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1

Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum

2

Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

3

Mulberroside F Isolated from the Leaves of Morus alba Inhibits Melanin Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of an 85% methanol extract of dried Morus alba leaves on melanin biosynthesis, which is closely related to hyperpigmentation. These extracts inhib- ited the tyrosinase activity that converts dopa to dopachrome in the biosynthetic process of melanin. Mulberro- side F (moracin M-6, 39-di-O-bb-D-glucopyranoside), which was obtained after the

Sang Hee Lee; Sang Yoon Choi; Hocheol Kim; Jae Sung Hwang; Byeong Gon Lee; Jian Jun Gao; Sun Yeou Kim

2002-01-01

4

Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Morus alba is an important plant for sericulture and has a high medicinal value. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with antiparasitic activity were isolated from the root bark of M. alba by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structures were determined by pectroscopic analys...

5

Hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and vascular protective effects of Morus alba L. in rats fed an atherogenic diet.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and almost all parts of this plant are useful in cardiovascular, liver and spleen disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of a water extract from Morus alba L. (WMA) on vascular dysfunction in rat models fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of food with 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg WMA, for 14 weeks. Chronic treatment with low (100 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/day/kg) doses of WMA markedly attenuated hypertension and the impairments of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA reduced intima/media thickness in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA improved plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but did not affect blood glucose levels. Interestingly, WMA suppressed increased cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the aorta. Taken together, these results suggested that Morus alba L. could improve an atherogenic diet-induced hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and vascular dysfunction through inhibition of cell adhesion molecules expression and induction of vascular relaxation. PMID:21213397

Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kwon, Tae Oh; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2011-01-01

6

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

7

[Effects of Morus alba and Setaria italica intercropping on their plant growth and diurnal variation of photosynthesis].  

PubMed

A field investigation was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Morus aIba and Setaria italica on their dry matter production, land use efficiency, and diurnal variation of leaf photosynthesis. Under intercropping, the plant height, basal diameter, root length, and branch number of M. alba increased by 6.0%, 13.7%, 6.8%, and 14.8%, respectively, and the leaf yield of M. alba was increased by 31.3%, as compared with monoculture M. alba. In contrast, the plant height and root length of intercropped S. italica had no significant difference with those of monoculture S. italica. Intercropping enhanced the equivalent ratio and use efficiency of arable land. For both M. alba and S. italica in monoculture or intercropping, their leaf photosynthetic depression all occurred at midday (12 :00), but the leaf photosynthetic depression of monoculture M. alba was heavier than that of intercropped M. alba. Intercropping promoted the leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) and water use efficiency (WUE) of M. alba at midday, increased the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of M. alba, and inhibited the decline of M. alba leaf actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (phi(PS II)), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and the maximal photochemical of PS II (F(v)/F(m)) , which might contribute to alleviate the leaf photosynthetic depression of M. alba at midday. It was concluded that M. alba and S. italica intercropping could obviously improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity of M. alba. PMID:23173454

Zhu, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Xu, Nan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Shi-Dan; Mu, Shi-Nan; Liang, Ming; Sun, Guang-Yu

2012-07-01

8

Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.  

PubMed

Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants. PMID:25647798

Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

2015-03-01

9

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit. PMID:23936259

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

10

Iron Oxide Impregnated Morus alba L. Fruit Peel for Biosorption of Co(II): Biosorption Properties and Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Biosorption is an ecofriendly wastewater treatment technique with high efficiency and low operating cost involving simple process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In the present investigation, Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (MAFP) and iron oxide impregnated Morus alba L. fruit peel powder (IO-MAFP) were prepared and used for treating Co(II) contaminated aqueous solutions. Further the materials were characterized by using FTIR and SEM-EDX analysis. From FT-IR analysis it was found that hydroxyl, methoxy, and carbonyl groups are responsible for Co(II) biosorption. The kinetic data obtained for both biosorbents was well fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data was in tune with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies were also carried and it was observed that sorption process was endothermic at 298–328?K. These studies demonstrated that both biosorbents were promising, efficient, economic, and biodegradable sorbents. PMID:24324384

Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Chang, Yoon-Young; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

11

Purification of mulberry ( Morus alba L.) polyphenol oxidase by affinity chromatography and investigation of its kinetic and electrophoretic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on native and SDS–poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. Optimum PPO activity as a function of pH and temperature was determined using

Oktay Arslan; Mahmut Erzengin; Selma Sinan; Ozen Ozensoy

2004-01-01

12

Analysis and characterisation of phytochemicals in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruits grown in Vojvodina, North Serbia.  

PubMed

In this study, the polyphenolic profile of 11 Morus alba fruits grown in the Vojvodina region was investigated. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer, and UHPLC coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the identification and quantification of the polyphenols, respectively. A total of 14 hydroxycinnamic acid esters, 13 flavonol glycosides, and 14 anthocyanins were identified in the extracts with different distributions and contents according to the sampling. The total phenolic content ranged from 43.84 to 326.29 mg GAE/100g frozen fruit. The radical scavenging capacity (50.18-86.79%), metal chelating ability (0.21-8.15%), ferric ion reducing power (0.03-38.45 ?M ascorbic acid) and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (16.53-62.83%) were assessed. The findings indicated that mulberry polyphenolics may act as potent superoxide anion radical scavengers and reducing agents. PMID:25308652

Nati?, Maja M; Dabi?, Dragana ?; Papetti, Adele; Fotiri? Akši?, Milica M; Ognjanov, Vladislav; Ljubojevi?, Mirjana; Teši?, Živoslav Lj

2015-03-15

13

Antihyperlipidemic effects of stilbenoids isolated from Morus alba in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MUL) was purified from an ethanol extract of Morus alba root, and oxyresveratrol (OXY) was produced by enzymatic conversion of MUL. Normal rats, Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats, and high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were orally treated with MUL or OXY (1-5mg/kg/day). MUL and OXY were administered 1h prior to concomitant treatment with Triton WR-1339 for a further 24h, whereas the drugs were administered concurrently with HCD for 4weeks. Oral MUL and OXY pre-treatment vs. water pre-treatment of Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, or "good" cholesterol) levels were increased. Oral MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-fed rats also showed a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in serum lipids, coronary artery risk index (CRI), and atherogenic index (AI), but not HDL-C. Furthermore, MUL and OXY treatment of HCD-induced hyperlipidemic rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent improvement in the histological features of hepatic fatty degeneration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values in OXY-treated normal rats were not significantly different from those in water-treated control rats. These results indicate that MUL and OXY might be developed as novel antihyperlipidemic agents. PMID:24407019

Jo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Lim, Young-Hee

2014-03-01

14

Antiosteoporotic Effect of Combined Extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum  

PubMed Central

Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200–220?g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300?mg·kg?1 BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required. PMID:25478061

Sungkamanee, Sudarat; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

2014-01-01

15

Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark  

PubMed Central

Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-?B activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking I?B-? degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3?. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

2014-01-01

16

The study of hypoglycemic effects of the Morus alba L. leave extract and histology of the pancreatic islet cells in diabetic and normal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects and histological changes of pancreatic islets after receiving Morus alba leave extract in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg\\/kg) intraperitoneally. All diabetic rats were divided into 5 groups, each of which was orally received one of the following; vehicle, glibenclamide and

Suphaket Saenthaweesuk; Amornnat Thuppia; Pornrut Rabintossaporn; Kornkanok Ingkaninan; Seewaboon Sireeratawong

17

Antioxidant activities and polyphenol content of Morus alba leaf extracts collected from varying regions  

PubMed Central

Morus alba leaf (MAL), also known as Mori folium when used as a herbal medicine, has traditionally been used in Chinese medicine to treat diabetes, protect the liver and lower blood pressure. In the present study, MAL was collected from various regions in Korea and the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents and main flavonoid contents was investigated. MAL were collected from various areas in Korea and extracted with methanol. The total polyphenol contents were evaluated based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method using a spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay method. The identification and quantification of three main polyphenol constituents was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection analysis. The total polyphenol contents of the MAL extracts varied between 23.2 and 55.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The radical scavenging activity (SC50) of the MAL extracts ranged between 584 and 139 ?g/ml. Three flavonol compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin and astragalin) were identified as main polyphenol constituents. These contents varied from 0.68–12.7, 0.69–9.86 and 0.05–3.55 mg/g, respectively. The average of the total was 9.52 mg/g, which was similar to that of commercial MAL extracts (10.58 mg/g). Among the three flavonol compounds, isoquercitrin showed the highest content (5.68 mg/g) followed by rutin (3.1 mg/g) and astragalin (2.4 mg/g). In the present study, the radical scavenging activity, polyphenol content and flavonol content of MAL were significantly different according to growing area. These three flavonol compounds were identified as main constituents of MAL in this study, and are known to have various biological activities, as well as strong antioxidant activities. Therefore, the sum of these three flavonol compounds was indicated as a good marker for the quality control of Mori folium. PMID:25054010

KIM, DONG-SEON; KANG, YOUNG MIN; JIN, WEN YI; SUNG, YOON-YOUNG; CHOI, GOYA; KIM, HO KYOUNG

2014-01-01

18

Volatile glycosides from the leaves of Morus alba with a potential contribution to the complex anti-diabetic activity.  

PubMed

The leaves and root bark of Morus alba, the white mulberry tree, are well-known traditional medicines for the treatment of type II diabetes. Several different types of constituents have been suggested to be responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of mulberry drugs, such as iminosugars, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds, glycopeptides and ecdysteroids. Our group recently suggested that a volatile-oil like fraction of the hot water extract of M. alba leaves, containing several phenyl-propane derivatives, can increase the glucose consumption of adipocytes. Here we report the isolation of three glycosylated volatile constituents from mulberry leaves, two megastigmane derivatives along with the beta-D-glucoside of eugenol. Furthermore, a commercially available mixture of probiotic bacteria was assessed to study the effect of the intestinal flora on the megastigmane derivatives. Significant amounts of the aglycons of both compounds were liberated, suggesting that these compounds can be metabolized in the large intestines and absorbed without the sugar moiety after the consumption of a traditional mulberry tea. Based on literature data, both the glycosides and their aglycons have a potential contribution to the beneficial effects of mulberry leaves in type 2 diabetes. PMID:24689274

Hunyadi, Attila; Herke, Ibolya; Veres, Katalin; Erdei, Anna; Simon, András; Tóthb, Gábor

2014-02-01

19

Effects of Morus alba L. and Natural Products Including Morusin on In Vivo Secretion and In Vitro Production of Airway MUC5AC Mucin  

PubMed Central

Background It is valuable to find the potential activity of regulating the excessive mucin secretion by the compounds derived from various medicinal plants. We investigated whether aqueous extract of the root bark of Morus alba L. (AMA), kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, and morusin significantly affect the secretion and production of airway mucin using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods Effect of AMA was examined on hypersecretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced acute bronchitis in rats. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G, or morusin for 30 minutes and then stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 24 hours. The MUC5AC mucin secretion and production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results AMA stimulated the secretion of airway mucin in sulfur dioxide-induced bronchitis rat model; aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, kuwanon E, kuwanon G, mulberrofuran G and morusin inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA from NCI-H292 cells, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that extract of the root bark and the natural products derived from Morus alba L. can regulate the secretion and production of airway mucin and, at least in part, explains the folk use of extract of Morus alba L. as mucoregulators in diverse inflammatory pulmonary diseases. PMID:25237377

Lee, Hyun Jae; Ryu, Jiho; Park, Su Hyun; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Kim, A Ryun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Ju-Ock; Hong, Jang-Hee

2014-01-01

20

Morus alba L. suppresses the development of atopic dermatitis induced by the house dust mite in NC/Nga mice  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba, a medicinal plant in Asia, has been used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. However, the effects of M. alba extract (MAE) on atopic dermatitis have not been verified scientifically. We investigated the effects of MAE on atopic dermatitis through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We evaluated the effects of MAE on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7, as well as thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) in HaCaT cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for four weeks, and the protective effects of MAE were investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, the plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine, and histopathological changes in the skin on the back and ears. Results MAE suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, as well as TARC in HaCaT cells, in a dose-dependent manner. MAE treatment of NC/Nga mice reduced the severity of dermatitis and the plasma levels of IgE and histamine. MAE also reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the skin on the back and ears. Conclusion Our results suggest that MAE has potent inhibitory effects on atopic dermatitis-like lesion and may be a beneficial natural resource for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. PMID:24755250

2014-01-01

21

Analysis of Functional Constituents in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Twigs by Different Cultivars, Producing Areas, and Heat Processings  

PubMed Central

Four functional constituents, oxyresveratrol 3?-O-?-D-glucoside (ORTG), oxyresveratrol (ORT), t-resveratrol (RT), and moracin (MC) were isolated from the ethanolic extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs by a series of isolation procedures, including solvent fractionation, and silica-gel, ODS-A, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their chemical structures were identified by NMR and FABMS spectral analysis. Quantitative changes of four phytochemicals in mulberry twigs were determined by HPLC according to cultivar, producing area, and heat processing. ORTG was a major abundant compound in the mulberry twigs, and its levels ranged from 23.7 to 105.5 mg% in six different mulberry cultivars. Three other compounds were present in trace amounts (<1 mg/100 g) or were not detected. Among mulberry cultivars examined, “Yongcheon” showed the highest level of ORTG, whereas “Somok” had the least ORTG content. Levels of four phytochemicals in the mulberry twigs harvested in early September were higher than those harvested in early July. Levels of ORTG and ORT in the “Cheongil” mulberry twigs produced in the Uljin area were higher than those produced in other areas. Generally, levels of ORTG and ORT in mulberry twigs decreased with heat processing, such as steaming, and microwaving except roasting, whereas those of RT and MC did not considerably vary according to heat processing. These results suggest that the roasted mulberry twigs may be useful as potential sources of functional ingredients and foods. PMID:24551827

Choi, Sang Won; Jang, Yeon Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin; Leem, Hyun Hee; Kim, Eun Ok

2013-01-01

22

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

23

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

24

White Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)  

PubMed Central

Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7?g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7?g/Kg?DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7?g/Kg?DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7?g/kg?DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish. PMID:25574488

Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R.; Webster, Carl D.; Meng, Goh Yong

2014-01-01

25

Flavonoid 4?-O-Methylkuwanon E from Morus alba Induces the Differentiation of THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Aims. In this work we studied cytodifferentiation effects of newly characterized prenyl flavonoid 4?-O-methylkuwanon E (4ME) isolated from white mulberry (Morus alba L.). Main Methods. Cell growth and viability were measured by dye exclusion assay; cell cycle and surface antigen CD11b were monitored by flow cytometry. For the cytodifferentiation of cells the NBT reduction assay was employed. Regulatory proteins were assessed by western blotting. Key Findings. 4ME induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of THP-1 cells, which was not accompanied by toxic effect. Inhibition of cells proliferation caused by 4ME was associated with the accumulation in G1 phase and with downregulation of hyperphosphorylated pRb. Treatment with 4ME led to significant induction of NBT-reducing activity of PMA stimulated THP-1 cells and upregulation expression of differentiation-associated surface antigen CD11b. Our results suggest that monocytic differentiation induced by 4ME is connected with up-regulation of p38 kinase activity. Significance. Our study provides the first evidence that 4ME induces the differentiation of THP-1 human monocytic leukemia cells and thus is a potential cytodifferentiating anticancer agent. PMID:25737734

Bárta, Tomáš; Keltošová, Stanislava; Trnová, Pavlína; Müller Závalová, Veronika; Šmejkal, Karel; Fedr, Radek; Sou?ek, Karel; Hampl, Aleš

2015-01-01

26

Identification and Effect of Two Flavonoids from Root Bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in Grass Carp.  

PubMed

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

2015-02-11

27

Neuroprotective Effect of Prenylated Arylbenzofuran and Flavonoids from Morus alba Fruits on Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Injury in HT22 Hippocampal Cells.  

PubMed

A prenylated arylbenzofuran and six flavonoids were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba L. through silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopic data, the chemical structures of the compounds were determined to be artoindonesianin O (1), isobavachalcone (2), morachalcone A (3), quercetin (4), astragalin (5), isoquercetin (6), and rutin (7). The isolated compounds were evaluated for protection of HT22-immortalized hippocampal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited protective effects with EC50 values of 19.7±1.2 and 35.5±2.1 ?M, respectively. The major compounds 1-3 and 7 were quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and were determined to be 1.88±2.1, 1.90±1.8, 0.78±1.5, and 37.29±2.2?mg/kg, respectively, in the ethanol extract of M. alba L. fruits. PMID:25514545

Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Young-Eon; Hong, Eock-Kee; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In

2015-04-01

28

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4'-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4'-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. PMID:23762124

Kollar, Peter; Bárta, Tomáš; Hošek, Jan; Sou?ek, Karel; Závalová, Veronika Müller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Smejkal, Karel; Suchý, Pavel; Hampl, Aleš

2013-01-01

29

Prenylated Flavonoids from Morus alba L. Cause Inhibition of G1/S Transition in THP-1 Human Leukemia Cells and Prevent the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Morus alba L. (MA) is a natural source of many compounds with different biological effects. It has been described to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of three flavonoids isolated from MA (kuwanon E, cudraflavone B, and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E) and to determine their effects on proliferation of THP-1 cells, and on cell cycle progression of cancer cells. Anti-inflammatory effects were also determined for all three given flavonoids. Methods used in the study included quantification of cells by hemocytometer and WST-1 assays, flow cytometry, western blotting, ELISA, and zymography. From the three compounds tested, cudraflavone B showed the strongest effects on cell cycle progression and viability of tumor and/or immortalized cells and also on inflammatory response of macrophage-like cells. Kuwanon E and 4?-O-methylkuwanon E exerted more sophisticated rather than direct toxic effect on used cell types. Our data indicate that mechanisms different from stress-related or apoptotic signaling pathways are involved in the action of these compounds. Although further studies are required to precisely define the mechanisms of MA flavonoid action in human cancer and macrophage-like cells, here we demonstrate their effects combining antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. PMID:23762124

Bárta, Tomáš; Sou?ek, Karel; Závalová, Veronika Müller; Artinian, Shushan; Talhouk, Rabih; Šmejkal, Karel; Suchý, Pavel; Hampl, Aleš

2013-01-01

30

Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background The first aim of this study was to clarify the effective ratio of extractive from leaves of Morus Alba (ELM) to sucrose so as to apply this knowledge to the preparation of confections that could effectively suppress the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and insulin. The second aim was to identify the efficacy of confections prepared with the optimally effective ratio determined from the first study, using healthy human subjects. Methods Ten healthy females (22.3 years, BMI 21.4 kg/m2) participated in this within-subject, repeated measures study. For the first aim of this study, the test solutions containing 30 g of sucrose and 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were repeatedly and randomly given to each subject. To identify the practically suppressive effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin, some confections with added ELM were prepared as follows: Mizu-yokan, 30 g of sucrose with the addition of 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Daifuku-mochi, 9.0 g of starch in addition to 30 g of sucrose and 1.5 or 3.0 g ELM; Chiffon-cake, 24 g of sucrose, starch, and 3.0 or 6.0 g of ELM, and were ingested by each subject. Blood and end-expiration were collected at selected periods after test food ingestion. Results When 30 g of sucrose with 1.2 or 3.0 g of ELM were ingested by subjects, the elevations of postprandial blood glucose and insulin were effectively suppressed (p < 0.01), and the most effective ratio of ELM to sucrose was evaluated to be 1:10. AUC (area under the curve) of breath hydrogen excretion for 6 h after the ingestion of an added 3 g of ELM significantly increased (p < 0.01). When AUCs-3h of incremental blood glucose of confections without ELM was 100, that of Mizu-yokan and Daifuku-mochi with the ratio (1:10) of ELM to sucrose was decreased to 53.4 and 58.2, respectively. Chiffon-cake added one-fourth ELM was 29.0. Conclusion ELM-containing confections for which the ratio of ELM and sucrose is one-tenth effectively suppress the postprandial blood glucose and insulin by inhibiting the intestinal sucrase, thus creating a prebiotic effect. The development of confections with ELM can therefore contribute to the prevention and the quality of life for prediabetic and diabetic patients. PMID:19602243

Nakamura, Mariko; Nakamura, Sadako; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2009-01-01

31

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression.  

PubMed

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells. PMID:23983799

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

32

UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10?mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4), 40.5% (week 5), and 22.0% (week 6) in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms. PMID:25802546

Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woo; Moore, Breanna; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Oh, Jin-Sun; Cleveland, Sabrina; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi

2015-01-01

33

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein  

PubMed Central

Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/? bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5?- and 3?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit peptide sequence) of the full length cDNA from M. alba. PMID:23284650

Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

2012-01-01

34

Quantitative analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and related Genera by HPTLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four aromatic compounds; oxyresveratrol (1), mulberroside A (2), cudraflavone C (3) and kuwanone J (4) were isolated from the stems of Morus rubra L. The quantitative determination of oxyresveratrol from M. rubra L., M. alba L. and related genera by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)...

35

Pityriasis Alba  

MedlinePLUS

... alba is unknown, though triggers may include: Heat Humidity Heavily scented detergents or soaps Abrasive clothing Smoke ... make sure that there is no yeast or fungus present, your physician may wish to scrape some ...

36

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

37

Alba Patera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 22 April 2002) The Science This image, centered near 46.5 N and 119.3 W (240.7 E), is on the northwestern flank of a large, broad shield volcano called Alba Patera. This region of Mars has a number of unique valley features that at first glance look dendritic much in the same pattern that rivers and tributaries form on Earth. A closer look reveals that the valleys are quite discontinuous and must form through a different process than surface runoff of liquid water that is common on Earth. A number of processes might have taken place at some point in the Martian past to form these features. Some of the broad valley features bear some resemblance to karst topography, where material is removed underground by melting or dissolving in groundwater causing the collapse of the surface above it. The long narrow valleys resemble surfaces where groundwater sapping has occurred. Sapping happens when groundwater reaches the surface and causes headward erosion, forming long valleys with fewer tributaries than is seen with valleys formed by surface water runoff. The volcano itself might have been a source of heat and energy, which played a role in producing surfaces that indicate an active groundwater system. The Story Fluid, oozing lava poured somewhat lazily over this area long ago. It happened perhaps thousands of times, over hundreds of thousands of Martian years, creating the nearly smooth, plaster-of-Paris-looking terrain seen today. (Small craters also dent the area, though they may deceive you and look like raised bumps instead. That's just a trick of the eye and the lighting - tilt your head to your left shoulder, and you should see the craters pit the surface as expected.) The lava flows came from a Martian 'shield' volcano named Alba Patera. Shield volcanoes get their name from their appearance: from above, they look like large battle shields lying face up to the sky as if a giant, geological warrior had lain them down. Perhaps one did if you think of a volcano as a 'geologic warrior,' that is. These volcanoes aren't too fierce, however. Because of the gentle layering of lava over time, they don't stand tall and angry against the horizon, but instead have relatively gentle slopes and are spread out over large areas. (On Earth, the Hawaiian Islands are examples of shield volcanoes, but you can't see much of their expanse, since they rise almost three miles from the ocean floor before popping out above the water's surface.) What's most interesting in this picture are all of the branching features that lightly texture the terrain. The patterns may look like those caused by rivers here on Earth, but geologists say that no surface streams on Mars were responsible. That's no disappointment, however, to those who'd like to find water on Mars, because there are still intriguing water-related possibilities here. Some of the broad valley features in this image look like karsts, a terrain found on Earth in Karst, a limestone area on the Adriatic Sea in modern-day Croatia, and in other world regions including France, China, the American Midwest, Kentucky, and Florida. Karst terrain on Earth is barren land with all kinds of caves, sinkholes, and underground rivers that excavate the subsurface, causing the surface above it to collapse. So, perhaps it's like that in this region on Mars as well. Future Martian spelunkers should be excited, because most caves on Earth are in karst areas. Other suggestions of water here are some long, narrow valleys that resemble Earth surfaces where groundwater has sapped away the terrain. Sapping occurs when groundwater erodes slopes, creating valleys. Water action can be concentrated at valley heads, leading to what is called their 'headward growth.' That may be what has happened here on Alba Patera as well. All of these features suggest the action of liquid water, but Mars is so cold, you might wonder if any water would have to be as frozen as the world it is on. Well . . . that depends! Remember that this area is part of a volcano, and volcanoes can put out

2002-01-01

38

Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulb...

39

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-09-01

40

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

41

Identification and characterization of the Enterobacter complex causing mulberry ( Morus alba ) wilt disease in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease\\u000a are browning of vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the symptoms of bacterial wilt disease\\u000a caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, symptoms of MWD generally started from the bottom of the plants and moved upward. In inoculation experiments, four selected\\u000a MWD strains

Guo-Fen Wang; Guan-Lin Xie; Bo Zhu; Jun-Sheng Huang; Bo Liu; Praphat Kawicha; Lesley Benyon; Yong-Ping Duan

2010-01-01

42

A new nepovirus identified in mulberry (Morus alba L.) in China.  

PubMed

An isometric virus was identified in mulberry leaves showing symptoms of mulberry mosaic leaf roll (MMLR) disease. Its genome consists of two (+)ssRNAs. RNA1 and RNA2 have 7183 and 3742 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the RNA1-encoded polyprotein and CP amino acid sequences, the properties of the the 3'-UTR of RNA1 and RNA2, and <75 % identity in the CP amino acid sequence, this virus is proposed to be a new member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup A. Since a causal relationship between this virus and MMLR has not been established, it is tentatively referred to as MMLR-associated virus. PMID:25577167

Lu, Quan-You; Wu, Zu-Jian; Xia, Zhi-Song; Xie, Lian-Hui

2015-03-01

43

Lipids of Bryonia alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid composition of the roots ofBryonia alba (Cucurbitaceae) have been studied: It consists of fractions of 3-acyloxy-24-alkyl(alkenyl)-cholest-7-enes (I), triacylglycerols\\u000a (II), 1,2-diacyl-3-monoglycopyranosyl-sn-glycerols (III), 1,2-diacyl-3-diglycopyranosyl-sn-glycerols (IV), 1,3-bis(3-sn-phosphatidyl)glycerols\\u000a (V), 3-sn-phosphatidylethanolamines (VI), 3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (VII), and methyl esters of fatty acids (VIII). The amount\\u000a of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipid fractions (I–VIII) is 60–94%, the main component being linolenic acid.

A. G. Panosyan; G. M. Avetisyan; M. N. Nikishchenko; V. A. Mnatsakanyan

1980-01-01

44

Micropropagation of Morus laevigata Wall. from mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants of 10-year-old tree of Morus laevigata on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5–5.0 mg.l-1) of benzyladenine (BA). Nodal segments taken from in vitro proliferated shoots gave further multiple shoots when cultured on the same basal medium containing 2.5 mg.l-1 BA. Repeated subculture resulted in rapid shoot multiplication at the average

M. Hossain; S. M. Rahman; A. Zaman; O. I. Joarder; R. Islam

1992-01-01

45

MorusDB: a resource for mulberry genomics and genome biology.  

PubMed

Mulberry is an important cultivated plant that has received the attention of biologists interested in sericulture and plant-insect interaction. Morus notabilis, a wild mulberry species with a minimal chromosome number is an ideal material for whole-genome sequencing and assembly. The genome and transcriptome of M. notabilis were sequenced and analyzed. In this article, a web-based and open-access database, the Morus Genome Database (MorusDB), was developed to enable easy-to-access and data mining. The MorusDB provides an integrated data source and an easy accession of mulberry large-scale genomic sequencing and assembly, predicted genes and functional annotations, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transposable elements (TEs), Gene Ontology (GO) terms, horizontal gene transfers between mulberry and silkworm and ortholog and paralog groups. Transcriptome sequencing data for M. notabilis root, leaf, bark, winter bud and male flower can also be searched and downloaded. Furthermore, MorusDB provides an analytical workbench with some built-in tools and pipelines, such as BLAST, Search GO, Mulberry GO and Mulberry GBrowse, to facilitate genomic studies and comparative genomics. The MorusDB provides important genomic resources for scientists working with mulberry and other Moraceae species, which include many important fruit crops. Designed as a basic platform and accompanied by the SilkDB, MorusDB strives to be a comprehensive platform for the silkworm-mulberry interaction studies. Database URL: http://morus.swu.edu.cn/morusdb. PMID:24923822

Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

2014-01-01

46

Alba Patera Windstreaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

These windstreaks are located northeast of Olympus Mons and southwest of Alba Patera. The lava flows the windstreaks occur on most likely originated from Alba Patera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 31.3, Longitude 235.1 East (124.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

47

Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archive (ALBA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composed of North American volunteers, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade was one of several international brigades that fought on the side of the Republicans against Franco's fascist Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War (1936-9). The ALBA was founded in 1975 by the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (VALB) to preserve the history of the Brigade's actions in Spain and the post-war activities of its veterans in America. Part of ALBA's mission includes supervising the comprehensive archive of materials related to the North American involvement in the Spanish Civil War at Brandeis University. At the ALBA site, users will find exhibits of posters and photos brought back by volunteers; contact information for researchers interested in using the archive; a high school curriculum entitled "Between the World Wars," downloadable in .pdf format; a brief history of the VALB and recent issues of its journal, The Volunteer (in .pdf format); a discussion list; and related links.

48

Alba Patera Channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 1 April 2004

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

The channel shown on the image is near the feature called Alba Patera. It was collected August 22, 2002 during northern spring season. The local time is 4:30pm. The image shows multiple possibly liquid formed channels.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.7, Longitude 241.5 East (118.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

49

Taraxastane glycosides from Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the dried whole plants of Eclipta alba (Ecliptae Herba, Chinese name Mo Han Lian) purchased in China, four new taraxastane triterpene glycosides, named eclalbasaponins VII–X were isolated, along with eclalbasaponins I–VI. The structures of eclalbasaponins VII–X were characterized as 3?,20?,16?- and 3?,20?,28-trihydroxytaraxastane glycosides, and their sulphated saponins on the basis of spectral data.

Shoji Yahara; Ning Ding; Toshihiro Nohara; Kazuo Masuda; Hiroyuki Ageta

1997-01-01

50

Quantitative Changes of Polyphenolic Compounds in Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves in Relation to Varieties, Harvest Period, and Heat Processing  

PubMed Central

Six polyphenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CA), rutin (RT), isoquercitrin (IQT), quercetin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (QMG), astragalin (AG), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-malonyl)-?-D-glucoside (KMG), were isolated from mulberry leaves by a series of isolation procedures, such as Diaion HP-20, silica-gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS-A column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the phenolic compounds were identified by UV and NMR spectral analyses. Levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves from six different mulberry cultivars ranged from 1,042.16 to 1,871.97 mg% per dry weight; Guksang cultivar showed the highest levels of polyphenols, whereas Gaeryangdaehwa contained the least polyphenol contents. Generally, levels of polyphenols in mulberry leaves decreased with increasing harvest time, except for Yoolmok, but increased with heat processing time, except QMG and KMG. These results suggest that the heat processed mulberry leaves of Guksang cultivar harvested in early May can be potentially useful sources for production of high quality mulberry leaf teas. PMID:24471097

Lee, Won Jeong; Choi, Sang Won

2012-01-01

51

Lead in the soil-mulberry (Morus alba L.)-silkworm (Bombyx mori) food chain: Translocation and detoxification.  

PubMed

The translocation of lead (Pb) in the soil-mulberry-silkworm food chain and the process of Pb detoxification in the mulberry-silkworm chain were investigated. The amount of Pb in mulberry, silkworm, feces and silk increased in a dose-responsive manner to the Pb contents in the soils. Mulberry roots sequestered most of the Pb, ranging from 230.78 to 1209.25mgkg(-1). Over 92% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was deposited in the cell wall, and 95.29-95.57% of the Pb in the mulberry leaves was integrated with oxalic acid, pectates and protein, and it had low bioavailability. The Pb concentrations in the silkworm feces were 4.50-4.64 times higher than those in the leaves. The synthesis of metallothioneins in three tissues of the silkworms was induced to achieve Pb homeostasis under Pb stress. These results indicated the mechanism involved in Pb transfer along the food chain was controlled by the detoxification of Pb in different trophic levels. Planting mulberry and rearing silkworm could be a promising approach for the remediation of Pb-polluted soils due to the Pb tolerance of mulberry and silkworm. PMID:25703900

Zhou, Lingyun; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Shuifeng; Han, Shasha; Liu, Jing

2015-06-01

52

Identification and Chacterization of new strains of Enterobacter spp. causing Mulberry (Morus alba) wilt disease in China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new mulberry wilt disease (MWD) was recently identified in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Typical symptoms of the disease are dark brown discolorations in vascular tissues, leaf wilt, defoliation, and tree decline. Unlike the bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, the leaf w...

53

Major Martian Volcanoes from MOLA - Alba Patera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two views of Alba Patera with topography draped over a Viking image mosaic. MOLA data have clarified the relationship between fault location and topography on and surrounding the Alba construct, providing insight into the volcanological and geophysical processes that shaped the edifice. The vertical exaggeration is 10:1.

2000-01-01

54

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

55

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128 Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

56

Elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra and Zizyphus jujuba and their biological activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 616.314-008.92 We have studied the elementary compositions of the fruits of Morus nigra L. and Zizyphus jujuba Mill. and their biological activities in order to determine the desirability of using these fruits as a component of toothpastes. The plants concerned are widely distributed in Uzbekistan and their fruits contain a considerable amount of such biologically active agents as tannin

U. Zh. Zhumatov

1996-01-01

57

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.  

E-print Network

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

Alvarez, Nadir

58

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate Alexandre Roulin*  

E-print Network

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources Alexandre Roulin* , Mathias K�lliker to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence; barn owl; begging; parent^o¡spring con£ict; sibling competition; Tyto alba 1. INTRODUCTION Models

Alvarez, Nadir

59

Eclalbatin, a Triterpene Saponin from Eclipta Alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with ?-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-0-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-0-?-D-arabino-pyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

R. K. Upadhyay; M. B. Pandey; R. N. Jha; V. B. Pandey

2001-01-01

60

Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

1991-01-01

61

Highly oxygenated sesquiterpenes in Artemisia alba Turra.  

PubMed

Ten new sesquiterpene alcohols of which seven germacranes, a eudesmane, a guaiane and an oplopane were isolated from the aerial parts of Artemisia alba Turra. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectral methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY, and MS). In addition, the known 7-hydroxycadin-4-en-3-one, centaureidin and axillarin were found for the first time in the studied species. PMID:25541045

Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Danova, Kalina; Simmons, Luke; Wolfram, Evelyn; Meier, Beat; Riedl, Rainer; Evstatieva, Luba

2015-02-01

62

[Chemical constituents of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk].  

PubMed

Ecliptasaponin C (1), a new triterpenoid glucoside, was isolated together with daucosterol (2) and stigmasterol-3-O-glucoside (3) from Eclipta alba. Based on spectral analysis, chemical evidence and hydrolytic results, it's structure was deduced as 3-beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-19beta-hydroxy olean-12-ene-28-oic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, Compounds 2 and 3 were obtained from Eclipta for the fist time. PMID:9642409

Zhang, M; Chen, Y

1996-08-01

63

Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Eclipta alba for sedative, muscle-relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress activities. The hydrolyzed fraction of the aqueous extract was also subjected to similar studies in rats. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were administered in a dose of 150 and 300mg\\/kg, p.o., while

V. D. Thakur; S. A. Mengi

2005-01-01

64

Eclalbatin, a triterpene saponin from Eclipta alba.  

PubMed

From the whole plant of Eclipta alba, a new triterpene saponin, named eclalbatin, together with alpha-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated. The structure of eclalbatin has been established as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-beta-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 28-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside (1) on the basis of chemical and spectral data. PMID:11491397

Upadhyay, R K; Pandey, M B; Jha, R N; Pandey, V B

2001-01-01

65

Microsatellite markers for the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the invasive species Bidens alba (Asteraceae) to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking its expansion in China. • Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for B. alba. The markers were tested on one population of B. alba (30 individuals) and one population of the closely related B. pilosa (30 individuals) in China. For B. alba, all of the markers were polymorphic, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 32. The expected heterozygosity values were from 0.3787 to 0.9284, and the Shannon–Wiener index was from 0.6796 to 2.8401. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating the genetic structure, genetic diversity, and invasion dynamics of B. alba and will also be useful in studies of B. pilosa. PMID:25202626

Lu, Yong-Bin; Huang, Dong-Ling; Wang, Xie; Wu, Zheng-Jun; Tang, Shao-Qing

2014-01-01

66

Sterols and sterol glycosides of Bryonia alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the roots ofBryonia alba contain cholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-methylenecholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylidenecholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethyl-4-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, 24-ethylidene-4-methylcholest-7-en-3ß-ol, and also previously undescribed 3-O-ß-glucopyranosides of the above-mentioned sterols.

A. G. Panosyan; G. M. Avetisyan; V. A. Mnatsakanyan

1977-01-01

67

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

68

Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Eclipta alba for sedative, muscle-relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress activities. The hydrolyzed fraction of the aqueous extract was also subjected to similar studies in rats. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were administered in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o., while the hydrolyzed fraction was administered in a dose of 30 mg/kg, p.o. The findings indicated nootropic activity of the aqueous extract (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and its hydrolyzed fraction (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The effect of the extracts on stress-induced alterations was evaluated. The aqueous extract and the hydrolyzed fraction provided protection against cold restraint induced gastric ulcer formation and also normalized the white blood cell count in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The hydroalcoholic extract on the other hand demonstrated a significant effect only in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The results point towards the potential neuropharmacological activity of the plant Eclipta alba as a nootropic and also having the property of attenuating stress induced alterations. Further neurochemical investigations can unravel the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to nootropic activity and help to establish the plant in the armamentarium of nootropic agents. PMID:16054316

Thakur, V D; Mengi, S A

2005-10-31

69

Phenolic constituents from the wood of Morus australis with cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

A new methylated flavonol, 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone (1), had been isolated from the methanol extract of the wood of Morus australis, along with nine known compounds, kuwanon C (2), morusin (3), morachalcone A (4), oxyresveratrol (5), 4'-(2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl)oxyresveratrol (6), moracins M (7) and C (8), alboctalol (9), and macrourin B (10). The structures of these compounds were determined based on spectral evidence, including UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectra. Cytotoxic properties of compounds 1-10 were evaluated against murine leukemia P-388 cells. The prenylated stilbene 6 and 2-arylbenzofuran 8, and morusin (3) were found to have strong cytotoxic effects with IC50 values of 6.9, 8.7, and 10.1 microM, respectively. PMID:18386485

Ferlinahayati; Syah, Yana M; Juliawaty, Lia D; Achmad, Sjamsul A; Hakim, Euis H; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Said, Ikram M; Latip, Jalifah

2008-01-01

70

Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits. PMID:25477663

Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Pawe?; Sroka, Pawe?; Pogo?, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

2014-12-01

71

Flavone C-glycosides from Bryonia alba and B. dioica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lutonarin was isolated from Bryonia alba and B. dioica. Five further C-glycosides: vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, saponarin were isolated from B. dioica together with saponarin caffeic ester, a new natural product.

Miroslawa Krauze-Baranowska; Wojciech Cisowski

1995-01-01

72

A virgin flight across the Tasman Sea? Satellite tracking of post-fledging movement in the Australasian Gannet Morus serrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies enable tracking of the route, duration, and destination of previously unassessed long-distance movements.\\u000a Fledgling Australasian Gannets Morus serrator from breeding populations in New Zealand had been reported to fly across the Tasman Sea to Australia, with this historic\\u000a knowledge derived from the recovery of banded carcasses and from observations of initial flight direction. We deployed Argos\\u000a satellite devices

Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Colin Hunter; Kevin Lay; Tamsin Ward-Smith; Peter R. Wilson; Mark E. Hauber

2010-01-01

73

Production of Intergeneric Hybrids Between Sinapis alba and Brassica carinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal crosses were made between Brassica carinata and its related species Sinapis alba. Pollen germination studies indicated the presence post-fertilization barriers in both ways. Sequential ovary–ovule culture\\u000a helped to realize the intergeneric hybrids from the cross S. alba B. carinata. The F1 obtained was confirmed as a hybrid based on morphology, cytology and isozyme studies. The hybrid was backcrossed to

O. Sridevi; N. Sarla

2005-01-01

74

Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.  

PubMed

Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity. PMID:22556585

Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

1992-01-01

75

2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)  

E-print Network

2nd Owl Symposium Breeding Biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British at the northern limit of its distribution. The Barn Owl (Tyto alba pratincola) is classified as "uncommon to very

76

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1*  

E-print Network

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes Alexandre Roulin1* , Thomas W. Jungi2 , Hedi P that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black

Richner, Heinz

77

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology in relation to breeding season climate-Gesellschaft e.V. 2013 Abstract Winter weather has a strong influence on Barn Owl (Tyto alba) breeding biology season place constraints on Barn Owl reproduction. Keywords Climate Á Reproduction Á Tyto alba Á Weather

Alvarez, Nadir

78

Flavonoids with ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities and their contents in the leaves of Morus atropurpurea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to isolate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory compounds from mulberry leaves (Morus atropurpurea Roxb., Moraceae) and to develop an analytical method for quantification of the compounds. Methods Four flavonoids, rutin (1), isoquercetin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3) and astragalin (4), were isolated by column chromatography from mulberry leaf water extracts (MWE). The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of MWE and the four isolated compounds were evaluated by a microplate-based in vitro assay. The content of the isolated flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves purchased from different local herbal stores or collected in different locations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The four flavonoids (1–4) showed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities, with rutin (1) and astragalin (4) showing high ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 values of 13.19?±?1.10 and 15.82?±?1.11 ?M, respectively). The total contents of the four flavonoids were different among eight samples examined, ranging from 4.34 mg/g to 0.53 mg/g. Conclusions The four flavonoids in M. atropurpurea leaves could inhibit ?-glucosidase activity. PMID:24125526

2013-01-01

79

Development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alba Patera volcano is located in the middle of an almost 3000 km long fossae grabe zone radial to the Tharsis bulge. Alba Patera construction is wide, but only 7 km high. It has the appearance of a large, central-vent shield volcano with very low slope angle. Huge volumes of lavas have erupted from its center and flank vents to build it. The viscosity of the lavas must have been relatively low allowing them to flow hundreds of kilometers along the gentle downslopes. Lava tubes and flows radiate from central Alba Patera, where complex calderas can be seen. The composition of the lava flows may be indicative to the Martian internal development. A deep magma generation has to be considered as a possible cause for low-viscous lavas.

Raitala, J.

80

Evaluation of antiaggressive activity of Eclipta alba in experimental animals.  

PubMed

The occurrence of aggression for prolonged periods of time could have a hazardous impact on the health and social wellbeing of the individual. Aggression can ensue due to exposure to an intimidating situation. Aggression is prominently seen when a disturbance occurs in the fine balance of neurotransmitters such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, gamma- aminobutyric acid, dopamine and their receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the ability of 100 and 200mg/kg of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba to circumvent aggression. Foot shock induced aggression and water competition test were utilized as models for screening of antiaggressive activity. Eclipta alba significantly minimized dominance (p<0.05) which is correlated to the level of aggression particularly with 200mg/kg in the water competition test. A tangible behavioral submission was observed with 100 and 200mg/kg and of Eclipta alba in the foot shock induced test. PMID:18390451

Lobo, Otilia J F; Banji, David; Annamalai, A R; Manavalan, R

2008-04-01

81

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

PubMed

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

82

Investigating Some Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Composition of Native Black Mulberry ( Morus nigra L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of seed and seed oil obtained from the native black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) were investigated in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that the seed consisted of 27.5–33% crude oil, 20.2–22.5% crude\\u000a protein, 3.5–6% ash, 42.4–46.6% carbohydrate and 112.2–152.0 mg total phenolics\\/100 g. Twenty different fatty acids were determined,\\u000a with the percentages varying from 0.02% myristic acid (C14:0)

Umit Gecgel; Serap Durakli Velioglu; Hasan Murat Velioglu

83

Indicain, a dimeric serine protease from Morus indica cv. K2.  

PubMed

A high molecular mass serine protease has been purified to homogeneity from the latex of Morus indica cv. K2 by the combination of techniques of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography. The protein is a dimer with a molecular mass of 134.5 kDa and with two monomeric subunits of 67.2 kDa and 67.3 (MALDI-TOF), held by weak bonds susceptible to disruption on exposure to heat and very low pH. Isoelectric point of the enzyme is pH 4.8. The pH and temperature optima for caseinolytic activity were 8.5 and 80 degrees C, respectively. The extinction coefficient (epsilon280(1%)) of the enzyme was estimated as 41.24 and the molecular structure consists of 52 tryptophan, 198 tyrosine and 42 cysteine residues. The enzyme activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonylflouride, chymostatin and mercuric chloride indicating the enzyme to be a serine protease. The enzyme is fairly stable and similar to subtilases in its stability toward pH, strong denaturants, temperature, and organic solvents. Polyclonal antibodies specific to enzyme and immunodiffusion studies reveal that the enzyme has unique antigenic determinants. The enzyme has activity towards broad range of substrates comparable to those of subtilisin like proteases. The N-terminal residues of indicain (T-T-N-S-W-D-F-I-G-F-P) exhibited considerable similarity to those of other known plant subtilases, especially with cucumisin, a well-characterized plant subtilase. This is the first report of purification and characterization of a subtilisin like dimeric serine protease from the latex of M. indica cv. K2. Owing to these unique properties the reported enzyme would find applications in food and pharma industry. PMID:18561962

Singh, Vijay Kumar; Patel, Ashok Kumar; Moir, A J; Jagannadham, Medicherla V

2008-08-01

84

Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

85

Barn owls ( Tyto alba ) use accommodation as a distance cue  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the role of ocular accommodation in the distance estimation during pecking in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Owls were trained to peck at pieces of food presented on a small platform (Fig. 2) while one eye was occluded to eliminate binocular distance cues (Fig. 1). The other eye was defocussed by spectacle lenses ( -4, -2, +2

Hermann Wagner; Frank Schaeffel

1991-01-01

86

Temporal modulation transfer functions in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barn owls (Tyto alba) have evolved several specializations in their auditory system to achieve the high sensory acuity required for prey capture, including superior processing of interaural time differences and phase coding in the auditory periphery. Here, we tested whether barn owls are capable of high temporal resolution that may be a prerequisite for the accuracy in binaural processing. Temporal

Micheal L. Dent; Georg M. Klump; Christian Schwenzfeier

2002-01-01

87

an interview with Richard Alba Extraordinary Lives: Patti Smith  

E-print Network

When racial boundaries fade an interview with Richard Alba Extraordinary Lives: Patti Smith What on the workforce, the family, and American society. EXTRAORDINARY LIVES: PATTI SMITH 12 This was the first featured the maximally talented Patti Smith--singer, songwriter, artist and poet--who spoke thoughtfully

Dennehy, John

88

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center  

E-print Network

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden www.biotech of micro and nanotechnologies for biotech applications. Nanobiotechnology is an emerging discipline as other internal and external research groups. Associate Prof. Helene Andersson Svahn (helenea@biotech

Lagergren, Jens

89

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center  

E-print Network

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden www.biotech differentially expressed genes. Head of Department: Prof. Joakim Lundeberg (joakim.lundeberg@biotech developed based on in-house magnetic bead technology. Prof. Joakim Lundeberg (joakim.lundeberg@biotech

Lagergren, Jens

90

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center  

E-print Network

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden www.biotech for Antibody Proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 6(1):125-132. Prof Mathias Uhlen (mathias@biotech.kth.se) Antibody-based proteomics 12 persons, including 4 graduate students Assoc prof Sophia Hober (sophia@biotech

Lagergren, Jens

91

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center  

E-print Network

Royal Institute of Technology AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden www.biotech-Ã?ke Nygren (perake@biotech.kth.se) Specific targeting. Based on selected affibody proteins, reagents implications on the design of future libraries (6). Prof. Per-Ã?ke Nygren (perake@biotech.kth.se) Rational

Lagergren, Jens

92

Relative ages of lava flows at Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many large lava flows on the flanks of Alba Patera are astonishing in their volume and length. As a suite, these flows suggest tremendously voluminous and sustained eruptions, and provide dimensional boundary conditions typically a factor of 100 larger than terrestrial flows. One of the most striking features associated with Alba Patera is the large, radially oriented lava flows that exhibit a variety of flow morphologies. These include sheet flows, tube fed and tube channel flows, and undifferentiated flows. Three groups of flows were studied; flows on the northwest flank, southeast flank, and the intracaldera region. The lava flows discussed probably were erupted as a group during the same major volcanic episode as suggested by the data presented. Absolute ages are poorly constrained for both the individual flows and shield, due in part to disagreement as to which absolute age curve is representative for Mars. A relative age sequence is implied but lacks precision due to the closeness of the size frequency curves.

Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.

1987-01-01

93

Evaluation of Anti -Inflammatory Activity of Eclipta alba in rats.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of the plant of Eclipta alba (Family - Asteraceae) was evaluated using carrageenin, mediators such as histamine and serotonin induced paw oedema, and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for their effect on acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats. Maximum inhibition (55.85%) was noted at the dose of 500 mg/kg after 3 hr of drug treatment in carrageenin induced paw oedema, whereas the Indomethacin (standard drug ) produced 61.30% of inhibition. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CEEA and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 49.7,41.5,22.1% and 53.48 % respectively. The results indicate the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Eclipta alba extract on animal models, which is compared with Indomethacin. PMID:22557164

Kumar, S Suresh; Sivakumar, T; Chandrasekar, M J N; Suresh, B

2005-01-01

94

Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We investigated the mechanisms by which the barn owl (Tyto alba) determines the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Our measure of localizing ability was the accuracy with which the owl oriented its head to a sound source.2.When localizing tonal signals, the owl committed the smallest errors at frequencies between 4 and 8 kHz. The azimuthal component of these

Eric I. Knudsen; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

95

Directional hearing in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustical properties of the external ear of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by measuring sound pressure in the ear canal and outer ear cavity. Under normal conditions, pressure amplification by the external ear reaches about 20 dB between 3–9 kHz but decreases sharply above 10 kHz. The acoustic gain curve of the outer ear cavity alone is

Roger B. Coles; Anna Guppy

1988-01-01

96

Chemical constituents of Osyris alba and their antiparasitic activities.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of Osyris alba L. (Santalaceae) of Jordanian origin resulted in the isolation and identification of one new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, osyrisine (1), together with 16 other known compounds. The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Osyrisine, catechin, and catechin-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside exhibited a significant level of antiparasitic activity against two parasites, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis. PMID:20839131

Al-Jaber, Hala I; Mosleh, Ibrahim M; Mallouh, Abdallah; Abu Salim, Omar M; Abu Zarga, Musa H

2010-09-01

97

Antihepatotoxic agent in micropropagated plantlets of Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for in vitro micropropagation of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk from nodal segment explants has been established. The maximum number of shoots was obtained after 60 days of culture in Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM benzyladenine. Multiple rooting was achieved using MS medium with 2.4 µM 2-isopentyladenine. Wedelolactone was present in shoots cultured in media

S. C. Franca; B. W. Bertoni; A. M. S. Pereira

1995-01-01

98

Optimization of wedelolactone accumulation in shoot cultures of Eclipta alba.  

PubMed

Influence of different environmental factors on accumulation of wedelolactone, a potential anti-hepatotoxic principle of E. alba in shoot cultures was investigated. A significant increase in the content of wedelolactone due to kinetin treatment, temperature change and photoperiod alteration in shoot cultures was observed. Incorporation of phenylalanine in the medium also increased content of wedelolactone significantly in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:15320508

Jayathirtha, M G; Mishra, S H

2003-12-01

99

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-10-15

100

Soil plant interactions of Populus alba in contrasting environments.  

PubMed

The effects of the Populus alba tree on different biochemical soil properties, growing in a contaminated area, were studied for two years under field conditions. Two types of trace element contaminated soils were studied: a neutral contaminated soil (NC) and an acid contaminated soil (AC). One neutral non-contaminated area was studied as control. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Leaves and litter samples were analysed. The addition of organic matter, through root exudates and litter, contributed to an increase in soil pH, especially in acid soil. Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC) was significantly increased by the presence of the trees in all studied areas, especially in the upper soil layer. Similar results were also observed for protease activity. Both MBC and Protease activity were more sensitive to contamination than ?-glucosidase activity. These changes resulted in a decrease of available trace element concentrations in soil and in an improvement of soil quality after a 2-year study. The total concentration of Cd and Zn in soil did not increase over time due to litter deposition. Analysis of P. alba leaves did not show a significant nutritional imbalance and trace element concentrations were normal for plants, except for Cd and Zn. These results indicate that P. alba is suitable for the improvement of soil quality in riparian contaminated areas. However, due to the high Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves, further monitoring of this area is required. PMID:24333744

Ciadamidaro, Lisa; Madejón, Engracia; Robinson, Brett; Madejón, Paula

2014-01-01

101

Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti).

M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

2011-01-01

102

A derivatization procedure for the simultaneous analysis of iminosugars and other low molecular weight carbohydrates by GC–MS in mulberry ( Morus sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different derivatization procedures were assayed to simultaneously analyse iminosugars such as deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or fagomine and other carbohydrates of low molecular weight by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in Morus sp. Both oximation+trimethylsilylation and oximation+acetylation allowed the separation of target compounds, whereas trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetylated derivatives showed several coelutions. Nevertheless, oximation+acetylation were discarded for giving inaccurate results

S. Rodríguez-Sánchez; O. Hernández-Hernández; A. I. Ruiz-Matute; M. L. Sanz

2011-01-01

103

ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS IN THE GULF OF  

E-print Network

ENDEMIC AND INTRODUCED VERTEBRATES IN THE DIET OF THE BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) ON TWO ISLANDS--Through the analysis of 458 barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets collected between 1981 and 1995 on 2 islands in the northern regurgitaciones de lechuza (Tyto alba) colectadas entre 1981 y 1995 en 2 islas del norte del Golfo de California

Medellín, Rodrigo

104

Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996  

E-print Network

Mortality Causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), Based on 1,101 Carcasses Examined During 1963-1996 I. Newton, I. Wyllie, and L. Dale1 Abstract.--During 1963-1996, 1,101 Barn Owl (Tyto alba) carcasses Owls (Tyto alba) breeding in Britain and some other parts of western Europe have declined during

105

Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

Muhr, Thomas

2010-01-01

106

Micropropagation of Eclipta alba and Eupatorium adenophorum using a single-step nodal cutting technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for the micropropagation of two traditional medicinal plants Eclipta alba (L.) and Eupatorium adenophorum (L.) from nodal segments were developed. Proliferated microshoots of Eclipta alba and Eupatorium adenophorum were obtained through axillary branching by culturing nodal segments in modified MS medium and half strength of MS, respectively,\\u000a with minimal strength of nutritional support. Simultaneous rooting could also be induced

M. Borthakur; K. Dutta; S. C. Nath; R. S. Singh

2000-01-01

107

Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

2013-03-01

108

Mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mode of antibacterial activity of Eclalbasaponin isolated from Eclipta alba, against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The probable chemical structure was determined by using various spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by well diffusion technique, pH sensitivity, chemotaxis, and crystal violet assays. Eclalbasaponin showed clear zone of inhibition against both Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibited growth inhibition at the pH range of 5.5-9.0. The isolated saponin exhibited its positive chemoattractant property for both bacterial strains. Results of crystal violet assay and the presence of UV-sensitive materials in the cell-free supernatant confirmed the cellular damages caused by the treatment of Eclalbasaponin. The release of intracellular proteins due to the membrane damage was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Changes in the cell surface structure and membrane disruption were further revealed by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The present study suggests that the isolated saponin from E. alba causes the disruption of the bacterial cell membrane which leads to the loss of bacterial cell viability. PMID:24013881

Ray, A; Bharali, P; Konwar, B K

2013-12-01

109

Antioxidant polyphenols from Populus alba growing in Georgia.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate natural antioxidant properties of Populus alba. The antioxidant effects in plants are mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and phenolic diterpenes. Oxidative damage is implicated in most diseases processes. In vitro studies are able to demonstrate for flavonols and flavones a considerable antioxidative activity, mainly based on scavenging of oxygen radicals. The antioxidative potential of different fractions (respective organic fractions of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) of 70% methanol extract of Populus alba was evaluated using free radical-scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ) assays. The methanol extract showed signi?cant (p<0.05) activities in all antioxidant assays and contained a high level of total phenolic content. It was observed that the level of hydrophilic phenolic content was higher than that of hydrophobics. Among those organic solvent fractions, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited signi?cant activities due to the highest level of total phenolic content and their IC50 values were 0.18±0.02 mg/mL, 0.26±0.03mg/mL and 0.28±0.02 mg/mL in DPPH, respectively. These activities were superior to those of a commercial natural antioxidants tested. The chloroform and hexan fractions also exhibited signi?cant (p<0.05) free radical-scavenging activity, attributed to the high amount of hydrophilic phenolics. PMID:22155814

Kuchukhidze, J; Jokhadze, M; Murtazashvili, T; Mshvildadze, V

2011-10-01

110

Selection of roost sites by Honduran white bats, Ectophylla alba (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae)  

E-print Network

Ectophylla alba H. Allen (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae), the Honduran white bat, was found to alter the leaves of five species of Heliconia (H. imbricata, H. laptispatha, H. pogonantha, H. tortuosa, and an undescribed ...

Timm, Robert M.; Mortimer, Jeanne

1976-04-01

111

Über die Großgefieder-Mauser eines gekäfigten Paares der Schleiereule (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die Mauser des Großgefieders vonTyto alba wurde an 2 gekäfigten Nestgeschwistern in 5 auf das Geburtsjahr folgenden Jahren untersucht. Ein Mausercyklus dauerte 2 Jahre und läuft in 3 unterschiedlichen Phasen wie folgt ab:

Rudolf Piechocki

1974-01-01

112

REGION, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ALBA COUNTY: TOWARDS A BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Cultural heritage, Development strategy, Policy, Tourism. International Conference of TerritorialPAPERS ON REGION, IDENTITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 103 ALBA COUNTY: TOWARDS A BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORY BASED ON ITS CULTURAL HERITAGE Marian AITAI Executive Director aitaim

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Effect of Eclipta alba on Acute Seizure Models: a GABAA-mediated Effect.  

PubMed

In the present study, anticonvulsant activity of methanol extract of Eclipta alba (10-200 mg/kg) was studied using pentylenetetrazole- and picrotoxin-induced seizure models. Mechanism of effect of methanol extract of Eclipta alba was further elucidated by studying its GABAA receptor modulatory activity and its effect on levels of GABA in mice brain. Methanol extract of Eclipta alba exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity but has saturation of its pharmacological activity at 50 mg/kg. At the concentration of 10 mg/ml, contractions induced in guinea pig ileum was blocked by picrotoxin, but it didn't not show any increase in GABA levels in mice brain after treatment. Hence, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent anticonvulsant activity because of its positive modulatory effect on GABAA receptors. PMID:24082359

Shaikh, M F; Sancheti, J; Sathaye, S

2013-05-01

114

Effect of Eclipta alba on Acute Seizure Models: a GABAA-mediated Effect  

PubMed Central

In the present study, anticonvulsant activity of methanol extract of Eclipta alba (10-200 mg/kg) was studied using pentylenetetrazole- and picrotoxin-induced seizure models. Mechanism of effect of methanol extract of Eclipta alba was further elucidated by studying its GABAA receptor modulatory activity and its effect on levels of GABA in mice brain. Methanol extract of Eclipta alba exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity but has saturation of its pharmacological activity at 50 mg/kg. At the concentration of 10 mg/ml, contractions induced in guinea pig ileum was blocked by picrotoxin, but it didn’t not show any increase in GABA levels in mice brain after treatment. Hence, it can be concluded that methanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent anticonvulsant activity because of its positive modulatory effect on GABAA receptors. PMID:24082359

Shaikh, M. F.; Sancheti, J.; Sathaye, S.

2013-01-01

115

In vitro plant regeneration of Eclipta alba and increased production of coumestans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclipta alba plants were regenerated from totipotent calli of leaf, stem and root cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with various growth regulators. The production of the coumestans wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone was estimated by UV method.

R. Zafar; B. P. S. Sagar

1999-01-01

116

Accentuating the prodigious significance of Eclipta alba - an inestimable medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba is a small branched perennial herb, which has been used as a traditional medicine in different countries mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant E. alba plays a significant role in the ayurvedic, traditional and unani systems of medicine. It is popularly known as "Bhringaraj". The herb has been known for its medicinal value and has been used as an analgesic, antimytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihaemorrhagic, antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory and also recognized as a reincarnated plant. Broad range of chemical constituents have been detached from E. alba including coumestans, alkaloids, thiopenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, triterpenes and their glycosides. Pharmacological activities have been seen in the metabolites and extracts of this plant. Therefore this herb produces robust curative lead compounds, which would be propitious for humanity. The purpose of this review recapitulates all data related to E. alba considering its prodigious medicinal importance. PMID:24191336

Sidra, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

2013-11-01

117

Estimates of Lava Eruption Rates at Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Martian volcanic complex Alba Patera exhibits a suite of well-defined, long and relatively narrow lava flows qualitatively resembling those found in Hawaii. Even without any information on the duration of the Martian flows, eruption rates (total volume discharge/duration of the extrusion) estimates are implied by the physical dimensions of the flows and the likely conjecture that Stephan-Boltzmann radiation is the dominating thermal loss mechanism. The ten flows in this analysis emanate radially from the central vent and were recently measured in length, plan areas, and average thicknesses by shadow measurement techniques. The dimensions of interest are shown. Although perhaps morphologically congruent to certain Hawaiian flows, the dramatically expanded physical dimensions of the Martian flows argues for some markedly distinct differences in lava flow composition for eruption characteristics.

Baloga, S. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1985-01-01

118

Hepatoprotective effects of Eclipta alba on subcellular levels in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of Eclipta alba (Ea) has been studied at subcellular levels in rats against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Ea significantly counteracted CCl4-induced inhibition of the hepatic microsomal drug metabolising enzyme amidopyrine N-demethylase and membrane bound glucose 6-phosphatase, but failed to reverse the very high degree of inhibition of another drug metabolising enzyme aniline hydroxylase. The loss of hepatic lysosomal acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase by CCl4 was significantly restored by Ea. Its effect on mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase and adenosine 5'-triphosphatase was not significant. The study shows that hepatoprotective activity of Ea is by regulating the levels of hepatic microsomal drug metabolising enzymes. PMID:8145570

Saxena, A K; Singh, B; Anand, K K

1993-12-01

119

THE FOOD HABITS OF THE BARN OWL TYTO ALBA AT THREE SITES ON MADAGASCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goodman, S. M., Langrand, O. & Raxworthy, C. J. 1993. The food habits of the Barn Owl Tyro alba at three sites on Madagascar. Ostrich 64:160-171.Regurgitated food remains of the Barn Owl Tyro alba were collected within the rain forest of the Eastern Region of Madagascar (Andasibe and Manombo) and in the sub-arid thorn scrub of the Western Region (Beza

Steven M. Goodman; Olivier Langrand; Christopher J. Raxworthy

1993-01-01

120

Die Bedeutung des Lichtsinnes für Aktivität und Raumorientierung der Schleiereule ( Tyto alba guttata Brehm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Research was done on the Barn-Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to discover how strongly its behavior is determined by optical information. The influence of light intensity on the behavior of the whole system, and the significance of visual perception when re-orientating, are the criterien of judgement.2.The activity phase of Tyto alba is during the darkness in an artificial light-darkness cycle. The

Hans Gerhard Erkert

1969-01-01

121

Histology of the interactions of Paecilomyces lilacinus with Meloidogyne incognita on Eclipta alba (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under greenhouse conditions, the experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of opportunistic and nematophagous hyphomycete, Paecilomyces lilacinus against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on Eclipta alba. The treatment comprised inoculation of E. alba with M. incognita alone (N) and in combination with P. lilacinus (one week before (T1), simultaneously (T2), one week after (T3), two weeks after (T4) and three

Tabassum Niyaz; Hisamuddin

2009-01-01

122

An efficient micropropagation system for Eclipta, alba —A valuable medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An efficient rapid and large-scale in vitro clonal propagation of the valuable medicinal herb Eclipta alba (Asteraceae) by enhanced axillary shoot proliferation in cotyledonary node segments was designed. The medium type, various carbon sources,\\u000a plant growth regulators, and coconut water markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Eclipta alba. An in vitro plantlet production system has been investigated on Murashige and

P. Baskaran; N. Jayabalan

2005-01-01

123

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were\\u000a undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated

R. K. Roy; Mayank Thakur; V. K. Dixit

2008-01-01

124

Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.  

PubMed

A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

2015-04-01

125

Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet  

PubMed Central

A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation. PMID:25656207

Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

2015-01-01

126

Molecular and cytological characterization of introgression lines in yellow seed derived from somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction and genomic in situ hybridization techniques were conducted to demonstrate the genomic introgressions\\u000a in somatic hybrid progenies between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. With minisatellite core sequence 33.6 as primer, an S. alba-specific band (288 bp) was amplified in yellow seed progenies. No hybridization signals were found using the genomic DNA\\u000a of S. alba as probe. In addition,

Aimin Li; Jinjin Jiang; Yongtai Zhang; Rod J. Snowdon; Guohua Liang; Youping Wang

127

Extra-pair paternity, testes size and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba  

E-print Network

in the barn owl Tyto alba Alexandre Roulin, Wendt Mu¨ller, Lajos Sasva´ri, Cor Dijkstra, Anne-Lyse Ducrest and testosterone level in relation to colour polymorphism in the barn owl Tyto alba. Á/ J. Avian Biol. 35: 492Á/500 in the barn owl Tyto alba in which coloration varies from reddish-brown to white. This trait is heritable

Alvarez, Nadir

128

Valleys on Northwest Flank of Alba Patera Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1972, Mariner 9 images revealed a variety of branched and networked valleys on Alba Patera, a volcano in northern Tharsis. Since then, the question has always been, 'what made these valleys, water or lava?' Because the Alba Patera volcano was considered to be a relatively young feature on Mars, it seemed that if waterways involved in the formation of the valleys, then it would imply that liquid water flowed on this part of Mars at a relatively recent time in the planet's history. Thus, it was hoped that Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), with its super-high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), would help answer this key question about evidence for past water on the red planet.

However, when MOC peered down upon these valleys it became clear that the camera might not help answer the question of their origin. As the picture above shows, these valleys--which trend from lower right to upper left in the picture--are old and have been cut by younger faults that created graben--e.g., the wide, straight valley running diagonally from upper right to lower left. Worse, the close-up views revealed that the valleys are covered up by a lumpy-textured material that also partly fills nearby impact craters. The origin of the textured material is unknown but might result from years and years of wind erosion of surface 'soil' or volcanic ash. However it formed, this covering obscures so much of the details of the valleys that high resolution pictures are unlikely to solve this mystery.

The picture above covers an area approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) wide by 15 kilometers (9 miles) high. Illumination is from the right. The picture was acquired in August 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign, and was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

129

Investigation of Antiarthritic Potential of Plumeria alba L. Leaves in Acute and Chronic Models of Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present investigation was designed to evaluate antiarthritic potential of fractions of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of P. alba. Materials and Methods. Plumeria alba L. leaves were extracted with hydroalcohol (30?:?70) to obtain hydroalcoholic extract of P. alba. This extract was further fractionated with solvents ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain EAPA and BPA, respectively. These fractions were tested against formaldehyde and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis. Arthritis assessment, paw volume, body weight, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold were measured. On day 21, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology was done. Results. The 100 and 200?mg/kg doses of EAPA and BPA caused a significant (P ? 0.05–0.01) reduction in paw swelling in both models. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and spleen weight decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in arthritic rats treated with extracts. There was significant (P < 0.05) improvement in thymus weight in EAPA treated rats whereas significant (P < 0.01) improvement was also seen in haemoglobin level (Hb) in diclofenac treated group. Motor incoordination and nociceptive threshold were also significantly (P ? 0.05–0.01) improved. Conclusion. The present study suggests that Plumeria alba L. has protective activity against arthritis and supports the traditional use of P. alba for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25025056

Kumar, Vipin; Gupta, Pankaj; Singh, Surender

2014-01-01

130

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

131

Antihyperglycemic activity of Eclipta alba leaf on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in rural southern India as a hypoglycemic agent. In order to confirm this claim, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of E. alba and to study the activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver of control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of leaf suspension of E. alba (2 and 4 g/kg body weight) for 60 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 372.0 +/- 33.2 to 117.0 +/- 22.8), glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1)c, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and an increase in the activity of liver hexokinase. E. alba at dose of 2 g/kg body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 4 g/kg body weight. Thus, the present study clearly shows that the oral administration of E. alba possess potent antihyperglycemic activity. PMID:15369623

Ananthi, J; Prakasam, A; Pugalendi, K V

2003-01-01

132

Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

133

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

134

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.  

PubMed Central

Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle contests over prey items to be delivered next by a parent. This 'sibling negotiation hypothesis' proposes that offspring use each others' begging vocalization as a source of information about their relative willingness to contest the next prey item delivered. In line with the hypothesis we found that (i) a nestling barn owl refrains from vocalization when a rival is more hungry, but (ii) escalates once the rival has been fed by a parent, and (iii) nestlings refrain from and escalate vocalization in experimentally enlarged and reduced broods, respectively. Thus, when parents are not at the nest a nestling vocally refrains when the value of the next delivered prey item will be higher for its nest-mates. These findings are the exact opposite of what current models predict for begging calls produced in the presence of the parents. PMID:10737402

Roulin, A; Kölliker, M; Richner, H

2000-01-01

135

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Mortality Along Motorways in Bourgogne-Champagne: Report and Suggestions  

E-print Network

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Mortality Along Motorways in Bourgogne accounted for 81.5 percent of the birds. The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) were in northeastern France. Birds Total Tyto alba 674 Asio otus 300 Strix aluco 53 Athene noctua 1 Buteo buteo 213

136

Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

Muhr, Thomas

2008-01-01

137

Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect of winter  

E-print Network

Tawny Owl Strix aluco as an indicator of Barn Owl Tyto alba breeding biology and the effect Owls Tyto alba. This species shows pronounced inter-annual variation in population size (Taylor 1994 In the temperate zone, food availability and winter weather place serious constraints on European Barn Owl Tyto

Alvarez, Nadir

138

Management of Sinapis alba subsp. mairei winter cover crop residues for summer weed control in southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba subsp. mairei (H. Lindb. fil.) Maire, a wild subspecies of S. alba L., which is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin, has been recently introduced in southern Spain as a winter cover crop in olive groves. The reason behind using this cover crop is for the reduction of Verticillium dahliae inoculum. The effectiveness of this cover crop for weed

C. Alcántara; A. Pujadas; M. Saavedra

2011-01-01

139

New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: As only six useful microsatellite loci that exhibit broad cross-amplification are so far available for Prosopis species, it is necessary to develop a larger number of codominant markers for population genetic studies. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained for Prosopis species from a 454 pyrosequencing run were optimized and characterized for studies in P. alba and P. chilensis. • Methods and Results: Twelve markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism in P. alba and P. chilensis. The number of alleles per locus ranged between two and seven and heterozygosity estimates ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Most of these loci cross-amplify in P. ruscifolia, P. flexuosa, P. kuntzei, P. glandulosa, and P. pallida. • Conclusions: These loci will enable genetic diversity studies of P. alba and P. chilensis and contribute to fine-scale population structure, indirect estimation of relatedness among individuals, and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25202541

Bessega, Cecilia F.; Pometti, Carolina L.; Miller, Joe T.; Watts, Richard; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

2013-01-01

140

Volcanic styles at Alba Patera, Mars: Implications of lava flow morphology to the volcanic history  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alba Patera presents styles of volcanism that are unique to Mars. Its very low profile, large areal extent, unusually long and voluminous lava flows, and circumferential graben make it among Mars' most interesting volcanic features. Clues to Alba's volcanic history are preserved in its morphology and stratigraphy. Understanding the relationship of lava flow morphology to emplacement processes should enable estimates of viscosity, effusion rate, and gross composition to be made. Lava flows, with dimensions considered enormous by terrestrial standards, account for a major portion of the exposed surface of Alba Patera. These flows exhibit a range of morphologies. While most previous works have focused on the planimetric characteristics, attention was drawn to the important morphological attributes, paying particular attention to what the features suggest about the emplacement process.

Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1988-01-01

141

Material model calibration from planar tension tests on porcine linea alba.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical properties of linea alba subjected to transverse planar tension and to compare its behavior at different locations of the abdominal wall. Samples of linea alba from five different porcine abdominal walls were tested in planar tension. During these tests, strain maps were measured for the first time ever using the stereo-digital image correlation (S-DIC) technique. The strain maps were used to derive the properties of different hyperelastic material models. It was shown that the Ogden model and the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden model are appropriate to reproduce the response in planar tension. The linea alba located above the umbilicus was significantly more compliant than below the umbilicus. This difference which is reported for the first time here is consistent with the tissue microstructure and it is discussed within the perspective of clinically-relevant numerical simulations. PMID:25553553

Acosta Santamaría, Víctor; Siret, Olivier; Badel, Pierre; Guerin, Gaëtan; Novacek, Vít; Turquier, Frédéric; Avril, Stéphane

2015-03-01

142

[Genetic variation and differentiation of Abies alba Mill. populations from Ukrainian Carpathians].  

PubMed

Using electrophoretic analysis of 11 enzyme systems, we studied the genetic structure and differentiation of eight natural populations of silver fir Abies alba Mill. in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Of 24 isozyme loci identified, 66.8% proved to be polymorphic. The mean numbers of alleles and genotypes per locus in the populations were respectively 3.1 and 4.5. Each A. alba tree was on average heterozygous at 15.9% of genes. In six populations, the genotypic distribution for all of the loci examined corresponded to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. The populations studied had low levels of subdivision (F(ST) = 0.018; GST = 0.019) and differentiation. Nei's genetic distances between the A. alba populations in the region ranged from 0.002 to 0.009, being on average 0.006. PMID:15865291

Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Pirko, Ya V

2005-03-01

143

Identification and evaluation of anti Hepatitis C Virus phytochemicals from Eclipta alba  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Eclipta alba, traditionally known as bhringraj, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 1000 years in India. It is used for the treatment of infective hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver enlargement and other ailments of liver and gall bladder in India. Aim of the study To evaluate anti-hepatitis C virus activity present in the Eclipta alba extract, perform bioassay based fractionation and identify anti-HCV phytochemicals from the active fractions. Materials and methods Identification of active compounds was performed by bio-activity guided fractionation approach. Active isolates were separated by the combination of silica gel chromatography and preparative scale reverse phase HPLC. Eclipta alba extract and its isolates were examined for their ability to inhibit HCV replicase (HCV NS5B) activity in vitro and HCV replication in a cell culture system carrying replicating HCV subgenomic RNA replicon. The purified isolates were also examined for their binding affinity to HCV replicase by fluorescence quenching and their cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Results Eclipta alba extract strongly inhibited RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of HCV replicase in vitro. In cell culture system, it effectively inhibited HCV replication which resulted in reduced HCV RNA titer and translation level of viral proteins. Bioassay-based fractionations of the extracts and purification of anti-HCV phytochemicals present in the active fractions have identified three compounds, wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin. These compounds exhibited dose dependent inhibition of HCV replicase in vitro, and anti-HCV replication activity in the cell culture system Conclusion Eclipta alba extract and phytochemicals isolated from active fractions display anti-HCV activity in vitro and in cell culture system. The standardized Eclipta alba extract or its isolates can be used as an effective alternative and complementary treatment against HCV. PMID:23026306

Manvar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mahesh; Kumar, Suriender; Pandey, Virendra N.

2012-01-01

144

Cerebroprotective effect of Eclipta alba against global model of cerebral ischemia induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is believed to contribute to neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible cerebroprotective and antioxidant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba against global cerebral ischemia in the rat. Adult Wistar albino rats were treated with extract of Eclipta alba (250 and 500mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 days. The global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) for 30min, followed by 4h reperfusion. Quercetin (20mg/kg, i.p.) was used for the reference compound. After that, animals were sacrificed by decapitation, brain was removed, various biochemical estimations, cerebral edema, assessment of cerebral infarct size, and histopathological examinations were carried out. BCCA caused significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutahione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione ruductase (GR) and significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba significantly reversed the levels of biochemical parameters and significantly reduced the edema and cerebral infarct size as compared to the ischemic control group. Eclipta alba at higher dose markedly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain. Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. The results of the study show that Eclipta alba pretreatment ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and enhances the antioxidant defense against BCCA occlusion induced I/R in rats; so it exhibits cerebroprotective property. HPLC fingerprint of hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba was performed for conforming the coumestan present in the plant extract. PMID:22951390

Mansoorali, K P; Prakash, T; Kotresha, D; Prabhu, K; Rama Rao, N

2012-09-15

145

Anti-malarial activity of Eclipta alba against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.  

PubMed

The anti-malarial activity of Eclipta alba leaves extract was evaluated against Plasmodium'berghei ANKA strain in mice. A standard inoculum of 1 x 10(6) infected erythrocytes was used. The methanolic leaf extract (250-750 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependant chemosupression or schizontocidal effect during early and established infection and high mean survival time (m.s.t.) values particularly in the group administered 750 mg/kg/day of extract. The plant extract also exhibited repository activity. The results of the preliminary studies carried out with E. alba are encouraging, which can be exploited in malaria therapy. PMID:18338686

Bapna, Saroj; Adsule, Shashank; Shirshat Mahendra, S; Jadhav, Suryaji; Patil, L S; Deshmukh, R A

2007-06-01

146

Temporal trends of mercury, organochlorines and PCBs in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1969-2009.  

PubMed

Since 1969, northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, have been collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Levels of p,p'-DDE, which caused low breeding success of Bonaventure gannets in the 1960s, decreased by 99.4% from 1969 to 2009 (17.1-0.1 mg/kg ww), with concomitant improvement of hatching success. PCBs, most organochlorines and mercury also showed decreasing trends. Stable isotopes of carbon (?(13)C) and nitrogen (?(15)N) were measured to track the possible influence of diet changes on concentrations of contaminants over time. The confounding effect of the combustion of fossil fuels on baseline values of ?(13)C (the Suess effect) was taken into account. No temporal trends were observed in ?(13)C and ?(15)N values in gannet eggs. Hence trophic level or foraging area had a negligible influence on temporal trends of contaminants. PMID:25486601

Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A; Hobson, Keith A

2015-02-01

147

OsAlba1, a dehydration-responsive nuclear protein of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), participates in stress adaptation.  

PubMed

Alba proteins have exhibited great functional plasticity through the course of evolution and constitute a superfamily that spans across three domains of life. Earlier, we had developed the dehydration-responsive nuclear proteome of an indica rice cultivar, screening of which led to the identification of an Alba protein. Here we describe, for the first time, the complete sequence of the candidate gene OsAlba1, its genomic organization, and possible function/s in plant. Phylogenetic analysis showed its close proximity to other monocots as compared to dicot Alba proteins. Protein-DNA interaction prediction indicates a DNA-binding property for OsAlba1. Confocal microscopy showed the localization of OsAlba1-GFP fusion protein to the nucleus, and also sparsely to the cytoplasm. Water-deficit conditions triggered OsAlba1 expression suggesting its function in dehydration stress, possibly through an ABA-dependent pathway. Functional complementation of the yeast mutant ?Pop6 established that OsAlba1 also functions in oxidative stress tolerance. The preferential expression of OsAlba1 in the flag leaves implies its role in grain filling. Our findings suggest that the Alba components such as OsAlba1, especially from a plant where there is no evidence for a major chromosomal role, might play important function in stress adaptation. PMID:24534105

Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Gayali, Saurabh; Dass, Suchismita; Kumar, Amit; Parveen, Shaista; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

2014-04-01

148

Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002  

SciTech Connect

This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

2005-07-01

149

Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

150

Structural Analysis of Alba Patera, Mars: From deep-seated to shallow events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 93-page PDF features a dissertation that focuses on the structural evolution of Alba Patera through an examination of the progressive changes from radial to concentric faulting. The second part of the dissertation examines the absence of a bulge, moat and concentric grabens surrounding the volcano, concluding that subsurface processes in the mantle may have counteracted subsidence forces.

B. Cailleau

151

Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the mea...

152

Differentiation of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspension cultures of Abies alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryogenic suspension cultures of Abies alba were established using an embryogenic suspensor mass culture originating from the zygotic embryo in immature seed explants (Schuller et al. 1989). Protoplasts were isolated from the suspension material. The protoplasts were immobilized in alginate layers in order to follow the development of single protoplasts. During the first days of protoplast culture a modified Kao

Sabine Hartmann; Hermann Lang; Gerhard Reuther

1992-01-01

153

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

154

Histochemical and ultrastructural studies on Salix alba and S. matsudana seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature seeds of Salix alba L. and Salix matsudana Koidz. are exendospermous and consist of an embryo and a seed coat. Ultrastructural studies show the presence of protein bodies, lipid bodies, chloroplasts, and a nucleus in the cells of most of the embryo tissues. Protein bodies always contain two or more globoid crystals. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of globoid crystals revealed

Horacio Maroder; Imelda Prego; Sara Maldonado

2003-01-01

155

Structure of 22-deoxocucurbitacins isolated from Bryonia alba and Ecbalium elaterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

22-Deoxocucurbitacin D (II), dihydrocucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin L, and the previously unknown rhamnoglucosyl-22-deoxo-16,23-epoxycucurbitosides\\u000a A (III) and B (IV) have been isolated from the roots ofBryonia alba and identified. Glucoside (III) has also been identified in the fruit ofEcbalium elaterium L.

A. G. Panosyan; M. N. Nikishchenko; G. M. Avetisyan

1985-01-01

156

Los discursos sobre sexualidad en la obra de Alicia Gaspar de Alba  

E-print Network

, and the incorporation of clothing into an integral vision of the figure of the mestiza. In this section, Gaspar de Alba's unique lesbian gaze is revealed as a result of her interest in multiple positionalities. I follow this analysis with an exploration of her revision...

Vivancos P?erez, Ricardo F

2002-01-01

157

BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

2011-01-01

158

Nonrandom pairing by male barn owls (Tyto alba) with respect to a female plumage trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socially monogamous species it is rare for females to be more intensely colored than males. The barn owl (Tyto alba) is one of the exceptions, as females usually exhibit more and larger black spots on the plumage. The evolution of sexual dimorphism in plumage traits is commonly assumed to be the result of sexual selection. I therefore examined the

Alexandre Roulin

1999-01-01

159

Food supply differentially affects sibling negotiation and competition in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to most birds, nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) vocalise not only when parents are at the nest but also in their absence. Calls produced in their absence have been shown to facilitate sibling negotiation over the impending food resource. Since nestlings vocalise more vigorously in the presence of parents, they may be calling not to negotiate resources but

A. Roulin

2001-01-01

160

Agri-environment schemes and foraging of barn owls Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barn owl Tyto alba has been in decline throughout much of its range largely as a consequence of loss of foraging habitat resulting from agricultural intensification. The recent introduction of agri-environment schemes in the UK has resulted in the reinstatement of substantial areas of rough grassland which may be of benefit to small mammals and their avian predators. In

Nicholas P. Askew; Jeremy B. Searle; Niall P. Moore

2007-01-01

161

Analysis of mammal remains from owl pellets ( Tyto alba), in a suburban area in Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed 108 owl pellets of the barn owl, Tyto alba, collected daily in winter, from December 1998 to March 1999. Pellet analysis gave us the opportunity to study variation in daily diet relative to effects of lunar phases, and to evaluate owl preference for rodents in urban or rural areas. The nest was in a suburban area, 200m from

Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda; Natali Cárdenas; Lia Méndez

2004-01-01

162

Growth and food requirement flexibility in captive chicks of the European barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and the food requirements of the European barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in three groups of captive chicks. One group of chicks, raised in ad libitum food conditions by their parents, was used to measure body mass and linear growth of a number of structural body components at their characteristic growth rate. A second group of chicks,

J. M. Durant; Y. Handrich

1998-01-01

163

Delayed maturation of plumage coloration and plumage spottedness in the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The Barn Owl (Tyto alba) varies in plumage from dark reddish-brown to white, and from heavily marked with black spots to immaculate. Males are commonly lighter coloured and less spotted than females. I assessed whether male and female Barn Owls delay the full expression of plumage coloration and spottedness to the second year of life. In Switzerland, I quantified

Alexandre Roulin

1999-01-01

164

Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in

Alexandre Roulin; Christian Riols; Cor Dijkstra; Anne-Lyse Ducrestd

2001-01-01

165

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment and restoration  

E-print Network

Dynamics and determinants of Quercus alba seedling success following savanna encroachment Science II Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3221, United States 1. Introduction Savannas occupy or clustered overstory trees in low densities are a defining feature of all savannas (Scholes and Archer, 1997

166

Biodiesel from Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) Seed Oil: Exceptional Oxidative Stability and Unusual Fatty Acid Composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) seed oil methyl esters (MFME), prepared by a standard transesterification procedure using methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst from refined meadowfoam oil (MFO), were evaluated as a potential biodiesel fuel. MFME contains the unusual 5(Z)-eicosenoate (64.2 wt %) an...

167

Aerenchyma formation and porosity in root of a mangrove plant, Sonneratia alba (Lythraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerenchyma gas spaces are important for plants that grow in flooded and anaerobic sites or habitats, because these gas spaces provide an internal pathway for oxygen transport. The objective of this study is to characterize the development of aerenchyma gas spaces and observe the porosity in roots of Sonneratia alba. Tissue at different developmental stages was collected from four root

Hery Purnobasuki; Mitsuo Suzuki

2004-01-01

168

RESPONSE OF CONIFER SEEDLINGS TO MEADOWFOAM (LIMNANTHES ALBA L.) SEED MEAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is grown in Oregon because of its high quality seed oil used in cosmetics and lubricants. The seed meal (MSM) remaining after oil extraction has been shown to have plant growth-stimulating properties as well as glucosinolates that can release biocidal breakdown produ...

169

Isolation and identification of (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile as a phytotoxin from meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seedmeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl ether, ethanol, and water extracts of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal were prepared and bioassayed against velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. “Cardinal”). Both the ethyl ether and ethanol fractions, but not the water extract, inhibited velvetleaf and wheat radicle elongation. Fractionation of the extracts indicated that (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (3-MPAN) was the active compound from

Steven F. Vaughn; Rick A. Boydston; Carol A. Mallory-Smith

1996-01-01

170

On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

2011-01-01

171

Effects of human activity on the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization and coastal development has dramatically reduced the beach habitat available for foraging shorebirds worldwide. This study tested the general hypothesis that recreational use of shorebird foraging areas adversely affects the foraging behavior of sanderlings Calidris alba. Observations conducted on two central California beaches from January through May and September through December of 1999 showed that number and activity of

Kate Thomas; Rikk G Kvitek; Carrie Bretz

2003-01-01

172

Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe specific primers and conditions to amplify eight tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci isolated from an enriched genomic library of Melilotus alba, an invasive plant species throughout North America. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2...

173

Essential oils and isolated compounds from Lippia alba leaves and flowers: antimicrobial activity and osteoclast apoptosis.  

PubMed

In the present study, essential oils extracted from the leaves and flowers of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. (L. alba) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity and their effects on osteoclasts. The periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans; ATCC 43717), Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum; ATCC 25586) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis); ATCC 33277) were used in antimicrobial activity assays for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), whereas Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis; ATCC 25285) was used as the control microorganism. Osteoclast (OC) apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Fas receptor expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. The analysis of antimicrobial activity revealed that P. gingivalis had the lowest MIC values, whereas A. actinomycetemcomitans had the highest. L. alba essential oils were found to be toxic to human cells, although the compounds, carvone, limonene and citral, were non-toxic and induced apoptosis in the OCs. This study demonstrates that L. alba has potential biotechnological application in dentistry. In fact periodontal disease has a multifactorial etiology, and the immune response to microbial challenge leads to osteoclast activation and the resorption of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss. PMID:25384405

Juiz, Paulo José Lima; Lucchese, Angelica Maria; Gambari, Roberto; Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Di Ciano, Martina; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Silva, Franceli; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio

2015-01-01

174

Production and Enhancement of Wedelolactone in Shoot Cultures of Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid culture system was for proliferation of shoot cultures of Eclipta alba Hassk. and production of wedelolactone in vitro. Multiple shoots, initiated on MS medium supplemented with 4.44 ?M benzyl adenine (BA), were rooted and elongated on MS medium supplemented with the same BA concentrations. Further proliferation of the shoots was achieved in liquid MS medium supplemented with BA.

Archana J. Gawde; G. T. Paratkar

2012-01-01

175

[Isolation and identification of ecliptasaponin D from Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk].  

PubMed

A new triterpenoid glucoside ecliptasaponin D was isolated from Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Its structure was deduced as 3 beta, 16 beta-dihydroxy olean-12-ene-28-oic acid-3 beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, based on spectral analysis and chemical evidences as well as results of hydrolysis. PMID:11596317

Zhang, M; Chen, Y Y; Di, X H; Liu, M

1997-08-01

176

Biomonitoring heavy metals using the barn owl (Tyto alba guttata) : Sources of variation especially relating to body condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to monitor environmental quality in the Netherlands was investigated, using Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe as indicators for environmental contamination.

H. Esselink; F. M. van der Geld; L. P. Jager; G. A. Posthuma-Trumpie; P. E. F. Zoun; A. J. Baars

1995-01-01

177

Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies. PMID:25746409

Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

2015-01-01

178

Crystal Structure of Archaeal Chromatin Protein Alba2-Double-stranded DNA Complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1*  

PubMed Central

All thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea encode homologs of dimeric Alba (Sac10b) proteins that bind cooperatively at high density to DNA. Here, we report the 2.0 ? resolution crystal structure of an Alba2 (Ape10b2)-dsDNA complex from Aeropyrum pernix K1. A rectangular tube-like structure encompassing duplex DNA reveals the positively charged residues in the monomer-monomer interface of each dimer packing on either side of the bound dsDNA in successive minor grooves. The extended hairpin loop connecting strands ?3 and ?4 undergoes significant conformational changes upon DNA binding to accommodate the other Alba2 dimer during oligomerization. Mutational analysis of key interacting residues confirmed the specificity of Alba2-dsDNA interactions. PMID:22334696

Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Padavattan, Sivaraman; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri

2012-01-01

179

Directional hearing in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The acoustical properties of the external ear of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by measuring sound pressure in the ear canal and outer ear cavity. Under normal conditions, pressure amplification by the external ear reaches about 20 dB between 3-9 kHz but decreases sharply above 10 kHz. The acoustic gain curve of the outer ear cavity alone is close to that of a finite-length exponential horn between 1.2-13 kHz with maximum gain reaching 20 dB between 5-9 kHz. Pressure gain by the facial ruff produces a maximum of 12 dB between 5-8 kHz and decreases rapidly above 9 kHz. The directional sensitivity of the external ear was obtained from pressure measurements in the ear canal. Directivity of the major lobe is explained, to a first approximation, by the sound diffraction properties of a circular aperture. Aperture size is based on the average radius (30 mm) of the open face of the ruff. Above 5 kHz, the external ear becomes highly directional and there is a 26 degree disparity in elevation between the acoustic axis of the left and right ear. In azimuth, directivity patterns are relocated closer to the midline as frequency increases and the acoustic axis moves at a rate of 20 degree/octave between 2-13 kHz. Movement of the axis can be explained, to a first approximation, by the acoustical diffraction properties of an obliquely truncated horn, due to the asymmetrical shape of the outer ear cavity. The directional sensitivity of the barn owl ear was studied by recording cochlear microphonic (CM) potentials from the round window membrane. Between 3-9 kHz, CM directivity patterns are clearly different to the directivity patterns of the external ear; CM directionality is abruptly lost above 10 kHz. Above 5 kHz, CM directivity patterns are characterized by an elongated major lobe containing the CM axis, forming a tilted band of high amplitude but low directionality (CM axial plane), closely bordered by minima or nulls. The highest directionality is found in the CM directional plane, approximately perpendicular to the CM axial plane. The left and right ear axial planes are symmetrical about the interaural midline (tilted 12 degrees to the right of the midline of the head) and inclined by an average of 60 degrees to the left and right respectively. In azimuth, the CM axis moves towards the midline at a rate of 37 degrees/octave as frequency increases from 2-9 kHz, crossing into contralateral space near 7 kHz.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3385664

Coles, R B; Guppy, A

1988-05-01

180

PRIMEROS ANTECEDENTES DE LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA DE CAMPANARIO (TYTO ALBA) EN EL DEPARTAMENTO —EEMBUC? (PARAGUAY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIRST REPORT ON THE DIET OF THE COMMON BARN OWL (TYTO ALBA) FROM —EEMBUC? DE- PARTMENT, PARAGUAY.ó We report the food habits of the Common Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Pilar, —eembucœ Department, Paraguay (26?52'S, 58?23'O). By inspecting 35 pellets we found 107 prey items. The diet consisted mainly of muroid rodents, with low frequencies of marsupials, bats, and birds.

PABLO TETA; JULIO R. CONTRERAS

181

The two faces of Alba: the evolutionary connection between proteins participating in chromatin structure and RNA metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable heterogeneity in the phyletic patterns of major chromosomal DNA-binding proteins in archaea. Alba is a well-characterized chromosomal protein from the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus. While Alba has been detected in most archaea and some eukaryotic taxa, its exact functions in these taxa are not clear. Here we use comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis to predict potential alternative functions of the Alba proteins. Results Using sequence-profile searches, we were able to unify the Alba proteins with RNase P/MRP subunit Rpp20/Pop7, human RNase P subunit Rpp25, and the ciliate Mdp2 protein, which is implicated in macronuclear development. The Alba superfamily contains two eukaryote-specific families and one archaeal family. We present different lines of evidence to show that both eukaryotic families perform functions related to RNA metabolism. Several members of one of the eukaryotic families, typified by Mdp2, are combined in the same polypeptide with RNA-binding RGG repeats. We also investigated the relationships of the unified Alba superfamily within the ancient RNA-binding IF3-C fold, and show that it is most closely related to other RNA-binding members of this fold, such as the YhbY and IF3-C superfamilies. Based on phyletic patterns and the principle of phylogenetic bracketing, we predict that at least some of the archaeal members may also possess a role in RNA metabolism. Conclusions The Alba superfamily proteins appear to have originated as RNA-binding proteins which formed various ribonucleoprotein complexes, probably including RNase P. It was recruited as a chromosomal protein possibly only within the crenarchaeal lineage. The evolutionary connections reported here suggest how a diversity of functions based on a common biochemical basis emerged in proteins of the Alba superfamily. PMID:14519199

Aravind, L; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Anantharaman, Vivek

2003-01-01

182

New evidence from Sinapis alba L. for ancestral triplication in a crucifer genome.  

PubMed

We present clear evidence of ancestral genome triplication in Sinapis alba, a close relative of the cultivated Brassica species. Exceptionally high levels of heterozygosity in the parents of an F1 intercross permitted the mapping of an estimated 87% of all detected restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, with each RFLP probe typically detecting 2 or 3 loci. These duplicated loci were arranged in 8 triplicated homologous linkage blocks and 2 small, duplicated, homologous linkage blocks covering the majority of the S. alba genome. Several large-scale inversions and translocations appear to have rearranged the order of loci within homologous blocks. The role of successive polyploidization events on the evolution of crucifer species is discussed. PMID:16604105

Nelson, Matthew N; Lydiate, Derek J

2006-03-01

183

Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. PMID:24147363

Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

2013-01-01

184

Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

2013-11-01

185

Isolation and identification of (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile as a phytotoxin from meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seedmeal.  

PubMed

Ethyl ether, ethanol, and water extracts of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Hartweg ex. Benth.) seedmeal were prepared and bioassayed against velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. "Cardinal"). Both the ethyl ether and ethanol fractions, but not the water extract, inhibited velvetleaf and wheat radicle elongation. Fractionation of the extracts indicated that (3-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (3-MPAN) was the active compound from both extracts, comprising >97% of the active ethanol fraction. 3-Methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which had been previously shown to be the major breakdown product of glucolimnanthin, the majorL. alba glucosinolate, was not detected in either extract. Radicle elongation of velvetleaf and wheat were inhibited by 3-MPAN with I50 (the concentration required to inhibit growth by 50%) values of approximately 4 × 10(-4) M (velvetleaf) and 7×10(-4) M (wheat). PMID:24227117

Vaughn, S F; Boydston, R A; Mallory-Smith, C A

1996-10-01

186

Analgesic studies on total alkaloids and alcohol extracts of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.  

PubMed

A variety of analgesics are used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in different disease states. A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that does not cause respiratory depression and addiction is needed. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing analgesic properties (e.g. Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraj, Methika, Palandu and Prasikayavani). The present experimental research work was undertaken to determine the analgesic activity of the total ethanol extract of Eclipta alba, and also the isolated alkaloids of Eclipta alba in albino mice by using standard experimental models such as the tail clip method, the tail flick method and the acetic acid induced writhing response. The results from this study show that both the ethanol extract as well as the total alkaloids produce good analgesic activity in all the different models of analgesia used. The total alkaloidal fraction was the most efficacious in all models tested. PMID:15022160

Sawant, Mahesh; Isaac, Jolly C; Narayanan, Shridhar

2004-02-01

187

Investigation on the effect of eclipta alba on animal models of learning and memory.  

PubMed

Short and long term memory loss may result from deteriorating cerebral mechanisms due to varied causes which could have a tremendous impact on the quality of life. Herbs are being constantly explored to resolve cognitive deficits. Eclipta alba (Ea) commonly called as the trailing Eclipta is being examined for its memory enhancing quality as it is traditionally used for this purpose. The shade dried leaves of Eclipta alba was extracted with distilled water. The suspension of Ea containing 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered to rats to evaluate Transfer Latency (TL) on an elevated plus maze. TL was a measure of acquisition and retrieval learning. Mice were placed at the center of open field apparatus to assess spatial habitual learning, observed for 20 minutes for rearing and time spent during rearing using varied doses for 30 minutes, 24 hours and 96 hours and 144 hrs. The results revealed significant improvement of retrieval memory. PMID:18341224

Banji, Otilia; Banji, David; Annamalai, A R; Manavalan, R

2007-01-01

188

In vivo hepatoprotective activity of active fraction from ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba leaves.  

PubMed

The alcoholic extract of fresh leaves of the plant Eclipta alba (Ea), previously reported for is hepatoprotective activity was fractionated into three parts to chemically identify the most potent bioactive fraction. The hepatoprotective potential of the fraction prepared from extract was studied in vivo in rats and mice against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective activity was determined on the basis of their effects on parameters like hexobarbitone sleep time, zoxazolamine paralysis time, bromosulphaline clearance, serum transaminases and serum bilirubin. Fraction EaII (10-80 mg/kg, p.o.) containing coumestan wedelolactone and desmethylwedelolactone as major components with apigenin, luteolin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocateuic acid as minor constituents exhibited maximum hepatoprotective activity and is the active fraction for hepatoprotective activity of Eclipta alba leave. The acute toxicity studies have shown that like Ea, Fraction EaII also high safety margin. PMID:11883149

Singh, B; Saxena, A K; Chandan, B K; Agarwal, S G; Anand, K K

2001-10-01

189

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180–220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups

F. P Moundipa; P Kamtchouing; N Koueta; Justine Tantchou; N. P. R Foyang; Félicité T Mbiapo

1999-01-01

190

Possible genotoxic activity of extracts of Bryonia alba roots on human lymphocytes and transformed cells.  

PubMed

Bryonia alba roots (BAR) are widely used as an adaptogenic and restorative drug with immunomodulatory and stress-protective properties that increase the non-specific resistance of an organism toward harmful stimuli. Potential genotoxic activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of BAR was studied on human normal (lymphocytes) and transformed (HeLa and Caco-2) cells using single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay). The results obtained did not show any evidence of genotoxic effects of BAR. PMID:12088103

Nersesyan, A K; Collins, A R

2002-01-01

191

[Normalizing effect of Bryonia alba L. on blood phospholipids in alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

Alloxane diabetes in rats was accompanied by a distinct increase in total content of phospholipids and their fractions (especially of acid phospholipids) in whole blood; the ratio of neutral phospholipids/acid phospholipids was decreased. Content of phospholipids was distinctly normalized in rat blood after intramuscular administration of Bryonia alba extract into the diabetic animals at a dose of 0.5 mg/100 g of body mass. PMID:7281556

Vartanian, G S; Karagezian, K G

1981-01-01

192

BBC ALBA's contributions to Gaelic language planning efforts for reversing language shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a partnership between the BBC and

Lindsay Milligan; Douglas Chalmers; Mike Danson; Alison Lang

2011-01-01

193

Emmetropization and optical development of the eye of the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We have studied the development of the refractive state in young barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola). Strikingly, the eyes had severe refractive errors shortly after lid opening (which occurred around day 14 after hatching; average from 6 owls: 13.83 ± 1.47 days). Refractive errors vanished in the subsequent one or two weeks (Fig. 1, Fig. 2).2.Refractive errors did not differ

F. Schaeffel; H. Wagner

1996-01-01

194

Sound localization by the barn owl ( Tyto alba ) measured with the search coil technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The dynamics and accuracy of sound localization by the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by exploiting the natural head-orienting response of the owl to novel sound stimuli. Head orientation and movement were measured using an adaptation of the search coil technique which provided continous high resolution azimuthal and elevational information during the behavior.2.The owls responded to sound sources with

Eric I. Knudsen; Gary G. Blasdel; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

195

How much energy do barn owls ( Tyto alba) save by roosting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The energy savings associated with the roosting behaviour of barn owls (Tyto alba) were determined with a biophysical model using measurements of microclimate from a roost and nest site in SW Scotland (55°10? N 3°12? W) from April 1991–March 1992. (2) The roost building provided complete shelter from wind and precipitation. Air temperature inside the roost building was 1.4°C

Dominic J. McCafferty; John B. Moncrieff; Iain R. Taylor

2001-01-01

196

Two flavonoids from Artemisia herba-alba Asso with in vitro GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor activity.  

PubMed

An ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia herba-alba was partitioned by HPLC in 10 fractions that were tested in the [(3)H]-flumazenil radioligand assay, for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor. Two fractions showed activity from which hispidulin and cirsilineol were isolated. The structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR. The IC(50) values were 8 microM for hispidulin and 100 microM for cirsilineol. PMID:15848034

Salah, Sam Medhat; Jäger, Anna Katharina

2005-05-13

197

Two flavonoids from Artemisia herba alba Asso with in vitro GABA A-benzodiazepine receptor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia herba-alba was partitioned by HPLC in 10 fractions that were tested in the [3H]-flumazenil radioligand assay, for affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor. Two fractions showed activity from which hispidulin and cirsilineol were isolated. The structures were confirmed by 1H NMR. The IC50 values were 8?M for hispidulin and 100?M for cirsilineol.

Sam Medhat Salah; Anna Katharina Jäger

2005-01-01

198

Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

199

Oxygen isotopes in tree rings of Abies alba: The climatic significance of interdecadal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the delta18O variations in the latewood of tree rings from four silver firs (Abies alba Mill.) for the period 1840-1997 at a mountain site in Switzerland, establishing the longest available tree ring record for delta18O in central Europe. The isotope ratios were determined on whole wood with a rapid continuous flow pyrolysis technique, thus avoiding cellulose extraction. We

Matthias Saurer; Paolo Cherubini; Rolf Siegwolf

2000-01-01

200

Composition of essential oil from seeds and cones of Abies alba.  

PubMed

The volatile composition of Abies alba Mill. seeds and cone scales has been studied, leading to the determination of 90 volatile constituents. The major component of the seed essential oil was (-)-limonene (about 70%), while that of the cone scale oil was a-pinene (57%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile compounds was specific for each part of the tree. PMID:20839638

Wajs, Anna; Urba?ska, Justyna; Zale?kiewicz, Ewa; Bonikowski, Rados?aw

2010-08-01

201

[Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].  

PubMed

Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants. PMID:12945181

Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

2003-01-01

202

Influence of ultrasounds on some mechanical properties of fir wood (Abies alba Mill). Microscopic sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was found that as a result of ultrasonic treatment fir wood (Abies alba Mill) shows the effects of homogenization, and the modulus of elasticity for static flexure drops on an average by 50% for 45 min of treatment. The drop is more pronounced for test pieces with 8 to 12 annual rings. Study of microscopic sections disclosed that early wood with one annual ring undergoes the most powerful effect.

Parpala, V.; Pastirnac, A.; Paraschiv, N.

1974-01-01

203

(?)- N-Formylanonaine from Michelia alba as a human tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tyrosinase is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments for coloring hair, skin, and eyes. As reported in this study, a natural product, (?)-N-formylanonaine isolated from the leaves of Michelia alba D.C. (Magnolianceae), was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 74.3?M and to have tyrosinase and melanin reducing activities in human epidermal

Hui-Min Wang; Chung-Yi Chen; Chun-Yen Chen; Mei-Ling Ho; Yi-Ting Chou; Hou-Chien Chang; Chih-Hung Lee; Chau-Zen Wang; I-Ming Chu

2010-01-01

204

Cloning and analysis of the planosporicin lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster of Planomonospora alba.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

Sherwood, Emma J; Hesketh, Andrew R; Bibb, Mervyn J

2013-05-01

205

POPULATION, BIOMETRICS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE SANDERLING CALIDRIS ALBA IN SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summers, R. W., Underhill, L. G, Waltner, M. & Whitelaw, D. A. 1987. Population, biometrics and movements of the Sanderling Calidris alba in southern Africa. Ostrich 58:24-39.The Sanderling in southern Africa is restricted to coastal habitats. The population during the austral summer was estimated to be 78000. Highest densities occurred along the west coast where the Benguela Up-welling System gives

R. W. Summers; L. G. Underhill; M. Waltner; D. A. Whitelaw

1987-01-01

206

Novel and cross-species microsatellite markers for parentage analysis in Sanderling Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and tested six novel microsatellite loci in Sanderling (Calidris alba) from Greenland for paternity analyses. In addition, we tested 11 already published microsatellite markers which were originally\\u000a developed for the congeneric species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos). All loci were polymorphic, but five of the cross-species loci were not scorable due to suboptimal amplification patterns.\\u000a The 12 successful

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen; Anneke Bol; Harry Witte; Judith van Bleijswijk; Oliver Haddrath; Allan J. Baker; Theunis Piersma; Jeroen Reneerkens

2011-01-01

207

Molecular detection and drought resistance analysis of Sac B-transgenic poplars ( Populus alba × P. glandulosa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of drought-resistant transgenic poplars is one of the more effective ways to improve the ecological state\\u000a of arid regions. The expression of SacB gene in transgenic lines of Populus alba × P. glandulosa was analyzed by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Drought resistance of these transgenic lines was evaluated by water stress trials\\u000a in a greenhouse. Results showed that the

Yiliang Li; Xiaohua Su; Bingyu Zhang; Zhiyi Zhang

2008-01-01

208

Transformation of elite white poplar (Populus alba L.) cv. '?Villafranca' and evaluation of herbicide resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic white poplar plants (Populus alba L.) expressing the nptII gene and the bar gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Eleven kanamycin-resistant plant lines were obtained with a transformation frequency of 7%. Successful\\u000a genetic transformation was confirmed by Southern and northern analyses. The level of resistance to the commercial preparation\\u000a of phosphinothricin (Basta; Roussel-Hoechst

M. Confalonieri; B. Belenghi; A. Balestrazzi; S. Negri; G. Facciotto; G. Schenone; M. Delledonne

2000-01-01

209

Modification of thiol contents in poplars ( Populus tremula × P. alba ) overexpressing enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The hybrid poplar (Populus tremula?×?P.?alba) was transformed to express the Escherichia coli gene for ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2: ?-ECS) in the cytosol. Four transformed lines of poplar were obtained.\\u000a These were phenotypically indistinguishable from untransformed poplars. Three lines, ggs28 (Noctor et al. 1996, Plant Physiol\\u000a 112: 1071–1078), ggs11 and ggs5 possessed high levels of bacterial gene transcripts. Line ggs17

Ana-Carolina M. Arisi; Graham Noctor; Christine H. Foyer; Lise Jouanin

1997-01-01

210

Micropropagation of eclipta alba (L.) hassk—An important medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An efficient and reproducible protocol for mass propagation of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, an important medicinal plant, was standardized by culturing shoot tips and nodal segments taken from in vitro raised plants. Maximum shoot proliferation occurred when the explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 1 mg l?1 benzylaminopurine (BAP). The shoot buds formed were further

S. L. Kothari

2005-01-01

211

Soil pH and Production of Biomass and Wedelolactone in Field Grown Eclipta alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the growth and secondary metabolite production were investigated in Eclipta alba, a medicinal plant with antihepatotoxic activity in extracts, under different soil pH. Leaf and stem development were not affected by the soil pH, although some effect of pH was noted on root elongation. Plants growing in acidic soil accumulated lower levels of wedelolactone (a coumestan) in the

A. M. S. Pereira; B. W. Bertoni; A. Menezes Jr; P. S. Pereira; S. C. Franca

1998-01-01

212

Rapid in vitro propagation of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. through high frequency axillary shoot proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient protocol has been developed for rapid in vitro propagation of Eclipta alba L. (Asteraceae) through axillary bud multiplication. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA (10 M) was found\\u000a to be most effective in breaking bud dormancy. An average number of 23 ? 0.57 shoots per explant was recorded after 30 days.\\u000a Culture of node segments on

M. Kashif Husain; M. Anis

2006-01-01

213

Experimental evaluation of the analgesic property of eclipta alba (L) hassk.  

PubMed

A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that would not cause respiratory depression and addiction in may be used as an alternative to morphine. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing the analgesic properties e.g Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraja, Methika, palandu and prasikayavani. Total alcoholic extracts of Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) was undertaken to study the analgesic activity in albino rats and albino mice by using different standard experimental models. PMID:22556819

Pandey, P S; Upadhyay, K K; Pandey, D N

1997-07-01

214

OA01.03. Antisecretory and antiulcer activities of eclipta alba Linn.in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Eclipta alba Linn. (Asteraceae) is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, immunomodulator, in wound healing, and as a potent hair growth promoter. The study was aimed to evaluate the antisecretory and gastroprotective effects of 50% ethanol extract of Eclipta alba. Method: Eclipta alba extract (EAE) at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days to prevent from, cold restraint stress (CRS), and pylorus ligation (PL) induced ulcers. Antioxidant studies were performed in CRS induced ulcer model. Gastric wall mucus and secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output and pH were estimated in PL induced ulcer model. Ranitidine (50mg/kg, p.o.) was used as positive control for comparison. Result: A dose dependent and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced rats treated with EAE at various doses when compared with control group in both the models. Gastric wall mucus production was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in EAE treated rats. Significant attenuation in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity was observed, whereas, catalase enzyme levels were elevated in EAE treated groups. Antisecretory activity of EAE was evidenced by significant reduction in gastric volume, acid output and increase in gastric pH when compared to their control values. The findings were further supported by histopathological examination of stomach in both EAE treated and control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that ethanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent antisecretory and gastroprotective activity. The exact mechanism to be evaluated further but in preliminary observation it was thought to be mediated through free radical scavenging activity.

Samaiya, Puneet Kumar; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Rao, Chandana. V; Vijaykumar, M.; Ojha, Sanjeev Kumar; Eswaran, Bavani M

2012-01-01

215

An improved micropropagation of Eclipta alba by in vitro priming with chlorocholine chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method of micropropagation for Eclipta alba from young nodal axils of shoot tip explants has been developed by giving special attention to ‘priming’ in vitro plantlets\\u000a in view of increasing their hardening ability after transplantation ex vitro. Among 3 cytokinins—BAP, kinetin and TDZ, BAP\\u000a was found most effective in inducing and proliferating adventitious shoots. The highest frequency of responding

Avik Ray; Sabita Bhattacharya

2008-01-01

216

Storage and conversion of Eclipta alba synseeds and RAPD analysis of the converted plantlets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The encapsulated shoot tips and nodal segments of Eclipta alba were stored at 4, 12 and 20 °C under irradiance of 1.5 gmmol m?2 s?1 and high conversion was observed in synseeds stored at 4 °C for 8 weeks. Duration of storage was extended up to 12 weeks\\u000a by decreasing sucrose concentration in the alginate matrix from 3 to 1

A. Ray; S. Bhattacharya

2010-01-01

217

Antidiabetic effect of Eclipta alba associated with the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EEA) on hyperglycaemia and diabetic nephropathy was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single-dose treatment of EEA to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats lowered the blood glucose level by 17.6% (p?

Natasha Jaiswal; Vikram Bhatia; Swayam Prakash Srivastava; Arvind Kumar Srivastava; Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar

2012-01-01

218

Micropropagation of Eclipta alba Hassk.: An approach to shorten the protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful attempt was made to shorten the protocol for micropropagation of the elite variety of Eclipta alba. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.44-22.2 µM) of 6 benzyladenine (BA); the best response was obtained with 4.44 µM. Further, the shoot multiplication and simultaneous rooting was obtained with lowered BA concentration (0.44

Archana J Gawde; V G Vaze

219

Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E

2014-01-01

220

Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E.

2014-01-01

221

Impact of the aqueous extract of Eclipta alba on maternal aggression in rats.  

PubMed

Parturient females display impulsive behavior represented in the form of aggressive bouts when exposed to conspecifics. Prolonged aggression during the postpartum period could affect maternal care. Eclipta alba is traditionally known to induce neuropsychiatric alterations, however its ability to circumvent maternal aggression has not been elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate the ability of the aqueous extract of Eclipta alba to suppress maternal aggression. In the single dose study, 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Eclipta alba was administered to parturient females 30 minutes prior to maternal aggression testing against intruder males. In the multiple dose study, 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered for 15 and 30 days and maternal aggression was quantified. Administration of the extract for 15 and 30 days in dose schedules of 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed agonistic encounters by the dams and therefore had beneficial anti-aggressive activity. PMID:20363689

Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Annamalai, A R; Shanthmurthy, M

2010-04-01

222

Pollen percentage thresholds of Abies alba based on 13-year annual records of pollen deposition in modified Tauber traps: perspectives of application to fossil situations  

E-print Network

Pollen percentage thresholds of Abies alba based on 13-year annual records of pollen deposition Keywords: Abies alba pollen accumulation rate modified Tauber trap pollen threshold value Central Mts (Czech Republic). The study aims: to estimate pollen thresholds for fir presence

Bern, Universität

223

Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea: Patterns of Spore Deposition in Experimental Populations  

E-print Network

Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea-smut infection of Silene alba ( = S. latzfolia) caused by Ustilago violacea: patterns of spore deposition populations of Silene albn consisting of healthy individuals and individuals infected by the anther

Antonovics, Janis

224

Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

2013-01-01

225

Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alba is a town of over 30 000 inhabitants located along the Tanaro River (Piedmont, northwestern Italy) and is famous for its wine and white truffles. Many important industries and companies are based in Alba, including the famous confectionery group Ferrero. The town suffered considerably from a flood that occurred on 5-6 November 1994. Forty-eight percent of the urban area was inundated, causing severe damage and killing nine people. After the flood, the Alba area was analysed in detail to determine the reasons for its vulnerability. Information on serious floods in this area since 1800 was gathered from official records, state technical office reports, unpublished documents in the municipal archives, and articles published in local and national newspapers. Maps, plans and aerial photographs (since 1954) were examined to reconstruct Alba's urban development over the last two centuries and the planform changes of the Tanaro River. The results were compared with the effects of the November 1994 flood, which was mapped from aerial photographs taken immediately after the flood, field surveys and eyewitness reports. The territory of Alba was subdivided into six categories: residential; public service; industrial, commercial and hotels; sports areas, utilities and standards (public gardens, parks, athletics grounds, private and public sport clubs); aggregate plants and dumps; and agriculture and riverine strip. The six categories were then grouped into three classes with different flooding-vulnerability levels according to various parameters. Using GIS, the three river corridors along the Tanaro identified by the Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Po were overlaid on the three classes to produce a final map of the risk areas. This study shows that the historic floods and their dynamics have not been duly considered in the land-use planning of Alba. The zones that were most heavily damaged in the 1994 flood were those that were frequently affected in the past and sites of more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

2012-07-01

226

Growth of Populus alba and its influence on soil trace element availability.  

PubMed

The use of fast growing trees is a common practice for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Plant roots can change trace element bioavailability in soils. We studied the effect of Populus alba on trace element bioavailability on two contaminated soils (one with neutral pH and other with acid pH) comparing two methods (0.01 M CaCl2-extractable in soil and concentration in soil pore water SPW), trace element accumulation in leaves and plant development over 36 months. Results were compared to those obtained with a non-contaminated soil. The experiment was carried out in containers (95 L of volume and 1m height). Half of the containers for each soil were planted with P. alba saplings and the others remained without plant. In neutral soils plant growth did not influence soil pH; the greatest effect due to plant growth was found in acid soil. Values of pH obtained by SPW showed a similar trend compared to those obtained after soil KCl extraction. Bioavailability of trace elements determined by both methods followed the same behavior in the three studied soils. Both methods for determining trace element bioavailability in soil were accurate to predict plant uptake. In non-contaminated soil, plants tended to increase micronutrients (Cu, Mn and Zn) availability. However, in case of contaminated soil, the growth of P. alba did not increase trace element availability. Moreover, results on height and diameter of the trunk of the trees, during 36 months, demonstrated that the presence of total trace elements in soil did not affect plant development. PMID:23562686

Ciadamidaro, L; Madejón, E; Puschenreiter, M; Madejón, P

2013-06-01

227

Isolation and characterization of 21 microsatellite markers in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

We report 21 new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the European barn owl (Tyto alba). The polymorphism of the reported markers was evaluated in a population situated in western Switzerland and in another from Tenerife, Canary Islands. The number of alleles per locus varies between two and 31, and expected heterozygosity per population ranges from 0.16 to 0.95. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected. Two loci exhibit a null allele in the Tenerife population. PMID:21585946

Burri, R; Antoniazza, S; Siverio, F; Klein, A; Roulin, A; Fumagalli, L

2008-09-01

228

[Determination of the chitinolytic activity of "Abies alba" Mill. litter microorganisms: bacteria and yeasts (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Chitin decomposition by some microorganisms isolated from Abies alba Mill. litter has been observed. The active strains were representatives of the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. The isolated yeasts were unable to decompose chitin. The chitinolytic microorganisms secreted in medium an extracellular chitinase system which determined chitin hydrolysis. Cell-free culture filtrate of the microorganisms produced colloidal chitin hydrolysis. An estimation method of chitin hydrolysis was determined measuring chitin loss in standard conditions. Experimental results indicate that Pseudomonas isolate is the most active. The active strains represent about 15% of the microorganisms, bacteria and yeasts, isolated from this litter. PMID:7325495

Faure-Raynaud, M

1981-01-01

229

Efficient plantlet regeneration from protoplasts isolated from suspension cultures of poplar (Populus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an efficient plant regeneration system from protoplasts for poplar (Populus alba L.). Protoplasts were isolated from 4-day-old suspension cultures derived from seed-induced calli with a yield of 6.96× 106 cells\\/g fresh weight cells and then cultured at a concentration of 2.5×105 cells\\/ml in NH4NO3-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.05 µM

J. Qiao; H. Kuroda; T. Hayashi; F. Sakai

1998-01-01

230

Optimization of the soft x-ray transmission microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mistral is the soft X-ray full field microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source. The beamline is designed to have large source acceptance and to provide constant magnification at the exit slit for photon energies between 270 and 2600 eV. The monochromator is a variation of the Petersen plane grating monochromator in which a variable line spacing grating is used to maintain the beam focused at the exit slit, independently of the fixed focus constant, and to cancel aberrations. We present the alignment strategy used to compensate errors of the optical elements, and report about the commissioning results.

Sorrentino, Andrea; Pereiro, Eva; Valcárcel, Ricardo; Ferrer, Salvador; Nicolas, Josep

2013-09-01

231

The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba.  

PubMed

Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function ? factor (PspX), its cognate anti-? factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic. PMID:23776227

Sherwood, Emma J; Bibb, Mervyn J

2013-07-01

232

Diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects of Eclipta alba in mild hypertensive subjects: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The combined effect of dried Eclipta alba leaf powder (3 g/day) in encapsulated form on blood pressure, diuresis, and lipid profile of 60 mildly hypertensive male subjects in the age group of 40-55 years was studied. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., a control (placebo) and the Eclipta group, and were given six capsules (500 mg each) per day in three equal doses for a period of 60 days. Clinical parameters, viz., blood pressure, urine volume, electrolytes (Na and K) in serum and urine, lipid profile, and plasma lipid peroxides, were analyzed before and after the feeding trials. The findings revealed that the Eclipta-supplemented group showed a marked reduction in mean arterial pressure by 15%, total cholesterol (17%), low-density lipoprotein fraction (24%), triglycerides (14%), very-low-density lipoprotein fraction (14%), and plasma lipid peroxides (18%). Results also revealed a remarkable increase in urine volume (34%), urine sodium (24%), serum vitamin C (17%), and serum tocopherols (23%) of the Eclipta group. In conclusion, it would appear that E. alba is diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic and helps in the alleviating oxidative stress-induced complications in hypertensives. PMID:17472478

Rangineni, Vasavi; Sharada, D; Saxena, Saileshnath

2007-03-01

233

Preliminary immunomodulatory activities of methanol extracts of Eclipta alba and Centella asiatica.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to assess the immunomodulatory activity of methanol extracts of whole plant of E. alba (1.6% wedelolactone) and C. asiatica (0.18% of asiaticoside) at five dose levels (dose-response relationship) ranging from 100 to 500 mg/kg body wt. using carbon clearance, antibody titer and cyclophosphamide immunosuppression parameters. In the case of E. alba, the phagocytic index and antibody titer increased significantly and the F ratios of the phagocytic index and WBC count were also significant. Regression analysis showed linearity in patterns of the dose-response relationship, greatest in the case of the phagocytic index, moderate in the WBC count and lowest in the antibody titer. For C. asiatica, significant increases in the phagocytic index and total WBC count were observed and the F ratio of the phagocytic index was also significant. Regressed values revealed maximum linearity in the case of the phagocytic index, moderate linearity in the total WBC count and lowest linearity in the antibody response. PMID:15185851

Jayathirtha, M G; Mishra, S H

2004-01-01

234

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-08-01

235

Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover ( Trifolium pratense), ryegrass ( Lolium perenne), and mustard ( Sinapsis alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were

Line E. Sverdrup; Paul Henning Krogh; Torben Nielsen; Christian Kjær; Jørgen Stenersen

2003-01-01

236

Water temperature: A factor in the seasonality of two freshwater sponge species, Ephydatia fluviatilis and Spongilla alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two freshwater sponge species, Ephvdatia fluviatilis and Spongilla alba, were maintained in a continuous-flow laboratory culture system at several different water temperatures. Experimental results suggest that sponge growth rate is affected by water temperature and that it is affected differently in the two species. The results correlate well with field observations on species abundance at different water temperatures and thereby

R. E. Harsha; J. C. Francis; M. A. Poirrier

1983-01-01

237

Bioaccumulation and damaging action of polymetal industrial dust on laboratory mice Mus musculus alba II. Genetic, cell, and metabolic disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecologo–toxicological experiment was carried out with laboratory mice Mus musculus alba of the inbred line BALB\\/c. The experimental animals (male and female) were exposed for 120 days to polymetal industrial dust containing zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium, which was mixed with conventional animal food. Chromosome aberration frequency and pathological changes in hematological indices, oxygen consumption, body temperature, and body

M. Topashka-Ancheva; R. Metcheva; S. Teodorova

2003-01-01

238

Diet of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) in wetlands of northeastern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of the Barn Owl ( Tyto alba ) and Little Owl ( Athene noctua ) were studied through pellet analysis in four northeastern Greek wetlands. Results from the months February-September showed that in all areas, the most important prey for the Barn Owl were small mammals (mainly Mus spp., Microtus rossiaemeridionalis , Crocidura spp. and Apodemus spp.) The

Vassilis Goutner; Haralambos Alivizatos

239

Small Mammal Taphonomy: Intraspecific Bone Assemblage Comparison between South and North American Barn Owl, Tyto alba , Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actualistic studies of small mammal taphonomy usually describe interspecific bone patterns of contemporary agents of bone deposition. These studies assume that each agent produces one specific bone pattern. Here we examine intraspecific bone patterning for bone assemblages produced by different barn owl,Tyto alba, populations. We analyse bone completeness and fragmentation patterns produced by this raptor between three Chilean and four

Bárbara Saavedra; Javier A. Simonetti

1998-01-01

240

Micromammalian distribution and abundance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, as evidenced by Barn owls Tyto alba (Scopoli)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of Western Cape mammalogy began almost 200 years ago with Thunberg (1811) and has been augmented periodically ever since. The present paper follows Vernon (1972) and Grindley et al. (1973) in eliciting information from material in Barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli) pellets. Analyses are based on identified and counted mandibles and maxillae. The Laminate vlei rat, Otomys laminatus

D. M. Avery; G. Avery; N. G. Palmer

2005-01-01

241

A Simple Thin-Layer Chromatographic Fingerprint Method for Distinguishing Between Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to different processing methods and growth conditions, the dry roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas are generally classified as Radix Paeoniae Alba (Bai-shao) and Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi-shao), which have been officially recorded under different monographs in all editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Although deriving from the same plant origin, the two herbs have individual chemical characteristics, which eventually result in

Liu Yang; Shunjun Xu; Qianru Feng; Hepin Liu; Runtao Tian; Peishan Xie

2009-01-01

242

The fine sand Abra alba community of the bay of morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977–1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results

J-C Dauvin

1998-01-01

243

ROEDORES EN LA DIETA DE DOS AVES RAPACES NOCTURNAS (BUBO VIRGINIANUS Y TYTO ALBA) EN EL NORESTE DE DURANGO, MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the diet of two species of owls, and assessed the rodents communities and their relative densities from March 1996 through February 1997 in the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve, Durango, México: Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba). The objectives were to understand the predator-prey relationships by comparing the availability and use of rodents by these owls.

Elizabeth E. ARAGÓN; Benjamín CASTILLO; Alfredo GARZA

244

Induction of hemopoiesis by Saenghyuldan, a mixture of Ginseng Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Hominis Placenta extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the efficacy of Saenghyuldan and its components, Ginseng Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Hominis Placenta extracts (SHD, GR, PRA, and HP, respectively) on the hemopoiesis in a myelosuppression model system. METHODS: Susceptibility to cyclophosphamide (CP) and S180 carcinoma was determined in SHD, GR, PRA, and HP-treated mice. Analysis of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells was demonstrated

SON Chang-Gue; HAN Seung-Hyun; CHO Jung-Hyo; SHIN Jang-Woo; CHO Chin-Ho; LEE Yeon-Weol; CHO Chong-Kwan

245

Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate

M. G. Michels; L. C. T. Bertolini; A. F. Esteves; P. Moreira; S. C. Franca

2011-01-01

246

FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

247

Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-?1 expression in nude mice.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-?1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

2015-02-01

248

Embryogenic culture initiation and somatic embryo development in hybrid firs (Abies alba x Abies cephalonica, and Abies alba x Abies numidica).  

PubMed

Embryogenic cultures were established from silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) female megagametliophytes with developing embryos and from excised mature embryos after pollination with Abies cephalonica Lond. or Abies numidica DeLann pollea The frequency of embryogenic callus formation was dependent on genotype, collection time, medium and explants used. The embryogenic callus initiation potential of megagamethophytes with developing embryos in both hybrids was higher in early July and dropped as the zygotic embryos matured. Excised cotyledonary embryos were less suitable for induction of embryogenic cultures. SH medium supplemented with 1mg/l BAP was the most efficient for callus induction and maintenance. Cultures were composed of early somatic embryos with an embryonal mass formed of highly cytoplasmic cells, rich in cell organelles and a suspensor built up by vacuolated, strongly elongated cells. Maturation of embryos was detected with the formation of bipolar structures with shoot and root apices. Nutrition reserves were observed in cells of embryos cultured on DCR medium containing 1 or 10 mg/l ABA. Cotyledon formation, hypocotyl elongation and low frequency germination occured following transfer of the embryos to the same medium without ABA. PMID:24178466

Salajova, T; Jasik, J; Kormutak, A; Salaj, J; Hakman, I

1996-03-01

249

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest.  

PubMed

Air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. Biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. As an example, although the silver fir (Abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the French and European areas, its standard emission rate is not available in the literature. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission from A. alba in France measured during the fieldwork organised in the Fossé Rhénan, from May to June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Limonene was the predominant monoterpene emitted, followed by camphene, alpha-pinene and eucalyptol. No isoprene emission was detected. The four monoterpenes measured showed different behaviours according to micrometeorological conditions. In fact, emissions of limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene were temperature-dependant while eucalyptol emissions were temperature and light dependant. Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions were modeled using information gathered during the field study. Emissions of the three monoterpenes previously quoted were achieved using the monoterpenes algorithm developed by Tingey et al. (1980) [Tingey D, Manning M, Grothaus L, Burns W. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol 1980;65: 797-801.] and the isoprene algorithm [Guenther, A., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1991. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. J Geophys Res 26A: 10799-10808.]; [Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P., Harley, P., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluation and sensitivity analysis. J Geophys Res 98D: 12609-12617.]) was used for the eucalyptol emission. With these methods, simulation results and observations agreed fairly well. The standard emission rate (303 K) and beta-coefficient averaged for limonene, camphene and alpha-pinene were respectively of 0.63 microg gdw-1 h-1 and 0.06 K-1. For eucalyptol, the standard emission rate (T=303 K and PAR=1000 micromol m-2 s-1) was 0.26 microg gdw-1 h-1. This classified A. alba as a weak monoterpenes emitter. PMID:16140360

Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V

2006-02-01

250

Differentiation of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspension cultures of Abies alba L.  

PubMed

Embryogenic suspension cultures of Abies alba were established using an embryogenic suspensor mass culture originating from the zygotic embryo in immature seed explants (Schuller et al. 1989). Protoplasts were isolated from the suspension material. The protoplasts were immobilized in alginate layers in order to follow the development of single protoplasts. During the first days of protoplast culture a modified Kao and Michayluk (1975) medium proved to be necessary for subsequent divisions. The formation of proembryos succeeded within 2-3 weeks when subcultured with a modified Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) liquid medium. Light, enhanced sugar concentration, and the addition of abscisic acid led to the formation of slightly green "torpedo"-shaped somatic embryos after 6-8 weeks from protoplast isolation. PMID:24213285

Hartmann, S; Lang, H; Reuther, G

1992-10-01

251

Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

1991-01-01

252

High level of variation at Abies alba chloroplast microsatellite loci in Europe.  

PubMed

Based on two polymorphic chloroplast microsatellites that had been previously identified and sequence characterized in the genus Abies, genetic variation was studied in a total of 714 individuals from 17 European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations distributed all over the natural range. We found eight and 18 different length variants at each locus, respectively, which combined into 90 different haplotypes. Genetic distances between most populations were high and significant. There is also evidence for spatial organization of the distribution of haplotypes, as shown by permutation tests, which demonstrate that genetic distances increase with spatial distances. A large heterogeneity in levels of diversity across populations was observed. Furthermore, there is good congruence in the levels of allelic richness of the two loci across populations. The present organization of levels of allelic richness across the range of the species is likely to have been shaped by the distribution of refugia during the last glaciation and the subsequent recolonization processes. PMID:10447853

1999-07-01

253

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

2001-06-01

254

Bio-assay guided isolation of alpha-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Eclipta alba.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk is used traditionally in diabetes mellitus in India and the plant extract is reported to possess anti-diabetic activity. A bioactivity-guided isolation approach based on alpha-glucosidase inhibition was used to identify the constituents contributing towards the inhibition of the enzyme and probably contributing towards its anti-diabetic activity. Four echinocystic acid glycosides were thus isolated, of which eclalbasaponin VI, isolated from the n-butanol fraction, was found to be the most potent (IC50 54.2 +/- 1.3 microM). The compound is an uncompetitive type of inhibitor with Ki 26.1 microM. A quantitative estimation of the constituents was established using RP-HPLC. PMID:22978212

Kumar, Deepak; Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ghosh, Rina; Pal, Bikas C

2012-08-01

255

Cloning, expression in Streptomyces lividans and biochemical characterization of a thermostable endo-?-1,4-xylanase of Thermomonospora alba UL?JB1 with cellulose-binding ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from urban solid waste. One of them, Thermomonospora alba ULJB1, showed a broad degradative activity on xylan, cellulose, starch and other polymers. Xylanase and cellulase activities\\u000a were quantified and compared with those of Thermomonospora fusca. Genes encoding two different endo-?-1,4-xylanases were cloned from T.?alba ULJB1. One of them, xylA, was sequenced, subcloned and overexpressed in

J. Blanco; J. J. R. Coque; J. Velasco; J. F. Martín

1997-01-01

256

Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production

D. Christybapita; M. Divyagnaneswari; R. Dinakaran Michael

2007-01-01

257

Foliar and cortex oleoresin variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Albania.  

PubMed

Terpene composition of needle and cortical oleoresin from lateral shoots were analyzed by GC/MS for four Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations scattered in natural species range in Albania. More than sixty compounds were detected in the needle oleoresin, which was characterized by a high content of alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, limonene and bornyl acetate. Three monoterpenes, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and limonene, and two sesquiterpenes, beta-caryophyllene and germacrene D, comprised the majority of cortical oleoresin. The terpene composition differences among the populations that led to the recognition of two chemotypes. The needle oleoresin from the provinces of Puka, Bulqiza and Llogara were characterised by high amounts of beta-pinene, camphene and alpha-pinene and low amounts of limonene, while that from Drenova had high amounts of beta-pinene and limonene. A similar pattern was found in the cortical oleoresin with the exception of camphene that was a minor contributor. Geographical and seasonal variation between the populations was, also, investigated. Multivariate analysis of both needle and cortical oleoresin separated Drenova (southeastern population) from the other sites. When both major monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were considered four chemical profiles could be attributed. Based on their chemical profiles, the populations can be divided into two groups: Populations with high content of beta-pinene and alpha-pinene but a low content of limonene (Puka, Bulqiza and Llogara), typical of most of A. alba populations in all its distribution range. Population with a high content of limonene and a moderate content of beta-pinene and alpha-pinene (Drenova). PMID:11531086

Zeneli, G; Tsitsimpikou, C; Petrakis, P V; Naxakis, G; Habili, D; Roussis, V

2001-01-01

258

Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.  

PubMed

The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

2011-01-01

259

Pityriasis Alba  

MedlinePLUS

... American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. Community Search Search » Sign In Remember Me Forgot your password? Haven't registered yet? more Calendar 4/23/2015 » 4/26/2015 2015 AOCD Spring Current Concepts in Dermatology Meeting 3/30/2016 » ...

260

A validated HPLC method for the analysis of herbal teas from three chemotypes of Brazilian Lippia alba.  

PubMed

Infusions and decoctions of three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae) were investigated for their quantitative profiles by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analyses. An RP-HPLC method was developed which permitted the quality control of the preparations. The correct choice of the column allowed the detailed characterization of the constituents in a total analysis time of 35 min. The HPLC method was accordingly validated for linearity range, LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision. For the quantitative analysis the three major phytochemical groups were taken into consideration, namely iridoids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Comparative quantitative analyses revealed significant differences among the chemotypes that should be taken into account in the uses of the herbal teas. The developed HPLC-UV assay proved to be an efficient and alternative method for the discrimination of the three chemotypes. This is the first report of detailed analysis of the chemical composition of the constituents of L. alba chemotypes' teas. PMID:25577093

Timóteo, Patrícia; Karioti, Anastasia; Leitão, Suzana G; Vincieri, Franco Francesco; Bilia, Anna Rita

2015-05-15

261

'Cortar na investigao como queimar  

E-print Network

Nobel da Medicina e presidente da Royal Society, o britânico vem a Portugal mostrar que ciência e bem de sempre no financiamento de bolsas pela Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia. > Como vê o? Em biologia c medicina, queremos perceber como fun- cionam os seres vivos - o que é crucial para uma

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

262

[Effect of trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids from Bryonia alba L. on the activity of glycogen metabolism enzymes in alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

It was shown previously in experiments on white rats with alloxan diabetes that trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids from Bryonia alba L. have a hypoglycemic action. The present paper is concerned with the effects of the above-indicated compounds on the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (a- and b-forms), phosphoprotein phosphatase and hexokinase in liver and muscle tissues of white rats with alloxan diabetes. One of the possible mechanisms of the hypoglycemic action of trihydroxyoctadecadiene acids is discussed. PMID:6322880

Vartanian, G S; Parsadanian, G K; Karagezian, K G

1984-03-01

263

Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar ( Populus alba L . ) by U-shaped DC arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time\\u000a (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng\\/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration\\u000a time was compared

D. M. Markovi?; I. Novovi?; D. Viloti?; Lj. Ignjatovi?

2009-01-01

264

Quantitative Analysis of the Retinal Ganglion Cell Layer and Optic Nerve of the Barn Owl Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visual capacity of the common barn owl (Tyto alba) was studied by quantitative analysis of the retina and optic nerve. Cell counts in the ganglion cell layer of the whole-mounted retina revealed a temporal area centralis with peak cell density of 12,500 cells\\/mm2 and a horizontal streak of high cell density extending from the area centralis into the nasal

John C. Wathey; John D. Pettigrew

1989-01-01

265

The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). II: Coat resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The thermal resistance of barn owl (Tyto alba) plumage was determined from measurements of heat flux and temperature using a model in a wind tunnel.2.2. The mean resistance of four barn owl coats was 398 s m?1 and wetting the coat reduced coat resistance to 374 s m?1. Resistance decreased linearly with increasing wind speed from 0–7 m s?1.3.3.

D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

1997-01-01

266

Seed dispersal, germination and early seedling establishment of Populus alba L. under simulated water table declines in different substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus alba L. is an autochthonous species dominating the overstory of the floodplain forests across the Mediterranean region. In contrast\\u000a to some other Populus spp., very little is known about its regeneration strategies. Poplars yearly disperse huge amounts of wind- and water-dispersed,\\u000a non-dormant, short-lived tiny seeds that need the bare, open and moist substrates created by fluvial-geomorphic events to\\u000a germinate

Eduardo GonzalezFrancisco; Francisco Antonio Comín; Etienne Muller

2010-01-01

267

Cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation during the ontogenesis of high-light and low-light leaves of Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncyclic electron transport to ferricyanide and photophosphorylation as well as the methylviologen mediated aerobic and anaerobic photophosphorylation with dichlorophenolindophenol-ascorbate as the electron donor of photosystem I were measured during the development of high-light and low-light adapted leaves of Sinapis alba. Anaerobic methylviologen-catalyzed phosphorylation is more than twice as high as aerobic phosphorylation. The difference between the rates of aerobic and

A. Wild; J. Belz; W. Rtihle

1981-01-01

268

Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp.), Fir Honeydew (Abies alba) and Sage (Salvia officinalis) Honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp.), fir honeydew (Abies alba) and sage (Salvia offici- nalis) honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase micro- extraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) anal- ysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In

Draen Lu; Olivera Koprivnjak; Anna G. Sabatini; Lanfranco S. Conte

269

In vitro regeneration of the important North American oak species Quercus alba , Quercus bicolor and Quercus rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American oak species, with their characteristic strong episodic seasonal shoot growth, are highly problematic for clonal\\u000a micropropagation, resulting in the inability to achieve a stabilized shoot multiplication stage. The potential for initiating\\u000a and proliferating shoot cultures derived from Quercus alba, Q. bicolor and Q. rubra explants was investigated, and a micropropagation method for these species was developed. Branch segments

A. M. Vieitez; E. Corredoira; A. Ballester; F. Muñoz; J. Durán; M. Ibarra

2009-01-01

270

VARIACIÓN ANUAL DE LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE LIPPIA ALBA (VERBENACEAE) CULTIVADA EN COSTA RICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Bougainvillea S.A., San José, Costa Rica. ABSTRACT. The variation of the annual chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) sweet form cultivated in the tropical Caribbean region of Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC\\/FID and GC\\/MS. The major constituents are carvone (62.44 - 67.55 %) and limonene (20.77 - 24.95 %). RESUMEN. Se

JOSÉ F. CICCIÓ; RAFAEL A. OCAMPO

2006-01-01

271

Effects of climate on diameter growth of co-occurring Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba along an altitudinal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high-elevation forests, growth is limited by low temperatures, while in Mediterranean climates drought and high temperatures\\u000a are the main limiting factors. Consequently, the climate-growth relationships on Mont Ventoux, a mountain in the Mediterranean\\u000a area, are influenced by both factors. Two co-occurring species were studied: silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), whose geographical distribution depends

Cailleret Maxime; Davi Hendrik

2011-01-01

272

Occurrence of multiple metal-resistance in bacterial isolates associated with transgenic white poplars ( Populus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of multiple metal-resistance was assessed in two bacterial collections, named Herbicide Resistant Bacteria\\u000a (HRB) and Nuclease-Producing Bacteria (NPB) respectively, consisting of 15 and 11 isolates obtained from a loamy sand cultivated\\u000a with transgenic white poplars (Populus alba L., cv ‘Vilafranca’) engineered for herbicide resistance. A third collection of 11 bacterial isolates, named Leaf-Associated\\u000a Bacteria (LAB), obtained from the

Alma Balestrazzi; Martina Bonadei; Emanuele Quattrini; Daniela Carbonera

2009-01-01

273

Survival and development of immature Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) feeding on Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer) propagated on transgenic Populus alba × P. glandulosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory feeding experiments with the poplar aphid, Chaitophorus populeti (Panzer), feeding on transgenic poplar (P. alba × P. glandulosa) varieties C13-5 and C013-5, were carried out to study the effect of transgenic poplar on the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). The mortality and development time of the immature stages, the eclosion rate and body mass of H. axyridis were measured. The

Xiao-fen Zhang; Min Chen; Bin-yu Zhang; You-qing Luo; Ying-jie Hou; Xiao-hua Su

2009-01-01

274

Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

2015-03-01

275

Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.  

PubMed

The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763

Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

2014-03-01

276

Evaluation of hydro-alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba for its multidrug resistance reversal potential: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) causes problems in the chemotherapy of human cancer. The present study was designed to evaluate and establish the role of Eclipta alba as MDR reversal agent using multidrug resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (DR-HepG2). To develop DR-HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) was transfected with 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB). Cytotoxic effects of the Eclipta alba hydroalcoholic extract (EAE) and standard anti-ancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) were determined in DR-HepG2 and the parental cells HepG2 using MTT assay. The expression level of MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) level was analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting. From the present investigation, it was found that EAE (10 and 20 ?g/ml) could significantly inhibit cell proliferation in DR-HepG2 whereas DOX (0.5 ?g/ml) could not because of enhancement effect of MDR1/P-gp. This study demonstrated for the first time the antiproliferative activities of EAE in multidrug resistant DR-HepG2 cells. The findings revealed that Eclipta alba components are effective inhibitors of MDR1/P-gp. PMID:23859045

Chaudhary, Harshita; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

2013-01-01

277

Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  

PubMed

The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

2012-07-01

278

Phytochrome Control of the Development of Ascorbate Oxidase Activity in Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Cotyledons.  

PubMed Central

The activity of ascorbate oxidase (AOX) in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons was markedly increased by irradiation with continuous far-red light. The involvement of phytochrome in this light-mediated response was demonstrated by red/far-red reversibility experiments. To determine immunochemically the contents of AOX in cotyledons, the antibody against the enzyme was raised in a rabbit. However, the antiserum was not monospecific to AOX; it also recognized glycoproteins. To remove antibodies that are specific to a carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins, the anti-AOX antiserum was applied to a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated Sepharose column. By using the antibodies that were not retained in the column, the changes in the content of AOX were followed. Western immunoblot profiles revealed that the content of AOX protein in cotyledons notably increased after continuous far-red light treatment. Pulse-labeling experiments indicated that the synthesis of AOX protein occurred in the cotyledons. These results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that phytochrome-mediated increase in AOX activity is accompanied by the synthesis of the enzyme. PMID:12231899

Hayashi, R.; Morohashi, Y.

1993-01-01

279

Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and osteoclastic differentiation by Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba extract  

PubMed Central

Background: Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (ARA) has been used in Korean folk medicine for constipation, dizziness, and anticancer agent. In the present study, we performed to test whether the methanolic extract of ARA has antioxidant and antiosteoclastogenesis activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacities were tested by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, reducing power, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Antiosteoclastogenesis activity was evaluated by performing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase assay in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Results: The extract exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and NO radical scavenging activity, and it exerted dramatic reducing power. Induction of iNOS and NO by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the ARA extract inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Strikingly, the ARA extracts substantially inhibited the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand-induced osteclastic differentiation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The ARA extract contains a significant amount of antioxidant components, including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggest that the methanolic extract of ARA exerts significant antioxidant activities potentially via inhibiting free radicals and iNOS induction, thereby leading to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25298665

Choi, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Jin

2014-01-01

280

Herbicidal activity of glucosinolate degradation products in fermented meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) seed meal.  

PubMed

Meadowfoam ( Limnanthes alba ) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. This study investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome ( Bromus tectorum ) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO(4) (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile, and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of the seed meal (r(2) = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

Stevens, Jan F; Reed, Ralph L; Alber, Susan; Pritchett, Larry; Machado, Stephen

2009-03-11

281

The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).  

PubMed

In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality. PMID:20033771

Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

2010-12-01

282

Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges. PMID:20552203

Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

2010-09-01

283

Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.  

PubMed

For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms. PMID:23615168

Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

2013-01-01

284

How barn owls (Tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (Microtus socialis) before attacking them.  

PubMed

The present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. The working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. To test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (Tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. Bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of movements revealed that owl head movements increased in amplitude parallel to the vole's direction of movement (sideways or away from/toward the owl). However, the owls also performed relatively large repetitive horizontal head movements when the voles were progressing in any direction, suggesting that these movements were critical for the owl to accurately locate the prey, independent of prey behavior. From the pattern of head movements we conclude that owls orient toward the prospective clash point, and then return to the target itself (the vole) - a pattern that fits an interception rather than a tracking mode of following a moving target. The large horizontal component of head movement in following live prey may indicate that barn owls either have a horizontally narrow fovea or that these movements serve in forming a motion parallax along with preserving image acuity on a horizontally wide fovea. PMID:19577583

Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

2009-09-01

285

Effects of environmental temperature on thyroid hormones in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The basic patterns of thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3)] and the T4 and T3 responses induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) are reported in captive female barn owls (Tyto alba) during the non-breeding period. The main findings of the study, conducted on a total of 10 owls, are as follow: (1) The thyroid gland of barn owl can be stimulated by the classical TRH stimulation test. (2) T3 response was much more pronounced both under cold (around 10 degrees C) and warm (around 20 degrees C) conditions, whereas T4 response ranged so widely that we could not point out any significant change in it. (3) Basal T3 plasma level was significantly (p = 0.036) higher in birds exposed to cold temperature, and they responded to TRH treatment with a lower plasma T3 elevation than the birds kept in a warm chamber. This pattern, however, cannot be explained by increased food intake, but is in agreement with the fact that enhanced T3 level may account for higher avUCP mRNA expression, which results in higher heat production on the cell level. From the results it is concluded that altering T3 plasma level plays a significant role in cold-induced thermoregulation. PMID:17020136

Klein, A; Kulcsár, Margit; Krízsik, Virág; Mátics, R; Rudas, P; Török, J; Huszenicza, G

2006-09-01

286

Net Photosynthesis and Early Growth Trends of a Dominant White Oak (Quercus alba L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Examination of the relationship between photosynthesis and growth of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.) tree has shown that most growth processes were either completed or well underway before the establishment of significant positive rates of net photosynthesis. Growth was initiated first in the root system (March 3), followed by stem cambial growth (March 26) and later by flower, leaf, and branch growth (April 10). During the period of rapid leaf and branch growth, root and cambial growth ceased and then resumed as the leaves approached maturity. The rapid rate of leaf maturation, the early appearance of positive rates of net photosynthesis in leaves (15% of final size) and the CO2-refixing capability of elongating branch tissue reduced the period of time that this white oak tree was dependent on stored reserves. Lower temperature optima and compensation points in developing leaves and stems indicated that the growth-temperature response was optimized for the lower seasonal temperatures observed during the spring. This temperature adaptation further reduced the time that this tree was dependent on stored reserves. Images PMID:16661108

Dougherty, Phillip M.; Teskey, Robert O.; Phelps, John E.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

1979-01-01

287

Do Uniparental Sanderlings Calidris alba Increase Egg Heat Input to Compensate for Low Nest Attentiveness?  

PubMed Central

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs. PMID:21347377

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-01-01

288

Do uniparental sanderlings Calidris alba increase egg heat input to compensate for low nest attentiveness?  

PubMed

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs. PMID:21347377

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-01-01

289

Variability of stomatal conductance in a small and isolated population of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).  

PubMed

We analyzed the response to drought of 420 individuals from eight half-sib families from a small and isolated population of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.): 105 of them were kept in well-watered conditions as control while the remaining 315 were exposed to drought for 27 days. A model describing stomatal behavior derived from Monteith and developed in beech by Leonardi et al. was fitted to experimental transpiration data obtained simply from the difference between two daily pot weighings. The estimated parameters were maximum stomatal conductance, maximum transpiration in well-watered conditions and sensitivity to soil water deficit. The model worked well: convergence for all but four individuals and concordance between experimental and fitted data were good (R(2)=0.86). Inter-individual variability for all three estimated parameters was high and two of them (maximum stomatal conductance and sensitivity to soil water deficit) were significantly different among families, suggesting genetic control. Our results validate the simplified method used to evaluate individual stomatal parameters. We also show that in the small and isolated population of our study substantial adaptive variability remains, a crucial prerequisite to endure environmental conditions determined by climatic change foreseen for the next decades. PMID:21636691

Piovani, Paolo; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; Menozzi, Paolo

2011-05-01

290

Status and Developments of BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at Alba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BL13-XALOC is a Macromolecular Crystallography beamline at the newly built 3-GeV synchrotron ALBA (Barcelona). The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator, and a pair of KB mirrors. The optical design allows three main operation modes: an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path; a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam to 49×9 ?m2 FWHM (H×V), and a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus it at the detector. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors were reduced by using novel method together with our high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning has also demonstrated that the X-ray beam has excellent energy and spatial stability. The End Station includes a high accuracy single axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa goniometer, an automated sample mounting robot and a Pilatus6M, photon-counting detector. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility, allows the beamline to tackle a large variety of crystals, from medium sized crystals with large unit cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of high-quality data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18th July 2012.

Benach, J.; Cuní, G.; Colldelram, C.; Nicolás, J.; Lidón, J.; Gil-Ortiz, F.; Juanhuix, J.

2013-03-01

291

The radical SAM enzyme AlbA catalyzes thioether bond formation in subtilosin A.  

PubMed

Subtilosin A is a 35-residue, ribosomally synthesized bacteriocin encoded by the sbo-alb operon of Bacillus subtilis. It is composed of a head-to-tail circular peptide backbone that is additionally restrained by three unusual thioether bonds between three cysteines and the ?-carbon of one threonine and two phenylalanines, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that these bonds are synthesized by the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme AlbA, which is encoded by the sbo-alb operon and comprises two [4Fe-4S] clusters. One [4Fe-4S] cluster is coordinated by the prototypical CXXXCXXC motif and is responsible for the observed S-adenosylmethionine cleavage reaction, whereas the second [4Fe-4S] cluster is required for the generation of all three thioether linkages. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose a new radical mechanism for thioether bond formation. In addition, we show that AlbA-directed substrate transformation is leader-peptide dependent, suggesting that thioether bond formation is the first step during subtilosin A maturation. PMID:22366720

Flühe, Leif; Knappe, Thomas A; Gattner, Michael J; Schäfer, Antje; Burghaus, Olaf; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A

2012-04-01

292

Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal  

PubMed Central

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

2009-01-01

293

Sanderlings (Calidris alba) have a magnetic compass: orientation experiments during spring migration in Iceland.  

PubMed

The migratory orientation of sanderlings (Calidris alba) was investigated with cage experiments during the spring migration in southwest Iceland. Sanderlings were exposed to 90 degrees counterclockwise-shifted magnetic fields under both clear skies and natural overcast. Clear sky control tests resulted in a northerly mean direction, in agreement with predictions based on ringing recovery data and earlier visual observations of departing flocks. Sanderlings closely followed experimental deflections of magnetic fields when tested under clear skies. Control experiments under natural overcast resulted in a bimodal distribution approximately coinciding with the magnetic north-south axis. Overcast tests did not reveal any predictable response to the experimental treatment, but instead resulted in a non-significant circular distribution. The time of orientation experiments in relation to the tidal cycle affects the motivation of the birds to depart, as shown by the lower directional scatter of headings of individuals tested within the appropriate tidal window under clear skies. Sanderlings were significantly more likely to become inactive under overcast conditions than under clear sky conditions. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that a wader species such as the sanderling possesses a magnetic compass and suggest that magnetic cues are of primary directional importance. However, overcast experiments indicate that both celestial and geomagnetic information are needed for sanderlings to realize a seasonally appropriate migratory orientation. PMID:11003824

Gudmundsson, G A; Sandberg, R

2000-10-01

294

In vitro Evaluation of Eclipta alba against Serogroups of Leptospira interrogans.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is now acknowledged as the most widespread zoonoses in the world. Hundreds of cases occur in India every year accounting for considerable morbidity and sizable mortality. Several studies have delineated the epidemiology, pathology and variable clinical features of this condition. The present study comprises the importance and utilization of traditional based medicines to overcome the adverse reaction by conventional drugs and standardize the technology. The antileptospiral activity of Eclipta alba L. was well studied by both tube dilution and micro dilution techniques and the result showed better inhibitory action against various serogroups of Leptospira interrogans. L. australis, L. autumnalis and L. grippotyphosa are inhibited by both water and ethanol extract by tube dilution technique. The MIC level observed are 50 ?g and 100 ?g respectively. Similarly acetone extract, Icterohaemorrhagiae was responded to 200 ?g/ml as MIC whereas in petroleum ether extract, no inhibition was observed. In the case of micro dilution technique, the entire inhibition rates are supported to the tube dilution technique. It showed that the micro dilution technique is the best method where we obtained the results within 30 minutes; at the same time tube dilution technique takes minimum of 7 days to provide the result. PMID:21369443

Prabhu, N; Innocent, Joseph Pushpa; Chinnaswamy, P; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Sarayu, Lakshmi

2008-11-01

295

DNA-damaging steroidal alkaloids from Eclipta alba from the suriname rainforest1.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Eclipta alba using three yeast strains (1138, 1140, and 1353) resulted in the isolation of eight bioactive steroidal alkaloids (1-8), six of which are reported for the first time from nature. The major alkaloid was identified as (20S)(25S)-22,26-imino-cholesta-5,22(N)-dien-3beta-ol (verazine, 3), while the new alkaloids were identified as 20-epi-3-dehydroxy-3-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4,5-dehydroverazine (1), ecliptalbine [(20R)-20-pyridyl-cholesta-5-ene-3beta,23-diol] (4), (20R)-4beta-hydroxyverazine (5), 4beta-hydroxyverazine (6), (20R)-25beta-hydroxyverazine (7), and 25beta-hydroxyverazine (8). Ecliptalbine (4), in which the 22,26-imino ring of verazine was replaced by a 3-hydroxypyridine moiety, had comparable bioactivity to verazine in these assays, while a second alkaloid (8) showed good activity against Candida albicans. All the alkaloids showed weak cytotoxicity against the M-109 cell line. PMID:9784152

Abdel-Kader, M S; Bahler, B D; Malone, S; Werkhoven, M C; van Troon, F; David; Wisse, J H; Bursuker, I; Neddermann, K M; Mamber, S W; Kingston, D G

1998-10-01

296

In vivo evaluation of Eclipta alba extract as anticancer and multidrug resistance reversal agent.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the anticancer and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal potential of hydro-alcoholic Eclipta alba extract (EAE) through in vivo experiments. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were used for liver cancer induction in animal model, whereas for MDR induction, AAF was used. The level of antioxidant enzymes was studied in serum along with biochemical parameters. Cancer and MDR-induced liver cells have higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in turn, are responsible for the maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Treatment with EAE declines the ROS level and revealed the ROS scavenging properties. Alfa feto protein levels were found to increase significantly in cancer-induced animals confirming induction and progression of liver cancer, EAE treatment was found to bring back the altered levels within normal range indicating the therapeutic effect of plant extract over liver cancer. Zymogram showed the inhibition of MMPs and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-kB was markedly decreased upon EAE treatment. Further, our results showed that EAE could significantly inhibit mdr1 gene encode P-glycoprotein expression. Our data suggest that EAE is a novel anticancer and potent MDR reversal agent and may be a potential adjunctive agent for tumor chemotherapy. PMID:24896195

Chaudhary, Harshita; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

2014-01-01

297

Antidiabetic effect of Eclipta alba associated with the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase.  

PubMed

The antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EEA) on hyperglycaemia and diabetic nephropathy was investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single-dose treatment of EEA to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats lowered the blood glucose level by 17.6% (p < 0.05) at 250 mg kg(-1) dose after 5 h post oral administration. Treatment of animals after 10 weeks of STZ-treatment with EEA (250 mg kg(-1)) for 21 days significantly reduced the elevated levels of blood glucose, %HbA1C, urea, uric acid and creatinine, and significantly increased the depressed serum insulin level. The extract exerted a significant inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase in a noncompetitive manner with an IC(50) value of around 54 µg mL(-1) and was found inhibitory to eye lens aldose reductase with an IC(50) value of around 4.5 µg mL(-1). The results suggest that EEA possesses antidiabetic effect associated with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibition. PMID:22348789

Jaiswal, Natasha; Bhatia, Vikram; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

2012-01-01

298

PREFERENCIA DE ÁRBOLES FORRAJEROS POR CABRAS EN LA ZONA BAJA DE LOS ANDES VENEZOLANOS. Goats Preference of Fodder Tree in the Venezuelan Andes Low Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to know the preference of twelve fodder species (Chlo- rophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliri- cidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gi- gantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) a cafeteria trial was carried out in goats at Trujillo State, Venezuela. An ex- perimental square latin design with evaluation period of

Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Johny Humbría; Alfredo Baldizán; Carlos Domínguez

2008-01-01

299

Antioxidant capacity and HPLC-DAD-MS profiling of Chilean peumo (Cryptocarya alba) fruits and comparison with German peumo (Crataegus monogyna) from southern Chile.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with UV detection and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the generation of chemical fingerprints and the identification of phenolic compounds in peumo fruits and aerial parts from southern Chile. Thirty three compounds (19 of these detected in C. alba and 23 in C. monogyna) were identified, mainly flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoid aglycons. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content was measured for both species, and were higher in the extracts from C. monogyna fruits and aerial parts than extracts from C. alba. The fruits of Cryptocarya alba (Chilean peumo) presented high antioxidant capacity (9.12 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay), but was three times lower to that of Crataegus monogyna (German peumo) (3.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23385342

Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-01-01

300

Foliar morphological and physiological plasticity in Picea abies and Abies alba saplings along a natural light gradient.  

PubMed

The role of morphological versus physiological foliar plasticity in the capacity for, and mechanisms of, photosynthetic acclimation was assessed in Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Abies alba Mill. saplings in a forest gap-understory light gradient (relative irradiance, RI, ranging from 0.02 to 0.32). The species investigated showed a similar foliar morphological plasticity along the light gradient, at both the needle level (through alteration in leaf dry mass per area) and the shoot level (through alteration in the silhouette area ratio, e.g., shoot silhouette to projected needle area ratio). In both species chlorophyll (Chl) concentration on a mass basis decreased at increasing RI, but was independent of RI when expressed on an area basis. In contrast, leaf N concentration on a mass basis was independent of RI, but was positively influenced by RI when expressed on an area basis. The parameters describing photosynthetic performance at low light (dark respiration rate, apparent quantum yield and light compensation point) suggest that Abies alba was better suited to maintain a positive carbon balance in shaded conditions. By contrast, parameters describing biochemical capacity at high light (maximum electron transport rate, Jmax and maximum ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylation capacity, Vcmax) indicate that only Picea abies was capable of acclimating physiologically to high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs) by increasing nitrogen partitioning to Rubisco and Vcmax/mass by increasing RI. These results support the hypothesis that interspecific differences in nitrogen partitioning within the photosynthetic apparatus may provide a mechanistic basis for species separation along a light gradient. The differences in photosynthetic plasticity observed are likely to influence regeneration patterns and habitat breadth of the species investigated. The limited ability of Abies alba saplings to exploit high-light conditions may be a competitive disadvantage in large canopy gaps and thus limit recruitment of this species to small gaps. PMID:11498343

Grassi, G; Bagnaresi, U

2001-08-01

301

Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in the Barn owl (Aves: Tyto alba).  

PubMed

We isolated major histocompatibility complex class II B (MHCIIB) genes in the Barn owl (Tyto alba). A PCR-based approach combined with primer walking on genomic and complementary DNA as well as Southern blot analyses revealed the presence of two MHCIIB genes, both being expressed in spleen, liver, and blood. Characteristic structural features of MHCIIB genes as well as their expression and high non-synonymous substitution rates in the region involved in antigen binding suggest that both genes are functional. MHC organization in the Barn owl is simple compared to passerine species that show multiple duplications, and resembles the minimal essential MHC of chicken. PMID:18548243

Burri, Reto; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Roulin, Alexandre; Fumagalli, Luca

2008-09-01

302

Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).  

PubMed

We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n?=?1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls. PMID:21564947

Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

2009-11-01

303

Researches on the preparation and characterization of some tinctures from Silene albae herba and Silene pendulae herba  

PubMed Central

Starting from the varied chemical composition of Silene species (Caryophyllaceae family), the pharmacological utilizations (homeopathy) and the cumulative toxicity for a long time administration, were performed researches concerning the preparation and characterization of tinctures from aerial parts of S. alba and S. pendula species. Tinctures were obtained, according to the Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth edition, by percolation and characterized from physico-chemical point of view: color, taste, smell, relative density, refractive index, and quality conditions – content in iron and heavy metals, alcohol concentration and evaporation residue. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of tinctures were making for the flavonosids, using thin layer-chromatography, respectively VIS spectrophotometry. PMID:24778846

Tircomnicu, Viorela; Gird, Cerasela Elena; Radu, S.

2012-01-01

304

Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a significant decrease in the oocyst counting since the 21 th day of life and displayed a reduced number of macroscopic lesions. Histopathological evaluations of cecum fragments showed that both treatments induced the migration of defense cells at the site of infection. A severe destruction of the cecal lining was found in the intestinal tract of broilers fed with a coumestans dose of 180 ppm. Overall, our results validate the use of a phytotherapy containing E. alba coumestans at a dose of 120 ppm as a therapeutic or prophylactic agent against avian coccidiosis. PMID:21177038

Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

2011-04-19

305

Activity of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal Glucolimnanthin Degradation Products against Soil-Borne Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oil seed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soil-borne pathogens. To maximize the pest suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soil-borne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soil-borne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic compound against all of the soil-borne pathogens with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC50 values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20 to 40 times lower than estimated EC50 mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

ZASADA, INGA A; WEILAND, JERRY E; REED, RALPH L; STEVENS, JAN F

2014-01-01

306

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry reference intervals of healthy adult barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of barn owls (Tyto alba) were studied in collaboration by the Exotic Division of the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Szent Istvan University and the Eötvös Loránd University, both in Budapest, Hungary. Blood samples were taken from a total of 42 adult barn owls kept in zoos and bird repatriation stations. The following quantitative and qualitative hematologic values were determined: packed cell volume, 46.2 +/- 4%; hemoglobin concentration, 107 +/- 15 g/L; red blood cell count, 3.2 +/- 0.4 x 10(12)/L; white blood cell count, 13.7 +/- 2.7 x 10(9)/L; heterophils, 56.5 +/- 11.5% (7.8 +/- 2 x 10(9)/L); lymphocytes, 40.3 +/- 10.9% (5.5 +/- 1.9 x 10(9)/L); monocytes, 1.8 +/- 2.1% (0.3 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/ L); eosinophils, 1 +/- 1% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L); and basophils, 0.6 +/- 0.5% (0.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(9)/L). The following plasma biochemistry values also were determined: aspartate aminotransferase, 272 +/- 43 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 9.5 +/- 4.7 U/L; lipase, 31.7 +/- 11.1 U/L; creatine kinase, 2228 +/- 578 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 1702 +/- 475 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 358 +/- 197 U/L; amylase, 563 +/- 114 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.5 +/- 2.5 U/L; total protein, 30.6 +/- 5.3 g/L; uric acid, 428 +/- 102 micromol/L; and bile acids, 43 +/- 18 micromol/L. These results provide reliable reference values for the clinical interpretation of hematologic and plasma biochemistry results for the species. PMID:25055626

Szabo, Zoltan; Klein, Akos; Jakab, Csaba

2014-06-01

307

Zhihengliuella alba sp. nov., and emended description of the genus Zhihengliuella.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, non-motile, white-pigmented, short rod actinobacterium, designated YIM 90734T, was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from Ganjiahu Suosuo Forest National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang province, north-west China, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain YIM 90734T grew optimally at 28-37 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0 and in 5% (w/v) NaCl. The peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, L-Lys-L-Ala-L-Glu and tyvelose and mannose were the major cell-wall sugars. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10 and MK-9. Major cellular fatty acids (>10% of total) were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown phospholipid and two unknown glycolipids. The DNA G+C content was 70.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 90734T belonged to the genus Zhihengliuella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain YIM 90734T and the type strain of the only recognized Zhihengliuella species, Zhihengliuella halotolerans, was 97.7%. However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness of the two strains was 41.4%. The DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain YIM 90734T could be differentiated from Z. halotolerans. On the basis of the data presented, strain YIM 90734T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Zhihengliuella, for which the name Zhihengliuella alba sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 90734T (=KCTC 19375T=DSM 21143T). The description of the genus Zhihengliuella has also been emended. PMID:19567565

Tang, Shu-Kun; Wang, Yun; Chen, Yun; Lou, Kai; Cao, Lan-Lan; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-08-01

308

The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

2014-01-01

309

Plant regeneration from single-nodal-stem explants of legume tree Prosopis alba Griseb.  

PubMed

Seeds of Prosopis alba were scarified with abrasive paper and placed to germinate on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) nutrient medium. After 7 days of culture, the basal part of cotyledons was removed and pieces of 4 mm" from distal parts were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) mineral salts and vitamins (MS) (3% sucrose) supplemented with growth regulators. Callus proliferation took place in the majority of the media tested. A low percentage of calluses with green buds that developed on MS basal medium containing 0.1 mg.L-1 2,4-D alone or supplemented with BAP at 0.1 mg.L-1 was observed. Neither cotyledonary segments in any medium assayed regenerated the whole plants. Bud elongation (near 70%) was achieved when single-nodal-stem segments cut from 20 days old seedlings were cultured on MS salts supplemented with 3 mg.L-1 NAA or 3 mg.L-1 IBA combined with 0.05 mg.L-1 KIN after 60 days in culture. Multiple shoots per bud were also observed. Single-nodal-stem segments from five-year-old plants were also cultured on the same media used for seedling explants. Maximal frequency of explants with bud elongation (near 70%) was found on MS with 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA plus 1 mg.L-1 BAP after 60 days of culture. Single-nodal-stem explants cut from adult trees (more than 20 years) were also employed, but the number of bud elongation was lesser. For rooting, the elongated shoots were transferred to a semisolid or liquid MS culture medium employing a paper bridge, supplemented with 0.5 mg.L-1 IBA or 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA. PMID:10979607

Castillo de Meier, G; Bovo, O A

2000-08-01

310

Oxygen isotopes in tree rings of Abies alba: The climatic significance of interdecadal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the ?18O variations in the latewood of tree rings from four silver firs (Abies alba Mill.) for the period 1840-1997 at a mountain site in Switzerland, establishing the longest available tree ring record for ?18O in central Europe. The isotope ratios were determined on whole wood with a rapid continuous flow pyrolysis technique, thus avoiding cellulose extraction. We found significant correlations with ?18O tree ring records from the same region, although these involved different materials (cellulose extracted from whole rings rather than latewood) and different species. This indicates that physical factors are more important than biological influences as a determinant of ?18O in tree rings. The isotope tree ring chronology was highly correlated with the oxygen isotope variations in the June/July precipitation for the period 1972-1992 (r=0.72), and ?18O in whole wood of tree rings is therefore well suited for the reconstruction of ?18O in precipitation. We found a slow, quasi-periodic variation of the ?18O series with a periodicity of ˜24 years, which is correlated to variations in the July temperature. This could be caused by fluctuations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over Europe and the North Atlantic, which may result in a change in source and flow path of atmospheric moisture, affecting the isotope ratio of precipitation in Switzerland. Although a significant correlation with summer temperature was found (p<0.01), the low correlation coefficient (r = 0.31) indicates that the ?18O variations cannot be explained by temperature variations alone. However, even when considering that the factors influencing ?18O in precipitation are not yet fully understood, our study shows the potential of tree rings to provide long records of ?18O in precipitation for continental areas, which will improve our understanding of the causes of natural perturbations of the climate system.

Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo; Siegwolf, Rolf

2000-05-01

311

Climate influence and radial growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Tuscany: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the School of Geography and Environmental Science of Monash University (Australia) signed a research protocol with the "Corpo Forestale dello Stato", Uffici per la Tutela della Biodiversità at Pistoia, Pratovecchio, Vallombrosa, and the "Comunità Montana del Casentino, Settore Foreste". The aim of the research program was to study the effects of recent and historical variability of climate in the Tuscan Alps on the growth of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Climate variations on Tuscan mountains appear to follow partially different trends than lower elevations, and this may reflect upon a different tree growth response. Moreover, at local level the elevation gradient may influence silver fir growth of which relevance is not known. Therefore, in 2006-2007 we identified a set of paired study sites at each of the four forests. The site pairs were located at the upper and lower limits of the distribution of silver in each of the study locations. The primary objective was to determine if growth responses to climate in silver fir have change in recent decades as a consequence of changing environmental conditions associated with climate change. The dendrochronological analysis revealed that trees of different age (80-140+ years) at the four sites had a period of rapidly increasing radial growth during 1980-90, but returned to relatively low growth rates during the 2000s. Moreover, first results appear to show a loss of association between silver fir growth and climate variables in the mid ‘70s. Preliminary results suggest that there may be important interacting influences associated with climate and perhaps phytopathology that affect the growth response of silver fir in unanticipated ways.

D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.

2009-04-01

312

Catalytic and biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized from Plumeria alba (frangipani) flower extract.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plumeria alba (frangipani) flower extract (FFE) and their biological applications. The formation of frangipani silver nanoparticles (FSNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and characterized by DLS particle size analyzer, SEM/EDAX, FTIR, TGA/DSC and XRD. The synthesized spherical FSNPs were found to be 36.19nm in size as determined by DLS particle size analyzer. EDAX data and XRD pattern of FSNPs confirmed the presence and face-centered cubic (fcc) phase structure of silver. The bioactive groups C-C and C-N present in FFE were involved in the formation of FSNPs as identified by FTIR analysis. FSNPs exhibited powerful catalytic activity by reducing 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol within 8min and the other organic dyes namely methylene blue and ethidium bromide were moderately degraded. Biological activities of FSNPs are evaluated by means of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effect. Antioxidant potential of FSNPs was assessed by various in vitro assays in which they exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The antibacterial effect of FSNPs was tested in two different pathogenic bacterial strains and their bacteriostatic effect was confirmed by growth kinetic study in Escherichia coli. The cytotoxic effect of FSNPs in COLO 205 was analyzed by MTT assay and the IC50 concentration was found at 5.5 and 4?g/ml respectively after 24 and 48h of incubation. Cytotoxic effect of FSNPs in COLO 205 cells was associated with the loss of membrane integrity and chromatin condensation which might have played a crucial role in the induction of apoptosis as evidenced in AO/EB staining. PMID:25842128

Mata, Rani; Reddy Nakkala, Jayachandra; Rani Sadras, Sudha

2015-06-01

313

Lysophosphatidate Acyltransferase in the Microsomes from Maturing Seeds of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba).  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3. 1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of the two acyl acceptors and oleoyl CoA, but only the meadowfoam enzyme could use erucoyl CoA as the acyl donor to produce dierucoyl phosphatidic acid (PA). The meadowfoam enzyme was studied further. It had an optimal activity at pH 7 to 8, and its activity was inhibited by 1 millimolar MnCl(2), ZnCl(2), or p-chloromercuribenzoate. In a test of substrate specificity using increasing concentrations of either 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and either oleoyl CoA or erucoyl CoA, the enzyme activity in producing PA was highest for dioleoyl-PA, followed successively by 1-oleoyl-2-erucoyl-PA, dierucoyl-PA, and 1-erucoyl-2-oleoyl-PA. In a test of substrate selectivity using a fixed combined concentration, but varying proportions, of 1-oleoyl-LPA and 1-erucoyl-LPA, and of oleoyl CoA and erucoyl CoA, the enzyme showed a pattern of acyl preference similar to that observed in the test of substrate specificity, but the preference toward oleoyl moiety in the substrates was slightly stronger. The meadowfoam microsomes could convert [(14)C]glycerol-3-phosphate to diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the presence of erucoyl CoA. The meadowfoam LPA acyltransferase is unique in its ability to produce dierucoyl-PA, and should be a prime candidate for use in the production of trierucin oils in rapeseed via genetic engineering. PMID:16667817

Cao, Y Z; Oo, K C; Huang, A H

1990-11-01

314

The antimicrobial efficacy of Lippia alba essential oil and its interaction with food ingredients  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Lippia alba essential oil (EOLa) and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on its efficacy. The antimicrobial potential of the oil was determined by the presence or absence of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of food ingredients and the pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oil was assessed by monitoring the maximum growth rate of Listeria monocytogenes in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1, 5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 5 or 10%) and TSB broth at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The EOLa showed efficacy at all concentrations (50%, 25%, 6.25%, 3%, 1.5%, 0.8%, 0.4% and 0.2%) evaluated, against all bacterial species, Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The antimicrobial efficacy of EO was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Proteins and lipids had a negative impact on the oil effectiveness, indicating the protective action of both on the microbial specie tested. On the contrary, at the highest concentration of starch (10%), the lower rate growth of L. monocytogenes was detected, therefore indicating a positive effect of carbohydrates on the oil effectivenes. Regarding the pH, the studies showed that the rate of microbial growth increased with increasing pH. It was concluded that the use of EOLa is more effective control pathogenic and spoilage bacteria when applied to starchy foods under an acidic pH. PMID:25242961

Machado, Terezinha Feitosa; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly P.; de Cássia Alves Pereira, Rita; de Sousa, Cívita Teixeira; Batista, Valéria Chaves Vasconcelos

2014-01-01

315

Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

Lazareff, Jorge

2014-01-01

316

Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from Artemisia herba-alba growing wild in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Aromatic plants can interfere in the Mediterranean ecosystem, mainly by the introduction in the environment of volatile compounds. For this reason, we studied the chemical composition and the possible phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba Asso. The chemical composition of the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In all, 24 compounds were identified. The main components were camphor (39.1%), chrysanthenone (15.0%) and cis-thujone (7.8%). The essential oil was evaluated for its in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and initial radical growth of Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis arvensis L., Triticum durum L. and Phalaris canariensis L. seeds. The radicle elongation of the five seeds was affected to different extents by the oil, while germination was not affected. The oil, when tested against eight selected bacterial strains, showed low antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition of the oil of A. herba-alba can help in the chemosystematics of this complex genus. However, the recorded biological activities seem to be neither ecologically nor medicinally significant. PMID:23678823

Amri, Ismail; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Lamia, Hamrouni; Mohsen, Hanana; Scandolera, Elia; De Feo, Vincenzo; Mancini, Emilia

2013-03-01

317

Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains  

PubMed Central

Background The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials Materials and methods In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Results All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains. Conclusion The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections. PMID:22364123

2012-01-01

318

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed

The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and ?-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25609924

Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Pattiram, Parveen Devi; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2015-01-01

319

Composition of the body mass overshoot in European barn owl nestlings (Tyto alba): insurance against scarcity of energy or water?  

PubMed

European barn owl chicks (Tyto alba) show a body mass overshoot prior to fledging that has been predicted to serve as an energy reservoir during periods of stochastic food availability. However, the composition of the mass overshoot has heretofore not been directly examined in nestlings of this or any other species displaying a body mass overshoot during growth (e.g., raptors and seabirds). To experimentally determine whether the overshoot in body mass in juvenile European barn owls (Tyto alba) may act as an energy reservoir, we compared the body composition of owl chicks raised on an ad libitum diet to those fed a restricted diet designed to eliminate the overshoot. Chicks raised on the two diets were also compared for differences in maturation of diverse functions (e.g., locomotion) and tissues (e.g., skeletal development). Contrary to expectations, our results on body composition in juvenile barn owls indicate that the mass overshoot prior to fledging is primarily comprised of an increased water compartment. Thus, we suggest that the mass overshoot in owls (and possibly in other species) does not serve as an energy reservoir but, rather, may function as an insurance against dehydration when hot in-nest conditions force chicks to rely on evaporative cooling: temperatures in barn owl nests can reach up to 43 degrees C. We found no significant differences in maturation indexes between diet treatments at the time of fledging. PMID:18196248

Durant, Joël M; Landys, Meta M; Handrich, Yves

2008-07-01

320

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and ?-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25609924

Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Salvamani, Shamala; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Pattiram, Parveen Devi; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2015-01-01

321

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

322

Tinggianthura alba: A New Genus and Species of Anthuridae (Isopoda, Cymothoida, Anthuroidea) from Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia with an Updated Key to the Genera of Anthuridae  

PubMed Central

A new anthurid isopod from dead coral rubble and stones in the intertidal area of Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia, is described. It is placed in a new genus and species, Tinggianthura alba. Tinggianthura is characterized by: (1) subtriangular carpus shape of pereopods 4–7, (2) pereopod 1 propodus palm without prominent tooth or steps and (3) maxillipedal palp 2-articled. PMID:24914642

Chew, Melvin; Abdul Rahim, Azman; Haji Ross, Othman bin

2014-01-01

323

Antiestrogenic and antigenotoxic activity of bee pollen from Cystus incanus and Salix alba as evaluated by the yeast estrogen screen and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estrogenic\\/antiestrogenic activity and the genotoxicity\\/antigenotoxicity of bee pollen from Salix alba L. and Cystus incanus L. and its derivative extracts in yeast and human cells was investigated. All samples showed a marked inhibitory effect on the activity of the natural estrogen 17 ?-estradiol (higher than 90% for extracts 2) and failed to cause estrogenic activity and chromosome damage. At

Barbara Pinto; Francesca Caciagli; Elisabetta Riccio; Daniela Reali; Ana Šari?; Tihomir Balog; Saša Liki?; Roberto Scarpato

2010-01-01

324

[Effect of an extract from the roots of bryony (Bryonia alba) on lipid peroxidation in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes].  

PubMed

The authors examined the action of Bryonia alba root extract on lipid peroxidation in microsomes and on fatty acid composition of individual lipid fractions in the liver of rats with alloxan diabetes. Administration of the extract was found to produce an appreciably normalizing effect on the biochemical indices of liver function. PMID:7295964

Karagezian, K G; Vartanian, G S; Panosian, A G

1981-08-01

325

CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS AND INSECTISIDAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THREE PLANTS ARTEMISIA SP: ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA, ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM AND ARTEMISIA PONTICA (MOROCCO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of the three plants Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia Pontica have been collected in the region of Guigou and Errachidia (Morocco) and then dried in the open air for fifteen days and kept fresh for extraction. The essential oils have been extracted by hydrodistillation method and analysed by the chromatographic techniques in the gas phase (GC-FID) and

Elhoussine Derwich; Zineb Benziane; Abdellatif Boukir

326

Monitoring non-natural mortality in the barn owl ( Tyto alba), as an indicator of land use and social awareness in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-natural mortality patterns in the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied in Central Spain between 1990 and 1999. The data are compared to those from the same area in the previous decade (1983–1989). Seasonal mortality has changed significantly presumably due to the recent plagues of field voles (Microtus arvalis). Results show a clear shift in mortality patterns, with reduced levels

Iñigo Fajardo

2001-01-01

327

Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl, Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Tyto alba) broods, I assessed the role of

Alexandre Roulin

2004-01-01

328

Artemisia herba-alba Asso (Asteraceae) Has Equivalent Effects to Green and Black Tea Decoctions on Antioxidant Processes and Some Metabolic Parameters in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The objective was to compare the long-term effects of Artemisia herba-alba Asso decoction with a green or black tea decoction, prepared without sugar, on the antioxidant processes in rats. Methods: The direct parameters used in the control of antioxidant processes were total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase activity and conjugated dienes, as early markers of lipid peroxidation. However, the indirect

Zakia Ben Abid; Moncef Feki; Abderrazek Hédhili; Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

2007-01-01

329

Distribution of heavy metals and their age-related changes in the eastern great white egret, Egretta alba modesta , in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ and tissue distribution of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg) and their age-related changes were investigated in the chick and adult eastern great white egret,Egretta alba modesta, collected in Korea. High concentrations of the metals were found in the liver, kidney, feathers, bone, and skin; low values were found in the muscle and brain. A

Katsuhisa Honda; Byung Yoon Min; Ryo Tatsukawa

1986-01-01

330

Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more female-like  

E-print Network

Age-related change in melanin-based coloration of Barn owls (Tyto alba): females that become more known. In order to understand the ultimate function of melanin-based ornaments, we studied their within was not associated with reproduction. At subsequent molts, intra-individual changes in melanin-based traits covaried

Alvarez, Nadir

331

UPLC-PDA determination of paeoniflorin in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba and its effects on rats with collagen-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease with characteristics of chronic, progressive inflammatory joint synovial damage, which mainly encroaches upon the synovium of the joint. The use of traditional medicine to treat RA slows the development of RA to a certain extent; however, it often has numerous side-effects. Therefore, the focus of RA research is the identification of a new, safe and effective medicine. The aim of the present study was to use an ultra performance liquid chromatography and photo diode array (UPLC-PDA) method to detect the paeoniflorin component in a Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction and in rat plasma following the oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction. In addition, the effects of paeoniflorin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats were investigated. The results indicate that a UPLC-PDA method for determining the presence of paeoniflorin in the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction was successfully established. The method was fast, simple, sensitive, precise and valid. Paeoniflorin was shown to be a bioactive component of the Radix Paeoniae Alba decoction that was absorbed into rat plasma. Paeoniflorin significantly improved the disease resistant ability of RA rats and reduced the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1? and TNF-?, thereby inhibiting inflammation and bone erosion in the rats with CIA. The observations are likely to lay the foundation for further study of the mechanism of paeoniflorin in the treatment of RA. PMID:24348792

WU, DAN; CHEN, JIANG; ZHU, HAO; XIONG, XIN-GUI; LIANG, QING-HUA; ZHANG, YANG; ZHANG, YONG; WANG, YANG; YANG, BO; HUANG, XI

2014-01-01

332

Epidemiology of Anther-Smut Infection of Silene alba (= S. latifolia) Caused by Ustilago violacea: Patterns of Spore Deposition in Experimental Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental populations of Silene alba consisting of healthy individuals and individuals infected by the anther-smut fungus Ustilago violacea were used to examine the effect of density and frequency of diseased individuals on spore deposition on healthy flowers. The results showed increasing spore deposition with increasing frequency but not density. Similar trends were observed for pollen deposition on females. The results

Janis Antonovics; Helen Miller Alexander

1992-01-01

333

A method for the detection of non-random associations among flocking birds and its application to sanderlings Calidris alba wintering in N.E. England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of association are frequently used in studies of social behaviour. Observed association indices may be compared with those obtained from computer randomizations of the data in order to test whether any two individuals in a population tend to occur together more than would be expected by chance. Data for individually-identifiable colour-ringed sanderlings Calidris alba are presented to illustrate the

Gilbert Roberts; Peter R. Evans

1993-01-01

334

Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.  

PubMed

Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila. PMID:17499515

Christybapita, D; Divyagnaneswari, M; Michael, R Dinakaran

2007-10-01

335

Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence mixed deciduous forests became important. Preliminary results of palynological analyses for a section of the core S2 (35.04 - 18.12 m), show Late Glacial sediments in the depth of 35.04 - 31.16 m, due to vegetation changes related to natural climatic variability, with an alternation of communities typical of cold (Poaceae, Artemisia, Juniperus, Pinus and Betula) and temperate climates (e.g. Quercus). Later, during the Holocene, forests composed by mostly deciduous broadleaves and Abies alba expanded. During the mid and late Holocene human impact increased and modified vegetation. This is shown by the increase of herbs and heliofilous shrubs (26.51 m), typical of deforested spaces for fields and pastures. Human exploitation of wood is represented for example by the dramatic decline of Abies alba (24.97 m). Finally, the increase of Cerealia (19.39 m) is clearly related to intensified agricultural activities. The results of further paleobotanical and geophysical analyses which are in progress will be presented during the conference. Moreover, geochemical measurements (e.g., XRF) will be performed in future for core S2. Researches realized within the project of Italy-Switzerland Cooperation SITINET "Censimento, valorizzazione e messa in rete di siti geologici e archeologici" (Census, increase of value and computerization of geological and archaeological sites). Interreg IV A "Geo-Archeositi dell'Insubria" (Geo-Archaeosites of Insubria).

Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

2012-04-01

336

Exploring Potential Chemical Transformation by Chemical Profiling Approach for Rapidly Evaluating Chemical Consistency between Sun-Dried and Sulfur-Fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) based on a chemical profiling method was applied to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC, and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS coupled with reliable MarkerLynx software, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were found and identified in sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. This method could be applied for rapid quality evaluation of different kinds of sulfur-fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba among commercial samples. PMID:24381637

Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Liu, Xiao; Wen, Chengping; Fan, Yongsheng

2013-01-01

337

The anesthetic efficacy of eugenol and the essential oils of Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla in post-larvae and sub-adults of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthesia induction and recovery times of sub-adult and post-larvae white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were treated with eugenol and the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla. Oxidative stress parameters in the hemolymph of this species were also analyzed. The concentrations of eugenol, A. triphylla EO and L. alba EO recommended for anesthesia were 200, 300 and 750 ?L L(-1) for sub-adults and 175, 300 and 500 ?L L(-1) for post-larvae, respectively. The concentrations studied during the transport of sub-adults were between 20 and 50 ?L L(-1) eugenol, 20-30 ?L L(-1)A. triphylla EO and 50 ?L L(-1)L. alba EO. For post-larvae, the optimal concentrations for transport were 20 ?L L(-1) eugenol and between 20 and 50 ?L L(-1)A. triphylla EO. The white shrimp sub-adults that were exposed to A. triphylla EO (20 ?L L(-1)) showed increases in their total antioxidant capacities (150%), catalase (70%) and glutathione-S-transferase (615%) activity after 6 h. L. alba EO (50 ?L L(-1)) and eugenol (20 ?L L(-1)) also increased GST activity (1292 and 1315%) after 6 h, and eugenol (20 ?L L(-1)) decreased the total antioxidant capacity (100%). Moreover, concentrations above 30 ?L L(-1) for the EOs of A. triphylla and L. alba and 20 ?L L(-1) eugenol were effective at inducing anesthesia and improving the antioxidant system against reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 6 h. PMID:22198554

Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; de Souza, Diego M; Martins, Átila Clivea; Garcia, Luciano de O; Wasielesky, Wilson; Monserrat, José María; Schmidt, Denise; Caron, Braulio O; Heinzmann, Berta; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

2012-04-01

338

Production of the Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase in Aspergillus niger for synthetic dyes decolorization and biotransformation.  

PubMed

We investigated the expression of Phanerochaete flavido-alba laccase gene in Aspergillus niger and the physical and biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme (rLac-LPFA) in order to test it for synthetic dye biotransformation. A. niger was able to produce high levels of active recombinant enzyme (30 mgL(-1)), whose identity was further confirmed by immunodetection using Western blot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Interestingly, rLac-LPFA exhibited an improved stability at pH (2-9) and organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the percentage of decoloration and biotransformation of synthetic textile dyes, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Acid Red 299 (NY1), was higher than for the native enzyme. Its high production, simple purification, high activity, stability and ability to transform textile dyes make rLac-LPFA a good candidate for industrial applications. PMID:23884844

Benghazi, Lamiae; Record, Eric; Suárez, Antonio; Gomez-Vidal, José A; Martínez, José; de la Rubia, Teresa

2014-01-01

339

The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).  

PubMed

As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils. PMID:16005770

Potoci?, Nenad; Cosi?, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

2005-10-01

340

Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Oxime Production in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis as Demonstrated by an in vitro Microsomal Enzyme System Isolated from Jasmonic Acid-Induced Seedlings of Sinapsis alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with

Liangcheng Du; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Carl Erik Olsen; Barbara Ann Halkier

1995-01-01

341

Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference.  

PubMed

The responses of steady state CO(2) assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (g(s)) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (DeltaW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and g(s) decreased when DeltaW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa(-1). In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and g(s) decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa(-1), respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO(2) partial pressure (C(i)) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when DeltaW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high DeltaW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while C(i) remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of g(s) to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus DeltaW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to DeltaW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

Guehl, J M; Aussenac, G

1987-02-01

342

Developments in optics and performance at BL13-XALOC, the macromolecular crystallography beamline at the ALBA synchrotron.  

PubMed

BL13-XALOC is currently the only macromolecular crystallography beamline at the 3?GeV ALBA synchrotron near Barcelona, Spain. The optics design is based on an in-vacuum undulator, a Si(111) channel-cut crystal monochromator and a pair of KB mirrors. It allows three main operation modes: a focused configuration, where both mirrors can focus the beam at the sample position to 52?µm × 5.5?µm FWHM (H × V); a defocused configuration that can match the size of the beam to the dimensions of the crystals or to focus the beam at the detector; and an unfocused configuration, where one or both mirrors are removed from the photon beam path. To achieve a uniform defocused beam, the slope errors of the mirrors were reduced down to 55?nrad RMS by employing a novel method that has been developed at the ALBA high-accuracy metrology laboratory. Thorough commissioning with X-ray beam and user operation has demonstrated an excellent energy and spatial stability of the beamline. The end-station includes a high-accuracy single-axis diffractometer, a removable mini-kappa stage, an automated sample-mounting robot and a photon-counting detector that allows shutterless operation. The positioning tables of the diffractometer and the detector are based on a novel and highly stable design. This equipment, together with the operation flexibility of the beamline, allows a large variety of types of crystals to be tackled, from medium-sized crystals with large unit-cell parameters to microcrystals. Several examples of data collections measured during beamline commissioning are described. The beamline started user operation on 18 July 2012. PMID:24971961

Juanhuix, Jordi; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Cuní, Guifré; Colldelram, Carles; Nicolás, Josep; Lidón, Julio; Boter, Eva; Ruget, Claude; Ferrer, Salvador; Benach, Jordi

2014-07-01

343

Application of Essential Oil of Artemisia Herba Alba as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been determined. A. herba alba essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition oil was investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The major components were chrysanthenone (30.6%) and camphor (24.4%).

Ouachikh, O.; Bouyanzer, A.; Bouklah, M.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.

344

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as\\u000a ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between\\u000a environmental parameters and

Jose A. Manzanera; Maria F. Martínez-Chacón

2007-01-01

345

An efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation and regeneration system for leaf explants of two elite aspen hybrid clones Populus alba  ×  P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana  ×  P. bolleana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic technology has been successfully used for gene function analyses and trait improvement in cereal plants. However,\\u000a its usage is limited in woody plants, especially in the difficult-to-transform but commercially viable hybrid poplar. In this\\u000a work, an efficient regeneration and transformation system was established for the production of two hybrid aspen clones: Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana. A

Haihai WangCuiting; Cuiting Wang; Hua Liu; Renjie Tang; Hongxia Zhang

346

The effect of wind speed and wetting on thermal resistance of the barn owl ( Tyto alba). I: Total heat loss, boundary layer and total resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The sensible heat loss and thermal resistance of a barn owl (Tyto alba) were determined using a heat transfer model in a wind tunnel.2.2. Heat loss was a linear function of wind speed and increased by 60% between 0 and 7 m s?1. Wetting the model increased heat loss by 30%.3.3. Boundary layer resistance of the model decreased from

D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor

1997-01-01

347

Relationships between local stand density and local species composition and nutrient content in the topsoil of pure and mixed stands of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined topsoil samples from the humic mineral horizon in four pure silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and five mixed stands with beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce (Picea abies L.; Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In every stand, 60–70 sampling locations were chosen using a stratified random scheme that represented a gradient in\\u000a local stand density and local

Jaros?aw G. Paluch; Piotr Gruba

2010-01-01

348

Responses of antioxidative systems to acute ozone stress in transgenic poplar ( Populus tremula × P. alba ) over-expressing glutathione synthetase or glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula 2 P. alba) plants and transgenic lines over-expressing glutathione reductase (GR) either in the cytosol (ca. 5-fold) or in the chloroplast (150- to 200-fold) or glutathione synthetase (GSS) in the cytosol (ca. 200-fold) were exposed for 3 days to ambient air or air containing 300 nl l-1 ozone for 7 h day-1. The contents and

Michael Strohm; Monika Eiblmeier; Christian Langebartels; Lise Jouanin; Andrea Polle; Heinrich Sandermann; Heinz Rennenberg

2002-01-01

349

Evaluation of MAT-vector system in white poplar ( Populus alba L.) and production of ipt marker-free transgenic plants by ‘single-step transformation’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of an elite white poplar genotype (Populus alba L., cv. ‘Villafranca’) was performed with MAT vectors carrying the ipt and rol genes from Agrobacterium spp. as morphological markers. The effects associated with the use of different gene promoters and distinct in vitro regeneration\\u000a protocols were evaluated. Poplar plantlets showing abnormal ipt and rol phenotypes were produced only in the

Samanta Zelasco; Valentina Ressegotti; Massimo Confalonieri; Daniela Carbonera; Paolo Calligari; Martina Bonadei; Stefano Bisoffi; Keiko Yamada; Alma Balestrazzi

2007-01-01

350

Alginate-encapsulation of nodal segments for propagation, short-term conservation and germplasm exchange and distribution of Eclipta alba (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal segments obtained from in vitro proliferated shoots of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for large-scale clonal propagation, short-term conservation and germplasm\\u000a exchange and distribution. The best gel complexation was achieved using 3% sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2·2H2O. Maximum percent response (100%) for conversion of encapsulated nodal segments into plantlets was obtained on 0.7% agar-solidified

Shashi Kant Singh; Manoj K. Rai; Pooja Asthana; L. Sahoo

2010-01-01

351

Effects of Eclipta alba on the morphometrics of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita as influenced by fly ash amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment in a complete randomised design was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of graded quantities (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of fly ash on the morphometrics of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (2000 J2\\/pot) in Eclipta alba. The application of fly ash brought about deleterious effects on the development of the nematode which were reflected on dimensions

T. Niyaz; Hisamuddin

2010-01-01

352

Physiological performance of silver-fir ( Abies alba Mill.) populations under contrasting climates near the south-western distribution limit of the species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver-fir (Abies alba Mill.) populations located at the south side of the main Pyrenean axis and Pre-Pyrenees constitute the south-western distribution limit of the species and, therefore, may be responding more noticeably to climate change than those in the centre of the range. The increasing aridity detected in the Pyrenees during the 20th century should affect more negatively the physiological

José Javier Peguero-Pina; Jesús Julio Camarero; Anunciación Abadía; Enrique Martín; Rosario González-Cascón; Fermín Morales; Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín

2007-01-01

353

Transformation of white poplar (Populus alba L.) with a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine proteinase inhibitor and analysis of insect pest resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic white poplar (Populus alba L.) plants expressing a novel Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Atcys) gene have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Internodal stem segments of cv. Villafranca were co-cultivated with the EHA105 pBI-Atcys A. tumefaciens strain. Sixteen putative transgenic plant lines were regenerated from different calli with a transformation efficiency of 11%. The integration and expression of

Massimo Delledonne; Gianni Allegro; Beatrice Belenghi; Alma Balestrazzi; Franco Picco; Alex Levine; Samantha Zelasco; Paolo Calligari; Massimo Confalonieri

2001-01-01

354

Ex vivo effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages. PMID:22104639

2011-01-01

355

Two classes of 5S rDNA unit arrays of the silver fir, Abies alba Mill.: structure, localization and evolution.  

PubMed

The structure and organization of the 5S ribosomal DNA units of the silver fir, Abies alba Mill., as well as their position in the chromosome complement were investigated. PCR amplification of the gene and nontranscribed spacer region, sequence analysis and Southern hybridization, using a homologous probe, detected DNA sequences of approximately 550 bp and 700 bp. Sequence analysis of the spacers revealed that the difference in length between the sequences occurred in the middle spacer region as a result of the amplification of a 75-bp sequence of the short unit class, which is organized in four 54- to 68-bp tandem repeats in the long spacer unit. The 5S rDNA transcribed region is 120 bp long and shows high sequence similarity with other gymnosperm species. The comparative analysis of 5' and 3' flanking sequences of 5S rRNA genes of silver fir and other gymnosperms indicates that A. alba spacer units have the same rate of evolution and are more closely related to Larix and Pseudotsuga than to Pinus and Picea. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes of A. alba suggest that the short and long spacer units are organized as separate tandem arrays at two chromosomal loci on chromosomes V and XI. PMID:15657739

Besendorfer, Visnja; Krajaci?-Sokol, Iva; Jeleni?, Sre?ko; Puizina, Jasna; Mlinarec, Jelena; Sviben, Tonka; Papes, Drazena

2005-02-01

356

COMO INVESTIGAR CUALITATIVAMENTE. ENTREVISTA Y CUESTIONARIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo se propone abordar dos formas de elaboración de una investigación cualitativa la Entrevista y Cuestionario, describiendo algunos conceptos, definiciones, tipos y técnicas de los temas propuestas, así como su importancia para la elaboración de una investigación cualitativa.

Milton Luis Rodrigues Bresque; Cristiane Hoffmann Moreira; Paulo Ricardo Mackedanz Flores; Victória Hoffmann Moreira

2011-01-01

357

Phytoextraction potential of poplar (Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge) from calcareous agricultural soils contaminated by cadmium.  

PubMed

To investigate the phytoextraction potential of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for cadmium (Cd) contaminated calcareous soils, a concentration gradient experiment and a field sampling experiment (involving poplars of different ages) were conducted. The translocation factors for all experiments and treatments were greater than 1. The bioconcentration factor decreased from 2.37 to 0.25 with increasing soil Cd concentration in the concentration gradient experiment and generally decreased with stand age under field conditions. The Cd concentrations in P. pyramidalis organs decreased in the order of leaves > stems > roots. The shoot biomass production in the concentration gradient experiment was not significantly reduced with soil Cd concentrations up to or slightly over 50 mg kg(-1). The results show that the phytoextraction efficiency of P. pyramidalis depends on both the soil Cd concentration and the tree age. Populus pyramidalis is most suitable for remediation of slightly Cd contaminated calcareous soils through the combined harvest of stems and leaves under actual field conditions. PMID:24912230

Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Jin, Cheng; Wang, Ning; Luo, Huanzhang

2014-01-01

358

Determination of As in tree-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc.  

PubMed

An argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with a system for aerosol introduction was used for determination of As in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. After optimization of the operating parameters and selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (30 s), the limit of detection for As was reduced to 15.0 ng/mL. This detection limit obtained with the optimal integration time was compared with those for other methods: inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) and improved thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS). Arsenic is toxic trace element which can adversely affect plant, animal and human health. As an indicator of environment pollution we collected poplar tree-rings from two locations. The first area was close to the "Nikola Tesla" (TENT-A) power plant, Obrenovac, while the other was in the urban area of Novi Sad. In all cases elevated average concentrations of As were registered in poplar tree-rings from the Obrenovac location. PMID:18351436

Markovi?, D M; Novovi?, I; Viloti?, D; Ignjatovi?, Lj

2009-04-01

359

Multiplication and growth of hybrid poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) shoots on a hormone-free medium.  

PubMed

The present study explored an alternative approach for poplar micropropagation, based on the restriction of gas exchange between inside and outside environments of culture vessel, rather than on the application of exogenous hormones. Apical and nodal stem segments (explants) excised from in vitro-developed shoots of hybrid white poplar (Populus alba L. × P. tremula L.) were incubated in either sealed (with Parafilm) or unsealed capped glass culture tubes (150 × 20 mm) on a hormone-free Woody Plant Medium. Shoot proliferation on apical explants was observed in sealed culture tubes but not in the unsealed ones; the difference between these two samples in respect of shoot number increased in the course of time and became threefold after three months of culture, with 3.2 ± 0.4 (mean ± SE) shoots per explant in the sealed tubes versus 1.1 ± 0.1 in the unsealed ones (for comparison, the mean shoot numbers on nodal explants were 2.4 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.4 in the unsealed and sealed culture tubes, respectively). Moreover, the shoots taken from the sealed culture tubes could be distinguished by superior shoot length, if compared to the shoots from the unsealed tubes, during the subsequent culture stage under uniform conditions. PMID:25194737

Ziauka, J; Kuusien?, Sigut?

2014-09-01

360

Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals.  

PubMed

High biomass producing species are considered as tools for remediation of contaminated soils. Willows (Salix spp.) are prominent study subjects in this regard. In this study, different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) were planted on heavy-metal polluted dredging sludge. A first objective was assessment of the biomass production for these clones. Using a Gupta statistic, four clones were identified as high biomass producers (HBP). For comparison, a group of four clones with lowest biomass production were selected (LBP). A second objective was to compare metal uptake as well as the physiological and proteomic responses of these two groups. All these complementary data's allow us to have a better picture of the health of the clones that would be used in phytoremediation programs. Cd, Zn, and Ni total uptake was higher in the HBPs but Pb total uptake was higher in LBPs. Our proteomic and physiological results showed that the LBPs were able to maintain cellular activity as much as the HBPs although the oxidative stress response was more pronounced in the LBPs. This could be due to the high Pb content found in this group although a combined effect of the other metals cannot be excluded. PMID:24933908

Evlard, Aricia; Sergeant, Kjell; Ferrandis, Salvador; Printz, Bruno; Renaut, Jenny; Guignard, Cedric; Paul, Roger; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Campanella, Bruno

2014-01-01

361

Effects of binaural decorrelation on neural and behavioral processing of interaural level differences in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

The effect of binaural decorrelation on the processing of interaural level difference cues in the barn owl (Tyto alba) was examined behaviorally and electrophysiologically. The electrophysiology experiment measured the effect of variations in binaural correlation on the first stage of interaural level difference encoding in the central nervous system. The responses of single neurons in the posterior part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus were recorded to stimulation with binaurally correlated and binaurally uncorrelated noise. No significant differences in interaural level difference sensitivity were found between conditions. Neurons in the posterior part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus encode the interaural level difference of binaurally correlated and binaurally uncorrelated noise with equal accuracy and precision. This nucleus therefore supplies higher auditory centers with an undegraded interaural level difference signal for sound stimuli that lack a coherent interaural time difference. The behavioral experiment measured auditory saccades in response to interaural level differences presented in binaurally correlated and binaurally uncorrelated noise. The precision and accuracy of sound localization based on interaural level difference was reduced but not eliminated for binaurally uncorrelated signals. The observation that barn owls continue to vary auditory saccades with the interaural level difference of binaurally uncorrelated stimuli suggests that neurons that drive head saccades can be activated by incomplete auditory spatial information. PMID:11763957

Egnor, S E

2001-10-01

362

Linalool from Lippia alba: study of the reproducibility of the essential oil profile and the enantiomeric purity.  

PubMed

A new chemotype of the aromatic Verbenaceae species Lippia alba Mill. N. E. Br. from southeastern Brazil has recently been shown to have a high content of linalool in the leaf essential oil. Vegetative propagation of this chemotype was conducted at six different locations in Brazil, and the variation of the content and the optical purity of linalool in the oils were verified. Yields (0.6-0.9%, hydrodistillation), chemical composition, linalool content, and optical purity of the oils from all the plants were compared, using GC-FID, GC-MS, chiral chromatography, and retention index calculation. No plant exceeded the matrix in linalool content (46.5 to 90.7%), and the chemical profile of the oils was the same for all the samples. Purification of linalool to a content close to 100% was effected by vacuum distillation of the crude oil. Chiral analysis showed exclusively the presence of S-linalool in all the crude oils and in the distilled samples. PMID:12033821

Siani, Antonio C; Tappin, Marcelo R R; Ramos, Mônica F S; Mazzei, José L; Ramos, Maria Conceição K V; De Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Frighetto, Nélson

2002-06-01

363

Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.  

PubMed

Genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the ITS2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were analysed in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The analysis also included characterization of the Arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. The results were compared with results from other species of the Pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the Pinaceae. Integrated chromosomal data provided insights into chromosome and karyotype evolution in the Pinaceae. The evolutionary trend for GC-rich heterochromatic blocks seems to involve loss of blocks that are not associated with rDNA. Similarly, numerous large blocks of interstitial plant telomeric repeats that are typical for all analysed species of the genus Pinus were not observed in the evolutionarily younger genera, such as Abies, Picea and Larix. On the contrary, the majority of telomeric sequences in these three genera appeared confined to the chromosome ends. We confirmed the current position of Abies and Tsuga in subfamily Abietoideae and the position of Pinus in the subfamily Pinoideae based on ITS2 sequences. Pseudotsuga is placed together with Larix into the subfamily Laricoideae. We conclude that the current position of the genus Picea in the subfamily Abietoideae should be reconsidered and, possibly, the genus Picea should be reclassified as a separate subfamily, Piceoideae, as recently proposed. PMID:18304200

Puizina, J; Sviben, T; Krajaci?-Sokol, I; Zoldos-Pe?nik, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Besendorfer, V

2008-03-01

364

Cell death induction and nitric oxide biosynthesis in white poplar (Populus alba) suspension cultures exposed to alfalfa saponins.  

PubMed

The present work reports on the biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins on white poplar (Populus alba, cultivar 'Villafranca') cell suspension cultures. The extracts from alfalfa roots, aerial parts and seeds were characterized for their saponin content by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionisation coupled to mass spectrometry. The quantitative saponin composition from the different plant extracts was determined considering the aglycone moieties and determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Only soyasapogenin I was detected in the seed extract while several other saponins were found in the root and leaf extracts. Actively proliferating white poplar cell cultures were challenged with the different saponin extracts. Only alfalfa root saponins, at 50 µg ml?¹, induced significant cell death rates (75.00 ± 4.90%). Different cell subpopulations with peculiar cell death morphologies were observed and the programmed cell death (PCD)/necrosis ratio was reduced at increasing saponin concentrations. Enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) production was observed in white poplar cells treated with root saponins (RSs) at 50 µg ml?¹ and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the culture medium was also demonstrated. Saponin-induced NO production was sensitive to sodium azide and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, two specific inhibitors of distinct pathways for NO biosynthesis in plant cells. PMID:21128946

Balestrazzi, Alma; Agoni, Valentina; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Raimondi, Elena; Macovei, Anca; Carbonera, Daniela

2011-03-01

365

White poplar (Populus alba L.) suspension cultures as a model system to study apoptosis induced by alfalfa saponins.  

PubMed

In animal cells, the anticancer function played by plant saponins involves a complex network of molecular processes that still deserves investigation and apoptosis seems to be the outstanding pathway. An intriguing aspect of the biological activity of saponins is related to their effects on genome integrity. As demonstrated by the studies carried out in white poplar (Populus alba L., cv Villafranca) cell suspension cultures, plant cells can as well be used as a model system to unravel the molecular mechanisms activated by plant saponins. These recent studies have evidenced that animal and plant cells share common features in their response to saponins, paving the way for novel opportunities for both basic and applied research. Indeed, there is a certain interest in replacing the animal models for pharmacological research, at least when preliminary large-scale cytotoxicity tests are performed on wide collections of natural extracts and/or purified compounds. The review provides an up-date of the molecular pathways (signal transduction, antioxidant response, DNA repair) associated with plant saponin bioactivity, with an emphasis on apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins. The comparison between animal and plant cells as tools for the study of saponin bioactivity is also discussed in view of the most recent literature and innovative future applications. PMID:24998401

Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

2014-01-01

366

Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×alba)  

PubMed Central

Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula×alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300?nl l?1). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost. PMID:21357770

Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

2011-01-01

367

Biodegradation of oak (Quercus alba) wood during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes): a molecular approach.  

PubMed

The chemical transformations that occur during growth of the shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) on oak (Quercus alba) were investigated to improve mushroom cultivation and utilization of the spent substrate. Oak logs were decayed by L. edodes over 8 years, during which time they were sampled at six intervals (30, 40, 66, 76, 77, and 101 months). Fresh and decayed oak samples were analyzed using solid-state (13)C NMR and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as off-line thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Degraded oak exhibited lower carbon contents and increased oxygen content compared to the control. Solid-state (13)C NMR analysis revealed that polysaccharides were the major component of both fresh and decayed oak but that L. edodes mediated the preferential loss of cellulose and xylans as compared to lignin, which remained in an altered form. Several trends point toward the degradation of lignin, including a decrease in the proportion of syringyl units as compared to guaiacyl units and a reduction in side-chain length. An increase in guaiacyl and syringyl acid-to-aldehyde ratios occurred with growth, which suggested that the fungus had caused oxidation of Calpha-Cbeta bonds. The overall effect of L. edodes on oak is similar to that of many white-rot fungi, which simultaneously degrade all cell wall components. PMID:12568554

Vane, Christopher H; Drage, Trevor C; Snape, Colin E

2003-02-12

368

The influence of chemoreception on the foraging behaviour of two species of sandpiper, calidris alba and calidris alpina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is concerned with the ability of two wader species, the sanderling, Calidris alba and the dunlin, C. alpina to determine the presence of prey in a sediment by using their sense of taste, and whether they use this information while foraging for prey hidden in the sediment. Preference tests were designed in which the birds were presented with a choice of 2 jars filled with sand from 3 possible combination pairs: (1) "food" and "no taste", (2) "food" and "taste", and (3) "taste" and "no taste". Preferences were measured as the relative amount of time spent foraging in each jar of each pair. Significantly more time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" for the "taste" and "no taste" combination. More time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" when each was paired with "food" for 3 out of 4 situations. Foraging technique on "taste" was observed to be more purposeful and methodical than on "no taste". Both species are shown to be able to use taste while foraging to determine whether prey is present, and can modify their foraging behaviour by persisting in a spot that gives no information on the presence of prey other than taste, and by using a different, more determined searching technique.

Van Heezik, Y. M.; Gerritsen, A. F. C.; Swennen, C.

369

Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E(1), E(2), E(3), and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E(1) represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E(2) and E(3) originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5' untranslated region. E(3) was identical to E(2) but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E(2) and E(3) also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E(1), but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants. PMID:24934174

Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

2014-06-16

370

Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.  

PubMed

Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

2011-10-01

371

De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba  

PubMed Central

Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera. PMID:24125525

2013-01-01

372

Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.  

PubMed

Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry. PMID:21834225

Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

2011-07-01

373

Biochemical and genetic analysis of a cutinase-type polyesterase from a thermophilic Thermobifida alba AHK119.  

PubMed

Recombinant polyesterase (Est119) from Thermobifida alba AHK119 was purified by two chromatography steps. The final protein was observed as a single band in SDS-PAGE, and the specific activity of Est119 for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was 2.30 u/mg. Purified Est119 was active with aliphatic and aliphatic-co-aromatic polyesters. Kinetic data indicated that p-nitrophenyl butyrate (pNPB) or hexanoate was the best substrate for Est119 among p-nitrophenyl acyl esters. Calcium was required for full activity and thermostability of Est119, which was stable at 50 °C for 16 h. Three-dimensional modeling and biochemical characterization showed that Est119 is a typical cutinase-type enzyme that has the compact ternary structure of an ?/?-hydrolase. Random and site-directed mutagenesis of wild-type Est119 resulted in improved activity with increased hydrophobic interaction between the antiparallel first and second ?-sheets (A68V had the greatest effect). Introduction of a proline residue (S219P) in a predicted substrate-docking loop increased the thermostability. The specific activity of the A68V/S219P mutant on pNPB was increased by more than 50-fold over the wild type. The mutant was further activated by 2.6-fold (299 u/mg) with 300 mM Ca(2+) and was stable up to 60 °C with 150 mM Ca(2+). Another identical gene was located in tandem in the upstream of est119. PMID:22183084

Thumarat, Uschara; Nakamura, Ryota; Kawabata, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kawai, Fusako

2012-07-01

374

Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Fargasova, A. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czech Republic))

1994-03-01

375

Spontaneous activity of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl (Tyto alba): analyses of interspike interval distributions.  

PubMed

In vertebrate auditory systems, the conversion from graded receptor potentials across the hair-cell membrane into stochastic spike trains of the auditory nerve (AN) fibers is performed by ribbon synapses. The statistics underlying this process constrain auditory coding but are not precisely known. Here, we examine the distributions of interspike intervals (ISIs) from spontaneous activity of AN fibers of the barn owl (Tyto alba), a nocturnal avian predator whose auditory system is specialized for precise temporal coding. The spontaneous activity of AN fibers, with the exception of those showing preferred intervals, is commonly thought to result from excitatory events generated by a homogeneous Poisson point process, which lead to spikes unless the fiber is refractory. We show that the ISI distributions in the owl are better explained as resulting from the action of a brief refractory period ( approximately 0.5 ms) on excitatory events generated by a homogeneous stochastic process where the distribution of interevent intervals is a mixture of an exponential and a gamma distribution with shape factor 2, both with the same scaling parameter. The same model was previously shown to apply to AN fibers in the cat. However, the mean proportions of exponentially versus gamma-distributed intervals in the mixture were different for cat and owl. Furthermore, those proportions were constant across fibers in the cat, whereas they covaried with mean spontaneous rate and with characteristic frequency in the owl. We hypothesize that in birds, unlike in mammals, more than one ribbon may provide excitation to most fibers, accounting for the different proportions, and that variation in the number of ribbons may underlie the variation in the proportions. PMID:19357334

Neubauer, Heinrich; Köppl, Christine; Heil, Peter

2009-06-01

376

Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

2014-11-01

377

Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.  

PubMed

Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

2014-05-15

378

Antiterrorismo como poltica exterior EDWARD N. LUTTWAK*  

E-print Network

desde mediados del siglo XIX, cuando la amenaza transnacional procedía de revolucionarios liberales, en alianza. India estaba dispuesta y deseosa, por supuesto. Su amenaza implícita obligaba a Pakistán a evitar China, como para Rusia e India, resultó ser la amenaza islámica: se han puesto bombas en autobuses de

Bilbao Arrese, Jesús Mario

379

ARTIGO INTERNET Fazer computadores "ver como humanos"  

E-print Network

ARTIGO INTERNET Fazer computadores "ver como humanos" in http://dn.sapo.pt/ Data: 2011-8-28 Link computador -- continua a fascinar-me todos os dias, pela parte tecnológica e pelas suas profundas implicações

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

380

Morus spp. as a New Biomass Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Generating enthusiasm from political or business entities to promote conservation requires economic viability in times of economic downturn. Massive reforestation is being considered as a governmental policy to address the climate crisis. It offers an enormous opportunity to redefine forestry plan...

381

Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40-57%) was the most abundant component, followed by limonene (24-37%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5-22%), piperitenone (1-2%), piperitone (ca. 1.0%), and beta-bourbonene (0.6-1.5%), in the HD, SDE, MWHD, and SFE volatile fractions. Static headspace (S-HS), simultaneous purge and trap in solvent (CH2Cl2) (P&T), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were used to sample volatiles from fresh L. alba stems and leaves. The main components isolated from the headspace of the fresh plant material were limonene (27-77%), carvone (14-30%), piperitone (0.3-0.5%), piperitenone (ca. 0.4%), and beta-bourbonene (0.5-6.5%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of L. alba essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation was evaluated by determination of hexanal, the main carbonyl compound released by linoleic acid subjected to peroxidation (1 mm Fe2+, 37 degrees C, 12 h), and by quantification of this acid as its methyl ester. Under the same conditions, L. alba HD-essential oil and Vitamin E exhibited similar antioxidant effects. PMID:14753676

Stashenko, Elena E; Jaramillo, Beatriz E; Martínez, Jairo René

2004-01-30

382

ALCANOS LINEALES DE LA CERA CUTICULAR DE HOJAS DE POPULUS ALBA, POPULUS DELTOIDES (SALICACEAE), ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA (FABACEAE), ULMUS PUMILA (ULMACEAE) Y FRAXINUS AMERICANA (OLEACEAE) EN TANDIL, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bakker M.L. & P.I. Alvarado. 2006. Cuticular wax linear alkanes in leaves of Populus alba, Populus deltoi- des (Salicaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae), Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and Fraxinus americana (Oleaceae) from Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Darwiniana 44(1): 58-63.

María L. Bakker; Patricia I. Alvarado

383

An inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cultures of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris and S. ovata: development of a bioassay method for allelopathy, the protoplast co-culture method.  

PubMed

A bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'protoplast co-culture method' was developed to study the relationship between salt tolerance and allelopathy of three mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, S. caseolaris, and S. ovata. Plants of S. alba grow in the seaward-side high salinity region and plants of the latter two species grow in upstream-side regions of a mangrove forest, respectively. Effects of five sea salts (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, MgSO4 and CaCl2) on the growth of the suspension cells of the latter two species were first investigated by a small-scale method using 24-well culture plates. S. ovata cells showed higher tolerance than S. caseolaris cells to NaCl and other salts, but were not as halophilic as S. alba cells. Protoplasts isolated from suspension cells were co-cultured with lettuce protoplasts in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 1 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.1 ?M benzyladenine, 3% sucrose and 0.6-0.8 M osmoticum. S. caseolaris protoplasts had a higher inhibitory effect on lettuce protoplast cell divisions than S. alba protoplasts at any lettuce protoplast density, and the effect of S. ovata was intermediate between the two. These results were similar to those obtained from a different in vitro bioassay method for allelopathy, the 'sandwich method' with dried leaves. The inverse relationship between allelopathic activity and salt tolerance in suspension cells of Sonneratia mangroves is discussed. PMID:25062702

Hasegawa, Ai; Oyanagi, Tomoya; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

2014-11-01

384

Influence of pH on the growth and leaf-maceration ability of fungi involved in the decomposition of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba in an acid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of fungi were isolated from floating leaves cut from plants of Nymphma alba in various initial stages of decay, which were collected from an acidic moorland pool. None of the fungal species isolated belonged to the aquatic Hyphomycetes sensu Ingold or the aero-aquatic fungi sensu Van Bevemijk. Growth experiments were conducted with five of the species on media

C. J. Kok; W. Haverkamp; H. A. Van Der Aa

1992-01-01

385

Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica and Abies alba in Central Europe: where are we after eight decades of debate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past eight decades contrasting hypotheses have been put forward to explain the Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica (beech) and Abies alba (fir) in Central Europe. The hypotheses can be referred to as: (1) climatic change; (2) migrational lag; (3) delay in population increase; (4) human disturbance; and (5) fire disturbance. High-resolution pollen and charcoal records from three sites in lowland Switzerland and southern Germany allow testing the human vs. fire-disturbance hypotheses by means of time-series analysis. Cross-correlations between pairs of pollen as well as between microscopic charcoal and pollen suggest that neither human nor fire disturbance substantially promoted the expansion of Fagus and Abies. We address the remaining hypotheses (climatic change, migrational lag, delay of population increase) by a combined interpretation of our data with independent climatic records and other evidence of past environmental dynamics (e.g. dynamic vegetation modelling) for southern Central Europe. Rapid population expansions in response to cooling and precipitation increase suggest that climatic change was the main forcing factor and that migrational lags were not effective since at least 8200 cal. yr ago. On the basis of this conclusion we propose an explanatory model for the Holocene expansion of Fagus and Abies in Central Europe: Both trees expanded stepwise across the continent during favourable 8200-type events, which were characterized by changes towards wetter and cooler conditions and corresponded to previously recognized Holocene cold phases in Central Europe as well as in the North Atlantic realm. Asynchronous expansions across continental Europe are explained by analogy to today's precipitation gradients resulting from orographic effects. Response lags of Fagus and Abies to climatic change reached a few decades at most, whereas population expansion in response to climatic change lasted for several centuries, probably as a consequence of intrinsic rates of population increase as well as competition with previously established forest communities. This model is in agreement with recent data from northern Central Europe, where large-scale expansion pulses of Fagus coincided with 8200-type events (e.g. 3800-3400 and 2750-2350 cal. BP). In addition to climatic change, human impact influenced the expansions of Fagus in northern Central Europe. We suggest that Abies expansions across Europe after 5000 cal. BP were inhibited by human and/or fire disturbance.

Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F.

2006-03-01

386

Chemical responses to modified lignin composition in tension wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba).  

PubMed

The effect of altering the expression level of the F5H gene was investigated in three wood tissues (normal, opposite and tension wood) in 1-year-old hybrid poplar clone 717 (Populus tremula?×?Populus alba L.), containing the F5H gene under the control of the C4H promoter. Elevated expression of the F5H gene in poplar has been previously reported to increase the percent syringyl content of lignin. The wild-type and three transgenic lines were inclined 45° for 3 months to induce tension wood formation. Tension and opposite wood from inclined trees, along with normal wood from control trees, were analyzed separately for carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose crystallinity and microfibril angle (MFA). In the wild-type poplar, the lignin in tension wood contained a significantly higher percentage of syringyl than normal wood or opposite wood. However, there was no significant difference in the percent syringyl content of the three wood types within each of the transgenic lines. Increasing the F5H gene expression caused an increase in the percent syringyl content and a slight decrease in the total lignin in normal wood. In tension wood, the addition of a gelatinous layer in the fiber walls resulted in a consistently lower percentage of total lignin in the tissue. Acid-soluble lignin was observed to increase by up to 2.3-fold in the transgenic lines. Compared with normal wood and opposite wood, cell wall crystallinity in tension wood was higher and the MFA was smaller, as expected, with no evidence of an effect from modifying the syringyl monomer ratio. Tension wood in all the lines contained consistently higher total sugar and glucose percentages when compared with normal wood within the respective lines. However, both sugar and glucose percentages were lower in the tension wood of transgenic lines when compared with the tension wood of wild-type trees. Evaluating the response of trees with altered syringyl content to gravity will improve our understanding of the changes in cell wall chemistry and ultrastructural properties of normal, opposite and tension wood in plants. PMID:23515474

Al-Haddad, Jameel M; Kang, Kyu-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D; Telewski, Frank W

2013-04-01

387

An energy-circuit population model for great egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake stages, but water area exerted primary control during a two-year drought. Modeling prey production as a linear function of water area resulted in underestimation of prey density during the drought, suggesting that prey organisms maintained high fecundity while concentrated in submerged vegetation at the lakeward fringe of the littoral zone. Simulation confirmed that large influxes of wading birds during the drought were the combined result of a regional refuge response and the availability of concentrated prey. Modeling immigration and emigration as primarily functions of the surface-water drying rate, rather than lake stage, resulted in a closer match of observed and simulated population trends for foraging birds, suggesting that the pattern of surface-water fluctuations was a more important factor than water depth. Simulation indicated an abrupt-threshold response rather than a linear association between foraging efficiency and low temperatures, which reduce activity levels of forage fishes. Great Egret breeder recruitment is primarily a function of prey availability, climate, and hydrologic trends, but simulation confirmed the concurrent involvement of a seasonal or physiological-readiness factor. An attractor function driven by high winter lake stages was necessary to reproduce observed patterns of breeder recruitment, suggesting that Great Egrets initiate nesting based on environmental cues that lead to peak food availability when nestlings are present. Poor correspondence of reproductive effort and nest productivity suggested that the drought compromised the birds' predictive abilities. The need to model breeder recruitment as a function of a maximum rate rather than the size of the local foraging population suggested that birds may nest on the lake even though on-lake foraging conditions are poor. Simulated and observed estimates of egg and hatching production did not match, suggesting that the causes of failure during incubation were complex or more localized than could be accounted for with lakewide hydrologic and climatic data. A forced increase in prey consumption of 12% was necessary to reproduce observed, high levels of nest productivity in 1990, which corresponded to the finding that panhandled fish constituted 10a??12% of the biomass fed to Great Egret nestlings that year.

Smith, Jeff P.

1997-01-01

388

Biomonitoring heavy metals using the barn owl (Tyto alba guttata): sources of variation especially relating to body condition.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttata) to monitor environmental quality in the Netherlands was investigated, using Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Fe as indicators for environmental contamination. Throughout 1992, bird-watchers, volunteers, and officials submitted 53 birds. The age and geographical distribution of these birds, formed a representative sample of the population. The following interrelationships were investigated: cause of death, nutrient reserve, age, time of death, place of death, body measurements, sex, condition, and heavy metal concentration in kidney, liver, and tibia. Twenty-eight animals had died after collisions. Fifteen Barn Owls died of exhaustion. In total, twenty-four birds were exhausted, with coccidiosis or other parasitic gastrointestinal infections. The condition of the birds showed that as the birds' condition worsened, fat reserves were depleted before protein reserves. Significant linear relationships were found between decreasing protein reserves and decreasing dry weights of the liver, kidney, flight muscle and heart, but not of the tibia. An asymptotic, nonlinear relation was observed between dry organ weight and fat reserve. This suggested that fat reserves were only found when protein reserves exceeded 15% of the body mass at starvation. Concentrations of Cu and Fe in liver and kidney rose as protein reserves fell; the total content of Cu and Fe per organ, however, remained constant. The Mn concentration of these organs remained constant; Mn content increased with increasing organ sizes. Neither Cd nor Pb showed a clear relationship with parameters of body condition. The ratio between the organ content of Pb or Cd and the dry organ weight, however, revealed some birds from contaminated habitats. The findings suggested that concentrations of environmental contaminants should be measured on a dry weight basis. Furthermore, depending on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a contaminant, the total content of that contaminant per organ can be more informative than the concentration. In this one year sample of Barn Owls, no indications were found of toxic levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, or Fe in the Netherlands. It is concluded that the Barn Owl is a suitable biomonitor. Furthermore, a network of volunteers can produce an informative sample of the Barn Owl population without interfering with the population. PMID:7755402

Esselink, H; van der Geld, F M; Jager, L P; Posthuma-Trumpie, G A; Zoun, P E; Baars, A J

1995-05-01

389

Distribution, Status and Habitat Utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to gather information about the distribution, population, presence and habitat utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park. Surveys were usually scheduled early in the morning (5 to 8 AM) and at evening (3 to 6 PM). The areas, which Alectoris chukar occupied, had dominant vegetation of Morus alba, Barberes lycium, Acacia arabica, Ficus palmata, Acacia

MOHAMMAD NAEEM AWAN; MIR MOHAMMAD SALEEM; M. SIDDIQUE AWAN; KHAWAJA BASHARAT

390

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. View looking southeast (136°) at the north facade of Fire House No. 4 from North Base Road (3rd Street). In addition to cottonwood trees, numerous mulberries (Morus alba) have been planted around the parking lot and grounds - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Fire House No. 4, Near Second & A Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

391

Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SOâ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens,

S. Bialobok; S. Bartkowiak; L. Rachwal

1974-01-01

392

Vegetation, edaphic, and topographic interrelationships in an East Texas forest  

E-print Network

of stands (2) (1) (2) (1) (4) (3) (6) (1) (1) (4) (4) TREES (continued) ~hi i R hip Ii II. ~1 Morus rubra ~Nss ~51 atlt ~OI ~tr ihi Pinus echinata P. ol ti P. taeda Prunus serotina guercus alba g. falcata g. incana g. marilandica g. ni9ra g...

Hinton, Johnny Zane

1981-01-01

393

A Dash of Salt  

E-print Network

(Morus alba), pictured at left, and Arizona Cypress (Cupressus arizonica). tx H2O | pg. 20 The second most frequent problem is soil saliniza- tion, or too much salt accumulation in the soil. This usually occurs in clayey (silty clay loam, clay loam...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

394

Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.  

PubMed

The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ? 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24491701

Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

2014-06-15

395

Sensitivity of stable isotope ratios of tree-rings of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Franconia (Central Germany) to climate and environmental changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constructed 1000-year long carbon and oxygen isotope chronologies of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the temperate region of Franconia (northern Bavaria, Central Germany) with the aim to carry out the climate reconstructions by using of multivariate models. The annual variations of isotope signals in firs were strong influenced by airborne pollutants in the second half of 20th century: the linear responses of 13C; 18O and 2H signals to SO2, O3 and dust concentrations were high significant. Therefore, we used the long meteorological data set, were the disturbed period could be excluded for climate reconstructions. In this case, carbon isotopes correspond most to spring/summer climate conditions as April to August mean temperatures and June/July precipitation amount, oxygen show the strongest correlation to the July relative air humidity and to the April to August mean temperatures. The correlations between tree-ring signals and summer climate are high (p

Boettger, T.; Haupt, M.; Friedrich, M.

2012-04-01

396

[Free sugars, cyclitols and organic acids in the cambial sap of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea Abies Karst. and Abies alba Mill].  

PubMed

Samples of cambial sap from each of the three coniferous species Pinus sylvestris L., Picea Abies Karst. and Abies alba Mill. were taken at the time the trees were coming into bud and analysed for low molecular weight carbohydrates, cyclitols and organic acids. They all contained the same free sugars and cyclitols, but in markedly different proportions. Quantitative analyses were carried out for glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, myo-inositol, D-inositol, pinitol, sequoyitol and coniferin.The three main components of the organic acid fractions-quinic acid, shikimic acid and malic acid-were determined quantitatively. The amount of quinic acid greatly exceeded the amount of all the other acids in all three species. (14)C-labelled quinic acid applied to the cut ends of Pinus sylvestris needles was transported to the twig. There was no conversion of quinic acid to shikimic acid over short periods of time. PMID:24474307

Kretz, A

1973-03-01

397

Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to analysis for ß-glucosidase, invertase and CM-cellulase activity. The main physical and chemical properties of the soils were also determined (total C and N contents, pH in water and in KCl, texture, etc) and the apparent density measured to enable the results to be expressed per unit of weight as well as per unit of volume. The mean values of total C and N in the afforested soils were slightly higher than in the cropped soils, independently of whether the results were expressed relative to weight or volume. The differences were not significant in any of the cases. Afforestation appeared to cause small increases in ß-glucosidase and invertase activities, but a decrease in CM-cellulase activity. Again the same results were obtained independently of whether the values were expressed per unit of weight or volume. The same was also found when the values were expressed relative to the N content of the soils, but when the values were expressed relative to the total C content, the ß-glucosidase activity was found to be the same in afforested and cropped soils. The greater availability of plant remains as the result of the change in land use may have favoured increased activity of enzymes that act on the most readily decomposable substrates (ß-glucosidase and invertase), which in turn would generate an increase in the substrates available for microorganisms, and possibly contribute to the higher respiratory activity observed in these soils (García-Campos et al., 2010, EGU General Assembly, Session 13). Acknowledgements. This research was financially supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (CGL2008-01992/BTE).

Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, M? Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

2010-05-01

398

Restoration of the disordered glucose-fatty acid cycle in alloxan-diabetic rats by trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids from Bryonia alba, a native Armenian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

We studied how administration of trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids obtained from the roots of the native Armenian plant Bryonia alba L. (0.05 mg/kg/day for 15 days. i.m.) restores the disordered lipid metabolism of alloxan-diabetic rats. Diabetes was accompanied by an increase in total non-esterified fatty acid content of blood together with decreases in muscle and adipose tissue of total non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, together with marked alterations of phospholipid fatty acid distribution within the membranes from muscle, including increased short chain fatty acid and decreased arachidonate content. All these metabolic changes induced in diabetes were significantly restored by trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acid treatment towards their normal values (P < 0.005) with the exception of diminished triglyceride content of muscle which was not restored. In experiments on rat neutrophil leukocytes in vitro, it was found that the standardised preparation of Bryonia C-18 fatty acids (a mixture of four diastereoisomeric forms of the positional isomers I 12,13,16-trihydroxy-9Z,14E-octadecadienoic acid, II 12,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,13E-octadecadienoic acid, III 9,10, 13-trihydroxy-11E,15Z-octadecadienoic acid and IV 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10E,14Z-octadecadienoic acid) had no effect on granular enzyme secretion or 5-lipoxygenase activity at 5-50 micrograms/ml, but dose-dependently reduced thromboxane B2 generation, with a corresponding increase in prostaglandin E2 release. We conclude that trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids from B. alba can correct major metabolic abnormalities typical of severe diabetes mellitus, and that they can influence the profile of the formation of stable prostaglandins by actions downstream of prostaglandin endoperoxides. PMID:9690343

Karageuzyan, K G; Vartanyan, G S; Agadjanov, M I; Panossian, A G; Hoult, J R

1998-06-01

399

No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery  

PubMed Central

AIMS Arnica montana is a popular homoeopathic treatment with potential haemostatic and anti-inflammatory properties. A homoeopathic combination of A. montana and Bryonia alba was used in aortic valve surgery to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing bleeding, inflammation, pain and myocardial ischaemia. METHODS One day before surgery, 92 adult patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind parallel trial with either homoeopathic granules or a matching placebo until 4 days after surgery. The primary outcome was the volume of blood/liquid in the drains at their removal. The secondary outcomes included postoperative blood/liquid losses at 12 and 24 h as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), pain, temperature and plasma troponin Ic. RESULTS At 12 h and 24 h after surgery, then at drain removal, blood losses in homoeopathy and placebo groups were not statistically significant (362 ± 218, 520 ± 269 and 640 ± 297 ml vs. 456 ± 440, 620 ± 477 and 796 ± 717 ml; P= 0.19, 0.23 and 0.35, respectively). The statistical modelling did not show significantly different patterns of CRP, troponin and body temperature changes or of pain perception. The number of transfused packed red cells was not significantly different either (P= 0.58). Two patients from each group died during the study period and the number of serious adverse events was not statistically different (six in homoeopathy vs. 10 in placebo groups; Fisher's exact test P= 0.41). CONCLUSIONS In the study setting, there was no evidence of effects of A. montana and B. alba combination on bleeding, inflammation, pain or myocardial ischaemia. PMID:20233176

Cornu, Catherine; Joseph, Pierre; Gaillard, Ségolène; Bauer, Christian; Vedrinne, Catherine; Bissery, Alvine; Melot, Ghislaine; Bossard, Nadine; Belon, Philippe; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

2010-01-01

400

Profiling of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Artemisia absinthium, A. herba-alba, A. fragrans, Marrubium vulgare, M. astranicum, Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulossum and essential oil analysis of two Artemisia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the acetone and ethanol extracts of Artemisia absinthium, A. herba-alba, A. fragrans, Marrubium vulgare, M. astranicum, and Origanum vulgare var. glandulossum along with the essential oil of A. absinthium were investigated. Cholinesterase inhibitory activity was determined against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 25, 50, and 100?g\\/mL using an ELISA

I. Erdogan Orhan; R. Belhattab; F. S. ?enol; A. R. Gülpinar; S. Ho?ba?; M. Kartal

2010-01-01

401

Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40–57%) was the most abundant

Elena E Stashenko; Beatriz E Jaramillo; Jairo René Mart??nez

2004-01-01

402

Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.  

PubMed

Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

2006-05-01

403

Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

2014-01-01

404

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

405

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Abies alba and A. koreana Seed and Cone Essential Oils and Characterization of Their Seed Hydrolates.  

PubMed

The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50??g/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts. PMID:25766914

Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maci?g, Agnieszka; Szoka, ?ukasz; Karna, Ewa

2015-03-01

406

Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study Comparing 0.0003% Calcitriol with 0.1% Tacrolimus Ointments for the Treatment of Endemic Pityriasis Alba  

PubMed Central

Background. Pityriasis alba (PA) is a frequent cause of consultation in tropical areas due to its chronic course, frequent relapses, and notorious hypopigmented lesions in pediatric dark skin populations. Currently, no treatment is widely accepted. Objective. To assess the efficacy of 0.0003% calcitriol and 0.1% tacrolimus ointments compared with placebo in the treatment of endemic PA. Methods. Twenty-eight children aged 3–17 years with 56 symmetrical lesions and phototype IV-V, were randomly assigned to receive the treatments on target lesions on the face. Improvement was evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks later clinically and by digital quantification of the affected area, colorimetry, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Results. Tacrolimus and calcitriol ointments induced a mean improvement of 68%, compared to 44% of placebo. We found an elevated TEWL in PA lesions. In the treated plaques, the reduction of the affected area was associated with improvement of pigmentation and TEWL. Conclusions. Calcitriol and tacrolimus induced similar repigmentation in endemic PA lesions. Melanogenic, anti-inflammatory, and barrier defect restoration properties of these drugs may explain these findings. PMID:22577371

Moreno-Cruz, Berenice; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Castanedo-Cazares, Juan Pablo

2012-01-01

407

Social calls produced within and near the roost in two species of tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba.  

PubMed

Social animals regularly face the problem of relocating conspecifics when separated. Communication is one of the most important mechanisms facilitating group formation and cohesion. Known as contact calls, signals exchanged between conspecifics that permit group maintenance are widespread across many taxa. Foliage-roosting bats are an excellent model system for studying the evolution of contact calling, as there are opportunities to compare closely related species that exhibit major differences in ecology and behavior. Further, foliage-roosting bats rely on relatively ephemeral roosts, which leads to major challenges in maintaining group cohesion. Here, we report findings on the communication signals produced by two tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba. We found that both species produced calls in the early morning near the roost that were associated with roostmate recruitment. Calling often ended once other bats arrived at the tent, suggesting that calls may be involved in roostmate recruitment and group formation. The structure and function of these calls are described and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23637893

Gillam, Erin H; Chaverri, Gloriana; Montero, Karina; Sagot, Maria

2013-01-01

408

Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

Markovi?, D. M.; Novovi?, I.; Viloti?, D.; Ignjatovi?, Lj.

2007-09-01

409

[Importance of Shaw's Jird Meriones shawii within the trophic components of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in steppic areas of Algeria].  

PubMed

The study of the diet of the Barn Owl in two steppic regions (M'Sila and Djelfa) located in the Algerian highlands is based on the analysis of the pellets of rejections collected in six stations. The analysis of 706 pellets resulting from the various stations made it possible to count 1380 individuals, represented by seven classes, 12 orders, 32 families, and 76 species of preys. The mammals are consumed with variable abundance rates between 59.1 % and 90.0 % whose predominance is assigned to the rodents (relative abundance: AR > 58 %). The latter constitute the most advantageous preys in biomass (61.4 ? B % ? 99.2). The most consumed prey is Meriones shawii, with variable rates between 31.9 % and 76.6 %. Generally, Tyto alba presents a diversified diet in the majority of the stations (0.69 ? E ? 0.76), except the station of Ain El-Hadjel (E = 0.35), with a low diversity and dominance of M. shawii (AR = 76.6 %). PMID:24961561

Sekour, Makhlouf; Souttou, Karim; Guerzou, Ahlem; Benbouzid, Noureddine; Guezoul, Omar; Ababsa, Labed; Denys, Christiane; Doumandji, Salaheddine

2014-06-01

410

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

411

On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ( and ). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

2014-01-01

412

On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components. PMID:24967075

Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

2014-05-01

413

The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress  

PubMed Central

In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

2013-01-01

414

The Correlation between Chemical Composition, as Determined by UPLC-TOF-MS, and Acute Toxicity of Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba  

PubMed Central

The eighteen incompatible medicaments is an important theory in traditional Chinese medicine. The theory suggests that drugs in the eighteen incompatible medicaments can be toxic when used together. Veratrum nigrum L. and Radix paeoniae alba belong to the eighteen incompatible medicaments and have been prohibited for thousands of years. This study offers preliminary insight into the mechanism and chemical constituents responsible for the incompatibility and toxicity of these two agents. Specifically, we performed toxicology studies to identify and quantify the constituent substances of the two agents. Experiments revealed that acute toxicity increases when the dose of V. nigrum L. is higher than, or equal to, RPA. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis showed that, although the volumes of V. nigrum L. were the same, the content of some veratrum alkaloids changed significantly and had a trend toward a highly positive correlation (|r| ? 0.8) with toxicity. This suggests that the increased toxicity of the V. nigrum L. and RPA combination was due mainly to increased content of the special veratrum alkaloids. The cytotoxicity of veratridine in SH-SY5Y cells was decreased with increasing paeoniflorin concentrations. This study provides insight into the mechanism behind the incompatibility theory of TCM. PMID:25024734

Zhang, Xianxie; Wang, Yuguang; Liang, Qiande; Ma, Zengchun; Xiao, Chengrong; Tan, Hongling; Gao, Yue

2014-01-01

415

Social Calls Produced within and near the Roost in Two Species of Tent-Making Bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba  

PubMed Central

Social animals regularly face the problem of relocating conspecifics when separated. Communication is one of the most important mechanisms facilitating group formation and cohesion. Known as contact calls, signals exchanged between conspecifics that permit group maintenance are widespread across many taxa. Foliage-roosting bats are an excellent model system for studying the evolution of contact calling, as there are opportunities to compare closely related species that exhibit major differences in ecology and behavior. Further, foliage-roosting bats rely on relatively ephemeral roosts, which leads to major challenges in maintaining group cohesion. Here, we report findings on the communication signals produced by two tent-making bats, Dermanura watsoni and Ectophylla alba. We found that both species produced calls in the early morning near the roost that were associated with roostmate recruitment. Calling often ended once other bats arrived at the tent, suggesting that calls may be involved in roostmate recruitment and group formation. The structure and function of these calls are described and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23637893

Gillam, Erin H.; Chaverri, Gloriana; Montero, Karina; Sagot, Maria

2013-01-01

416

Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)  

PubMed Central

Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

2014-01-01

417

Changes in ATP, glucose-6-phosphate and NAD(P)H cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of Abies alba Mill. embryogenic cultures.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the adenosine triphospate (ATP), glucose-6-phosphate (glu-6P) and reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of Abies alba Mill. somatic embryos. For a better understanding of the dynamics of these parameters during the proliferation cycle, four embryonic cell lines were tested. During the maturation period, three independent experiments were conducted, focused on the effects of PEG-4000 (5 or 10% (w/v)) and abscisic acid (16, 32 or 64 ?M) applied together (Experiments A and B) or with addition of gibberellic acid (Experiment C) on the dynamics of bio-energetic molecules and on the mean number of cotyledonary somatic embryos. Our results demonstrated that the cellular levels of bio-energetic molecules strongly depended on the composition of maturation media. Generally, the higher the number of cotyledonary embryos produced, the higher the level of ATP observed after a 2-week maturation period. The cellular level of ATP, glu-6P and NAD(P)H increased, particularly after the transition from the proliferation to the maturation phase when the differentiation and growth of somatic embryos occurred. PMID:24200583

Krajnáková, Jana; Bertolini, Alberto; Zoratti, Laura; Gömöry, Dusan; Häggman, Hely; Vianello, Angelo

2013-10-01

418

Transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and confocal raman microscopic analysis of ultrastructural and compositional heterogeneity of Cornus alba L. wood cell wall.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), fluorescence microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy can be used to characterize ultrastructural and compositional heterogeneity of plant cell walls. In this study, TEM observations revealed the ultrastructural characterization of Cornus alba L. fiber, vessel, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, and pit membrane between cells, notably with the ray parenchyma consisting of two well-defined layers. Fluorescence microscopy evidenced that cell corner middle lamella was more lignified than adjacent compound middle lamella and secondary wall with variation in lignification level from cell to cell. In situ Raman images showed that the inhomogeneity in cell wall components (cellulose and lignin) among different cells and within morphologically distinct cell wall layers. As the significant precursors of lignin biosynthesis, the pattern of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde (joint abbreviation Lignin-CAA for both structures) distribution in fiber cell wall was also identified by Raman images, with higher concentration occurring in the fiber secondary wall where there was the highest cellulose concentration. Moreover, noteworthy was the observation that higher concentration of lignin and very minor amounts of cellulose were visualized in the pit membrane areas. These complementary microanalytical methods provide more accurate and complete information with regard to ultrastructural and compositional characterization of plant cell walls. PMID:23380008

Ma, Jianfeng; Ji, Zhe; Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Zhiheng; Xu, Feng

2013-02-01

419

Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75?mg/kg) or captopril (15?mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75?mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

2015-01-01

420

Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1?-Induced NF-?B Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1? for up to 72?h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), ?1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation by inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation, I?B? degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-?B targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1?-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, ?1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1?. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-?B plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

2012-01-01

421

Transposable Element Insertion and Epigenetic Modification Cause the Multiallelic Variation in the Expression of FAE1 in Sinapis alba[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Naturally occurring heritable variation provides a fundamental resource to reveal the genetic and molecular bases of traits in forward genetic studies. Here, we report the molecular basis of the differences in the four alleles E1, E2, E3, and e of the FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene controlling high, medium, low, and zero erucic content in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). E1 represents a fully functional allele with a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1521 bp and a promoter adjacent to the CDS. The null allele e resulted from an insertional disruption in the CDS by Sal-PIF, a 3100-bp PIF/Harbinger-like DNA transposon, whereas E2 and E3 originated from the insertion of Sal-T1, a 4863-bp Copia-like retrotransposon, in the 5? untranslated region. E3 was identical to E2 but showed cytosine methylation in the promoter region and was thus an epiallele having a further reduction in expression. The coding regions of E2 and E3 also contained five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not present in E1, but expression studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated that these SNPs did not affect enzyme functionality. These results demonstrate a comprehensive molecular framework for the interplay of transposon insertion, SNP/indel mutation, and epigenetic modification influencing the broad range of natural genetic variation in plants. PMID:24934174

Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

422

The physiological response of Populus tremula x alba leaves to the down-regulation of PIP1 aquaporin gene expression under no water stress.  

PubMed

In order to study the role of PIP1 aquaporins in leaf water and CO2 transport, several lines of PIP1-deficient transgenic Populus tremula x alba were generated using a reverse genetic approach. These transgenic lines displayed no visible developmental or morphological phenotypes when grown under conditions of no water stress. Major photosynthetic parameters were also not affected by PIP1 down regulation. However, low levels of PIP1 expression resulted in greater leaf hydraulic resistance (an increase of 27%), which effectively implicated PIP1 role in water transport. Additionally, the expression level of PIP1 genes in the various transgenic lines was correlated with reductions in mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), suggesting that in poplar, these aquaporins influenced membrane permeability to CO2. Overall, although analysis showed that PIP1 genes contributed to the mass transfer of water and CO2 in poplar leaves, their down-regulation did not dramatically impair the physiological needs of this fast growing tree when cultivated under conditions of no stress. PMID:24379822

Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

2013-01-01

423

Inhibition of snake venoms and phospholipases A(2) by extracts from native and genetically modified Eclipta alba: isolation of active coumestans.  

PubMed

We genetically modified Eclipta alba using Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402, with the aim of producing secondary metabolites with pharmacological properties against phospholipase A(2) and the myotoxic activities of snake venom. Extracts from in natura aerial parts and roots, both native and genetically modified (in vitro), were prepared and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In natura materials showed the coumestan wedelolactone at higher concentration in the aerial parts, while demethylwedelolactone appeared at higher concentration in roots. Among the modified roots, clone 19 showed higher concentrations of these coumestans. Our results show that the in natura extracts of plants collected from Botucatu and Ribeirão Preto were efficient in inhibiting snake venom phospholipase A(2) activity. Regarding in vitro material, the best effect against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was that of clone 19. Clone 19 and isolated coumestans (wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone) inhibited the myotoxic activity induced by basic phospholipases A(2) isolated from the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus (CB) and Bothrops jararacussu (BthTX-I and II). The search for antivenom is justified by the need of finding active principles that are more efficient in neutralizing snake venoms and also as an attempt to complement serum therapy. PMID:19320636

Diogo, Luciana C; Fernandes, Renata S; Marcussi, Silvana; Menaldo, Danilo L; Roberto, Patrícia G; Matrangulo, Paula V F; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; Giuliatti, Silvana; Soares, Andreimar M; Lourenço, Miriam V

2009-04-01

424

Dirio Econmico -Universidades Como ser investigador em Portugal  

E-print Network

Diário Económico - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF - Universidades Como é ser investigador em Portugal Autor: N.D. Editora: ST e SF Id: 1646658 Data Publicação: 19

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

425

Effet de la date de récolte sur le rendement, la composition chimique et la bioactivité des huiles essentielles de l’armoise blanche ( Artemisia herba-alba ) de la région de Guerçif (Maroc oriental)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L’objectif de ce présent travail est l’étude comparative du rendement et de la composition chimique de l’huile essentielle\\u000a (HE) issue de l’armoise blanche (Artemisia herba-alba) de la région de Guerçif (Maroc oriental) selon la date de récolte ainsi que la détermination de son activité antibactérienne\\u000a et antifongique vis-à-vis de sept micro-organismes. Les rendements en HE exprimés en millilitre par rapport

M. Ghanmi; B. Satrani; A. Aafi; M. R. Isamili; H. Houti; H. El Monfalouti; K. H. Benchakroun; M. Aberchane; L. Harki; A. Boukir; A. Chaouch; Z. Charrouf

2010-01-01

426

Ecophysiological competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. used in plantations for the recovery of riparian vegetation.  

PubMed

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar (Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity. PMID:17849159

Manzanera, Jose A; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F

2007-12-01

427

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

2007-12-01

428

Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis of erucic acid content and glucosinolate components in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is an important condiment crop for the spice trade in the world. It has lagged behind oilseed Brassica species in molecular marker development and application. Intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers are highly polymorphic, co-dominant and cost-effective. The cross-species applicability of ILP markers from Brassica species and Arabidopsis makes them possible to be used for genetic linkage mapping and further QTL analysis of agronomic traits in yellow mustard. Results A total of 250 ILP and 14 SSR markers were mapped on 12 linkage groups and designated as Sal01-12 in yellow mustard. The constructed map covered a total genetic length of 890.4 cM with an average marker interval of 3.3 cM. The QTL for erucic content co-localized with the fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) gene on Sal03. The self-(in)compatibility gene was assigned to Sal08. The 4-hydroxybenzyl, 3-indolylmethyl and 4-hydroxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate contents were each controlled by one major QTL, all of which were located on Sal02. Two QTLs, accounting for the respective 20.4% and 19.2% of the total variation of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate content, were identified and mapped to Sal02 and Sal11. Comparative synteny analysis revealed that yellow mustard was phylogenetically related to Arabidopsis thaliana and had undergone extensive chromosomal rearrangements during speciation. Conclusion The linkage map based on ILP and SSR markers was constructed and used for QTL analysis of seed quality traits in yellow mustard. The markers tightly linked with the genes for different glucosinolate components will be used for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. The ILP markers and linkage map provide useful molecular tools for yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24066707

2013-01-01

429

A novel method HPLC-DAD analysis of the Contentsof Moutan Cortexand Paeoniae Radix Alba with similar constituents-monoterpene glycosides in Guizhi Fuling Wan.  

PubMed

A variety of traditional Chinese medical formulations contain two or more herbs from the same genus or family. Although these herbs may have a similar appearance and constituents, they usually have different pharmacodynamic actions. A series of qualitative and quantitative analysis methods are developed to determine one or more compounds for quality control of medicine. As far as we know, no method has been found to determine the real ratio of the two herbs along with the prescription. In this study, we used HPLC-DAD as a way to determine the content of Moutan cortex (M) and Paeoniae radix alba (P) in GuizhiFuling Wan (GZFLW). An effective, accurate and reliable HPLC-DAD method was developed for detecting the content of M and P in GZFLW through the analysis of four monoterpeneglycosides, namely, galloylpaeoniflorin (1), paeoniflorin (2), mudanpioside C (3) and benzoylpaeoniflorin (4). Due to the different UV characteristics of the compounds, the detection wavelength was 270 nm for 1 and 2, while 3 and 4 were monitored at 254 nm and 230 nm, respectively. Four equations were put forward to describe the relationship between content of M as well as P and the four monoterpene glycosides in GZFLW. After validation, all the accuracies of the M and P contents in GZFLW were within 10%. The result showed that the method could be successfully applied to analyze the contents of M and P in GZFLW. Moreover, our method may be more widely used to control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicines, especially for those containing the same genus or family herbs, in industrial GMP production. PMID:25375336

Wang, Shuyun; Huang, Jian; Mao, Huijuan; Wang, Yuliang; Kasimu, Rena; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Jinhui

2014-01-01

430

Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

2013-02-01

431

Spatial and seasonal variation in amino compounds in the xylem sap of a mistletoe (Viscum album) and its hosts (Populus spp. and Abies alba).  

PubMed

In a field study, the composition and concentrations of amino compounds in the xylem sap of the mistletoe, Viscum album L., and in the xylem sap of two host species, an evergreen conifer (Abies alba Mill.) and a deciduous broad-leaved tree (Populus x euramericana), were analyzed. The xylem sap of both hosts and mistletoe contained large, but similar amounts of total organic nitrogen in low molecular weight amino compounds (TONLW). Nevertheless, individual amino compounds accumulated in the xylem sap of mistletoe relative to the host xylem sap, indicating selective uptake. In the xylem sap of Populus, major amino compounds (asparagine (Asn) and glutamine (Gln)) and the bulk parameters, TONLW and proteinogenic amino acids, showed significant seasonal variation. In Abies and in mistletoe on either host, variation of amino compounds in xylem sap was largely explained by inter-annual differences, not by seasonal variation. In both hosts, TONLW in the xylem sap was dominated by Gln. There was a steady decrease in relative abundance of Gln from the host xylem sap to the mistletoe xylem sap and to the stems and leaves of mistletoe. Simultaneously, the abundance of arginine (Arg) increased. Arginine was the predominant amino compound in the stems and leaves of mistletoe, occurring at concentrations previously observed only in leaves of trees exposed to excess nitrogen. We conclude that Gln (2 mol N mol(-1)) delivered by the host xylem sap is converted, in mistletoe, to Arg (4 mol N mol(-1)) and that the organic carbon liberated from Gln contributes significantly to the parasite's heterotrophic carbon gain. Statistical analyses of the data support this conclusion. Accumulation of Arg in mistletoe is an indication of excess N supply as a result of the uptake of amino compounds from the host xylem sap and a lack of phloem uploading. PMID:15059764

Escher, Peter; Eiblmeier, Monika; Hetzger, Ilka; Rennenberg, Heinz

2004-06-01

432

Ozone fumigation results in accelerated growth and persistent changes in the antioxidant system of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. alba.  

PubMed

The growth response and antioxidant capacity of Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba plants treated with 70ppb of ozone was examined. Four week old cabbage seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the growing field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined directly after fumigation and over the course of field cultivation. Plants subjected to O3 treatment had an increased diameter of rosettes and number of leaves after 3 and 7 weeks in agriculture, respectively. In addition, the vast majority of fumigated plants reached marketable quality faster than control plants, indicating a positive role of episodes of increased O3 concentrations during vegetation on growth and yielding. Our analysis revealed that by fumigating juvenile white cabbage plants with moderate doses of O3 the activity of catalases (CAT) and peroxidases was elevated. The activity of the examined enzymes was not affected directly after fumigation, but it increased after several weeks in the experimental field. Increased CAT activity was accompanied by changes in 2 out of the 3 CAT genes CAT1 and CAT2, where CAT2 seemed to be responsible for the induced CAT activity. The biosynthesis of low-molecular stress protectants - tocopherols and the glucosinolate (GLS) sinigrin was transiently affected by ozone. ?-Tocopherol (?-toc) content significantly increased directly after fumigation, but after 3 weeks of vegetation in the field its concentration reached values similar to control. The biosynthesis of ?-tocopherol (?-toc) and sinigrin seemed to be upregulated in fumigated plants. However, the response was delayed; no differences were registered directly after treatment, but 3 weeks after transplanting the concentration of sinigrin and ?-toc was elevated. PMID:23773692

Rozp?dek, Piotr; ?lesak, Ireneusz; Cebula, Stanis?aw; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Micha?; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew

2013-09-15

433

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Two FAD3 Genes Controlling Linolenic Acid Content and Development of Allele-Specific Markers in Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba)  

PubMed Central

Development of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) with superior quality traits (low erucic and linolenic acid contents, and low glucosinolate content) can make this species as a potential oilseed crop. We have recently isolated three inbred lines Y1127, Y514 and Y1035 with low (3.8%), medium (12.3%) and high (20.8%) linolenic acid (C18?3) content, respectively, in this species. Inheritance studies detected two fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) gene loci controlling the variation of C18?3 content. QTL mapping revealed that the two FAD3 gene loci responsible for 73.0% and 23.4% of the total variation and were located on the linkage groups Sal02 and Sal10, respectively. The FAD3 gene on Sal02 was referred to as SalFAD3.LA1 and that on Sal10 as SalFAD3.LA2. The dominant and recessive alleles were designated as LA1 and la1 for SalFAD3.LA1, and LA2 and la2 for SalFAD3.LA2. Cloning and alignment of the coding and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the SalFAD3.LA1 and SalFAD3.LA2 genes each contained 8 exons and 7 introns. LA1 had a coding DNA sequence (CDS) of 1143 bp encoding a polypeptide of 380 amino acids, whereas la1 was a loss-of-function allele due to an insertion of 584 bp in exon 3. Both LA2 and la2 had a CDS of 1152 bp encoding a polypeptide of 383 amino acids. Allele-specific markers for LA1, la1, LA2 and la2 co-segregated with the C18?3 content in the F2 populations and will be useful for improving fatty acid composition through marker assisted selection in yellow mustard breeding. PMID:24823372

Tian, Entang; Zeng, Fangqin; MacKay, Kimberly; Roslinsky, Vicky; Cheng, Bifang

2014-01-01

434

Carbon-nutrient interactions in response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment: physiological and long-term perspectives. [Quercus alba L  

SciTech Connect

The responses of forest trees to atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment will depend in part on carbon-nutrient linkages. Insights into the possible long-term ecological consequences of CO/sub 2/ enrichment can be gained from studying physiological responses in short-term experiments. One-year-old white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were grown in an unfertilized forest soil for 40 weeks in controlled-environment chambers with ambient (362 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) or elevated (690 ..mu..L.L/sup -1/) CO/sub 2/. Seedling dry weight was 85% greater in the elevated CO/sub 2/ environment, despite a severe nitrogen deficiency in all seedlings. The increase in growth occurred without a concomitant increase in nitrogen uptake, indicating an increase in nitrogen-use efficiency in elevated CO/sub 2/. The weight of new buds was greater in elevated CO/sub 2/, suggesting that shoot growth in the next year would have been enhanced relative to that of seedlings in ambient CO/sub 2/. However, there was a lower amount of translocatable nitrogen in perennial woody tissue in elevated CO/sub 2/; thus, further increases in nitrogen-use efficiency may not be possible. The leaves that abscised from seedlings in elevated CO/sub 2/ contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and tannin and a lower amount of lignin compared with amounts in abscised leaves in ambient CO/sub 2/. Based on lignin to N and lignin to P ratios, the rates of litter decomposition might not be greatly affected by CO/sub 2/ enrichment, but the total amount of nitrogen returned to soil would be lower in elevated CO/sub 2/.

Norby, R.J.; Pastor, J.; Melillo, J.M.

1985-01-01

435

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

436

Manganese deficiency of silver fir trees (Abies alba) at a reforested site in the Jura mountains, Switzerland: aspects of cause and effect.  

PubMed

We examined manganese uptake and translocation in 30-year-old silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.) showing severe symptoms of needle chlorosis by analyzing both xylem and phloem sap of shoots and an extract of root sap originating from both xylem and phloem elements. Manganese concentrations in shoot xylem and phloem sap were significantly lower in chlorotic trees than in neighboring healthy trees. The Mn concentration of root sap was also lower in these Mn-deficient trees than in healthy trees, indicating reduced Mn uptake by Mn-deficient trees. Although Mn deficiency had no effect on the Mn concentration of whole roots, separation of root tissue into root cortex and stele (wood) suggested impaired translocation of Mn from the cortex to the stele in Mn-deficient trees. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) tests indicated that there was no decrease in reducing capacity of the fine roots (< 1 mm in diameter) of Mn-deficient trees. Fine roots of Mn-deficient trees contained significantly more organic acids than fine roots of healthy trees, including increased concentrations of malic, quinic, trans-acontic and formic acid; however, concentrations of pyruvic and acetic acid were lower than in fine roots of healthy trees. The total amounts of organic acids in the rhizospheric soil were similar for healthy and Mn-deficient trees. Pyruvic acid concentration was significantly increased in the rhizospheric soil of Mn-deficient trees, and concentrations of simple aliphatic acids like formic and acetic acid also tended to be higher in the rhizospheric soil of Mn-deficient trees. Both pH and water content were higher in bulk soil and rhizospheric soil around Mn-deficient trees compared with soil around healthy trees. Although lower concentrations of exchangeable Mn were found in the soil around Mn-deficient trees, the active Mn concentration (sum of exchangeable and reducible Mn) did not differ between healthy and Mn-deficient trees. A considerable proportion of manganese was in an oxidized form in the soil around Mn-deficient trees. PMID:14871790

Hiltbrunner, Erika; Flückiger, Walter

1996-01-01

437

Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better climatic-environmental conditions, and vice versa. If so, crown transparency may be expected to be an indicator of butt rot diffusion and incidence. Our research shows that it may not be necessarily so.

D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

2014-05-01

438

Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland  

SciTech Connect

The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Rural Development and Technology

1996-10-01

439

Morphogenic response of the alginate-encapsulated axillary buds from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axillary buds obtained from in vitro shoot cultures of six mulberries (Morus alba L., M. australis Poir., M. bombycis Koidz., M. cathyana Hemsl., M. latifolia Poir., and M. nigra L.) were encapsulated in calcium alginate hydrogel containing Murashige and Skoog (1962) nutrients (MS) and 4.4 ?M benzyladenine\\u000a (BA). Morphogenic response of encapsulated buds to various planting media such as MS

Sitakanta Pattnaik; Pradeep K. Chand

2000-01-01

440

Inhibitory effect of mulberroside A and its derivatives on melanogenesis induced by ultraviolet B irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberroside A was isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots. The enzymatic hydrolysis of mulberroside A with Pectinex® produced oxyresveratrol and oxyresveratrol-3-O-glucoside. We tested oxyresveratrol, oxyresveratrol-3-O-glucoside, and mulberroside A to determine whether they could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced melanogenesis in brown guinea pig skin. Topical application of mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and oxyresveratrol-3-O-glucoside reduced the pigmentation in guinea

Keun-Tae Park; Jeong-Keun Kim; Dahyun Hwang; Yeongmin Yoo; Young-Hee Lim

2011-01-01

441

Mulberry extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit is used effectively in Chinese medicines against fever, to protect the liver and to lower blood pressure. Here, we report a water extract, MWE (Mulberry water extract), which is designed to exhibit anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3%), lard

Chang-Che Chen; Li-Kaung Liu; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Hui-Pei Huang; Mon-Yuan Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2005-01-01

442

Antihyperglycemic, Antioxidant and Antiglycation Activities of Mulberry Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Chronic Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, beverages containing mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) are believed to promote good health, especially in people with diabetes. We examined the effects of long-term administration\\u000a of an ethanolic extract of mulberry leaf (MA) on blood glucose, oxidative damage, and glycation in streptozotocin-induced\\u000a diabetic rats. Daily administration of 1 g\\/kg MA for six weeks decreased blood glucose by 22%, which

Jarinyaporn Naowaboot; Patchareewan Pannangpetch; Veerapol Kukongviriyapan; Bunkerd Kongyingyoes; Upa kukongviriyapan

2009-01-01

443

Tree mortality rates and tree population projections in Baltimore, Maryland, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on re-measurements (1999 and 2001) of randomly-distributed permanent plots within the city boundaries of Baltimore, Maryland, trees are estimated to have an annual mortality rate of 6.6% with an overall annual net change in the number of live trees of –4.2%. Tree mortality rates were significantly different based on tree size, condition, species, and land use. Morus alba, Ailanthus

David J. Nowak; Miki Kuroda; Daniel E. Crane

2004-01-01

444

Oxyresveratrol as the Potent Inhibitor on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyresveratrol (2,3?,4,5?-tetrahydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found inMorus albaL., exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis. Oxyresveratrol with 0.3 to 5 ?M exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitions (25 to 84%) on the enzyme activity, where 50% of inhibition was shown at the concentration of about 1 ?M. Oxyresveratrol

Nam-Ho Shin; Shi Yong Ryu; Eun Ju Choi; Seh-Hoon Kang; IL-Moo Chang; Kyung Rak Min; Youngsoo Kim

1998-01-01

445

Cell wall sheath surrounding calcium oxalate crystals in mulberry idioblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The distribution and ultrastructural features of idioblasts containing calcium oxalate crystals were studied in leaf tissues\\u000a of mulberry, Morus alba L. In addition to the calcium carbonate crystals formed in epidermal idioblasts, large calcium oxalate crystals were deposited\\u000a in cells adjacent to the veins and surrounded by a cell wall sheath which had immunoreactivity with an antibody recognizing\\u000a a xyloglucan

H. Katayama; Y. Fujibayashi; S. Nagaoka; Y. Sugimura

2007-01-01

446

LA FOTOGRAFÍA COMO DOCUMENTO HISTÓRICO- ARTÍSTICO Y ETNOGRÁFICO: UNA EPISTEMOLOGÍA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las fotografías son unos excelentes documentos visuales para la Historia del Arte, la Historia Contemporánea y la Antropología. Sin embargo, hasta ahora, son muy pocos los estudios que tienen a la fotografía como principal fuente histórica y antropológica. Por eso, es indispensable construir una teoría y una metodología útiles para que los investigadores puedan realizar unos trabajos basados en la

Emilio Luis Lara López

447

A ORGANIZAÇÃO DO TEXTO DE OPINIÃO COMO REALIZAÇÃO DE INTENÇÃO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Este artigo trata de questões que envolvem a organi zação do texto de opinião como instrumento de realizações de intenções comunicativas do escritor. Centra-se no ensino da e struturação desse tipo de texto, propondo a superação de alguns limites impos tos às macroestruturas semânticas pelas \\

Waldivia Maria de Jesus

448

Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba).  

PubMed

Fifty-seven samples have been analyzed with regard to the occurrence of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 as well as the composition of polymeric procyanidins. Fifty-two samples were found to contain polymeric procyanidins. In most of the samples, (-)-epicatechin was the predominant unit present. In white willow bark (Salix alba), however, large amounts of (+)-catechin (81.0%) were determined by means of phloroglucinolysis. White willow bark has therefore been used for the semisynthetic formation of dimeric procyanidins B3 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(+)-C)], B4 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 8-(-)-EC)], B6 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(+)-C)], and B8 [(+)-C-4alpha --> 6-(-)-EC)]. The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale. PMID:20533825

Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

2010-07-14

449

CONTAMINACIÓN INDUSTRIAL CON SOLVENTES ORGÁNICOS COMO CAUSA DE TERATOGÉNESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saavedra-Ontiveros D, Arteaga-Martínez M, Serrano-Medina B, Reynoso-Arizmendi F, Prada-Garay N, Cornejo-Roldán LR. Contaminación industrial con solventes orgánicos como causa de teratogénesis. Salud Publica Mex 1996;38:3-12. ABSTRACT Objective. To inform of a new teratogenic syndrome in human beings and its confirmation in rats. Material and Methods. The study comprised three phases: a field study; a case-control study; and a genetic epidemiology

DOLORES SAAVEDRA-ONTIVEROS; M. EN; MANUEL ARTEAGA-MARTÍNEZ; BEATRIZ SERRANO-MEDINA; FRANCISCO R EYNOSO-ARIZMENDI; NICOLÁS PRADA-GARAY; LAURA ROSA CORNEJO-ROLDÁN

450

Salix alba and Populus nigra seedlings resistance to physical hydro-sedimentary stresses: nursery experimental approach compared to in situ measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, riparian Salicaceae is declining following the loss of potential germination areas associated with river management. Nevertheless, as an exception for lowland rivers, the Loire River (France) shows in its middle reaches an efficient sexual regeneration of Populus nigra and Salix alba species on bare sediments deposited during flood events. The study focuses on the influence of flow, sediment dynamics and fluvial maintenance operations on the establishment and survival of black poplar and white willow seedlings during the first year of development in a lowland sandy-gravel river, the Middle Loire. Main questions are: what is the influence of morphological and sedimentary features on seedlings recruitment and how do they withstand the hydro-sedimentary stresses occurring during high flow periods? How fluvial management works, and induced morphology and sedimentary features, modify the sediment dynamics and subsequent establishment and maintenance of seedlings? To answer these questions, we developed an ex-situ approach which allowed, under controlled conditions, to determine the influence of the sedimentological characteristics of the substrate on the development and maintenance of seedlings with a specific focus on the root system. Three experiments were carried out for three sedimentary mixtures from the river (sand, sand-gravel and 0.2 m of sand superimposed on sand-gravel mixture) that correspond to grain size and stratigraphy conditions often observed on bars and secondary channels in the Loire. The experimental design includes 108 plots of 1 m3, with 400 seeds per plot (corresponding to the Loire density measurements) and combining seeds from two species, three sedimentary mixtures, four replicates and three experiments. Experiment 1 (control) is based on the architecture of root systems using the WinRHIZO image analysis software. Experiment 2 is relative to the evaluation of constraints leading to "uprooting" of seedlings. Experiment 3 provides data on the seedlings survival once buried during a flood event. Genetic diversity of the seed lots will be investigated via biomass and shoot / root ratio. Results reveal that willow seedlings have a higher density of roots compared to poplar. In sand mixture, poplar has a taproot system; in sand-gravel mixture, taproot is divided into several roots which leads to a branched root system. The required forces to uprooting are twice much important for sand-gravel mixture. In situ measurements detail the sediment dynamics and morphological evolution during and after floods (topography, scour/fill processes, grain size surveys, flow velocity, sediment transport rates) on a managed alluvial bar. Results associated with floods occurring after fluvial management works highlight the rapid regeneration of bedforms associated with sedimentary and hydraulics constraints. This leads to the development of new morphological and sedimentological units, suitable for seedlings recruitment. Thirty plots measurements of seedlings (densities and species) established were associated with these news physical conditions over the bar. Black poplar and white willow appeared for a wide range of grain sizes and on specific morphological units. Seedlings survival will be analyzed with regard to physical constraints determined for each plot from measurements of hydro-sedimentary dynamics and then compared to ex situ results.

Wintenberger, Coraline; Rodrigues, Stephane; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Jugé, Philippe; Villar, Marc

2014-05-01

451

Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing season each year. At the beech site the middle samplings corresponded to the peak of the drought season whereas the last samplings of each year - to recovery phase. Leaves were sampled with three replicates at three heights. Assimilation activity was monitored on the leaf level with a portable LiCor 6400 system. Leaf respiration was measured with the same instrument after keeping the leaves for 30 min in darkness. Recently assimilated soluble sugars as well as bulk leaf organic matter were analysed in the laboratory for their ?13C signature and for sugars quantity and composition. Trunk, root and soil respirations together with their ?13C signatures were measured with closed static chambers by the Keeling plot approach. Phloem was sampled with a bark core aiming to analyse the C isotopic signature and composition of assimilates translocate downward with the phloem flow. A sequence of climatically different growing seasons and detailed analyses of plant material allowed us to evaluate climatically-induced variations in different steps of the C cycle at a plant level and to derive some conclusions on the plasticity of European beech and Silver fir in response to changing climate.

Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

2014-05-01

452

Valorisation of Como Historical Cadastral Maps Through Modern Web Geoservices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartographic cultural heritage preserved in worldwide archives is often stored in the original paper version only, thus restricting both the chances of utilization and the range of possible users. The Web C.A.R.T.E. system addressed this issue with regard to the precious cadastral maps preserved at the State Archive of Como. Aim of the project was to improve the visibility and accessibility of this heritage using the latest free and open source tools for processing, cataloguing and web publishing the maps. The resulting architecture should therefore assist the State Archive of Como in managing its cartographic contents. After a pre-processing consisting of digitization and georeferencing steps, maps were provided with metadata, compiled according to the current Italian standards and managed through an ad hoc version of the GeoNetwork Opensource geocatalog software. A dedicated MapFish-based webGIS client, with an optimized version also for mobile platforms, was built for maps publication and 2D navigation. A module for 3D visualization of cadastral maps was finally developed using the NASA World Wind Virtual Globe. Thanks to a temporal slidebar, time was also included in the system producing a 4D Graphical User Interface. The overall architecture was totally built with free and open source software and allows a direct and intuitive consultation of historical maps. Besides the notable advantage of keeping original paper maps intact, the system greatly simplifies the work of the State Archive of Como common users and together widens the same range of users thanks to the modernization of map consultation tools.

Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

2012-07-01

453

El teatro como reflexión colectiva: Conversación con Sergio Corrieri  

E-print Network

grandes rasgos, por supuesto. Por nuestra convivencia en la zona y por los multiples canales naturales que eso nos brinda, nosotros estamos actualizados de la problemática. Aparte, con el tiempo, el Escambray ha ido perdiendo artistas particulares en el... gente del Escambray se nos queja. Uno de los aspectos más interesantes, a mi modo de ver, de la experiencia del Teatro Escambray es que todo este proceso se ha ido haciendo sobre la marcha, ha ido surgiendo, como tú decías hace poco, de la práctica...

Luzuriaga, Gerardo

1983-04-01

454

comoR: a software for disease comorbidity risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of comorbidities, which refers to the coexistence of different acute and chronic diseases, is difficult due to the modern extreme specialisation of physicians. We envisage that a software dedicated to comorbidity diagnosis could result in an effective aid to the health practice. Results We have developed an R software comoR to compute novel estimators of the disease comorbidity associations. Starting from an initial diagnosis, genetic and clinical data of a patient the software identifies the risk of disease comorbidity. Then it provides a pipeline with different causal inference packages (e.g. pcalg, qtlnet etc) to predict the causal relationship of diseases. It also provides a pipeline with network regression and survival analysis tools (e.g. Net-Cox, rbsurv etc) to predict more accurate survival probability of patients. The input of this software is the initial diagnosis for a patient and the output provides evidences of disease comorbidity mapping. Conclusions The functions of the comoR offer flexibility for diagnostic applications to predict disease comorbidities, and can be easily integrated to high–throughput and clinical data analysis pipelines. PMID:25045465

2014-01-01

455

Morphological investigation of nanostructured CoMo catalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the morphological investigation of nanostructured sulfided CoMo catalysts by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The catalysts were supported on Ti-modified hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS-Ti) and P-modified HMS-Ti (P/HMS-Ti) materials. The oxide precursors were characterized by specific surface area (S BET), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the OH region (DRIFTS-OH) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the influence of the impregnation sequence (successive vs. simultaneous) and the effect of P-incorporation into HMS-Ti material on the morphology of calcined CoMo catalysts. Both TPR and XPS measurements indicate that the catalysts prepared by successive impregnation possess well-dispersed MoO 3 and CoO phases, whereas their counterparts prepared by simultaneous impregnation additionally possess the CoMoO 4 phase. For all sulfided catalysts, the presence of MoS 2 phase with particle size in the range 3.3-4.4 nm was confirmed by HRTEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in the reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) carried out in a flow reactor at 593 K and hydrogen pressure of 5.5 MPa. P-incorporation into the HMS-Ti material led to an overall increase in HDS activity and the hydrogenation ability of the sulfided catalysts. All catalysts proved to be stable during 10 h time-on-stream (TOS) operation. The activity of sulfide catalysts in the target reaction depends linearly on the surface exposure of Co species in the oxide precursors, as determined by XPS, and on the morphology of the sulfide form of catalysts (surface density of MoS 2 particles and their sizes) as determined by HRTEM.

Pawelec, B.; Castaño, P.; Zepeda, T. A.

2008-04-01

456

EN TORNO AL PAPEL DEL INDIVIDUO EN LA HISTORIA Y JULIO ANTONIO MELLA COMO PERSONALIDAD HISTÓRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Como se sabe, Carlos Marx rompió con las concepciones filosóficas precedentes sobre el hombre, de marcado carácter especulativo, sustentadas en un humanismo abstracto, en una antropología que consideraba la esencia humana como algo dado de una vez y para siempre en cada uno de los individuos. De ahí que el hombre fuese concebido como una individualidad abstracta, fuera de la

Edmundo de Jesús de la Torre Blanco

2010-01-01

457

Las TIC como fuente primaria de información estadística: El caso del comercio electrónico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo es una exploración del impacto que tienen las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicaciones (TIC), especialmente Internet, no sólo como medio de transmisión de información, sino como fuente primaria de información estadística. A partir de ello, se propone la medición y análisis de estas tecnologías como herramienta útil en las actividades que por ley, desempeña el Departamento Administrativo Nacional

Carlos A. Barrera Cuesta