estudiantes y profesionales de la salud: el estigma como un indicador de necesidad  

PubMed Central

El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud. PMID:20011236

RODRIGUEZ, Yarimar ROSA; DIAZ, Nelson VARAS

2009-01-01

452

Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba  

PubMed Central

The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks’ feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1 m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird. PMID:20637873

Pabisch, S.; Puchegger, S.; Kirchner, H.O.K.; Weiss, I.M.; Peterlik, H.

2010-01-01

453

Desiccation and nitrous oxide storage effects on the recalcitrant seeds of Quercus alba and Q macrocarpa.  

E-print Network

??Sensitivity to desiccation of recalcitrant seeds of the Leucobalanus subgenus of Quercus poses limitations to successful storage and regeneration efforts. My three studies evaluated different… (more)

Iakovoglou, Valasia

2005-01-01

454

REGION, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ALBA COUNTY: TOWARDS A BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE  

E-print Network

strategy is in progress, only the analysis stage being completed, this paper will provide some personal on 4 pillars: socio, economic, cultural and spatial. The main aim of the strategy is to balance both strategy is in progress, only the analysis stage being completed, this paper will provide some personal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

Tonotopic and Somatotopic Representation in the Nucleus basalis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the somatosensory and auditory representations in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl. In pigeons and finches, the nucleus basalis contains a representation of the beak and an auditory area. In the barn owl, the nucleus basalis also contains a complete somatotopic map of the head and body (as in the budgerigar), with a tonotopically organized auditory

J. M. Wild; M. F. Kubke; C. E. Carr

2001-01-01

456

DIET OF THE BAP, N OWL (TYTO ALBA TUIDARA) IN NORTHWESTERN ARGENTINE PATAGONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

where nwas the nnmber of individuals of the ith species and w, was the mean weight. We also determined the mean length of rodents consunred after .Jaksiet al. (1977): MLR =  fx\\/m, where f was the frequency of the i species in the diet, x, was mean body length, and m the total number of identified rodents. Mean weight

MARTA S. PILtDO; ANA TREJO

457

Breeding success of barn owls ( Tyto alba ) fed low levels of DDE and dieldrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of two organochlorine pesticides in the recent reproductive failure of raptors was investigated. Captive barn owls were fed 3.0 ppm DDE and 0.5 ppm dieldrin; doses were given separately and in combination for two years. Breeding success wa