Note: This page contains sample records for the topic morus alba como from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum

2

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS FORRAJES DE MORERA Morus alba Y TULIPÁN Hibiscus rosa-sinensis A DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE COMO SUPLEMENTO PARA CORDEROS EN PASTOREO Evaluation of white mulberry Morus alba and chinese hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis forage harvested at dierent ages as supplements for grazing lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and metabolic behaviour of grazing lambs supplemented with Morus alba (M) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T) were evaluated. A total of 32 male crossbreeding lambs (Pelibuey x Dorper or Black Belly) with an average body weight of 18.33±1.56 k were studied during 90 days. The animals were allowed to graze continuously and were supplemented (300 g animal 1 d

PV Obrador-Olán; D Hernández-Sánchez; A Gómez-Vázquez; W Camacho-Chiu

2007-01-01

3

Efecto de la propagación asexual y prolongación del período vegetativo de Morus alba en la producción de capullos de seda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. Pelicano, M. Divo de Sesar, N. Zamuner, J. L. Danelón, and M. Yoshida. 2007. The effect of asexual propagation and persistence of the vegetative growth of Morus alba on silk cocoon production. Cien. Inv. Agr. 34 (2):81-89. The goal of this work was to establish an effi cient protocol for vegetative propagation of Morus alba. At the same time

Alicia Pelicano; Marta Divo de Sesar; Norma Zamuner; José Luis Danelón; Miriam Yoshida

2007-01-01

4

?-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry ( Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of brewing time on dry weight content and ?-glucosidase inhibitory active component released from mulberry (Morus alba) tea were studied. Different tea products showed significant differences in inhibitory activity against both sucrase and maltase. The most effective enzyme inhibition was observed when 3 to 5 min brewing time was applied in tea preparation. In a Caco-2 cell culture experiment

Chanida Hansawasdi; Jun Kawabata

2006-01-01

5

The nutritive value of mulberry leaves ( Morus alba ) as a feed supplement for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine the nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves in sheep diets was conducted. Mulberry leaves contained (g kg?1 on dry matter basis): 163 ash, 201 crude protein, 120 crude fibre, 37 ether extracts, 479 nitrogen-free extracts, 268 neutral\\u000a detergent fibre, 148 acid detergent fibre, 41 acid detergent lignin, 121 cellulose and 107 hemicellulose, while the in

K. Kandylis; I. Hadjigeorgiou; P. Harizanis

2009-01-01

6

Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified com- pounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Methods: The effect of crude extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against oral pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with

Barira Islam; Shahper N. Khan; Irfanul Haque; M. Alam; M. Mushfiq; Asad U. Khan

2008-01-01

7

Protective effect of Morus alba leaves on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Long-term treatment with haloperidol, a typical neuroleptic, induces neurodegeneration caused by excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, which play an important role in the development of orofacial dyskinesia. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to examine the effect of a concomitant treatment of methanol extract of Morus alba Linn. (Moraceae) leaves (100-300 mg/kg, i.p.) and haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on an animal model of tardive dyskinesia. Rats were treated for 21 days with haloperidol and Morus alba extract; vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions were counted. The extract attenuated the increase in vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions induced by haloperidol, which were quantified on day 22. The extract showed a marked effect on behavioral parameters altered by haloperidol treatment. Similar treatment with extract attenuated haloperidol-induced lipid peroxidation and nitrite and normalized superoxide dismutase, catalase, and protein in comparison to the control group. The results suggest a protective effect of Morus alba extract against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress. PMID:20645751

Nade, V S; Kawale, L A; Yadav, A V

2010-01-01

8

Hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and vascular protective effects of Morus alba L. in rats fed an atherogenic diet.  

PubMed

Morus alba L. has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and almost all parts of this plant are useful in cardiovascular, liver and spleen disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of a water extract from Morus alba L. (WMA) on vascular dysfunction in rat models fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of food with 7.5% cocoa butter and 1.25% cholesterol, with or without 100 or 200 mg/day/kg WMA, for 14 weeks. Chronic treatment with low (100 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/day/kg) doses of WMA markedly attenuated hypertension and the impairments of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aortic rings in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA reduced intima/media thickness in rats fed an atherogenic diet. WMA improved plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but did not affect blood glucose levels. Interestingly, WMA suppressed increased cell adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the aorta. Taken together, these results suggested that Morus alba L. could improve an atherogenic diet-induced hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and vascular dysfunction through inhibition of cell adhesion molecules expression and induction of vascular relaxation. PMID:21213397

Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Kwon, Tae Oh; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2011-01-01

9

Preventive effects of Morus alba L. anthocyanins on diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats  

PubMed Central

The mulberry plant (Morus alba L.) contains abundant anthocyanins (ANCs), which are natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the ANC composition of Thai Morus alba L. fruits and to assess the effect of an ANC extract on blood glucose and insulin levels in male leptin receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The major components of the ANC extract were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ZDF and lean rats were treated with 125 or 250 mg ANCs/kg body weight, or 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) twice daily for 5 weeks. Neither ANC dose had an effect on body weight. Following 5 weeks of treatment, glucose levels were observed to increase from 105.5±8.7 to 396.25±21 mg/dl (P<0.0001) in the CMC-treated ZDF rats; however, the glucose levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg ANCs (228.25±45 and 131.75±10 mg/dl, respectively; P<0.001 versus CMC). The administration of 250 mg/kg ANCs normalized glucose levels in the ZDF rats towards those of the lean littermates. Insulin levels were decreased significantly in the ZDF rats treated with CMC or 125 mg/kg ANCs (P<0.0001), but not in the rats treated with 250 mg/kg ANCs. Histologically, 250 mg/kg ANCs was observed to prevent islet degeneration compared with the islets in CMC-treated rats. This study, demonstrated that ANCs extracted from Morus alba L. were well tolerated and exhibited effective anti-diabetic properties in ZDF rats. ANCs represent a promising class of therapeutic compounds that may be useful in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

SARIKAPHUTI, ARIYA; NARARATWANCHAI, THAMTHIWAT; HASHIGUCHI, TERUTO; ITO, TAKASHI; THAWORANUNTA, SITA; KIKUCHI, KIYOSHI; OYAMA, YOKO; MARUYAMA, IKURO; TANCHAROEN, SALUNYA

2013-01-01

10

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24019816

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-04-01

11

Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti-tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160-200 g) were used in this study (n=7-9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited CP-induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP-induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP-induced nephrotoxicity.

Nematbakhsh, M; Hajhashemi, V; Ghannadi, A; Talebi, A; Nikahd, M

2013-01-01

12

Molecular characterization of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase gene from mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

The genus Morus consists of trees and shrubs, which are distributed in temperate and subtropical regions. Commonly known as mulberry, a few of the Morus species are valued for their foliage, which constitutes the chief feed for mulberry silkworms. Steroids and isoprenoid compounds present in the foliage not only add nutritive factors to the feed but also contribute greatly to silkworm health and silk production. Mevalonate synthesis, which is the first step in isoprenoid biosynthesis, is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoAreductase (HMGR). A genomic clone, Mahmg1, was isolated from Morus alba and its expression characterized in mulberry and transgenic tobacco. In mulberry, Mahmg1 transcripts were highest in young leaves and flowers. The promoter region of the Mahmg1 gene was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and the fusion introduced into tobacco. In imbibed embryos, GUS expression was limited to the cotyledons, epicotyl, and root elongation zone. Later, GUS staining was observed in floral tissues, guard cells, and the heads of trichomes on the stem and petioles. Mahmg1::GUS activity increased 3-4-fold by treatment with 100 microM abscisic acid and 15-80-fold in dark-grown versus light-grown seedlings. These results show that expression of the Mahmg1 gene is differentially regulated by developmental and environmental cues, suggesting that its HMGR isozyme a may provide a precursor for synthesis of specific isoprenoids during mulberry growth and development. PMID:10809002

Jain, A K; Vincent, R M; Nessler, C L

2000-03-01

13

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effects and Phytochemicals of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Polyphenol Enhanced Extract  

PubMed Central

The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

2013-01-01

14

Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into mulberry dwarf responses in mulberry (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Mulberry dwarf (MD) is a serious infectious disease of mulberry caused by phytoplasma. Infection with MD phytoplasma results in stress phenotypes of yellowing, phyllody, stunting, proliferation, and witches' broom. Physiological and biochemical analysis has shown that infection with MD phytoplasma causes an increase in soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content of leaves. Furthermore, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure was detected in infected leaves. To better understand the pathogen-stress response of mulberry (Morus alba L.) to MD phytoplasma, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis using 2-DE of infected and healthy leaves. Among 500 protein spots that were reproducibly detected, 20 were down-regulated and 17 were up-regulated. MS identified 16 differentially expressed proteins. The photosynthetic proteins rubisco large subunit, rubisco activase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase showed enhanced degradation in infected leaves. Based these results, a model for the occurrence mechanism of MD is proposed. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the mulberry response to MD phytoplasma infection. PMID:19834890

Ji, Xianling; Gai, Yingping; Zheng, Chengchao; Mu, Zhimei

2009-12-01

15

Protective effects of Morus alba leaves extract on ocular functions of pups from diabetic and hypercholesterolemic mother rats.  

PubMed

Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE), adrenaline (AD), nor-adrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HS), dopamine (DA) and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract. PMID:21697998

El-Sayyad, H I H; El-Sherbiny, M A; Sobh, M A; Abou-El-Naga, A M; Ibrahim, M A N; Mousa, S A

2011-06-04

16

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells.

2013-01-01

17

Influence of auxins, cytokinins, and nitrogen on production of rutin from callus and adventitious roots of the white mulberry tree ( Morus alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutin is an economically valuable flavone compound with anticancer activity, dietary effects, and anti-aging activity. In\\u000a this study, callus and adventitious roots were induced from three Morus (mulberry) species. Among the three mulberry species tested for rutin production, roots of the Sugye (M.\\u000a alba L.) had the highest levels (242.2 ?g\\/g fresh tissue) of rutin. In addition, the mature leaves of

Yew Lee; Dong-Eun Lee; Hak-Soo Lee; Seong-Ki Kim; Woo Sung Lee; Soo-Hwan Kim; Myoung-Won Kim

2011-01-01

18

Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Male Fall Webworm Moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-Induced Mulberry (Morus alba) Leaf Volatiles  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol.

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-01-01

19

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male fall webworm moths (Hyphantria cunea) to Herbivory-induced mulberry (Morus alba) leaf volatiles.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected from damaged and intact mulberry leaves (Morus alba L., Moraceae) and from Hyphantria cunea larvae by headspace absorption with Super Q columns. We identified their constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and evaluated the responses of male H. cunea antennae to the compounds using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection coupled with electroantennographic detection. Eleven VOC constituents were found to stimulate antennae of male H. cunea moths: ?-ocimene, hexanal, cis-3-hexenal, limonene, trans-2-hexenal, cyclohexanone, cis-2-penten-1-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, trans-3-hexen-1-ol, and 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol. Nine of these chemicals were released by intact, mechanically-damaged, and herbivore-damaged leaves, while cis-2-penten-1-ol was released only by intact and mechanically-damaged leaves and ?-ocimene was released only by herbivore-damaged leaves. Results from wind tunnel experiments conducted with volatile components indicated that male moths were significantly more attracted to herbivory-induced volatiles than the solvent control. Furthermore, male moths' attraction to a sex pheromone lure was increased by herbivory-induced compounds and ?-ocimene, but reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. A proof long-range field trapping experiment showed that the efficiency of sex pheromone lures in trapping male moths was increased by ?-ocimene and reduced by cis-2-penten-1-ol. PMID:23166622

Tang, Rui; Zhang, Jin Ping; Zhang, Zhong Ning

2012-11-14

20

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.).  

PubMed

Effects of aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment on nutritional components and shelf-life of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. Mulberry fruit were immersed into 20, 60, and 80 mg/l ClO(2) solutions for 5, 10, and 15 min, respectively. Mulberries were then rinsed with potable tap water for 1 min and stored at -1°C for 14 d. ClO(2) treatment was effective in retention of flavonoid, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, and titratable acid. ClO(2) concentration and treatment time were significant factors affecting ClO(2) treatment. The shelf-life of the samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min was extended to 14 d compared to 8 d for the control. No ClO(2), ClO(2)(-), or ClO(3)(-) residues were detected in samples treated by 60 mg/l ClO(2) for 15 min. These results indicated that ClO(2) treatment was a promising approach to preserve mulberry fruit with no significant risks of chemical residues. PMID:21306948

Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Chuanhe; Han, Ziqiang

2011-02-08

21

Prospects for cultivating white mulberry (Morus alba) in the drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.  

PubMed

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. PMID:23757029

Liu, Yun; Willison, J H Martin

2013-06-12

22

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of Morus alba L. (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential. Methods The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods. Results Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 ?g/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 ?g/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 ?g/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives. Conclusion The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.

2013-01-01

23

In vitro pharmacokinetic characterization of mulberroside A, the main polyhydroxylated stilbene in mulberry (Morus alba L.), and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol in traditional oral use.  

PubMed

Mulberroside A (MulA) is one of the main bioactive constituents in mulberry (Morus alba L.). This study examined the determining factors for previously reported oral pharmacokinetic profiles of MulA and its bacterial metabolite oxyresveratrol (OXY) on in vitro models. When incubated anaerobically with intestinal bacteria, MulA underwent rapid deglycosylation and generated two monoglucosides and its aglycone OXY sequentially. MulA exhibited a poor permeability and predominantly traversed Caco-2 cells via passive diffusion; yet, the permeation of OXY across Caco-2 cells was much more rapid and involved efflux (both p-glycoprotein and MRPs)-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, OXY underwent extensive hepatic glucuronidation; yet, the parent MulA was kept intact in liver subcellular preparations. There was insignificant species difference in intestinal bacterial conversion of MulA and the extent of OXY hepatic glucuronidation between humans and rats, while OXY exhibited a distinct positional preference of glucuronidation in the two species. Overall, these findings revealed a key role of intestinal bacterial conversion in absorption and systemic exposure of MulA and its resultant bacterial metabolite OXY in oral route in humans and rats and warranted further investigational emphasis on OXY and its hepatic metabolites for understanding the benefits of mulberry. PMID:22225542

Mei, Mei; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wu, Wen-Jin; Zhou, Rui-Na; Lei, Jacky Pui-Cheong; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-02-22

24

JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry) reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM) but not the leaf extract (LEM) reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Hyeong Sim; Woo, Sang-Mi; Yun, Yee Jin; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2013-01-01

25

Pityriasis Alba  

MedlinePLUS

... normal, surrounding skin becomes darker with sun exposure. Self-Care Guidelines If you suspect that your child has pityriasis alba, the most important self-care measure is to keep the skin well moisturized. ...

26

Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences.

Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

2012-01-01

27

Tyrosinase inhibition constituents from the roots of Morus australis.  

PubMed

The phytochemical profiles of Morus australis roots, stems and twigs were firstly compared by HPLC analysis. It was found that Morus australis stem extract mainly contained one known tyrosinase inhibitor, oxyresveratrol, while its root and twig extract might contain some unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors. The root extract of Morus australis was further investigated in this study. One new compound, austraone A, together with 21 known compounds, was isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of MS and NMR data. In the tyrosinase inhibitory testing, some of them, such as oxyresveratrol, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O, exhibited stronger tyrosinase inhibitory activities than that of kojic acid. These results suggested the Morus australis root extract as a good source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors with a great potential to be used in foods as anti-browning agents and in cosmetics as skin-whitening agents. PMID:22698714

Zheng, Zong-Ping; Tan, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Mingfu

2012-06-11

28

High-speed pollen release in the white mulberry tree, Morus alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemophilous plants described as catapulting pollen explosively into the air have rarely attracted detailed examination. We\\u000a investigated floral anthesis in a male mulberry tree with high-speed video and a force probe. The stamen was inflexed within\\u000a the floral bud. Exposure to dry air initially resulted in a gradual movement of the stamen. This caused fine threads to tear\\u000a at the

Philip E. Taylor; Gwyneth Card; James House; Michael H. Dickinson; Richard C. Flagan

2006-01-01

29

Andalasin A, a new stilbene dimer from Morus macroura  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new stilbene dimer, andalasin A (1), together with the known stilbene oxyresveratrol and the 2-arylbenzofuran glycoside mulberroside C, have been isolated from the wood of Morus macroura. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 shows weak antinematodal and moderate antifungal properties.

Yana M Syah; Sjamsul A Achmad; Emilio L Ghisalberti; Euis H Hakim; Muhammad Z. N Iman; Lukman Makmur; Didin Mujahiddin

2000-01-01

30

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis  

PubMed Central

Human utilization of the mulberry–silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species’ spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant–herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants.

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

31

Draft genome sequence of the mulberry tree Morus notabilis.  

PubMed

Human utilization of the mulberry-silkworm interaction started at least 5,000 years ago and greatly influenced world history through the Silk Road. Complementing the silkworm genome sequence, here we describe the genome of a mulberry species Morus notabilis. In the 330-Mb genome assembly, we identify 128?Mb of repetitive sequences and 29,338 genes, 60.8% of which are supported by transcriptome sequencing. Mulberry gene sequences appear to evolve ~3 times faster than other Rosales, perhaps facilitating the species' spread worldwide. The mulberry tree is among a few eudicots but several Rosales that have not preserved genome duplications in more than 100 million years; however, a neopolyploid series found in the mulberry tree and several others suggest that new duplications may confer benefits. Five predicted mulberry miRNAs are found in the haemolymph and silk glands of the silkworm, suggesting interactions at molecular levels in the plant-herbivore relationship. The identification and analyses of mulberry genes involved in diversifying selection, resistance and protease inhibitor expressed in the laticifers will accelerate the improvement of mulberry plants. PMID:24048436

He, Ningjia; Zhang, Chi; Qi, Xiwu; Zhao, Shancen; Tao, Yong; Yang, Guojun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Xiyin; Cai, Qingle; Li, Dong; Lu, Mengzhu; Liao, Sentai; Luo, Guoqing; He, Rongjun; Tan, Xu; Xu, Yunmin; Li, Tian; Zhao, Aichun; Jia, Ling; Fu, Qiang; Zeng, Qiwei; Gao, Chuan; Ma, Bi; Liang, Jiubo; Wang, Xiling; Shang, Jingzhe; Song, Penghua; Wu, Haiyang; Fan, Li; Wang, Qing; Shuai, Qin; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Congjin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Jin, Dianchuan; Wang, Jinpeng; Liu, Tao; Yu, Maode; Tang, Cuiming; Wang, Zhenjiang; Dai, Fanwei; Chen, Jiafei; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Shutang; Lin, Tianbao; Zhang, Shougong; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Guangwei; Wang, Jun; Paterson, Andrew H; Xia, Qingyou; Ji, Dongfeng; Xiang, Zhonghuai

2013-01-01

32

Polygenic eruptions on Alba Patera, Mars  

SciTech Connect

A new model for the evolution of the martian volcano Alba Patera is constructed. Numerous digitate channel networks on the flanks of the volcano are interpreted to be carved by sapping due to the release of nonjuvenile water from unconsolidated flank deposits. The particle size of these deposits is estimated to be 3-10 microns, which, together with theoretical modelling of the disperison of explosively derived volcanic materials, leads to the conclusion that the flank deposits on Alba Patera are low-relief pyroclastic flows. The recognition of numerous late-stage summit and subterminal lava flows thus makes Alba Patera a unique martian volcano that is transitional between the older pyroclastic-dominated highland paterae and the more recent effusive central-vent volcanoes such as the Tharsis Montes. 61 refs.

Mouginis-Mark, P.J.; Wilson, L.; Zimbelman, J.R. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA))

1988-01-01

33

Alba is first heavy North Sea crude  

SciTech Connect

The development of the Alba oil field will constitute two North Sea firsts: the first Eocene reservoir developed, and the first development to handle heavy crude. The field was discovered in Block 16/26 of the North Sea's U.K. sector in 1984. The Alba field is in the heart of the North Sea, about midway between the northern fields of the East Shetlands basin and the southern Fulmar and Argyll fields. About 250 million bbl of the estimated 1 billion bbl reservoir of 20{degrees} gravity crude is believed recoverable.

Not Available

1991-05-27

34

Induction of haploid callus and embryogenesis in in vitro cultured anthers of mulberry (Morus indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthers of Morus indica L., with microspores at the uninucleate stage were cultured; and the influence of temperature and kinetin pretreatment on induction of androgenic calluses was examined. The effects of various pretreatments revealed that 24 h cold pretreatment increased the percentage of cultures inducing callus. First microspore division was observed after 16 to 20 days of culture. Th anthers

A. K. Jain; A. Sarkar; R. K. Datra

1996-01-01

35

Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry ( Morus indica L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of methanol, acetone and water extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves were examined. Various experimental models including iron (III) reducing capacity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and in vitro inhibition of ferrous sulphate-induced oxidation of lipid system were used for characterization of antioxidant activity of extracts. The three extracts showed

Saeedeh Arabshahi-Delouee; Asna Urooj

2007-01-01

36

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Morus bombycis Koidzumi on CCl 4-induced liver damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity and liver protective effect of Morus bombycis Koidzumi were investigated. Aqueous extracts of M. bombycis Koidzumi had higher superoxide radical scavenging activity than other types of extracts. The aqueous extract at a dose of 100mg\\/kg showed significant hepatoprotective activity when compared with that of a standard agent. The biochemical results were confirmed by histological observations indicating that

Ying-Shan Jin; Jae-Hoon Sa; Tae-Heum Shim; Hae-Ik Rhee; Myeong-Hyeon Wang

2005-01-01

37

Heterotrophic Carbon Metabolism by Beggiatoa alba  

PubMed Central

The assimilation and metabolism of CO2 and acetate by Beggiatoa alba strain B18LD was investigated. Although B. alba was shown to require CO2 for growth, the addition of excess CO2 (as NaHCO3) to the medium in a closed system did not stimulate growth. Approximately 24 to 31% of the methyl-labeled acetate and 38 to 46% of the carboxyl-labeled acetate were oxidized to 14CO2 by B. alba. The apparent Vmax values for combined assimilation and oxidation of [2-14C]acetate by B. alba were 126 to 202 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1 under differing growth conditions. The Vmax values for CO2 assimilation by heterotrophic and mixotrophic cells were 106 and 131 pmol min?1 mg of protein?1, respectively. The low Vmax values for CO2 assimilation, coupled with the high Vmax values for acetate oxidation, suggested that the required CO2 was endogenously produced from acetate. Moreover, exogenously supplied acetate was required by B. alba for the fixation of CO2. From 61 to 73% of the [14C]acetate assimilated by washed trichomes was incorporated into lipid. Fifty-five percent of the assimilated [2-14C]acetate was incorporated into poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid. This was consistent with chemical data showing that 56% of the heterotrophic cell dry weight was poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid. Succinate and CO2 were incorporated into cell wall material, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and amino and organic acids, but not into poly-?-hydroxybutyric acid. Glutamate and succinate were the major stable products after short-term [1-14C]acetate assimilation. Glutamate and aspartate were the first stable 14CO2 fixation products, whereas glutamate, a phosphorylated compound, succinate, and aspartate were the major stable 14CO2 fixation products over a 30-min period. The CO2 fixation enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; reversed) and malate dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; decarboxylating) were found in cell-free extracts of both mixotrophically grown and heterotrophically grown cells. The data indicate that the typical autotrophic CO2 fixation mechanisms are absent from B. alba B18LD and that the CO2 and acetate metabolism pathways are probably linked.

Strohl, William R.; Cannon, Gordon C.; Shively, Jessup M.; Gude, Hans; Hook, Leonard A.; Lane, Candace M.; Larkin, John M.

1981-01-01

38

Geomorphology and stratigraphy of Alba Patera, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphic and stratigraphic analysis of Alba Patera suggests a volcanic construct built by lavas with rheologic properties similar to basalts. A series of evolving eruptive styles is suggested by changes in morphology and inferred progressive reductions in flow volume with higher stratigraphic position. Alba Patera's volcanic history has been summarized into four main phases. The first is characterized by extensive flood like flows presumably erupted from fissures associated with the initial intrusion of magma into the region. The second phase is associated with the emplacement of pyroclastic rock, a more speculative interpretation. The third phase produced the voluminous tabular, crested, and undifferentiated flows, probably from a more centralized vent source. The fourth and last phase is marked the effusion of levee like flows and the collapse of the summit calderas and final graben formation.

Schneeberger, D. M.; Pieri, D. C.

1991-02-01

39

Volcanic flow development at Alba Patera, Mars  

SciTech Connect

On the Alba Patera volcanic shield of Mars, a Hesperian flood-lava phase was followed by the extrusion of sheet lavas and tube-fed lavas emerging in many cases from the flanking fissures of rising domes. These events were followed by the eruption of additional sheet and tube-fed lavas from linear vents which formed complex flow fields. Later, Amazonian volcanism at Alba involved long, narrow flows from two complex summit calderas; the thermal energy outflow for some individual flows would have been substantially greater than the annual heat loss of the earth through volcanism, implying that the process of patera-building represented substantial Martian geological heat-loss during the planet's early volcanic-centralization stages. 40 refs.

Cattermole, P. (Sheffield Univ. (England))

1990-02-01

40

The emerging role of genomic tools in mulberry ( Morus ) genetic improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulberry (Morus L) is one of the economically important trees that have a long history of extensive cultivation in Asia. Mulberry leaf is\\u000a the sole food for the silkworm Bombyx mori; hence, the sustainability of the sericulture industry is dependent on the continuous supply of nutritious mulberry leaf.\\u000a Genetic improvement of mulberry for leaf yield, leaf nutritional contents, and adaptability

Kunjupillai Vijayan

2010-01-01

41

Evaluating molecular and behavioural sexing methods for the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of molecular methods for avian sex identification has revolutionised the study of sexual differences in behaviour, morphology, life-history traits and conservation management. We implemented the recom- mendations of a recent review of DNA-based sex-identification by (1) verifying the sex-specificity and (2) estimating the accurac y of different sex-assignment methods in an apparently monomorphic seabird, the Australasian gannet (Morus

Claire Daniel; Craig D. Millar; Stefanie M. H. Ismar; Brent M. Stephenson; Mark E. Hauber

2007-01-01

42

An integrated diagnostic approach to understand drought tolerance in mulberry ( Morus indica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four popular mulberry cultivars (Morus indica L. cvs.V-1, MR-2, S-36 and K-2) were assessed for drought tolerance with an integration of selective approaches. The potted plants were subjected to two watering treatments for 75 days: control pots were watered up to 100% field capacity (FC) and stressed pots were maintained at 25–30% FC. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs),

Anirban Guha; Debashree Sengupta; Girish Kumar Rasineni; Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy

2010-01-01

43

Intergeneric hybridization between Sinapis alba and Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have conclusively shown that Sinapis alba (commonly known as yellow mustard) has many agronomic traits which would be beneficial if transferred to rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.). S. alba is resistant or tolerant to all major insect pests of Brassica crops in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. It is also tolerant of high temperatures

Jack Brown; Angela P. Brown; Jim B. Davis; Donna Erickson

1997-01-01

44

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of the 18 prenylated flavonoids, which were purified from five different medicinal plants, was evaluated by determination of MIC using the broth microdilution methods against four bacterial and two fungal microorganisms (Candida albicans, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermis and S. aureus). Papyriflavonol A, kuraridin, sophoraflavanone D and sophoraisoflavanone A exhibited a good antifungal activity with

H.-Y. Sohn; K. H. Son; C.-S. Kwon; G.-S. Kwon; S. S. Kang

2004-01-01

45

Structure of Alba: an archaeal chromatin protein modulated by acetylation  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosomes that regulate the accessibility of the genome to replication, transcription and repair factors. Chromatin accessibility is controlled by histone modifications including acetylation and methylation. Archaea possess eukary otic-like machineries for DNA replication, transcription and information processing. The conserved archaeal DNA binding protein Alba (formerly Sso10b) interacts with the silencing protein Sir2, which regulates Alba’s DNA binding affinity by deacetylation of a lysine residue. We present the crystal structure of Alba from Sulfolobus solfataricus at 2.6 ? resolution (PDB code 1h0x). The fold is reminiscent of the N-terminal DNA binding domain of DNase I and the C-terminal domain of initiation factor IF3. The Alba dimer has two extended ?-hairpins flanking a central body containing the acetylated lysine, Lys16, suggesting three main points of contact with the DNA. Fluorescence, calorimetry and electrophoresis data suggest a final binding stoichiometry of ?5 bp DNA per Alba dimer. We present a model for the Alba–DNA interaction consistent with the available structural, biophysical and electron microscopy data.

Wardleworth, B.N.; Russell, R.J.M.; Bell, S.D.; Taylor, G.L.; White, M.F.

2002-01-01

46

[Armand Trousseau, phlegmasia alba and gastric cancer].  

PubMed

Armand Trousseau (1801-1867) was one of the greatest doctors of our cultural heritage. He regarded medicine as an art form expressed through the individuality of the physician. While still a young man, he was appointed professor of therapeutics and pharmacology at the University of Paris. He was a master of rhetoric and lectured on general medicine and neurology at the bedside. Trousseau recognised that phlegmasia alba was frequently associated with malignant disease. His description of the causality in his most famous work Clinique médicale de l'Hôtel Dieu de Paris is impressive. When he later suffered phlebitis of the left arm, he correctly diagnosed stomach cancer, from which he died six months later. PMID:16395487

Hach, W

2005-11-01

47

Package Insert - ALBAclone (Alba Bioscience Limited) Anti-N ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Manufacturer: Alba Bioscience Limited Ellen's Glen Road Edinburgh Scotland, UK EH17 7QT US License 1807 Tel : +44 (0) 131 536 5907 Fax ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

48

Magma chamber-related development of Alba Patera on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of the central calderas of the Alba Patera summit area is proposed to have been caused by collapse(s) into relatively shallow and wide magma chamber(s). The subduction or collapse of the whole central Alba Patera area and the formation of peripheral circular fossae grabens around it were caused by a deeper, wider and more primary magmatic process which was more directly connected to the ascending hot mantle.

Raitala, J.; Kauhanen, K.

1989-05-01

49

Production of Intergeneric Hybrids Between Sinapis alba and Brassica carinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal crosses were made between Brassica carinata and its related species Sinapis alba. Pollen germination studies indicated the presence post-fertilization barriers in both ways. Sequential ovary–ovule culture\\u000a helped to realize the intergeneric hybrids from the cross S. alba B. carinata. The F1 obtained was confirmed as a hybrid based on morphology, cytology and isozyme studies. The hybrid was backcrossed to

O. Sridevi; N. Sarla

2005-01-01

50

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1

Xianling Ji; Guobing Lu; Yingping Gai; Huijv Gao; Baoyun Lu; Lingrang Kong; Zhimei Mu

2010-01-01

51

Habitat differentiation and the ecological costs of hybridization: the effects of introduced mulberry (Morus alba) on a native congener (M. rubra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The effects of hybridization on the abundance of parental taxa depends on their relative frequency, the viability of hybrid offspring and the degree of ecological differ- entiation among parental and hybrid taxa. Habitat overlap can facilitate competition for suitable sites and threaten the persistence of parental taxa, especially those in small populations. 2 Here we examine ecological differentiation

KEVIN S. BURGESS; BRIAN C. HUSBAND

2006-01-01

52

Screening of tree leaves as annual renewable green biomass for phenol oxidase production and biochemical characterization of mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaf phenol oxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree leaf tissues were screened in a search for determination of an alternative source(s) for commercial phenol oxidase\\u000a (PO) production considering the importance of utilization of green biomass for production of value-added products. Mulberry,\\u000a pear, sour cherry and apricot leaves were identified as promising PO production sources, due to their comparable enzyme activities\\u000a with respect to mushroom (Agaricus bisporus),

Didem Sutay Kocabas; Zumrut Begum Ogel; Ufuk Bakir

2011-01-01

53

Colonization of Morus alba L. by the plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic bacterium Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1  

PubMed Central

Background Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum dematium, is a serious threat to the production and quality of mulberry leaves in susceptible varieties. Control of the disease has been a major problem in mulberry cultivation. Some strains of Burkholderia cepacia were reported to be useful antagonists of plant pests and could increase the yields of several crop plants. Although B. cepacia Lu10-1 is an endophytic bacterium obtained from mulberry leaves, it has not been deployed to control C. dematium infection in mulberry nor its colonization patterns in mulberry have been studied using GFP reporter or other reporters. The present study sought to evaluate the antifungal and plant-growth-promoting properties of strain Lu10-1, to clarify its specific localization within a mulberry plant, and to better understand its potential as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent. Results Lu10-1 inhibited conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. dematium in vitro; when applied on leaves or to the soil, Lu10-1 also inhibited the development of anthracnose in a greenhouse, but the effectiveness varied with the length of the interval between the strain treatment and inoculation with the pathogen. Strain Lu10-1 could survive in both sterile and non-sterile soils for more than 60 days. The strain produced auxins, contributed to P solubilization and nitrogenase activity, and significantly promoted the growth of mulberry seedlings. The bacteria infected mulberry seedlings through cracks formed at junctions of lateral roots with the main root and in the zone of differentiation and elongation, and the cells were able to multiply and spread, mainly to the intercellular spaces of different tissues. The growth in all the tissues was around 1-5 × 105 CFU per gram of fresh plant tissue. Conclusions Burkholderia cepacia strain Lu10-1 is an endophyte that can multiply and spread in mulberry seedlings rapidly and efficiently. The strain is antagonistic to C. dematium and acts as an efficient plant-growth-promoting agent on mulberry seedlings and is therefore a promising candidate as a biocontrol and growth-promoting agent.

2010-01-01

54

Structure of Alba: an archaeal chromatin protein modulated by acetylation.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosomes that regulate the accessibility of the genome to replication, transcription and repair factors. Chromatin accessibility is controlled by histone modifications including acetylation and methylation. Archaea possess eukary otic-like machineries for DNA replication, transcription and information processing. The conserved archaeal DNA binding protein Alba (formerly Sso10b) interacts with the silencing protein Sir2, which regulates Alba's DNA binding affinity by deacetylation of a lysine residue. We present the crystal structure of Alba from Sulfolobus solfataricus at 2.6 A resolution (PDB code 1h0x). The fold is reminiscent of the N-terminal DNA binding domain of DNase I and the C-terminal domain of initiation factor IF3. The Alba dimer has two extended beta-hairpins flanking a central body containing the acetylated lysine, Lys16, suggesting three main points of contact with the DNA. Fluorescence, calorimetry and electrophoresis data suggest a final binding stoichiometry of approximately 5 bp DNA per Alba dimer. We present a model for the Alba-DNA interaction consistent with the available structural, biophysical and electron microscopy data. PMID:12198167

Wardleworth, B N; Russell, R J M; Bell, S D; Taylor, G L; White, M F

2002-09-01

55

Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet ( Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990–2004) and total mercury (1974–2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg

M. Glória Pereira; Lee A. Walker; Jennifer Best; Richard F. Shore

2009-01-01

56

Oxidative stress in streptozocin-diabetic rats: Amelioration by mulberry (Morus Indica L.) leaves.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate amelioration of oxidative stress by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, as the leaves of mulberry (Morus indica L.) of Moraceae, are reported to be rich in a number of bioactive principles, i.e. antioxidant vitamins, flavonoids and moracins that can fight against oxidative stress in diabetes. METHOD: Normal wistar albino rats and STZ-diabetic rats were treated with dried mulberry leaf powder at 25% in the diet for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant role of mulberry was assessed by determining the effect of the leaves on hepatic lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative stress and the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and serum antioxidant vitamins in comparison with untreated normal and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Increased oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation and increased activity of catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue, decreased serum ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherol (vitamin E) in diabetic rats were countered by mulberry leaves. In addition, decreased activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathinone-S-tranferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased by 34%, 61%, 19% and 53% respectively in mulberry leaves-treated diabetic rats as compared with diabetic control rats. CONCLUSION: Treatment with mulberry leaves protected STZ-diabetic rats from lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of defense enzymes. This study reveals ameliorating effect of mulberry leaves on oxidative stress in diabetic rats by the synergistic action of a number of bioactive compounds present in mulberry leaves. PMID:23292544

Andallu, Bondada; Kumar, Av Vinay; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2012-12-22

57

Temporal modulation transfer functions in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barn owls (Tyto alba) have evolved several specializations in their auditory system to achieve the high sensory acuity required for prey capture, including superior processing of interaural time differences and phase coding in the auditory periphery. Here, we tested whether barn owls are capable of high temporal resolution that may be a prerequisite for the accuracy in binaural processing. Temporal

Micheal L. Dent; Georg M. Klump; Christian Schwenzfeier

2002-01-01

58

COMPORTAMIENTO PRODUCTIVO Y FERMENTACIÓN RUMINAL DE CORDEROS SUPLEMENTADOS CON HARINA DE COCOÍTE (Gliricidia sepium), MORERA (Morus alba) Y TULIPÁN (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Productive Lambs Performance and Ruminal Fermentation Using Cocoíte (Gliricidia sepium), Morera (Morus alba) and Tulipan (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Meal as Supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in order to determine the effect of a commercial feed and three different meals produced by tropical forage shrubs, on productive performance, digestibility and some rumen variables, when used as supplements for grazing lambs. Thirty crossbreed (Pelibuey X Black Belly) male lambs (18.29 ± 1.56 Kg BW), were used in a 90 d study. Animals

Miguel A. Mata Espinosa; David Hernández Sánchez; Mario A. Cobos Peralta; María Esther; Ortega Cerrilla; Germán D. Mendoza Martínez; José Luis Arcos-García; Carretera México-Texcoco; Carretera Cárdenas-Huimanguillo; H. Cárdenas

2006-01-01

59

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

60

Response of the Morus bombycis growing season to temperature and its latitudinal pattern in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in leaf phenology lengthen the growing season length (GSL, the days between leaf budburst and leaf fall) under the global warming. GSL and the leaf phenology response to climate change is one of the most important predictors of climate change effect on plants. Empirical evidence of climatic effects on GSL remains scarce, especially at a regional scale and the latitudinal pattern. This study analyzed the datasets of leaf budburst and fall phenology in Morus bombycis (Urticales), which were observed by the agency of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1953 to 2005 over a wide range of latitudes in Japan (31 to 44° N). In the present study, single regression slopes of leaf phenological timing and air temperature across Japan were calculated and their spatial patterns using general linear models were tested. The results showed that the GSL extension was caused mainly by a delay in leaf fall phenology. Relationships between latitude and leaf phenological and GSL responses against air temperature were significantly negative. The response of leaf phenology and GSL to air temperature at lower latitudes was larger than that at higher latitudes. The findings indicate that GSL extension should be considered with regards to latitude and climate change.

Doi, Hideyuki

2012-09-01

61

Response of the Morus bombycis growing season to temperature and its latitudinal pattern in Japan.  

PubMed

Changes in leaf phenology lengthen the growing season length (GSL, the days between leaf budburst and leaf fall) under the global warming. GSL and the leaf phenology response to climate change is one of the most important predictors of climate change effect on plants. Empirical evidence of climatic effects on GSL remains scarce, especially at a regional scale and the latitudinal pattern. This study analyzed the datasets of leaf budburst and fall phenology in Morus bombycis (Urticales), which were observed by the agency of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) from 1953 to 2005 over a wide range of latitudes in Japan (31 to 44° N). In the present study, single regression slopes of leaf phenological timing and air temperature across Japan were calculated and their spatial patterns using general linear models were tested. The results showed that the GSL extension was caused mainly by a delay in leaf fall phenology. Relationships between latitude and leaf phenological and GSL responses against air temperature were significantly negative. The response of leaf phenology and GSL to air temperature at lower latitudes was larger than that at higher latitudes. The findings indicate that GSL extension should be considered with regards to latitude and climate change. PMID:21947335

Doi, Hideyuki

2011-09-27

62

Glucosinolate Content and Susceptibility for Insect Attack of Three Populations of Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba is less susceptible to damage by insect pests than Brassica napus. We investigated the composition and distribution of glucosinolates in different plant parts in three populations of S. alba; two populations selected for low-seed-glucosinolate content and one commercial cultivar. We have assessed the susceptibility of low-seed-glucosinolate content populations of S. alba to four insect pests, a flea beetle,

Richard J. Hopkins; Barbara Ekbom; Lisa Henkow

1998-01-01

63

Mining area environmental mercury assessment using Abias alba  

SciTech Connect

Several Hg biomonitors are used for environmental mercury assessment in mining areas. Among these, lichens are those most studied but other vegetal organisms are also employed, such as brooms, pine needles, and many other species. This paper reports the results of a mercury assessment at Mt. Amiata (Italy) based on the metal concentration in needles of Abies alba. Mt. Amiata is an area of Tuscany characterized by the presence of cinnabar deposits. The mercury extraction activity was ended in 1975, but the environment is still contaminated by the metal. Albies alba is a widespread conifer tree in Italy whose needles live about fourteen years. It is present not only in the woods but also in many parks and gardens. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Barghigiani, C.; Bauleo, R. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)

1992-07-01

64

Leptolide, a new furanocembranolide diterpene from Leptogorgia alba.  

PubMed

Six furanocembranolides (1-6) and one pseudopterolide (7) have been isolated from the octocorals Leptogorgia alba and Leptogorgia rigida, collected on the Pacific coast of Panama. Compound 1, named leptolide, has a new structure closely related to the neurotoxin lophotoxin (3). The X-ray structures of 1-3 were determined, and the absolute configurations of 2-7 are discussed. Compounds 1-7 were evaluated in vitro against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:15844963

Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Capson, Todd L; Guzmán, Héctor M; González, José; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Quiñoá, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo

2005-04-01

65

Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl ( Tyto alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.We investigated the mechanisms by which the barn owl (Tyto alba) determines the azimuth and elevation of a sound source. Our measure of localizing ability was the accuracy with which the owl oriented its head to a sound source.2.When localizing tonal signals, the owl committed the smallest errors at frequencies between 4 and 8 kHz. The azimuthal component of these

Eric I. Knudsen; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

66

ALBA: A Political Tool for Venezuela’s Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its founding by Hugo Chávez on the heels of the failed Free Trade Area for the Americas (FTAA) negotiations which took place November 2003, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA, as it is known for its Spanish acronym) has evolved into a political tool that uses “social power” to facilitate Venezuela?s positioning as the leader of the anti-U.S.

Erich de la Fuente

2011-01-01

67

Metabolic resource allocation vs. mating attractiveness: Adaptive pressures on the "alba" polymorphism of Colias butterflies*  

PubMed Central

The sex-limited “alba” genetic polymorphism in wing color of Colias butterflies has been studied with respect to potential selective pressures on this locus. Alba female pupae, carrying at least one dominant A allele, redirect resources, used by aa pupae for pigmentation, to other metabolic ends. Associated with this reallocation, alba, A-, female adults eclose earlier, retain more larva-derived resources in their fat bodies for somatic maintenance and for reproduction, and, in some conditions, mature their eggs faster than do aa females. Alba females are also less attractive to males than are aa females and mate less frequently. Evolutionary implications of these results are discussed.

Graham, Scott M.; Watt, Ward B.; Gall, Lawrence F.

1980-01-01

68

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MIL, a glycosylated jacalin-related lectin from mulberry (Morus indica) latex  

PubMed Central

A quantitatively major protein has been purified from the latex of Morus indica. The purified previously uncharacterized protein, M. indica lectin (MIL), was further shown to be a glycosylated tetramer and belongs to the family of jacalin-related lectins. Crystallization of MIL was also accomplished and the tetragonal crystals diffracted synchrotron X-rays to a resolution of 2.8?Å.

Patel, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bergmann, Ulrich; Jagannadham, Medicherla V.; Kursula, Petri

2011-01-01

69

PfAlbas constitute a new eukaryotic DNA/RNA-binding protein family in malaria parasites  

PubMed Central

In Plasmodium falciparum, perinuclear subtelomeric chromatin conveys monoallelic expression of virulence genes. However, proteins that directly bind to chromosome ends are poorly described. Here we identify a novel DNA/RNA-binding protein family that bears homology to the archaeal protein Alba (Acetylation lowers binding affinity). We isolated three of the four PfAlba paralogs as part of a molecular complex that is associated with the P. falciparum-specific TARE6 (Telomere-Associated Repetitive Elements 6) subtelomeric region and showed in electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) that the PfAlbas bind to TARE6 repeats. In early blood stages, the PfAlba proteins were enriched at the nuclear periphery and partially co-localized with PfSir2, a TARE6-associated histone deacetylase linked to the process of antigenic variation. The nuclear location changed at the onset of parasite proliferation (trophozoite-schizont), where the PfAlba proteins were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern. Using single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) probes in EMSAs, we found that PfAlbas bind to ssRNA, albeit with different binding preferences. We demonstrate for the first time in eukaryotes that Alba-like proteins bind to both DNA and RNA and that their intracellular location is developmentally regulated. Discovery of the PfAlbas may provide a link between the previously described subtelomeric non-coding RNA and the regulation of antigenic variation.

Chene, Arnaud; Vembar, Shruthi S.; Riviere, Loic; Lopez-Rubio, Jose Juan; Claes, Aurelie; Siegel, T. Nicolai; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Hernandez-Rivas, Rosaura; Scherf, Artur

2012-01-01

70

Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the…

Muhr, Thomas

2010-01-01

71

La micorrizazione di alcuni cloni micropropagati di Populus alba L. con Tuber magnatum Pico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhization of some micropropagated clones of Populus alba L. with Tuber magnatum Pico. - Plants micropropagated from clones of white poplar (Populus alba L.) were mycorrhized with Tuber magnatum Pico using three inoculation techniques: the sporal suspension method, the method of putting mycorrhized root framgments in contact with roots of plants to be mycorrhized and the method of root transmission

P. Angelini; B. Granetti

1995-01-01

72

Effect of olive oil mill wastewater on extracellular ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phanerochaete flavido-alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous results have demonstrated that Phanerochaete flavido-alba decoloration, dephenolization and detoxification of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) were associated with changes in the ligninolytic major exoenzymes accumulated in the cultures. This paper describes the effect of the two main OMW components (monomeric aromatic compounds and a major brownish polymeric pigment), on extracellular P. flavido-alba ligninolytic enzymes. Laccase was the

Juan Carlos Ruiz; Teresa de la Rubia; Juana Pérez; José Mart??nez Lopez

2002-01-01

73

Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

2013-03-01

74

Life cycle of Saccammina alba hedley, 1962 (foraminiferida)  

SciTech Connect

The foraminifer Saccammina alba occurs in shallow-water habitats of bays and lagoons along the central California coast as either attached (cemented) or unattached (non-cemented) individuals. Like many other foraminifera, the life cycle of this species is characterized by an alternation of generations. The gamont is uninucleate, large, and common; the agamont is multinucleate, one-third the gamont's size and is exceedingly rare. The tests of gamonts and agamonts differ only in size, and this size relationship is the reverse of the normal expression of test dimorphism in the foraminifera. Juveniles are produced in one of four ways. Gamonts produce offspring asexually through budding or sexually through gametogenesis and subsequent fertilization. Agamonts produce schizozoites through one of two processes, one of which involves ingrowing extensions of the test's basal organic lining and one which does not. As in other saccamminids and the allogromiinans, gametogenesis in S. alba includes the zerfall process during which the gamontic nucleus enlarges and is eventually dismembered. Large amounts of extrachromosomal DNA are produced and contained in nucleoli of the zerfall nucleus. Similarly, in the agamont extrachromosomal DNA is produced in nuclei of early reproductive stages. Such extrachromosomal DNA may represent the amplification of rDNA.

Goldstein, S.T.

1985-01-01

75

Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds.  

PubMed

The quantification of entanglements of megafauna with plastic debris at sea is difficult to assess for several reasons, such as detection and reporting biases. We used standardized vessel based counts to describe and quantify the occurrence of marine debris entanglements in northern gannets Morus bassanus at five of its main wintering areas. We observed 34 entangled birds in total, representing 0.93% of all gannets counted (n=3672 individuals). The incidence of entanglements largely varied geographically, being exceptionally high off Mauritania (20.2% of the birds in late spring). Most birds affected were immature (1.88% compared to 0.06% in adults), which in turn represented 52.4% of all the birds. Entanglements in the lower bill mandible were the most frequent, mainly with red-colored plastic objects. Further research is urgently needed to evaluate the impact of entanglements at the population level and its occurrence in other marine species, and to seek potential solutions. PMID:23932474

Rodríguez, Beneharo; Bécares, Juan; Rodríguez, Airam; Arcos, José Manuel

2013-08-06

76

Isolation and Characterization of Vacuoles from Melilotus alba Mesophyll.  

PubMed

Methods for the preparation of protoplasts and vacuoles from mesophyll tissues of sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desr.) are described. Vacuoles are obtained using a new procedure which involves lysis of the plasmalemma during a brief centrifugation of protoplasts through a diethylaminoethyl dextran layer. This method combines the release of vacuoles and their purification in one step. The contamination of vacuole preparations was found to be low, as judged by enzymic markers and microscopic inspection. The method described is rapid and gives a good yield of vacuoles without causing changes in osmotic pressure. Several hydrolases were found to be located in vacuoles from sweet clover, which were also examined for their amino acid content. PMID:16662107

Boudet, A M; Canut, H; Alibert, G

1981-12-01

77

Cytogenetic characterization of Lippia alba and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) from Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the cytogenetic characteristics of Brazilian Lippia alba (Mill) N. E. Brown and Lantana camara Plum. that could be useful for future characterization of these genera. Our analyses revealed that Li. alba has 2n=30 chromosomes consisting of ten metacentric and five submetacentric pairs, while La. camara has 44 metacentric chromosomes. The large blocks of heterochromatin seen in both species suggest an apomorphic condition. Six 45S rDNA sites were detected in both species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two and four 5S rDNA sites were observed in Li. alba and La. camara, respectively. Meiotic analysis revealed a normal chromosomal behaviour. The number of chromosomes and the presence of 45S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites do not exclude a possible polyploid origin. The cytogenetic differences between La. camara and Li. alba may be useful markers for differentiating these species. PMID:17048044

Brandão, Aline Dias; Viccini, Lyderson Facio; Salimena, Fátima Regina Gonçalves; Vanzela, André Luiz Laforga; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

2006-10-18

78

Transcriptome sequencing of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species Sonneratia alba using Illumina platform.  

PubMed

Mangroves are critical and threatened marine resources, yet few transcriptomic and genomic data are available in public databases. The transcriptome of a highly salt tolerant mangrove species, Sonneratia alba, was sequenced using the Illumina Genome Analyzer in this study. Over 15 million 75-bp paired-end reads were assembled into 30,628 unique sequences with an average length of 581 bp. Of them, 2358 SSRs were detected, with di-nucleotide repeats (59.2%) and tri-nucleotide repeats (37.7%) being the most common. Analysis of codon usage bias based on 20,945 coding sequences indicated that genes of S. alba were less biased than those of some microorganisms and Drosophila and that codon usage variation in S. alba was due primarily to compositional mutation bias, while translational selection has a relatively weak effect. Genome-wide gene ontology (GO) assignments showed that S. alba shared a similar GO slim classification with Arabidopsis thaliana. High percentages of sequences assigned to GO slim category 'mitochondrion' and four KEGG pathways, such as carbohydrates and secondary metabolites metabolism, may contribute to salt adaptation of S. alba. In addition, 1266 unique sequences matched to 273 known salt responsive genes (gene families) in other species were screened as candidates for salt tolerance of S. alba, and some of these genes showed fairly high coverage depth. At last, we identified four genes with signals of strong diversifying selection (K(a)/K(s)>1) by comparing the transcriptome sequences of S. alba with 249 known ESTs from its congener S. caseolaris. This study demonstrated a successful application of the Illumina platform to de novo assembly of the transcriptome of a non-model organism. Abundant SSR markers, salt responsive genes and four genes with signature of natural selection obtained from S. alba provide abundant sequence sources for future genetic diversity, salt adaptation and speciation studies. PMID:21620334

Chen, Sufang; Zhou, Renchao; Huang, Yelin; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Guili; Zhong, Cairong; Shi, Suhua

2011-04-19

79

Chemical variability of Artemisia herba-alba Asso essential oils from East Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical compositions of 16 Artemisia herba-alba oil samples harvested in eight East Moroccan locations were investigated by GC and GC\\/MS. Chemical variability of the A. herba-alba oils is also discussed using statistical analysis. Detailed analysis of the essential oils led to the identification of 52\\u000a components amounting to 80.5–98.6 % of the total oil. The investigated chemical compositions showed significant

Julien Paolini; El Mokhtar El Ouariachi; Abdelhamid Bouyanzer; Belkheir Hammouti; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Jean Costa; Alain Muselli

2010-01-01

80

Long-term trends in the Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) population in Australia: the effect of climate change and commercial fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australasian gannet (Morus serrator) population has increased considerably over the past century, both in New Zealand and Australia. Since 1980, the population in Australian waters has increased threefold, from 6,600 breeding pairs to approximately 20,000 pairs in 1999-2000, a rate of 6% per year. Reasons for the increase in the Australasian gannet population are poorly understood; here we consider

A. Bunce; F. Norman; N. Brothers; R. Gales

2002-01-01

81

Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes.  

PubMed Central

The good genes hypothesis of sexual selection postulates that ornamentation signals superior genetic quality to potential mates. Support for this hypothesis comes from studies on male ornamentation only, while it remains to be shown that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black spots on their plumage than males. The expression of this plumage trait has a genetic basis and it has been suggested that males prefer to mate with females displaying more black spots. Given the role of parasites in the evolution of sexually selected traits and of the immune system in parasite resistance, we hypothesize that the extent of female plumage 'spottiness' reflects immunological defence. We assessed the genetic variation in specific antibody production against a non-pathogenic antigen among cross-fostered nestlings and studied its covariation with the plumage spottiness of genetic parents. The magnitude of the antibody response was positively correlated with the plumage spottiness of the genetic mother but not of the genetic father. Our study thereby provides the first experimental support, to our knowledge, for the hypothesis that female ornamentation signals genetic quality.

Roulin, A; Jungi, T W; Pfister, H; Dijkstra, C

2000-01-01

82

Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally negotiate resources.  

PubMed Central

Current theory proposes that nestlings beg to signal hunger level to parents honestly, or that siblings compete by escalating begging to attract the attention of parents. Although begging is assumed to be directed at parents, barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocalize in the presence but also in the absence of the parents. Applying the theory of asymmetrical contests we experimentally tested three predictions of the novel hypothesis that in the absence of the parents siblings vocally settle contests over prey items to be delivered next by a parent. This 'sibling negotiation hypothesis' proposes that offspring use each others' begging vocalization as a source of information about their relative willingness to contest the next prey item delivered. In line with the hypothesis we found that (i) a nestling barn owl refrains from vocalization when a rival is more hungry, but (ii) escalates once the rival has been fed by a parent, and (iii) nestlings refrain from and escalate vocalization in experimentally enlarged and reduced broods, respectively. Thus, when parents are not at the nest a nestling vocally refrains when the value of the next delivered prey item will be higher for its nest-mates. These findings are the exact opposite of what current models predict for begging calls produced in the presence of the parents.

Roulin, A; Kolliker, M; Richner, H

2000-01-01

83

Temporal modulation transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Barn owls (Tyto alba) have evolved several specializations in their auditory system to achieve the high sensory acuity required for prey capture, including superior processing of interaural time differences and phase coding in the auditory periphery. Here, we tested whether barn owls are capable of high temporal resolution that may be a prerequisite for the accuracy in binaural processing. Temporal resolution was measured psychoacoustically and demonstrated in temporal modulation transfer functions. Four barn owls were trained in an operant task with food reward to detect sinusoidal amplitude modulations within an 800-ms gated white-noise burst or 800-ms periods of modulation in continuous white noise (spectrum levels of -5 dB and 15 dB SPL). Within the range of tested amplitude modulation frequencies from 5 Hz to 1280 Hz, barn owls' detection thresholds were lowest at 10-20 Hz. This sensitivity corresponds to an intensity-difference limen of between 0.9 dB and 1.4 dB. For all conditions, temporal modulation transfer functions showed band-pass characteristics with a high-frequency cutoff in the range of 37 Hz to 92 Hz, corresponding to minimum integration times of 4.3 ms and 1.7 ms, respectively. In summary, these data indicate a temporal resolution in the owl's auditory system that is good, but not unusual, compared to other vertebrates. PMID:11913811

Dent, Michael L; Klump, Georg M; Schwenzfeier, Christian

2002-01-01

84

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

85

Changes in leaf organisation, photosynthetic performance and wood formation during ex vitro acclimatisation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.).  

PubMed

Changes in anatomical organisation of the leaf, photosynthetic performance and wood formation were examined to evaluate the temporal and spatial patterns of acclimatisation of micropropagated slow-growing black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) plantlets to the ex vitro environment. Leaf structure differentiation, the rates of net photosynthesis (P(n)), transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (g(s)), and secondary xylem growth were determined in the course of a 56-day acclimatisation. Differentiation of palisade parenchyma was observed 7 days after transfer. At this stage, the rates of P(n), E and g(s) reached maximum values, after which the rates of all three gas exchange parameters gradually decreased. The highest proportion of woody area occupied by vessels was also observed 7 days after transfer. An important feature of developing woody tissue is the difference in patterns of vessel distribution from the characteristic differentiation patterns of earlywood and latewood vessels in mature wood of ring-porous trees. Vessels with lumen areas over 3000 microm(2) were only differentiated in acclimatised plantlets, whereas vessels in stems sampled on days 0 and 7 had very small lumen areas of up to 560 microm(2). Full acclimatisation, observed 56 days after transfer to the ex vitro environment, was associated with the rapid growth of new in vivo formed leaves, very low rates of E and g(s), and much increased secondary xylem tissue within the stem area. PMID:19689776

Misalová, A; Durkovic, J; Mamonová, M; Priwitzer, T; Lengyelová, A; Hladká, D; Lux, A

2009-09-01

86

The anticancer effect of protein-extract from Bidens alba in human colorectal carcinoma SW480 cells via the reactive oxidative species- and glutathione depletion-dependent apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidens alba has been used for healing cuts, injuries, swellings, hypertension, jaundice, and diabetes in some countries. However, the effect of B. alba on human cancer remains poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate whether B. alba protein-extract could have an anticancer property against human colorectal cancer. The human colorectal cancer SW 480 cells treated with the

Ping-Lin Ong; Bor-Chun Weng; Fung-Jou Lu; Miao-Ling Lin; Ting-Ting Chang; Ray-Ping Hung; Ching-Hsein Chen

2008-01-01

87

Nicaragua Re-Visited: From Neo-Liberal "Ungovernability" to the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I conduct a historical analysis of the emergence of ALBA in Nicaragua prior to Daniel Ortega's return to the presidency and the country's official membership in the initiative from January 2007 on. I argue that ALBA is a rival structure that evolved from the contradictions inherent in hegemonic globalisation. Within the framework of…

Muhr, Thomas

2008-01-01

88

Cerebroprotective effect of Eclipta alba against global model of cerebral ischemia induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is believed to contribute to neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible cerebroprotective and antioxidant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba against global cerebral ischemia in the rat. Adult Wistar albino rats were treated with extract of Eclipta alba (250 and 500mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 days. The global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCA) for 30min, followed by 4h reperfusion. Quercetin (20mg/kg, i.p.) was used for the reference compound. After that, animals were sacrificed by decapitation, brain was removed, various biochemical estimations, cerebral edema, assessment of cerebral infarct size, and histopathological examinations were carried out. BCCA caused significant depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutahione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione ruductase (GR) and significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba significantly reversed the levels of biochemical parameters and significantly reduced the edema and cerebral infarct size as compared to the ischemic control group. Eclipta alba at higher dose markedly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain. Reduction of cerebral edema, an early symptom of ischemia, is one of the most important remedies for reducing subsequent chronic neural damage in stroke. The results of the study show that Eclipta alba pretreatment ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and enhances the antioxidant defense against BCCA occlusion induced I/R in rats; so it exhibits cerebroprotective property. HPLC fingerprint of hydroalcoholic extract of Eclipta alba was performed for conforming the coumestan present in the plant extract. PMID:22951390

Mansoorali, K P; Prakash, T; Kotresha, D; Prabhu, K; Rama Rao, N

2012-08-27

89

Pollination biology and sexual differentiation of Osyris alba ( Santalaceae ) in the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osyris alba L. is a widespread dioecious hemiparasitic shrub of S Europe, N Africa, and SW Asia. Male inflorescences are multiflowered whereas each female inflorescence is reduced to a single flower with persistent enlarged bracts. Pollination is a prerequisite for fruit and seed development and wind is unlikely to be an effective means of pollen spread. In southern Italy pollen

G. Aronne; C. C. Wilcock; P. Pizzolongo

1993-01-01

90

BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

2011-01-01

91

On the Dangers of Rosy Lenses: Reply to Alba, Kasinitz and Waters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article responds to the Alba, Kasinitz and Waters' commentary on the authors' article. The authors state that not all kids are doing "all right," and the substantial number at risk of social and economic stagnation or downward mobility looms as a significant social problem. They contend it is true that right-wing commentators may pick on…

Haller, William; Portes, Alejandro; Lynch, Scott M.

2011-01-01

92

Parasitic Castration of the Scallop Pecten alba (Tate) by a Bucephalid Trematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE phenomenon of parasitic castration has been reported in many of the animal phyla including the Mollusca1-4. Investigations into the biology and ecology of scallops in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, have revealed an interesting example of parasitic castration in Pecten alba.

M. J. Sanders

1966-01-01

93

White poplar ( Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River

Paula Madejón; Teodoro Marañón; Jose M. Murillo; Brett Robinson

2004-01-01

94

Alba field - middle Eocene deep-water channel in U. K. North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alba field is located in the Witch Ground graben between the Fladen Ground spur to the north and the Renee Ridge to the south, entirely in UKCS Block 16\\/26. In 1985, oil was discovered in the middle Eocene sands of the Horda formation at a depth of 6100 ft subsea. Twelve additional wells, including sidetracks, have been drilled appraise

S. R. Winter; H. H. Bretthauer; G. A. Mattingly

1989-01-01

95

Effects of tannery waste on growth dynamics and metal uptake in Salix alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at providing a preliminary study of the effects of different doses of tannery waste containing high amounts of organic substances, mineral elements and heavy metals on growth dynamics and metal accumulation in willow plants. Scions of Salix alba L., clone S61-02, were grown in the open near Pisa (Italy), in pots filled with a natural soil. Willows

G. Giachetti; L. Sebastiani

2007-01-01

96

Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in

Alexandre Roulin; Christian Riols; Cor Dijkstra; Anne-Lyse Ducrestd

2001-01-01

97

Phase Characterization of the Residues of the Plant Comandante Pedro Soto Alba.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been studied of the phases present in the solid industrial residues of the plant Comandante Pedro Soto Alba (Moas's tails). It is done a preliminary qualitative characterization by X ray diffraction. It is done a characterization by differential an...

A. Diaz Ruano J. Fernandez Miranda

1980-01-01

98

Diversity in seed production characteristics within the USDA-ARS Limnanthes alba germplasm collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meadowfoam (L. alba) seeds are a source of long chain fatty acids which are stable under diverse environmental conditions. The fatty acid composition makes the oil valuable for use in cosmetics, lubricants, rubber additives, and plastics. While a few meadowfoam cultivars have been developed, high se...

99

EVALUATION OF DIVERSITY IN SEED PRODUCTION OF THE USDA LIMNANTHES ALBA GERMPLASM COLLECTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seeds are a source of long chain fatty acids which are stable under metabolic or environmental conditions. This fatty acid composition makes the oil valuable for use in cosmetics, lubricants and inks. However a few meadowfoam cultivars have been developed, germplasm with...

100

ANCIENT ROMANIAN ART TREASURES PRESERVED AT THE SUB PIATR? HERMITAGE, ALBA COUNTY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some of the ancient art assets preserved for centuries at the Sub Piatr? hermitage, S?lciua village, Alba County, such as: wood or glass icons, old religious books and liturgical items and furniture. Our attention was focused on icons, namely on the process of restoration to which they were undergone. The restoration and the study were developed at

Olimpia Coman-Sipeanu

101

Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

102

Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide 2000-2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with sma...

J. Brown J. B. Davis A. Esser

2005-01-01

103

Analysis of mammal remains from owl pellets ( Tyto alba), in a suburban area in Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed 108 owl pellets of the barn owl, Tyto alba, collected daily in winter, from December 1998 to March 1999. Pellet analysis gave us the opportunity to study variation in daily diet relative to effects of lunar phases, and to evaluate owl preference for rodents in urban or rural areas. The nest was in a suburban area, 200m from

Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda; Natali Cárdenas; Lia Méndez

2004-01-01

104

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.  

PubMed

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:24031788

Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Sokovi?, Marina; Teševi?, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-12-01

105

The Alba field - a middle Eocene deepwater channel in the UK North Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Alba field is located in the Witch Ground Graben between the Fladen Ground Spur to the north and the Renee Ridge to the south, entirely in UKCS in Block 16/26. In 1985, oil was discovered in the middle Eocene sandstones of the Horda Formation at a depth of 6,100 ft subsea. Twelve additional wells, including sidetracks, have been drilled to appraise the discovery. This drilling indicates the Alba field is a stratigraphic trap covering an area of 3,400 ac. The Alba sands represent a brief interruption in the hemipelagic sedimentation that dominated this part of the Witch Ground Graben during the middle Eocene. Sediment was supplied intermittently from a shelf to the northwest into a deep-water environment. Well correlations, seismic facies analysis, and core analysis indicate that these sands were deposited as part of a constructional channel/levee complex within a mudrich, shelf-sourced submarine fan system. The cap, updip, and lateral seals to the reservoir are shale. The Alba reservoir is predominantly a homogeneous, fine-grained, unconsolidated sandstone. The average reservoir porosity is 33% and the average permeability is 2.8 d. Oil in place is estimated to be 1.1 billion bbl of 20{degree} API crude.

Mattingly, G.A.; Bretthauser, H.H. (Chevron UK Ltd., London (England))

1990-09-01

106

Measurement of vibration characteristics of a magnet prototype girder for ALBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source ALBA is under construction near Barcelona. The machine is foreseen to operate with a low emittance (less than 5 nm·rad) and small size (under 150 µm in horizontal and 8 µm in vertical) electron beam. Uncorrelated mechanical vibrations of the magnets, amplified by the lattice transfer function, could degrade the beam stability

Ramila Amirikas; Alessandro Bertolini; Wilhelm Bialowons

107

BBC ALBA's Contributions to Gaelic Language Planning Efforts for Reversing Language Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|BBC ALBA is the first dedicated Gaelic-medium television channel in history. It launched in September 2008 and, in late 2010, announced that it would be carried on Freeview, in addition to Sky, Freesat, and BBC iPlayer, thereby widening access to Gaelic throughout Scotland. The channel is a BBC-licensed service that is presently operated as a…

Milligan, Lindsay; Chalmers, Douglas; Danson, Mike; Lang, Alison

2011-01-01

108

The Flowering Process: On the Track of Controlling Factors in Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major physiological theories of the control of the flowering process are first presented and their inferences tested in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Then, the genetic analyses of the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana are also summarized with a brief overview of the several pathways, each including several genes, identified. Clearly, both the experimental data of physiological

G. Bernier; L. Corbesier; C. Périlleux

2002-01-01

109

Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300–1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600–1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025–0.500 to 0.100–0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250–0.100 to 0.200–0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

Glamoclija, Jasmina; Sokovic, Marina; Tesevic, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

2011-01-01

110

Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe specific primers and conditions to amplify eight tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci isolated from an enriched genomic library of Melilotus alba, an invasive plant species throughout North America. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2...

111

Alba-Domain Proteins of Trypanosoma brucei Are Cytoplasmic RNA-Binding Proteins That Interact with the Translation Machinery  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma brucei and related pathogens transcribe most genes as polycistronic arrays that are subsequently processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Expression is frequently regulated post-transcriptionally by cis-acting elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs). GPEET and EP procyclins are the major surface proteins of procyclic (insect midgut) forms of T. brucei. Three regulatory elements common to the 3? UTRs of both mRNAs regulate mRNA turnover and translation. The glycerol-responsive element (GRE) is unique to the GPEET 3? UTR and regulates its expression independently from EP. A synthetic RNA encompassing the GRE showed robust sequence-specific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins in electromobility shift assays. This, combined with column chromatography, led to the identification of 3 Alba-domain proteins. RNAi against Alba3 caused a growth phenotype and reduced the levels of Alba1 and Alba2 proteins, indicative of interactions between family members. Tandem-affinity purification and co-immunoprecipitation verified these interactions and also identified Alba4 in sub-stoichiometric amounts. Alba proteins are cytoplasmic and are recruited to starvation granules together with poly(A) RNA. Concomitant depletion of all four Alba proteins by RNAi specifically reduced translation of a reporter transcript flanked by the GPEET 3? UTR. Pulldown of tagged Alba proteins confirmed interactions with poly(A) binding proteins, ribosomal protein P0 and, in the case of Alba3, the cap-binding protein eIF4E4. In addition, Alba2 and Alba3 partially cosediment with polyribosomes in sucrose gradients. Alba-domain proteins seem to have exhibited great functional plasticity in the course of evolution. First identified as DNA-binding proteins in Archaea, then in association with nuclear RNase MRP/P in yeast and mammalian cells, they were recently described as components of a translationally silent complex containing stage-regulated mRNAs in Plasmodium. Our results are also consistent with stage-specific regulation of translation in trypanosomes, but most likely in the context of initiation.

Mani, Jan; Guttinger, Andreas; Schimanski, Bernd; Heller, Manfred; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Pescher, Pascale; Spath, Gerald; Roditi, Isabel

2011-01-01

112

The two faces of Alba: the evolutionary connection between proteins participating in chromatin structure and RNA metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is considerable heterogeneity in the phyletic patterns of major chromosomal DNA-binding proteins in archaea. Alba is\\u000a a well-characterized chromosomal protein from the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus. While Alba has been detected in most archaea and some eukaryotic taxa, its exact functions in these taxa are not clear.\\u000a Here we use comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis to predict potential alternative

L Aravind; Lakshminarayan M Iyer; Vivek Anantharaman

2003-01-01

113

Dimer-dimer stacking interactions are important for nucleic acid binding by the archaeal chromatin protein Alba  

PubMed Central

Archaea use a variety of small basic proteins to package their DNA. One of the most widespread and highly conserved is the Alba (Sso10b) protein. Alba interacts with both DNA and RNA in vitro, and we show in the present study that it binds more tightly to dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) than to either ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) or RNA. The Alba protein is dimeric in solution, and forms distinct ordered complexes with DNA that have been visualized by electron microscopy studies; these studies suggest that, on binding dsDNA, the protein forms extended helical protein fibres. An end-to-end association of consecutive Alba dimers is suggested by the presence of a dimer–dimer interface in crystal structures of Alba from several species, and by the strong conservation of the interface residues, centred on Arg59 and Phe60. In the present study we map perturbation of the polypeptide backbone of Alba upon binding to DNA and RNA by NMR, and demonstrate the central role of Phe60 in forming the dimer–dimer interface. Site-directed spin labelling and pulsed ESR are used to confirm that an end-to-end, dimer–dimer interaction forms in the presence of dsDNA.

Jelinska, Clare; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Ingledew, W. John; White, Malcolm F.

2010-01-01

114

Transcriptome changes in the cambial region of poplar (Populus alba L.) in response to water deficit.  

PubMed

A transcriptome analysis of the Populus alba cambial region was performed with the aim of elucidating the gene network underlying the response to water deficit within the cambium and differentiating derivative cambial cells. Water stress was induced in 1-year-old P. alba plants by withholding water for 9 days. At that time, leaf predawn water potential fell to -0.8 MPa, resulting in a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, CO(2) assimilation and a consistent increment of stem shrinkage. These effects were almost fully reversed by re-hydration. The water deficit resulted in changes in gene expression that affected several functional categories, such as protein metabolism, cell wall metabolism, stress response, transporters and transcriptional regulation. The function of up- and down-regulated genes is discussed considering the physiological response of the plants to water deficit. PMID:20398240

Berta, M; Giovannelli, A; Sebastiani, F; Camussi, A; Racchi, M L

2010-03-01

115

Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. PMID:24147363

Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

116

Anticarcinogenic effect of Nymphaea alba against oxidative damage, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the prophylactic effect of Nymphaea alba against ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced renal oxidative stress, hyperproliferative response and renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Treatment with Fe-NTA (9 mg Fe\\/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhanced iron-ascorbate-induced renal lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, ?-glutamyl transpeptidase and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase, glutathione

Naghma Khan; Sarwat Sultana

2005-01-01

117

Electron microscopical observations of psittacine beak and feather disease in an Umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba).  

PubMed

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) was diagnosed in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with severe feather dystrophy and loss. Electron microscopically, the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies observed by light microscopy were composed of viral particles forming paracrystalline arrays, whorls, semicircles or concentric circles. Recovered viral particles from the skin and feather follicle tracts were icosahedral and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. PMID:10535515

Sanada, Y; Sanada, N; Kubo, M

1999-09-01

118

Phytochrome control of plastid mRNA in mustard ( Sinapis alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state levels of plastid RNA sequences in dark-grown and light-grown mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings have been compared. Total cellular RNAs were labeled in vitro with 32P and hybridized to separated restriction fragments of plastid DNA. Cloned DNA fragments which encode the large subunit (LS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase [3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxylase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39] and a 35,000 plastid polypeptide were

Gerhard Link; Universitfit Freiburg

1982-01-01

119

Redescription and biological aspects of Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881), a luminescent sea anemone (Anthozoa, Actiniaria)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea anemone Hormathia alba (Andres, 1881) is redescribed and definitely established as distinct from H. coronata. Synonymy, external morphology, anatomy and cnidom are treated in detail. Aspects of its reproduction, ecology, distribution and distinctive characteristics are also reported. The species, largely mistaken throughout literature, is rather common on Mediterranean infralittoral soft bottoms. It has also been found in the SW of Ireland. This is the only known sea anemone with luminescence, a feature that has never been reported before.

Tur, J. M.

1993-06-01

120

How much energy do barn owls ( Tyto alba) save by roosting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) The energy savings associated with the roosting behaviour of barn owls (Tyto alba) were determined with a biophysical model using measurements of microclimate from a roost and nest site in SW Scotland (55°10? N 3°12? W) from April 1991–March 1992. (2) The roost building provided complete shelter from wind and precipitation. Air temperature inside the roost building was 1.4°C

Dominic J. McCafferty; John B. Moncrieff; Iain R. Taylor

2001-01-01

121

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some

Sorin Anghel; Constantin S. Stanescu; Dana Giosanu; Monica Flenacu; Ion Iorga-Siman

2001-01-01

122

Sound localization by the barn owl ( Tyto alba ) measured with the search coil technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The dynamics and accuracy of sound localization by the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by exploiting the natural head-orienting response of the owl to novel sound stimuli. Head orientation and movement were measured using an adaptation of the search coil technique which provided continous high resolution azimuthal and elevational information during the behavior.2.The owls responded to sound sources with

Eric I. Knudsen; Gary G. Blasdel; Masakazu Konishi

1979-01-01

123

Cloning and analysis of the planosporicin lantibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster of Planomonospora alba.  

PubMed

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer. PMID:23475977

Sherwood, Emma J; Hesketh, Andrew R; Bibb, Mervyn J

2013-03-08

124

Lysophosphatidate acyltransferase in the microsomes from maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthese alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of

Yizhi Cao; Khaikcheang Oo; A. H. C. Huang

1990-01-01

125

Cloning and Analysis of the Planosporicin Lantibiotic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster of Planomonospora alba  

PubMed Central

The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens has renewed focus on natural products with antimicrobial properties. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics that are posttranslationally modified to introduce (methyl)lanthionine bridges. Actinomycetes are renowned for their ability to produce a large variety of antibiotics, many with clinical applications, but are known to make only a few lantibiotics. One such compound is planosporicin produced by Planomonospora alba, which inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in Gram-positive pathogens. Planosporicin is a type AI lantibiotic structurally similar to those which bind lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. The gene cluster responsible for planosporicin biosynthesis was identified by genome mining and subsequently isolated from a P. alba cosmid library. A minimal cluster of 15 genes sufficient for planosporicin production was defined by heterologous expression in Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727, while deletion of the gene encoding the precursor peptide from P. alba, which abolished planosporicin production, was also used to confirm the identity of the gene cluster. Deletion of genes encoding likely biosynthetic enzymes identified through bioinformatic analysis revealed that they, too, are essential for planosporicin production in the native host. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that the planosporicin gene cluster is transcribed in three operons. Expression of one of these, pspEF, which encodes an ABC transporter, in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) conferred some degree of planosporicin resistance on the heterologous host. The inability to delete these genes from P. alba suggests that they play an essential role in immunity in the natural producer.

Sherwood, Emma J.; Hesketh, Andrew R.

2013-01-01

126

A GAMMA-RAY BEAM LINE FOR NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS AT THE SPANISH SYNCHROTRON ALBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the concept of the proposed gamma-ray beam line for the ALBA synchrotron light source to be built near Barcelona. The gamma-rays are produced by Compton backscattering of laser light from the ring electrons. Without affecting the machine performance it will be possible to produce high intensity beams with energies up to 500 MeV. The beam is focused

J. L. Tain

127

Specificity of induction responses in Sinapis alba L. and their effects on a specialist herbivore.  

PubMed

The glucosinolate-myrosinase system of Brassicaceae is known to hold a defensive function in both a constitutive and an inducible fashion. Glucosinolates are sulfur- and nitrogen-containing metabolites that are hydrolyzed upon tissue disruption by myrosinase enzymes. The resulting products are toxic for most herbivores. Nevertheless, some insects evolved detoxification mechanisms that enable them to feed exclusively on Brassicaceae. Induction of plant chemical defenses that deter or poison generalists might be ineffective against adapted specialists. We investigated the specificity of short-term induction patterns of chemical defenses in Sinapis alba damaged by a glucosinolate-sequestering specialist herbivore (turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae), a generalist herbivore (fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda), or mechanical wounding (cork borer), and their effects on the behavior of A. rosae. After 24 hr of damage to young leaves, local as well as systemic changes in glucosinolate and myrosinase levels were analyzed. The intensity of the resulting changes was highest in damaged leaves. Induction responses in S. alba were dependent upon the attacking herbivore and were distinct from a mere wound response. Specialist feeding and mechanical wounding evoked up to threefold increases in levels of both parts of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, whereas generalist feeding induced up to twofold increases in glucosinolate levels only. The majority of constitutive and induced myrosinase activity was found in the insoluble fractions. Possible consequences for the plant-specialist interaction were examined in behavioral tests with larvae and adult females of A. rosae on induced S. alba plants. Larval feeding and adult oviposition patterns were not modulated in relation to plant treatment. Thus, specificity was found in S. alba responses in relation to the inducing agent, but it was not present in return in the effects on the behavior of an adapted herbivore. PMID:17587140

Travers-Martin, Nora; Müller, Caroline

2007-06-21

128

(?)- N-Formylanonaine from Michelia alba as a human tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tyrosinase is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments for coloring hair, skin, and eyes. As reported in this study, a natural product, (?)-N-formylanonaine isolated from the leaves of Michelia alba D.C. (Magnolianceae), was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 74.3?M and to have tyrosinase and melanin reducing activities in human epidermal

Hui-Min Wang; Chung-Yi Chen; Chun-Yen Chen; Mei-Ling Ho; Yi-Ting Chou; Hou-Chien Chang; Chih-Hung Lee; Chau-Zen Wang; I-Ming Chu

2010-01-01

129

Phytochemical and in vitro screening of some Ficus and Morus spp. for hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities and in vivo assessment of Ficus mysorensis (Roth).  

PubMed

Phytochemical screening of air-dried leaves and fruit juice of certain Ficus and Morus spp. have been studied. In an in vitro study, the ethanol and hexane extracts of the investigated plants were evaluated against hyperlipidaemia by estimating the rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biothenysis; ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by reduction of DPPH(-) free radical. Extra phytochemical screening of Ficus extracts was undertaken, which recorded potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. The more pronounced extract, Ficus mysorensis (hexane extract), was evaluated in vivo by estimation of the lipid profile and certain antioxidant parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. The hexane fraction was chromatographed and six isolated compounds were identified. Furthermore, its saponifiable fraction was identified by a MS/MS technique. In conclusion, F. mysorensis recorded hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects. Detailed studies of the isolated compounds must be undertaken for an evaluation against hypercholesterolemia and free radical elevation. PMID:21859372

Awad, Nagwa E; Seida, Ahmed A; Hamed, Manal A; Mahmoud, Ahlam H; Elbatanony, Marwa M

2011-08-23

130

Ionic thiocyanate (SCN-) production from 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate contained in Sinapis alba seed meal.  

PubMed

Meal produced from Sinapis alba seed by crushing to remove oil contains a glucosinolate that when hydrolyzed produces phytotoxic allelochemicals; however, the responsible compounds and pathways for their production have not been elucidated. S. alba seed meal and partially purified extracts containing 4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate were included in experiments to identify and monitor enzymatically released products using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. The initial product, 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate, was unstable in aqueous media, showing a half-life of 321 min at pH 3.0, decreasing to 6 min at pH 6.5. More alkaline pH values decrease the stability of 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate by promoting the formation of a proposed quinone that hydrolyzes to SCN-. Measurement of SCN- showed stoichiometric release from S. alba meal at 48 h when buffered at pH values as low as 4.0, demonstrating that SCN- production in soil is not only probable but likely responsible for observed phytoxicity of the meal. PMID:16248567

Borek, Vladimir; Morra, Matthew J

2005-11-01

131

Aerenchyma formation and porosity in root of a mangrove plant, Sonneratia alba (Lythraceae).  

PubMed

Aerenchyma gas spaces are important for plants that grow in flooded and anaerobic sites or habitats, because these gas spaces provide an internal pathway for oxygen transport. The objective of this study is to characterize the development of aerenchyma gas spaces and observe the porosity in roots of Sonneratia alba. Tissue at different developmental stages was collected from four root types, i.e. cable root, pneumatophore, feeding root and anchor root, of S. alba. In S. alba, gas space is schizogenously produced in all root types, and increases in volume from the root meristem to mature root tissues. The aerenchyma formation takes place immediately, or 3-5 mm behind the root apex. At first, cortical cells are relatively round in cross sections (near the root apex); they then become two kinds of cells, rounded and armed, which combine together, forming intercellular spaces behind the root apex. The average dimensions of cortical cells increased more than 1.3 times in the vertical direction and over 3.3 times in the horizontal direction. At maturity, aerenchyma gas spaces are long tuberous structures without diaphragms and with numerous small pores on the lateral walls. Within the aerenchyma, many sclereids grow intrusively. Root porosity in all root types ranged from 0-60%. Pneumatophores and cable roots had the highest aerenchyma area (50-60%). PMID:15538653

Purnobasuki, Hery; Suzuki, Mitsuo

2004-11-05

132

Effect of olive oil mill wastewater on extracellular ligninolytic enzymes produced by Phanerochaete flavido-alba.  

PubMed

Our previous results have demonstrated that Phanerochaete flavido-alba decoloration, dephenolization and detoxification of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) were associated with changes in the ligninolytic major exoenzymes accumulated in the cultures. This paper describes the effect of the two main OMW components (monomeric aromatic compounds and a major brownish polymeric pigment), on extracellular P. flavido-alba ligninolytic enzymes. Laccase was the sole ligninolytic enzyme detected in cultures containing monomeric aromatic compounds. Laccase and an acidic manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnPA, pI<2.8) were accumulated in cultures with OMW or polymeric pigment. Also, modified manganese-dependent peroxidases were observed mainly in OMW-supplemented cultures. Laccase was more stable to the effect of OMW toxic components and was accumulated in monomeric aromatic-supplemented cultures, suggesting a more important role than manganese-dependent peroxidases in OMW detoxification. Alternatively, MnPA accumulated in cultures containing the polymeric pigment seems to be more essential than laccase for degradation of this recalcitrant macromolecule by P. flavido-alba. PMID:12076785

Ruiz, Juan Carlos; de la Rubia, Teresa; Pérez, Juana; Martínez Lopez, José

2002-06-18

133

Molecular and Conformational Basis of a Specific and High-Affinity Interaction between AlbA and Albicidin Phytotoxin  

PubMed Central

The albA gene of Klebsiella oxytoca encodes a protein of 221 amino acids that binds the albicidin phytotoxin with a high affinity (dissociation constant = 6.4 × 10?8 M). For this study, circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry and an alanine scanning mutagenesis approach were used in combination to investigate the molecular and conformational mechanisms of this high-affinity protein-ligand interaction. CD analysis revealed that AlbA contains a high-affinity binding site, and binding of the albicidin ligand to AlbA in a low-ionic-strength environment induced significant conformational changes. The ligand-dependent conformational changes of AlbA were specific and rapid and reached a stable plateau within seconds after the addition of the antibiotic. However, such conformational changes were not detected when AlbA and albicidin were mixed in the high-ionic-strength buffer that is required for maximal binding activity. Based on the conceptual model of protein-ligand interaction, we propose that a threshold ion strength allows AlbA to complete its conformational rearrangement and resume its original stable structure for accommodation of the bound albicidin. Mutagenesis analysis showed that the replacement of Lys106, Trp110, Tyr113, Leu114, Tyr126, Pro134, and Trp162 with alanine did not change the overall conformational structure of AlbA but decreased the albicidin binding activity about 30 to 60%. We conclude that these residues, together with the previously identified essential residue His125, constitute a high-affinity binding pocket for the ligand albicidin. The results also suggest that hydrophobic and electrostatic potentials of these key amino acid residues may play important roles in the AlbA-albicidin interaction.

Weng, Li-Xing; Wang, Lian-Hui; Xu, Jin-Ling; Wu, Ji-En; Li, Qi; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2005-01-01

134

Transferability and characterization of nine microsatellite markers for the tropical tree species Tabebuia roseo-alba.  

PubMed

Microsatellite loci that were previously developed in the tropical tree Tabebuia aurea were used for the genetic analysis of Tabebuia roseo-alba populations. Nine of 10 simple sequence repeat markers were amplified, and the polymorphism was assessed in 58 individuals sampled from two stands in southeastern Brazil. All loci were polymorphic with Mendelian inheritance. The allele numbers were high, ranging from 5 to 13 in population I and 3 to 7 in population II, with means of 8.9 and 5.5, respectively. We conclude that these markers can be efficiently used for parentage and gene-flow studies. PMID:21564672

Feres, Juliana Massimino; Martinez, Marcelo L L; Martinez, Carlos A; Mestriner, Moacyr A; Alzate-Marin, Ana Lilia

2009-01-01

135

Pendimethalin phytotoxicity and seedling weed control in Indian spinach ( Basella alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were carried out in a screenhouse to evaluate pendimethalin effectiveness in pre-emergence weed control in Indian spinach (Basella alba L.). In the first trial, pendimethalin was applied at higher doses (0.33, 0.66, 0.99, 1.32, 1.98kgaiha?1), while in the second trial, lower doses (0.066, 0.132, 0.198, 0.264, 0.330kgaiha?1) were used. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design

M. A. K Smith

2004-01-01

136

Comparative genome mapping among Populus adenopoda, P. alba, P. deltoides, P. euramericana and P. trichocarpa.  

PubMed

Among the genus Populus, the sections Populus (white poplar), Aigeiros Duby (black poplar) and Tacamahaca Spach contain many tree species of economical and ecological important properties. Two parental maps for the inter-specific hybrid population of Populus adenopoda × P. alba (two species of Populus section) were constructed based on SSR and SRAP markers by means of a two-way pseudo-test cross mapping strategy. The same set of SSR markers developed from the P. trichocarpa (belonging to Tacamahaca section) genome which were used to construct the maps of P. deltoides and P. euramericana (two species of Aigeiros section) was chosen to analyze the genotype of the experimental population of P. adenopoda × P. alba. Using the mapped SSR markers as allelic bridges, the alignment of the white and black poplar maps to each other and to the P. trichocarpa physical map was conducted. The alignment showed high degree of marker synteny and colinearity and the closer relationship between Aigeiros and Tacamahaca sections than that of Populus and Tacamahaca. Moreover, there was evidence for the chromosomal duplication and inter-chromosomal reorganization involving some poplar linkage groups, suggesting a complicated course of fission or fusion in one of the lineages. A poplar consensus map based on the comparisons could be constructed will be useful in practical applications including marker assisted selection. PMID:22214594

Wang, Yuanxiu; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Xiaoyan; Tan, Biyue; Xu, Li-An; Huang, Minren; Wang, Mingxiu

2011-01-01

137

The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba  

PubMed Central

Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function ? factor (PspX), its cognate anti-? factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic.

Sherwood, Emma J.; Bibb, Mervyn J.

2013-01-01

138

The antibiotic planosporicin coordinates its own production in the actinomycete Planomonospora alba.  

PubMed

Planosporicin is a ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptide lantibiotic produced by the actinomycete Planomonospora alba. It contains one methyl-lanthionine and four lanthionine bridges and inhibits cell wall biosynthesis in other Gram-positive bacteria probably by binding to lipid II, the immediate precursor for cell wall biosynthesis. Planosporicin production, which is encoded by a cluster of 15 genes, is confined to stationary phase in liquid culture and to the onset of morphological differentiation when P. alba is grown on agar. This growth phase-dependent gene expression is controlled transcriptionally by three pathway-specific regulatory proteins: an extracytoplasmic function ? factor (PspX), its cognate anti-? factor (PspW), and a transcriptional activator (PspR) with a C-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. Using mutational analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, quantitative RT-PCR, and transcriptional fusions, we have determined the direct regulatory dependencies within the planosporicin gene cluster and present a model in which subinhibitory concentrations of the lantibiotic function in a feed-forward mechanism to elicit high levels of planosporicin production. We show that in addition to acting as an antibiotic, planosporicin can function as an extracellular signaling molecule to elicit precocious production of the lantibiotic, presumably ensuring synchronous and concerted lantibiotic biosynthesis in the wider population and, thus, the production of ecologically effective concentrations of the antibiotic. PMID:23776227

Sherwood, Emma J; Bibb, Mervyn J

2013-06-17

139

[Structure of the endosperm in the mature seed of Melilotus alba].  

PubMed

The results of the exam at the light, the fluorescence and the scanning electron microscope of the endosperm of Melilotus alba mature impermeable seeds are reported. Cryostat sections, semithin sections and squashes are observed. Melilotus alba endosperm is variable in thickness and envelopes cotyledons and radicle. Its "aleurone" layer is one-cell thick, while the number of layers of its internal cells varies in relation to the location in the seed. In the aleurone cells, the cytoplasm and the outer portion of the wall are autofluorescent; tannic acid-ferric chloride stains the outer portion of the wall and allows to see clearly the inner thickenings, DAPI and haematoxylin demonstrate the presence of the nucleus. The cytoplasm of these cells is coloured by Sudan black b, and its fluorescence is enhanced by auramine and calcofluor white. Calcofluor white enhances the fluorescence of the outer portion of these walls, too, but is without effect on the non-autofluorescent thickening, indicating presence of cellulose only in the first case. Callose is absent. Also the thin autofluorescent walls of the endosperm inner cells react positively to calcofluor. These cells are very large, almost completely filled with "gelatinous" substances--the galactomannans--and very rarely contain a nucleus. PMID:1710471

Bevilacqua, L; Roti-Michelozzi, G; Ivaldi, M

1990-11-01

140

Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

2008-05-14

141

[Application of herbal medicine alba in treatment of patients with the pathology of thyroid].  

PubMed

High prevalence of hyperplastic and autoimmune diseases of thyroid in Ukrainian population is determined by endemic deficit of iodine and selenium. The aim of this research was to assess the place of biologically-active additions on the basis of herbal material containing an iodine and selenium in prophylaxis and treatment of thyroid pathology. During the six month period 55 patients received herbal preparation Alba twice a day. The levels of TSH, volume of thyroid, the sizes of nodular goiter (ultrasound investigation) were measured before and at the end of the investigation. The levels of thyroid stimulating antibodies to TSH receptor (AB-r TSH) were evaluated in patients with hyperthyroidism. The results of Alba application showed that in patients with thyroid pathology (diffuse nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism and chronic thyroiditis) it was possible to reduce the volume of thyroid, normalize its function, and decrease the level of AB-r TSH in diffuse toxic goiter. We also found approximately 20 % shortening of the time needed to get target level of TSH and finally the duration of treatment of thyrotoxicosis. PMID:23786024

Kiselëva, I A; Tëplaia, E V; Kaminski?, A V

2012-12-01

142

Postglacial range expansion and its genetic imprints in Abies alba (Mill.) — A synthesis from palaeobotanic and genetic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a range-wide synthesis of our own research and related work on the complex postglacial history of Abies alba Mill. It is based on macroremains, fossil pollen records as well as on different genetic markers. The geographic distribution of genetic lineages and allele frequencies together with the fossil records confirm multiple refugia with at least three of them being

Sascha Liepelt; Rachid Cheddadi; Jacques-Louis de Beaulieu; Bruno Fady; Dušan Gömöry; Erwin Hussendörfer; Monika Konnert; Thomas Litt; Roman Longauer; Ruth Terhürne-Berson; Birgit Ziegenhagen

2009-01-01

143

Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica and Abies alba in Central Europe: where are we after eight decades of debate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past eight decades contrasting hypotheses have been put forward to explain the Holocene expansions of Fagus silvatica (beech) and Abies alba (fir) in Central Europe. The hypotheses can be referred to as: (1) climatic change; (2) migrational lag; (3) delay in population increase; (4) human disturbance; and (5) fire disturbance. High-resolution pollen and charcoal records from three sites

Willy Tinner; André F. Lotter

2006-01-01

144

Influence of phenolic compounds in heartwood of Silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) on the equilibrium moisture content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were undertaken to differentiate between sapwood and uncolored (light) heartwood of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Paired samples of sapwood and heartwood were removed from five randomly selected healthy trees without wetwood, aged over 170 years, and (a) the percent of extractives, (b) the amount of total soluble phenols and (c) the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at three relative

Niko Torelli; Jelena Trajkovi?; Vladimir Serti?

2006-01-01

145

ROEDORES EN LA DIETA DE DOS AVES RAPACES NOCTURNAS (BUBO VIRGINIANUS Y TYTO ALBA) EN EL NORESTE DE DURANGO, MÉXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the diet of two species of owls, and assessed the rodents communities and their relative densities from March 1996 through February 1997 in the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve, Durango, México: Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba). The objectives were to understand the predator-prey relationships by comparing the availability and use of rodents by these owls.

Elizabeth E. ARAGÓN; Benjamín CASTILLO; Alfredo GARZA

146

RELATIVE EFFECTS OF NOCTURNAL VS DIURNAL POLLINATORS AND DISTANCE ON GENE FLOW IN SMALL SILENE ALBA POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

· Silene alba exists in natural metapopulations throughout its range and is visited by a suite of both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Pollen-mediated gene flow may help reduce genetic isolation of subpopulations. We compared the relative effects of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators on pollen-med...

147

FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

148

Functional analysis of the promoter of a glycosyl hydrolase gene induced in resistant Sinapis alba by Alternaria brassicicola.  

PubMed

A putative family 3 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene showed significant differential expression in resistant Sinapis alba, compared with the susceptible Brassica juncea, as part of the initial responses during interaction with the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. To understand the mechanism of induction, the promoter was isolated and deletion analysis carried out. All the promoter fragments were fused with the ?-glucuronidase gene and the expressions were studied in stable B. juncea transgenics and transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis of the expression of the promoter showed the presence of functional abscisic acid (ABA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and salicylic acid (SA)-responsive cis elements. Interestingly, the promoter was found to be induced in both S. alba and B. juncea upon challenge with A. brassicicola but, in S. alba, SA had an inhibitory effect on the pathogen-induced expression of the gene whereas, in B. juncea, SA did not have any negative effect. Therefore, the SA-mediated inhibition in S. alba indicates that the induction is probably through JA or ABA signaling. The difference in the mechanism of induction of the same promoter in the resistant and susceptible plants is probably due to the differential hormonal responses initiated upon challenge with A. brassicicola. PMID:23550974

Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Basu, Debabrata

2013-08-01

149

Phanerochaete flavido-alba Laccase Induction and Modification of Manganese Peroxidase Isoenzyme Pattern in Decolorized Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters  

PubMed Central

Lignin-degrading enzymes were partially purified from supernatant solutions obtained from Phanerochaete flavido-alba-decolorized olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The dominant enzymes, manganese peroxidases, exhibited different isoform patterns in decolorized OMW-containing cultures than in residue-free samples. Laccase induction was also detected in OMW-containing cultures but not in control cultures.

Perez, J.; de la Rubia, T.; Hamman, O. Ben; Martinez, J.

1998-01-01

150

Intracellular Localization of Two Enzymes Involved in Coumarin Biosynthesis in Melilotus alba.  

PubMed

The localization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [EC 4.3.1.5] within sweet clover (Melilotus alba) leaves was investigated. Apical buds and axillary leaves contained 15 to 30 times more enzyme activity than did mature leaves. Mesophyll protoplasts were prepared by digesting young leaves with Cellulysin and Macerase and were gently ruptured yielding intact chloroplasts. These chloroplast preparations exhibited neither phenylalanine ammonia-lyase nor o-coumaric acid O-glucosyltransferase activities. The general enzymic properties of sweet clover leaf phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were similar to those described for this enzyme isolated from other plant species. The conversion of l-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, which occurred at an optimum pH of about 8.7, was strongly inhibited by the metabolites trans-cinnamic and o-coumaric acids. In contrast, o-coumaric acid glucoside, coumarin, p-coumaric acid, and melilotic acid had no significant effect on the reaction rate. PMID:16661155

Poulton, J E; McRee, D E; Conn, E E

1980-02-01

151

Effects of the Methanol Extract of Basella alba L (Basellaceae) on Steroid Production in Leydig Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, Leydig cells were purified from 70 day-old Sprague Dawley male rats and incubated with 10 and 100 ?g/mL of methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) for 4 hours followed by the evaluation of cell viability, steroid (testosterone and estradiol) production, and the level of aromatase mRNA. Results showed that MEBa did not affect Leydig cell viability. At the concentration of 10 ?g/mL, MEBa significantly stimulated testosterone and estradiol production (p < 0.01 and p < 0.03, respectively), and enhanced aromatase mRNA level (p < 0.04). These observations suggest that MEBa directly stimulated testosterone, estradiol and aromatase mRNA levels in isolated Leydig cells.

Nantia, Edouard Akono; Travert, Carine; Manfo, Faustin-Pascal T.; Carreau, Serge; Monsees, Thomas K.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

2011-01-01

152

Growth enhancement of Quercus alba saplings by CO[sub 2] enrichment under field conditions  

SciTech Connect

White oak (Quercus alba L.) trees were grown in soil under field conditions for four growing seasons in open-top chambers containing ambient air continuously enriched with 0, 150, or 300 [mu]mol/mol CO[sub 2]. The trees were significantly larger in elevated CO[sub 2]: whole-tree mass (including woody roots) was 36% greater in +150 and 140% greater in +300 compared to ambient-grown trees. There were no significant effects of CO[sub 2] concentration on root-to-shoot or leaf area ratios. The stimulatory effect of CO[sub 2] occurred during seedling establishment, and there was no effect of CO[sub 2] on relative growth rate after the first field season. However, photosynthesis remained consistently higher in elevated CO[sub 2], foliar respiration was reduced, and fine root density and CO[sub 2] efflux from the soil were higher, as previously reported with yellow- poplar trees.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Gunderson, C.A.; Nietch, C.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-06-01

153

Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

2001-06-01

154

Heavy metal distribution in organs and tissues of the eastern great white egret Egretta alba modesta  

SciTech Connect

The eastern great white egret (Egretta alba modesta) is relatively a large and long-life bird species, which migrates for breeding to Korea, China and Japan late in March or early in April, and returns to Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia for wintering late in August or early in October. As the bird is placed in a high trophic level in the food web, it is useful as an indicator species for environmental pollution of heavy metals and other chemicals and also for understanding the bioaccumulation processes of pollutants. The primary purpose of this paper is to present the detailed distribution characteristics of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg) in different organs and tissues of the eastern great white egret. Based upon these results, the suitability of the organs of an egret for ecological and physiological comparison is also discussed.

Honda, K.; Min, B.Y.; Tatsukawa, R.

1985-12-01

155

Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.

1991-01-01

156

Relaxant Effect of Essential Oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. on Rodent Jejunum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Artemisia herba-alba Asso. is a shrub commonly encountered in Morocco. It is used in traditional medicine for treating intestinal disorders. The essential oil extracted from the plant’s aerial parts reversibly relaxed the spontaneous tonus of the rabbit jejunum in a reversible concentration dependent manner with an IC50 value of 97.33 ± 2.59 ng/ml and reversed the tonic contraction of rat jejunum induced by 75 mM KCl and 10?6 M carbachol with IC50 values of 115.5 ± 3.05 and 119.4 ± 20.86 ng/ml, respectively. The pre-treatment of the latter isolated intestine with this essential oil produced a dose-dependent shift of the Ca++ and CCh dose-response curve to the right, with suppression of the maximal effect, similar to the non-competitive antagonist effect on muscarinic receptors and calcium channel, respectively.

Aziz, Mohammed; Karim, Ahmed; El Ouariachi, El Mokhtar; Bouyanzer, Abdelhamid; Amrani, Souliman; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Melhaoui, Ahmed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq

2012-01-01

157

(-)-N-Formylanonaine from Michelia alba as a human tyrosinase inhibitor and antioxidant.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments for coloring hair, skin, and eyes. As reported in this study, a natural product, (-)-N-formylanonaine isolated from the leaves of Michelia alba D.C. (Magnolianceae), was found to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 of 74.3 microM and to have tyrosinase and melanin reducing activities in human epidermal melanocytes without apparent cytotoxicity to human cells, superior to the known tyrosinase inhibitors, such as kojic acid and 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU). Based on homology modeling, the compound binds the active site by coordinating with two Cu2+ ions. In addition, the compound had antioxidation activities in tests for scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, and chelating metal ions. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the bioactivities of (-)-N-formylanonaine from this plant species. PMID:20584613

Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chou, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hou-Chien; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chau-Zen; Chu, I-Ming

2010-05-24

158

An integrated approach to the development of the Alba Field in the UK North Sea  

SciTech Connect

The Alba Field is located in UK Block 16/26, about 200 kilometers off the east coast of Scotland. It is a stratigraphic trap composed of fine to very fine grained sandstone. The depositional model is one of a pre-cut channel situated near the base of the palaeo slope, subsequently filled by pre-sorted sand shed from the shelf and upper slope. The reservoir is encased in hemipelagic shales which form the vertical and lateral seals. Horizontal wells form a major part of the development plan for Alba. Chevron operates a multidiscipline team system whereby all technical functions are involved from the early stages of planning through drilling to completion of the horizontal well. The objective is the optimization of ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. Once the initial objectives of a horizontal well are determined, a flexible approach is then adopted throughout the drilling phase when all available geological information is assessed as it is acquired, allowing a change in the well path to take account of the geological section encountered. Although pilot holes are the preferred method of defining the top of the reservoir, this option is not always cost effective and many of the producing wells are drilled without the benefit of these additional data. The development program utilizes an integrated approach to maximize the information being gathered while drilling the wells in order that the optimum well path can be achieved. The interactive application of the wellsite biostratigraphy, real-time formation evaluation logging while drilling, directional survey and continually updated 3D seismic interpretation result in the wells being geosteered very close to the top of the reservoir, minimizing the amount of potential attic oil.

Wilkinson, C.; Flanagan, K.; Way, D. [Chevron Europe and Middle East, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1995-08-01

159

Postremediation dose assessment for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Potential maximum radiation dose rates were calculated for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio, which was involved in machining of uranium metal in the 1950s for the U.S. atomic energy program. The site is not currently being used. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was sued in this evaluation. Three potential land use scenarios were considered for the former Alba Craft site; the scenarios vary with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site by the exposed individual, and sources of food consumed. Scenario A (a possible land use scenario) assumed industrial use of the site; Scenario B (a likely future land use scenario) assumed residential use of the site; and Scenario C (a possible but unlikely land use scenario) assumed the presence of a resident farmer. For scenario A, it was assumed that any water used for domestic or industrial activities would be from uncontaminated off-site municipal sources. The water used for drinking, household purposes, and irrigation was assumed to be from uncontaminated municipal sources in Scenario B; groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the contaminated zone would be the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock in Scenario C. The results of the evaluation indicated that the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, and C are 0.64, 2.0, and 11 mrem/yr, respectively.

Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1996-04-01

160

Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)  

PubMed Central

The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), ?-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), ?-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3-dimethyl (1.64%) and ?-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations of 1 and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 ± 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 ± 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity.

Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

2009-01-01

161

Production, nutrient dynamics and initial decomposition of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba L. and Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. (Nymphaeaceae) in alkaline and acid waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production, turnover and nutrient dynamics of floating leaves of Nymphaea alba L. and Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. were studied in four aquatic systems in The Netherlands, differing strongly in water quality. Production was 108–447\\u000a g AFDW.m?2 for N. lutea and 319–348 g AFDW.m?2 for N. alba. Turnover ranged from 3.6 to 4.4 without much difference between the sites and the

C. J. Kok; G. Van der Velde; K. M. Landsbergen

1990-01-01

162

Cloning, expression in Streptomyces lividans and biochemical characterization of a thermostable endo-?-1,4-xylanase of Thermomonospora alba UL?JB1 with cellulose-binding ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from urban solid waste. One of them, Thermomonospora alba ULJB1, showed a broad degradative activity on xylan, cellulose, starch and other polymers. Xylanase and cellulase activities\\u000a were quantified and compared with those of Thermomonospora fusca. Genes encoding two different endo-?-1,4-xylanases were cloned from T.?alba ULJB1. One of them, xylA, was sequenced, subcloned and overexpressed in

J. Blanco; J. J. R. Coque; J. Velasco; J. F. Martín

1997-01-01

163

Bioassay-guided isolation of urease and ?-chymotrypsin inhibitory constituents from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Henna).  

PubMed

Seven constituents were isolated from the stems of Lawsonia alba Lam., following an activity-guided isolation, which include two new constituents, namely lawsorosemarinol (1) and lawsofructose (2), one known compound 2-(?-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-1, 4-naphthoquinone (3) and four compounds, 4-hydroxy coumarine (4), 3-(4-hyroxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (5), 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-triacontyl-(Z)-propenoate (6) and 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin (7) first time isolated from Lawsonia alba. Their structure elucidation was based on spectroscopic data analyses. Compounds 3 and 7 showed a moderate inhibition of urease activity, while rest of them showed less than 50% inhibition. These compounds did not show any significant inhibition against ?-chymotrypsin. PMID:23103954

Uddin, Nizam; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Begum, Sabira; Ali, Muhammad Imran; Marasini, Bishnu P; Khan, Ajmal; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2012-10-24

164

Evaluation of the efficacy of Lawsonia alba in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective activity of the 50% ethanol extract of the bark of Lawsonia alba syn. L. inermis was investigated against the carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress. Pretreatment of rats with doses of 250 and 500 mg\\/kg of the plant extract significantly (P<0.001) lowered serum transaminases (GOT and GPT) and LDH levels, respectively, in a dose dependent manner against the significant (P<0.001)

S Ahmed; A Rahman; A Alam; M Saleem; M Athar; S Sultana

2000-01-01

165

Sex-specific costs of resistance to the fungal pathogen Ustilago violacea (Microbotryum violaceum) in Silene alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Costs of resistance are often invoked to explain the maintenance of polymorphisms for resistance to fungal pathogens in natural plant populations. To investigate such costs, 27 half-sib families of Silene alba, collected from a single host population, were grown in experiment populations in the presence and absence of the anther-smut fungus Ustilago violacea, a host-sterilizing pathogen transmitted by insects that

A. Biere; J. Antonovics

1996-01-01

166

Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiœ, Rhodotorula rubra and Bullera alba in the presence of beechwood prehydrolyzate-based lignin fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of yeast strainsSaccharomyces cerevisiœ, Rhodotorula rubra andBullera alba isolated from natural lake microflora was examined in the presence of prehydrolysis lignin and\\/or its water-soluble derivative.\\u000a The stimulation effect of the water-soluble lignin derivative was higher in comparison with that of unmodified lignin. The\\u000a structural changes of the lignin macromolecule by the yeasts determined by IR spectroscopy indicate oxidative

B. Košíková; E. Sláviková

1996-01-01

167

The role of the plasma-membrane Ca 2+ ATPase in Ca 2+ homeostasis in Sinapis alba root hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ has been investigated in growing root-hair cells of Sinapis alba L. with special emphasis on the role of the plasmamembrane Ca2+-ATPase. For this purpose, erythrosin B was used to inhibit the Ca2+-ATPase, and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was applied to manipulate cytosolic free [Ca2+] which was then measured with Ca2+-selective microelectrodes. (i) At 0.01 µM,

Hubert H. Felle; Andrzej Tretyn; Gottfried Wagner

1992-01-01

168

Geomorphic signatures of glacial activity in the Alba Patera volcanic province: Implications for recent frost accumulation on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

landforms lying within impact craters on Mars have led to the identification of two mechanisms for their formation: (1) intermittent deposition of atmospherically emplaced snow/ice during past spin-axis/orbital conditions and (2) flow of debris-covered ice-rich deposits. The maximum presence of the young ice/snow-rich features (thermal contraction crack polygons, gullies, arcuate ridges, and lobate debris tongues) was observed on the pole-facing slope, indicating that this slope was the preferred site for ice/snow accumulation (during the last 10 Ma). In this study, we investigated 30 craters lying in the Alba Patera volcanic province in the latitudinal bands between 45°N and 32.4°N. Morphological comparison of the younger ice/snow-rich features in these craters led us to conclude that glacial/periglacial features in Alba Patera are mainly present within pole-facing slopes of craters lying within 45°N-39°N. The craters lying within 40.2°N-40°N did not show any glacial/periglacial features. We suggest that the formation of these young ice/snow-rich features follows the same orientation trends as those of other older (>10 Ma) glacial features (debris-covered ice/snow-rich large deposits at the base of the crater wall) in the region. The present work has revealed that the onset of physical processes that result in the formation of glacial/periglacial landforms is also dependent on the changes in elevation ranges of the investigated craters in Alba Patera. Our results confirm past inferences for accumulation of ice/snow on Mars and suggest that the period of ice/snow accumulation activity in Alba Patera occurred throughout the Amazonian and lasted until the recent past, i.e., 2.1-0.4 Ma.

Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Murty, Sripada V. S.

2013-08-01

169

Effects of atmospheric COâ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of COâ. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, COâ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems.

R. J. Norby; E. G. ONeill; R. J. Luxmoore

1986-01-01

170

In vitro regeneration of the important North American oak species Quercus alba , Quercus bicolor and Quercus rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American oak species, with their characteristic strong episodic seasonal shoot growth, are highly problematic for clonal\\u000a micropropagation, resulting in the inability to achieve a stabilized shoot multiplication stage. The potential for initiating\\u000a and proliferating shoot cultures derived from Quercus alba, Q. bicolor and Q. rubra explants was investigated, and a micropropagation method for these species was developed. Branch segments

A. M. Vieitez; E. Corredoira; A. Ballester; F. Muñoz; J. Durán; M. Ibarra

2009-01-01

171

Diversity of polyester-degrading bacteria in compost and molecular analysis of a thermoactive esterase from Thermobifida alba AHK119  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 bacterial strains were isolated from composted polyester films and categorized into two groups, Actinomycetes\\u000a (four genera) and Bacillus (three genera). Of these isolates, Thermobifida alba strain AHK119 (AB298783) was shown to possess the ability to significantly degrade aliphatic-aromatic copolyester film as\\u000a well as decreasing the polymer particle sizes when grown at 50°C on LB medium supplemented with

Xiaoping Hu; Uschara Thumarat; Xian Zhang; Ming Tang; Fusako Kawai

2010-01-01

172

Optimized refolding and characterization of S-peroxidase (CWPO_C of Populus alba) expressed in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic cell wall peroxidase (CWPO_C) from poplar tree (Populus alba L) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as an inclusion body. The insoluble inclusion body was solubilized and reactivated via a refolding procedure. The condition for this procedure was optimized by varying the refolding pH, and the concentrations of the oxidizing agent (GSSG), denaturing agent (GndCl), and hemin, respectively. The

Le Thanh Mai Pham; Su Jin Kim; Bong Keun Song; Yong Hwan Kim

2011-01-01

173

Do uniparental sanderlings Calidris alba increase egg heat input to compensate for low nest attentiveness?  

PubMed

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs. PMID:21347377

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-02-09

174

Perforating foreign body in the ventriculus of an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba).  

PubMed

A 4-year-old male umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with a history of ingestion of foreign material from chewing on a household appliance presented for lethargy, inappetance, and regurgitation of 2 days duration. Foreign bodies identified on radiograph included a wire 2 cm in length in the proventriculus, a wire 3 cm in length in the ventriculus, and several pieces of rubber and plastic throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis of a perforating ventricular foreign body was made through plain and contrast radiography. The proventricular wire was removed endoscopically but endoscopic retrieval was not successful in locating the ventricular wire. A ventriculotomy was done to remove the wire, which had perforated the ventriculus cranially and imbedded into the parenchyma of the liver. The wire was extracted from the center of a large nonresectable granuloma that incorporated the left liver lobe. The bird recovered from surgery but died from complications 3 months later. Postmortem examination revealed localized coelomitis and hepatic necrosis associated with the perforation. PMID:23971221

Hoefer, Heidi; Levitan, Diane

2013-06-01

175

Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.  

PubMed

For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms. PMID:23615168

Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

2013-04-24

176

A Temperature-Sensitive Chlorophyll b-Deficient Mutant of Sweetclover (Melilotus alba) 1  

PubMed Central

The ch4 mutant of sweetclover (Melilotus alba) has previously been demonstrated to be partially deficient in chlorophyll and to have a higher ratio of chlorophyll a to b than normal plants. We were able to substantiate these findings when plants were grown at 23°C and lower (permissive temperatures). However, when grown at 26°C (nonpermissive temperature) the plants produced small yellow leaves which exhibited one-twentieth the chlorophyll content of normal plants. Affected leaves did not increase their chlorophyll content when plants were incubated at permissive temperatures, but leaves which developed at the lower temperature contained increased amounts of chlorophyll. Similarly, only new leaves, not previously grown leaves, exhibited the yellow phenotype when the mutant plant was shifted from the permissive temperature to the nonpermissive temperature. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity was decreased by half, relative to normal plants, in the mutant plants grown at the nonpermissive temperature, indicating that general protein synthesis was not greatly impaired and that the effect of the mutation was perhaps specific for chlorophyll content. HPLC analysis indicated that carotenoid content was not diminished to the same extent as chlorophyll and we have determined that the thylakoid protein kinase is not altered, as is the case for other chlorophyll b-deficient mutants. Experiments suggest that changes in photoperiod may be able to modulate the effect of temperature. Images Fig. 1

Markwell, John P.; Danko, Stephen J.; Bauwe, Hermann; Osterman, John; Gorz, Herman J.; Haskins, Francis A.

1986-01-01

177

The Genetic Basis of Sex Ratio in Silene Alba (= S. Latifolia)  

PubMed Central

A survey of maternal families collected from natural populations showed that the sex ratio in Silene alba was slightly female biased. Sex ratio varied among populations and among families within a female biased population. Crosses among plants from the most female biased population and the most male biased population showed that the sex ratio polymorphism was inherited through or expressed in the male parent. Males from one family in particular exhibited a severe female bias, characterized by less than 20% male progeny. The inheritance of sex ratio was investigated using a reciprocal crossing design. Sex ratios from reciprocal crosses were significantly different, indicating either sex-linkage or cytoplasmic inheritance of sex ratio. The sex ratios produced by males generally resembled the sex ratios produced by their male parents, indicating that the sex ratio modifier was Y linked. The maternal parent also significantly influenced sex ratio through an interaction with the genotype of the paternal parent. Sex ratio, therefore, is apparently controlled by several loci. Although sex ratio bias in this species may be due to deleterious alleles on the Y chromosome, it is more likely to involve an interaction between loci that cause the female bias and a Y-linked locus that enhances the proportion of males in the progeny.

Taylor, D. R.

1994-01-01

178

Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal  

PubMed Central

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides.

STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

2009-01-01

179

The radical SAM enzyme AlbA catalyzes thioether bond formation in subtilosin A.  

PubMed

Subtilosin A is a 35-residue, ribosomally synthesized bacteriocin encoded by the sbo-alb operon of Bacillus subtilis. It is composed of a head-to-tail circular peptide backbone that is additionally restrained by three unusual thioether bonds between three cysteines and the ?-carbon of one threonine and two phenylalanines, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that these bonds are synthesized by the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzyme AlbA, which is encoded by the sbo-alb operon and comprises two [4Fe-4S] clusters. One [4Fe-4S] cluster is coordinated by the prototypical CXXXCXXC motif and is responsible for the observed S-adenosylmethionine cleavage reaction, whereas the second [4Fe-4S] cluster is required for the generation of all three thioether linkages. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose a new radical mechanism for thioether bond formation. In addition, we show that AlbA-directed substrate transformation is leader-peptide dependent, suggesting that thioether bond formation is the first step during subtilosin A maturation. PMID:22366720

Flühe, Leif; Knappe, Thomas A; Gattner, Michael J; Schäfer, Antje; Burghaus, Olaf; Linne, Uwe; Marahiel, Mohamed A

2012-02-26

180

Net Photosynthesis and Early Growth Trends of a Dominant White Oak (Quercus alba L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Examination of the relationship between photosynthesis and growth of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.) tree has shown that most growth processes were either completed or well underway before the establishment of significant positive rates of net photosynthesis. Growth was initiated first in the root system (March 3), followed by stem cambial growth (March 26) and later by flower, leaf, and branch growth (April 10). During the period of rapid leaf and branch growth, root and cambial growth ceased and then resumed as the leaves approached maturity. The rapid rate of leaf maturation, the early appearance of positive rates of net photosynthesis in leaves (15% of final size) and the CO2-refixing capability of elongating branch tissue reduced the period of time that this white oak tree was dependent on stored reserves. Lower temperature optima and compensation points in developing leaves and stems indicated that the growth-temperature response was optimized for the lower seasonal temperatures observed during the spring. This temperature adaptation further reduced the time that this tree was dependent on stored reserves. Images

Dougherty, Phillip M.; Teskey, Robert O.; Phelps, John E.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

1979-01-01

181

White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests.  

PubMed

Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg(-1)), zinc (117 mg kg(-1)), lead (63.3 mg kg(-1)), copper (58.0 mg kg(-1)) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg(-1)), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As. PMID:15276282

Madejón, Paula; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M; Robinson, Brett

2004-11-01

182

Do Uniparental Sanderlings Calidris alba Increase Egg Heat Input to Compensate for Low Nest Attentiveness?  

PubMed Central

Birds breeding in cold environments regularly have to interrupt incubation to forage, causing a trade-off between two mutually exclusive behaviours. Earlier studies showed that uniparental Arctic sandpipers overall spend less time incubating their eggs than biparental species, but interspecific differences in size and ecology were potential confounding factors. This study reports on a within-species comparison of breeding schedules and metal egg temperatures in uni- and biparental sanderlings (Calidris alba) in Northeast Greenland in relation to ambient temperature. We recorded incubation schedules with nest temperature loggers in 34 sanderling clutches (13 uniparentals, 21 biparentals). The temperature of a metal egg placed within the clutch of 17 incubating birds (6 uniparentals, 9 biparentals) was measured as an indicator of the heat put into eggs. Recess frequency, recess duration and total recess time were higher in uniparentals than in biparentals and positively correlated with ambient temperatures in uniparentals only. Uniparental sanderlings maintained significantly higher metal egg temperatures during incubation than biparentals (1.4°C difference on average). Our results suggest that uniparental sanderlings compensate for the lower nest attendance, which may prolong the duration of the incubation period and negatively affect the condition of the hatchlings, by maintaining a higher heat flux into the eggs.

Reneerkens, Jeroen; Grond, Kirsten; Schekkerman, Hans; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, Theunis

2011-01-01

183

Cytokinin as a Possible Component of the Floral Stimulus in Sinapis alba  

PubMed Central

Results of previous investigations indicated that one of the early and essential events occurring in the apical meristem of Sinapis alba L. during the transition to flowering is the release to mitosis of the G2 nuclei; the trigger to mitosis is generated in the leaves and its movement out of the leaves begins around 16 hours after the start of the inductive treatment. The mitotic wave in the meristem culminates 10 hours later. In this paper, it is shown that a single application of a cytokinin (benzyladenine or zeatin) at concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 ?g/ml directly to the apical bud of vegetative plants, at a time corresponding to the time of movement of the mitotic trigger in induced plants, produces a mitotic wave which is very similar to that found in induced plants. It is thus proposed that the mitotic component of the floral stimulus in Sinapis is a cytokinin. As the cytokinins are completely unable to induce flowering, it appears that there is a multicomponent floral stimulus in this species.

Bernier, Georges; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Jacqmard, Annie; Havelange, Andree; Bodson, Monique

1977-01-01

184

Emplacement of lava flow fields: Application of terrestrial studies to Alba Patera, Mars  

SciTech Connect

Morphological data are at present the major source of information for extraterrestrial lavas. Effusion conditions must therefore be inferred from the final shapes of flow fields, generally using terrestrial lavas as analogues and so presupposing similar emplacement regimes on Earth and other planets. Studies of terrestrial lavas suggest that the overall development of flow fields is systematic and that a general, normalized relation can be established linking the final dimensions of a flow field (specifically, average thickness and the ratio of maximum width to maximum length) to underlying slope and eruption duration, independent of explicit knowledge of discharge rate, gravitational acceleration, lava density, and rheology. This relation is applied to lavas on the Martian volcano Alba Patera, on which two distinct planimetric types of lava flow fields are identified, and eruption durations, average discharge rates, and average velocities are obtained. Imposing the constraint of a terrestrial emplacement regime, the model yields internally consistent results for subliquidus lavas and suggests that, at least for basaltic-basaltic andesitic compositions, the essential conditions of eruption may have been similar to those currently observed on Earth.

Lopes, R.M.C. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Kilburn, C.R.J. (Centro Sorveglianza, Naples (Italy))

1990-08-30

185

Stress and Flexural Modeling of the Martian Lithospheric Response to Alba Patera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The martian volcano Alba Patera is surrounded by a system of graben which appears to be the result of an extensional stress applied to the region after the construction of the volcano. These faults provide a map of the stress field that created them. We used this information, as well as the recent Goddard spherical harmonic gravity model (GMM-1) and a spherical harmonic representation of the Mars Digital Elevation Model, to constrain models of: (1) the lithospheric flexure under the load of the volcano, (2) the gravitational anomaly due to the volcano, and (3) the magnitude of the extensional stress in the region. We found that elastic lithospheric thicknesses between 10 and 50 km resulted in statistically acceptable fits to the gravity and topography data. We also found that a 1.5-2 kilobar extensional regional stress in conjunction with the axisymmetric stress field of the volcanic load produced a stress field that is consistent with the observed trends of the graben.

Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Melosh, H. Jay

1997-03-01

186

Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  

PubMed

The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

2012-07-01

187

Antioxidant capacity and HPLC-DAD-MS profiling of Chilean peumo (Cryptocarya alba) fruits and comparison with German peumo (Crataegus monogyna) from southern Chile.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with UV detection and electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for the generation of chemical fingerprints and the identification of phenolic compounds in peumo fruits and aerial parts from southern Chile. Thirty three compounds (19 of these detected in C. alba and 23 in C. monogyna) were identified, mainly flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonoid aglycons. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content was measured for both species, and were higher in the extracts from C. monogyna fruits and aerial parts than extracts from C. alba. The fruits of Cryptocarya alba (Chilean peumo) presented high antioxidant capacity (9.12 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay), but was three times lower to that of Crataegus monogyna (German peumo) (3.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL in the DPPH assay). PMID:23385342

Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-02-05

188

Temporal effects on the composition of a population of Sinorhizobium meliloti associated with Medicago sativa and Melilotus alba.  

PubMed

An assessment was made of the impact of temporal separation on the composition of a population of Sinorhizobium meliloti associated with Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a single site that had no known history of alfalfa cultivation. Root nodules were sampled on six occasions over two seasons, and a total of 1620 isolates of S. meliloti were characterized on the basis of phage sensitivity using 16 typing phages. Plant infection tests indicated that symbiotic S. meliloti were deficient in the soil at the time of planting and that these bacteria were present at low density during the first season (<10(2)/g of soil); in the second season numbers increased markedly to about 10(5)/g of soil. Overall, 37 and 51 phage types, respectively, were encountered among the nodule isolates from M. sativa and M. alba. The data indicate significant temporal shifts in the frequency and diversity of types associated with the two legume species. Apparent temporal variation with respect to the frequency of types appeared largely unpredictable and was not attributable to any one sampling time. The results indicate an apparent reduction in phenotypic diversity over the course of the experiment. Differential host plant selection of specific types with respect to nodule occupancy was indicated by significant interactions between legume species and either the frequency or diversity of phage types. Isolates from M. sativa that were resistant to lysis by all typing phages (type 14) were unusual in that they were predominant on this host at all sampling times (between 53% and 82% nodule occupancy) and were relatively homogeneous on the basis of DNA hybridization with 98% of the isolates analysed sharing the same nod EFG hybridization profile. In contrast, those isolates from M. alba comprising type 14 were encountered at low total frequency (2%) and were genetically heterogeneous on the basis of Southern hybridization. The implications of the observed temporal and host plant variation for ecological studies are discussed. PMID:11467732

Bromfield, E S; Butler, G; Barran, L R

2001-06-01

189

Inhibition of Cytotoxicity of Shiga Toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Vero Cells by Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae) and Ziziphus mistol Griseb (Rhamnaceae) Extracts.  

PubMed

The capacity of Prosopis alba Griseb. and Ziziphus mistol Griseb. fruit extracts to inhibit the toxic action of Shiga toxin (Stx) was investigated. Purification of Stx from Escherichia coli O157:H7 was performed by saline precipitation and affinity chromatography using a column with globotriaosylceramide, while the fruits were subjected to ethanolic or aqueous extractions. The protective action of both fruits was determined by pre-, co-, and postincubation of one 50% cytotoxic dose per ml of Stx with different concentrations of ethanolic and aqueous extracts in confluent monolayers of Vero cells for 72 h at 37°C (5% CO2). The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of Stx by fruit extracts was determined by the neutral red vital staining technique. The extraction of the polyphenols and flavonoids was effective, and more polyphenols per milligram of dissolved solids were obtained from P. alba than from Z. mistol. However, there were more flavonoids in Z. mistol than in P. alba. Components of both fruits increased the viability of cells treated with Stx when the extracts were preincubated with Stx for 1 h before being applied to the cell cultures, with the ethanolic extract of P. alba showing 95% cell viability at a concentration of 2.45 mg/ml. The extracts were less effective in protecting cells when Stx, extracts, and cells were coincubated together without a previous incubation of Stx; only the concentrations of 19.46 mg/ml for the P. alba aqueous extract and 3.75 mg/ml for the Z. mistol ethanolic extract resulted in the inhibition of cytotoxicity, with 52 and 56% cell viability occurring, respectively. Investigation into this difference in the protection of cells indicated that the protein molecule of Stx suffered degradation to advanced oxidative protein products during preincubation with extracts, principally with P. alba, which exhibited a greater amount of nonflavonoid polyphenols than Z. mistol. The prooxidant action on Stx favored the cells and enhanced the protective action of both fruits. PMID:24112573

Pellarín, M G; Albrecht, C; Rojas, M J; Aguilar, J J; Konigheim, B S; Paraje, M G; Albesa, I; Eraso, A J

2013-10-01

190

Decomposers and root feeders interactively affect plant defence in Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

Aboveground herbivory is well known to change plant growth and defence. In contrast, effects of soil organisms, acting alone or in concert, on allocation patterns are less well understood. We investigated separate and combined effects of the endogeic earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa and the root feeding nematode species Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita on plant responses including growth and defence metabolite concentrations in leaves of white mustard, Sinapis alba. Soil biota had a strong impact on plant traits, with the intensity varying due to species combinations. Nematode infestation reduced shoot biomass and nitrogen concentration but only in the absence of earthworms. Earthworms likely counteracted the negative effects of nematodes. Infestation with the migratory lesion-nematode P. penetrans combined with earthworms led to increased root length. Earthworm biomass increased in the presence of this species, indicating that these nematodes increased the food resources of earthworms-presumably dead and decaying roots. Nitrogen-based defence compounds, i.e. glucosinolates, did not correlate with nitrogen levels. In the presence of earthworms, concentrations of aromatic glucosinolates in leaves were significantly increased. In contrast, infection with P. penetrans strongly decreased concentrations of glucosinolates (up to 81%). Infestation with the sedentary nematode M. incognita induced aromatic glucosinolates by more than 50% but only when earthworms were also present. Myrosinase activities, glucosinolate-hydrolysing enzymes, were unaffected by nematodes but reduced in the presence of earthworms. Our results document that root-feeding nematodes elicit systemic plant responses in defence metabolites, with the responses varying drastically with nematode species of different functional groups. Furthermore, systemic plant responses are also altered by decomposer animals, such as earthworms, challenging the assumption that induction of plant responses including defence traits is restricted to herbivores. Soil animals even interact and modulate the individual effects on plant growth and plant defence, thereby likely also influencing shoot herbivore attack. PMID:19252930

Lohmann, Maité; Scheu, Stefan; Müller, Caroline

2009-03-01

191

Activity of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) seed meal glucolimnanthin degradation products against soilborne pathogens.  

PubMed

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba L.) is a herbaceous winter-spring annual grown as a commercial oilseed crop. The meal remaining after oil extraction from the seed contains up to 4% of the glucosinolate glucolimnanthin. Degradation of glucolimnanthin yields toxic breakdown products, and therefore the meal may have potential in the management of soilborne pathogens. To maximize the pest-suppressive potential of meadowfoam seed meal, it would be beneficial to know the toxicity of individual glucolimnanthin degradation products against specific soilborne pathogens. Meloidogyne hapla second-stage juveniles (J2) and Pythium irregulare and Verticillium dahliae mycelial cultures were exposed to glucolimnanthin as well as its degradation products. Glucolimnanthin and its degradation product, 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide, were not toxic to any of the soilborne pathogens at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/mL. Two other degradation products, 2-(3-methoxymethyl)ethanethioamide and 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile, were toxic to M. hapla and P. irregulare but not V. dahliae. The predominant enzyme degradation product, 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, was the most toxic compound against all of the soilborne pathogens, with M. hapla being the most sensitive with EC(50) values (0.0025 ± 0.0001 to 0.0027 ± 0.0001 mg/mL) 20-40 times lower than estimated EC(50) mortality values generated for P. irregulare and V. dahliae (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively). The potential exists to manipulate meadowfoam seed meal to promote the production of specific degradation products. The conversion of glucolimnanthin into its corresponding isothiocyanate should optimize the biopesticidal properties of meadowfoam seed meal against M. hapla, P. irregulare, and V. dahliae. PMID:22142246

Zasada, Inga A; Weiland, Jerry E; Reed, Ralph L; Stevens, Jan F

2011-12-16

192

Lysophosphatidate Acyltransferase in the Microsomes from Maturing Seeds of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) 1  

PubMed Central

Lysophosphatidate (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3. 1.51) in the microsomes from the maturing seeds of meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba), nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), palm (Syagrus cocoides), castor bean (Ricinus communis), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus) were tested for their specificities toward 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and oleoyl coenzyme A (CoA) or erucoyl CoA. All the enzymes could use either of the two acyl acceptors and oleoyl CoA, but only the meadowfoam enzyme could use erucoyl CoA as the acyl donor to produce dierucoyl phosphatidic acid (PA). The meadowfoam enzyme was studied further. It had an optimal activity at pH 7 to 8, and its activity was inhibited by 1 millimolar MnCl2, ZnCl2, or p-chloromercuribenzoate. In a test of substrate specificity using increasing concentrations of either 1-oleoyl-LPA or 1-erucoyl-LPA, and either oleoyl CoA or erucoyl CoA, the enzyme activity in producing PA was highest for dioleoyl-PA, followed successively by 1-oleoyl-2-erucoyl-PA, dierucoyl-PA, and 1-erucoyl-2-oleoyl-PA. In a test of substrate selectivity using a fixed combined concentration, but varying proportions, of 1-oleoyl-LPA and 1-erucoyl-LPA, and of oleoyl CoA and erucoyl CoA, the enzyme showed a pattern of acyl preference similar to that observed in the test of substrate specificity, but the preference toward oleoyl moiety in the substrates was slightly stronger. The meadowfoam microsomes could convert [14C]glycerol-3-phosphate to diacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in the presence of erucoyl CoA. The meadowfoam LPA acyltransferase is unique in its ability to produce dierucoyl-PA, and should be a prime candidate for use in the production of trierucin oils in rapeseed via genetic engineering.

Cao, Yi-zhi; Oo, Khaik-Cheang; Huang, Anthony H. C.

1990-01-01

193

Ent-pimarane and ent-trachylobane diterpenoids from Mitrephora alba and their cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane extract of the branches of Mitrephora alba led to the isolation of five diterpenoids: ent-8?-hydroxypimar-15-en-18-oic acid, ent-15,16-dihydroxypimar-8(14)-en-18-oic acid, ent-3?-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid, ent-3?-hydroxytrachyloban-18-al and methyl ent-3?-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oate, together with five related known diterpenoids. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that three ent-trachylobane diterpenes had moderate cytotoxicity against NCI-H187 cancer cells. PMID:23465717

Rayanil, Kanok-on; Limpanawisut, Suphaluck; Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya

2013-05-01

194

Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a significant decrease in the oocyst counting since the 21 th day of life and displayed a reduced number of macroscopic lesions. Histopathological evaluations of cecum fragments showed that both treatments induced the migration of defense cells at the site of infection. A severe destruction of the cecal lining was found in the intestinal tract of broilers fed with a coumestans dose of 180 ppm. Overall, our results validate the use of a phytotherapy containing E. alba coumestans at a dose of 120 ppm as a therapeutic or prophylactic agent against avian coccidiosis. PMID:21177038

Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

2010-11-19

195

La posesión como hecho punible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo estudia el delito de posesión, el cual se extiende semánticamente hasta términos como custodia, mantener disponible, almacenar, etc., y como conminada con la pena se halla la posesión de explosivos, de armas de fuego, de drogas, de pornografía infantil, etc. En este mismo trabajo se analizan, bajo la óptica del Código Penal alemán, cómo las acciones graves o

Friedrich Christian Schroeder

196

Lake Como 1991 Reservoir Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the first extensive survey of Lake Como by Reclamation since construction of Como Dam. The primary objective of the 1991 survey was to gather necessary data for computing the current total and active capacities of Lake ...

R. L. Ferrari

1992-01-01

197

Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains  

PubMed Central

Background The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials Materials and methods In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive). Results All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains. Conclusion The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.

2012-01-01

198

Improvements of Sound Localization Abilities by the Facial Ruff of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) as Demonstrated by Virtual Ruff Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhen sound arrives at the eardrum it has already been filtered by the body, head, and outer ear. This process is mathematically described by the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), which are characteristic for the spatial position of a sound source and for the individual ear. HRTFs in the barn owl (Tyto alba) are also shaped by the facial ruff, a

Laura Hausmann; Mark von Campenhausen; Frank Endler; Martin Singheiser; Hermann Wagner

2009-01-01

199

Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Background: Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, popularly known as “erva-cidreira,” is commonly found in northeastern Brazil. The leaves tea is used to treat digestive disturbances, nausea, cough, and bronchitis. Objective: This work reports the chemical composition and erythromycin-modifying activity by gaseous contact against Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The leaves of L. alba were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the essential oil extracted was evaluated for antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activity by gaseous contact. Results: The overall yield of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was 0.52%. The GC-MS analysis has led to the identification of the main components: geranial (31.4%) and neral (29.5%). It was verified that the essential oil interfered with erythromycin antibiotic activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 was enhanced (221.4%) in the presence of 12% essential oil. The 3% essential oil increased the effect against S. aureus ATCC 25923 (41.6%) and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (58.3%). Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Conclusion: The essential oil of L. alba influences the activity of erythromycin and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

Veras, Helenicy N. H.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Botelho, Marco A.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; da Costa, Jose Galberto M.

2011-01-01

200

Salicylic acid-mediated establishment of the compatibility between Alternaria brassicicola and Brassica juncea is mitigated by abscisic acid in Sinapis alba.  

PubMed

This work addresses the changes in the phytohormonal signature in the recognition of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by susceptible Brassica juncea and resistant Sinapis alba. Although B. juncea, S. alba and Arabidopsis all belong to the same family, Brassicaceae, the phytohormonal response of susceptible B. juncea towards this pathogen is unique because the latter two species express non-host resistance. The differential expression of the PR1 gene and the increased level of salicylic acid (SA) indicated that an SA-mediated biotrophic mode of defence response was triggered in B. juncea upon challenge with the pathogen. Compared to B. juncea, resistant S. alba initiated enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses following challenge with this pathogen, as revealed by monitoring the expression of ABA-related genes along with the concentration of ABA and JA. Furthermore, these results were verified by the exogenous application of ABA on B. juncea leaves prior to challenge with A. brassicicola, which resulted in a delayed disease progression, followed by the inhibition of the pathogen-mediated increase in SA response and enhanced JA levels. Therefore, it seems that A. brassicicola is steering the defence response towards a biotrophic mode by mounting an SA response in susceptible B. juncea, whereas the enhanced ABA response of S. alba not only counteracts the SA response but also restores the necrotrophic mode of resistance by enhancing JA biosynthesis. PMID:23770593

Mazumder, Mrinmoy; Das, Srirupa; Saha, Upala; Chatterjee, Madhuvanti; Bannerjee, Kaushik; Basu, Debabrata

2013-05-21

201

Phytochrome action in light-grown plants: the influence of light quality and fluence rate on extension growth in Sinapis alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using light-grown plants of Sinapis alba an analysis has been made of the effect on extension growth of adding far red light to a background photosynthetic source. It has been possible to distinguish between the increase in fluence rate and the reduction of the amount of phytochrome present as Pfr, which are both consequences of the addition of supplementary far

J. K. Wall; C. B. Johnson

1981-01-01

202

Characterization of a calcium-soluble protein fraction from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal with potential application as an additive to calcium-rich drinks.  

PubMed

A calcium-soluble protein isolate (CSPI) was prepared from the supernatant obtained after addition of 0.75 M calcium chloride to a pH 5.0 aqueous extract of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal. Total amino acid analysis showed that the CSPI has significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of glutamic acid + glutamine, cysteine, and proline when compared to the precipitated, calcium-insoluble proteins. Peptide mass fingerprinting of tryptic peptides of the major polypeptides by mass spectrometry indicated that the CSPI is composed mainly of cruciferin proteins with a contribution from napins (the major allergenic proteins of S. alba). The S. alba CSPI had significantly higher (p < 0.05) protein solubility and emulsion formation ability in the presence of 0.75 M calcium chloride when compared to similar isolates prepared from Brassica juncea (brown mustard) and soybean seed meals. We suggest that the S. alba CSPI could be used to prepare calcium-fortified high protein liquid products. However, the presence of allergenic proteins in this extract may limit its widespread food use. PMID:15366859

Aluko, Rotimi E; Reaney, Martin; McIntosh, Tara; Ouellet, François; Katepa-Mupondwa, Felicitas

2004-09-22

203

Distribution of heavy metals and their age-related changes in the eastern great white egret, Egretta alba modesta , in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ and tissue distribution of eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg) and their age-related changes were investigated in the chick and adult eastern great white egret,Egretta alba modesta, collected in Korea. High concentrations of the metals were found in the liver, kidney, feathers, bone, and skin; low values were found in the muscle and brain. A

Katsuhisa Honda; Byung Yoon Min; Ryo Tatsukawa

1986-01-01

204

The effects of seed size and pericarp on seedling recruitment and biomass in Cryptocarya alba (Lauraceae) under two contrasting moisture regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment success of plants derived from large seeds has been proposed to be greater than that of those derived from smaller ones, particularly under unfavourable conditions of moisture. Therefore, the advantages conferred by large seeds in terms of seedling performance may be modulated by abiotic conditions. The effect of seed size on Cryptocarya alba seedling performance (as determined by seedling

Paulina Chacón; Ramiro O. Bustamante

2001-01-01

205

Effects of hatching asynchrony on sibling negotiation, begging, jostling for position and within-brood food allocation in the barn owl, Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

When siblings differ markedly in their need for food, they may benefit from signalling to each other their willingness to contest the next indivisible food item delivered by the parents. This sib-sib communication system, referred to as 'sibling negotiation', may allow them to adjust optimally to investment in begging. Using barn owl (Tyto alba) broods, I assessed the role of

Alexandre Roulin

2004-01-01

206

Quick comparison of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with monolithic columns and their chemical pattern recognition  

PubMed Central

Background: Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and Cortex Moutan are important Chinese herbs. Their bioactivities and efficacies are similar. However, they have different superior benefits clinically; so, a comprehensive investigation of the chemical difference is necessary and is of great importance for more reasonable quality assessment and proper clinical application of these three herbal medicines. Objective: To establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint method for the quality control of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan, and to compare their main constituents. Materials and Methods: The separations of Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and Cortex Moutan was carried out, respectively, through a gradient elution using a monolithic column and a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 5.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. The data calculation was performed with CHROMAP v1.51 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 18.0 software for principal component analysis. Results: A rapid separation method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) with monolithic columns and a fingerprint analysis method was established. Fifteen Radix Paeonia Alba, 45 Radix Paeonia Rubra, and 21 Cortex Moutan samples were analyzed and 11 chromatographic peaks were identified. Differences of chromatographic peaks among these three herbal medicines in chemical compositions were revealed. Conclusion: The separation and analysis method are fast and simple, which can be used for chemical fingerprint comparison of Radix Paeonia Alba, Radix Paeonia Rubra, and Cortex Moutan. The results for the evaluation of the three medicines could provide experimental evidence for chemical affinity.

Chunnian, He; Yong, Peng; Yuxiong, Feng; Bing, Peng; Zhe, Wang; Peigen, Xiao

2012-01-01

207

The anesthetic efficacy of eugenol and the essential oils of Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla in post-larvae and sub-adults of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Penaeidae).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthesia induction and recovery times of sub-adult and post-larvae white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were treated with eugenol and the essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba and Aloysia triphylla. Oxidative stress parameters in the hemolymph of this species were also analyzed. The concentrations of eugenol, A. triphylla EO and L. alba EO recommended for anesthesia were 200, 300 and 750 ?L L(-1) for sub-adults and 175, 300 and 500 ?L L(-1) for post-larvae, respectively. The concentrations studied during the transport of sub-adults were between 20 and 50 ?L L(-1) eugenol, 20-30 ?L L(-1)A. triphylla EO and 50 ?L L(-1)L. alba EO. For post-larvae, the optimal concentrations for transport were 20 ?L L(-1) eugenol and between 20 and 50 ?L L(-1)A. triphylla EO. The white shrimp sub-adults that were exposed to A. triphylla EO (20 ?L L(-1)) showed increases in their total antioxidant capacities (150%), catalase (70%) and glutathione-S-transferase (615%) activity after 6 h. L. alba EO (50 ?L L(-1)) and eugenol (20 ?L L(-1)) also increased GST activity (1292 and 1315%) after 6 h, and eugenol (20 ?L L(-1)) decreased the total antioxidant capacity (100%). Moreover, concentrations above 30 ?L L(-1) for the EOs of A. triphylla and L. alba and 20 ?L L(-1) eugenol were effective at inducing anesthesia and improving the antioxidant system against reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 6 h. PMID:22198554

Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Heldwein, Clarissa G; de Souza, Diego M; Martins, Átila Clivea; Garcia, Luciano de O; Wasielesky, Wilson; Monserrat, José María; Schmidt, Denise; Caron, Braulio O; Heinzmann, Berta; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

2011-12-16

208

PREFERENCIA DE ÁRBOLES FORRAJEROS POR CABRAS EN LA ZONA BAJA DE LOS ANDES VENEZOLANOS. Goats Preference of Fodder Tree in the Venezuelan Andes Low Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to know the preference of twelve fodder species (Chlo- rophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliri- cidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gi- gantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman) a cafeteria trial was carried out in goats at Trujillo State, Venezuela. An ex- perimental square latin design with evaluation period of

Danny Eugenio García; María Gabriela Medina; Tyrone Clavero; Johny Humbría; Alfredo Baldizán; Carlos Domínguez

2008-01-01

209

Evaluation of the efficacy of Lawsonia alba in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective activity of the 50% ethanol extract of the bark of Lawsonia alba syn. L. inermis was investigated against the carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress. Pretreatment of rats with doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the plant extract significantly (P < 0.001) lowered serum transaminases (GOT and GPT) and LDH levels, respectively, in a dose dependent manner against the significant (P < 0.001) rise of these damage marker enzymes when challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg, orally). Parallel to these changes, the plant extract prevented CCl4-induced oxidative stress by significantly maintaining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), its metabolizing enzymes and simultaneously inhibiting the production of free radicals. Pretreatment of rats with the extract also inhibited the peroxidation of microsomal lipids in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:10687871

Ahmed, S; Rahman, A; Alam, A; Saleem, M; Athar, M; Sultana, S

2000-02-01

210

Recovery Plan: Four Plants of the Lower Apalachicola Region, Florida, 'Euphorbia telephioides' (Telephus spurge), 'Macbridea alba' (White birds-in-a-nest), 'Pinguicula ionantha' (Godfrey's butterwort), 'Scutellaria floridana' (Florida skullcap).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This recovery plan covers four herbaceous plants from the lower Apalachicola region of the Florida panhandle. Three of them were added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants together: Euphorbia telephioides (Telephus spurge), Macbridea alba (whit...

1994-01-01

211

Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.  

PubMed

The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch. PMID:20228027

Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

2010-01-01

212

Responses of antioxidative systems to acute ozone stress in transgenic poplar ( Populus tremula × P. alba ) over-expressing glutathione synthetase or glutathione reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-type hybrid poplar (Populus tremula 2 P. alba) plants and transgenic lines over-expressing glutathione reductase (GR) either in the cytosol (ca. 5-fold) or in the chloroplast (150- to 200-fold) or glutathione synthetase (GSS) in the cytosol (ca. 200-fold) were exposed for 3 days to ambient air or air containing 300 nl l-1 ozone for 7 h day-1. The contents and

Michael Strohm; Monika Eiblmeier; Christian Langebartels; Lise Jouanin; Andrea Polle; Heinrich Sandermann; Heinz Rennenberg

2002-01-01

213

Aminoacid biosynthesis in the cotyledons of Sinapis alba L. in darkness and far-red light studied by deuterium labelling and mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of deuterium from deuterium oxide into the free amino acids of the cotyledons of Sinapis alba L. was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and was similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively, after incubation of the seedlings in darkness or far-red light. The results support studies which show that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) is synthesised de novo, rather than

N. M. Shaw; K. R. Parsley; D. D. Davies

1985-01-01

214

Climatic signal in annual growth variation of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) and spruce ( Picea abies Karst.) from the French Permanent Plot Network (RENECOFOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the growth\\/climate relationships in earlywood, latewood and total ring-width chronologies of five Norway\\u000a spruce (Picea abies) and six silver fir (Abies alba) stands sampled in the French permanent plot network (RENECOFOR) (327 trees). The relationships between climate and ring\\u000a widths were analyzed using extreme growth years, simple correlations and response functions analysis (bootstrapped coefficients).\\u000a Monthly climatic regressors

François Lebourgeois

2007-01-01

215

Influence of elemental sulfur, micronutrients, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and potassium on growth of Prosopis alba on high pH soils in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial on 3-year-old Prosopis alba growing on pH 8.5 soils in Argentina was conducted to identify mineral nutrients that were most limiting growth and to determine correlations among these nutrients. As applications of nutrients such as Zn, Cu and P would be soon rendered unavailable due to the high pH, combinations of elemental S to decrease the pH

M. Velarde; P. Felker; D. Gardiner

2005-01-01

216

Fatty-acid synthesis in chloroplasts from mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) cotyledons: formation of acetyl coenzyme A by intraplastid glycolytic enzymes and a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplasts from the cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings were isolated on Percoll gradients, and showed a high degree of intactness (92%) and purity as judged by electron microscopy and marker-enzyme analysis (cytoplasmic contamination lower than 0.4% on a protein basis). The chloroplasts synthesized longchain fatty acids from both precursors [1-14C] acetate and [2-14C]pyruvate; maximum incorporation rates were 96

B. Liedvogel; R. Bfiuerle

1986-01-01

217

Evaluation of MAT-vector system in white poplar ( Populus alba L.) and production of ipt marker-free transgenic plants by ‘single-step transformation’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic transformation of an elite white poplar genotype (Populus alba L., cv. ‘Villafranca’) was performed with MAT vectors carrying the ipt and rol genes from Agrobacterium spp. as morphological markers. The effects associated with the use of different gene promoters and distinct in vitro regeneration\\u000a protocols were evaluated. Poplar plantlets showing abnormal ipt and rol phenotypes were produced only in the

Samanta Zelasco; Valentina Ressegotti; Massimo Confalonieri; Daniela Carbonera; Paolo Calligari; Martina Bonadei; Stefano Bisoffi; Keiko Yamada; Alma Balestrazzi

2007-01-01

218

Activity of myrosinase from Sinapis alba seeds immobilized into Ca-polygalacturonate as a simplified model of soil-root interface mucigel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-polygalacturonate is a demethoxylated component of pectins which are constitutive of plant root mucigel. In order to define\\u000a the role of root mucigel in myrosinase immobilization and activity at root level, a myrosinase enzyme which had been isolated\\u000a from Sinapis alba seeds was immobilized into Ca-polygalacturonate. The activity profile for the immobilized and free enzyme was evaluated using\\u000a the pH-Stat

Ilaria Braschi; Onofrio Leoni; Susanna Cinti; Sandro Palmieri; Carlo Emanuele Gessa

2011-01-01

219

Detection of celery ( Apium graveolens ), mustard ( Sinapis alba , Brassica juncea , Brassica nigra ) and sesame ( Sesamum indicum ) in food by real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation requires labelling of foods containing allergic ingredients, amongst them celery, mustard and sesame. Here we\\u000a present robust quantitative and sensitive methods for real-time PCR detection of celery, mustard (Sinapis alba and Brassica sp.) and sesame in food. The development of the DNA-based assays was part of an effort to generate alternative detection\\u000a methods for allergens for which effective protein-based

S. Mustorp; C. Engdahl-Axelsson; U. Svensson; A. Holck

2008-01-01

220

Daily consumption of Indian spinach (Basella alba) or sweet potatoes has a positive effect on total-body vitamin A stores in  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent evidence suggests that the vitamin A equiv- alency of -carotene from plant sources is lower than previously estimated. Objective: We assessed the effect of 60 d of daily supplementation with 750g retinol equivalents (RE) of either cooked, puréed sweet potatoes; cooked, puréed Indian spinach (Basella alba); or synthetic sources of vitamin A or-carotene on total-body vitamin A stores

Marjorie J Haskell; Kazi M Jamil; Ferdaus Hassan; Janet M Peerson; George J Fuchs; Kenneth H Brown

221

Occurrence of two cell subpopulations with different cell-cycle durations in the central and peripheral zones of the vegetative shoot apex of Sinapis alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell-cycle duration and the growth fraction were estimated in the vegetative shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba L. The length of the cell cycle was about 86 h, i.e. 2.5 times shorter than the cell-doubling time (M. Bodson, 1975, Ann. Bot. 39, 547–554) and the growth fraction was between 32 to 41%. These data demonstrated that the cell population

R. Gonthier; A. Jacqmard; G. Bernier

1985-01-01

222

Ex vivo effects of flavono?ds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Beh?et's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD) is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1) cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages.

2011-01-01

223

Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence mixed deciduous forests became important. Preliminary results of palynological analyses for a section of the core S2 (35.04 - 18.12 m), show Late Glacial sediments in the depth of 35.04 - 31.16 m, due to vegetation changes related to natural climatic variability, with an alternation of communities typical of cold (Poaceae, Artemisia, Juniperus, Pinus and Betula) and temperate climates (e.g. Quercus). Later, during the Holocene, forests composed by mostly deciduous broadleaves and Abies alba expanded. During the mid and late Holocene human impact increased and modified vegetation. This is shown by the increase of herbs and heliofilous shrubs (26.51 m), typical of deforested spaces for fields and pastures. Human exploitation of wood is represented for example by the dramatic decline of Abies alba (24.97 m). Finally, the increase of Cerealia (19.39 m) is clearly related to intensified agricultural activities. The results of further paleobotanical and geophysical analyses which are in progress will be presented during the conference. Moreover, geochemical measurements (e.g., XRF) will be performed in future for core S2. Researches realized within the project of Italy-Switzerland Cooperation SITINET "Censimento, valorizzazione e messa in rete di siti geologici e archeologici" (Census, increase of value and computerization of geological and archaeological sites). Interreg IV A "Geo-Archeositi dell'Insubria" (Geo-Archaeosites of Insubria).

Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

2012-04-01

224

Cell death induction and nitric oxide biosynthesis in white poplar (Populus alba) suspension cultures exposed to alfalfa saponins.  

PubMed

The present work reports on the biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins on white poplar (Populus alba, cultivar 'Villafranca') cell suspension cultures. The extracts from alfalfa roots, aerial parts and seeds were characterized for their saponin content by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and electrospray ionisation coupled to mass spectrometry. The quantitative saponin composition from the different plant extracts was determined considering the aglycone moieties and determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses. Only soyasapogenin I was detected in the seed extract while several other saponins were found in the root and leaf extracts. Actively proliferating white poplar cell cultures were challenged with the different saponin extracts. Only alfalfa root saponins, at 50 µg ml?¹, induced significant cell death rates (75.00 ± 4.90%). Different cell subpopulations with peculiar cell death morphologies were observed and the programmed cell death (PCD)/necrosis ratio was reduced at increasing saponin concentrations. Enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) production was observed in white poplar cells treated with root saponins (RSs) at 50 µg ml?¹ and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the culture medium was also demonstrated. Saponin-induced NO production was sensitive to sodium azide and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, two specific inhibitors of distinct pathways for NO biosynthesis in plant cells. PMID:21128946

Balestrazzi, Alma; Agoni, Valentina; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Biazzi, Elisa; Raimondi, Elena; Macovei, Anca; Carbonera, Daniela

2010-12-30

225

Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols containing very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties in developing seeds. [Lunaria annua L. ; Sinapis alba L  

SciTech Connect

Particulate (15,000g) fractions from developing seeds of honesty (Lunaria annua L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) synthesize radioactive very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids (gadoleic, erucic, and nervonic) from (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA or from oleoyl-CoA and (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA. The very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are rapidly channeled to triacylglycerols and other acyl lipids without intermediate accumulation of their CoA thioesters. When (1-{sup 14}C)oleoyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids are most extensively radiolabeled by oleoyl moieties rather than by very long chain monounsaturated acyl moieties. When (2-{sup 14}C)malonyl-CoA is used as the radioactive substrate, no radioactive oleic acid is formed and the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids are extensively incorporated into phosphatidylcholines and other phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols. The pattern of labeling of the key intermediates of the Kennedy pathway, e.g. lysophosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, and diacylglycerols by the newly synthesized very long chain monounsaturated fatty acids is consistent with the operation of this pathway in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols.

Fehling, E.; Murphy, D.J.; Mukherjee, K.D. (H.P. Kaufmann Institute, Muenster (West Germany))

1990-10-01

226

Histological, cytological and biochemical alterations induced by microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin in white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings.  

PubMed

This study compares the histological, cytological and biochemical effects of the cyanobacterial toxins microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, with special regard to the developing root system. Cyanotoxins induced different alterations, indicating their different specific biochemical activities. MCY-LR stimulated mitosis of root tip meristematic cells at lower concentrations (1 ?g ml-1) and inhibited it at higher concentrations, while CYN had only inhibitory effects. Low CYN concentrations (0.01 ?g ml-1) stimulated lateral root formation, whereas low MCY-LR concentrations increased only the number of lateral root primordia. Both inhibited lateral root development at higher concentrations. They induced lignifications, abnormal cell swelling and inhibited xylem differentiation in roots and shoots. MCY-LR and CYN induced the disruption of metaphase and anaphase spindles, causing altered cell divisions. Similar alterations could be related to decreased protein phosphatase (PP1 and PP2A) activities in shoots and roots. However, in vitro phosphatase assay with purified PP1 catalytic subunit proved that CYN in contrast to MCY-LR, decreased phosphatase activities of mustard in a non-specific way. This study intends to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of toxic effects of a protein phosphatase (MCY-LR) and a protein synthesis (CYN) inhibitory cyanotoxin in vascular plants. PMID:23567832

Máthé, C; Vasas, G; Borbély, G; Erd?di, F; Beyer, D; Kiss, Andrea; Surányi, G; Gonda, S; Jámbrik, Katalin; M-Hamvas, Márta

2013-03-01

227

Michelia alba extract attenuates UVB-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases via MAP kinase pathway in human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause skin photoaging by inducing secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It has been reported that MMPs, especially MMP-1, -3 and -9, reduce elasticity of the dermis by degrading collagen. Polyphenols are a group of compounds that exist mainly in glycosides in the plants and they may transform to aglycone after hydrolysis. Polyphenols can inhibit MMP expression and elastase activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Michelia alba extract (MAE) on expression and activity of MMPs in human skin fibroblast cultures after UVB exposure. The results showed that MAE and its hydrolysates (MAH) inhibited collagenase and elastase activities. In addition, MAE exhibited antioxidant activity, elevated hyaluronic acid content and inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression. In addition, the zymography assay revealed that MAE also inhibited MMP-9 activity. We also found that MAE inhibited UVB-induced ERK and JNK kinase but not p38 kinase expression, suggesting that MAE may regulate the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 via the ERK and JNK kinase pathway. MAE could restore total collagen synthesis reduced by UVB. The results also suggest that MAE treatment may prevent UVB-induced extracellular matrix damage by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 through the MAP kinase pathway. Our findings imply that MAE is an effective agent against UVB-induced photodamage. PMID:22922035

Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Lin, Tsen-Jung; Shih, I-Chen; Wen, Kuo-Ching

2012-08-17

228

Dark respiration and carbohydrate status of two forest species grown in elevated carbon dioxide. [Liriodendron tulipifera L. ; Quercus alba L  

SciTech Connect

Carbon assimilation is often increased by CO{sub 2} enrichment, but the response of dark respiration and carbohydrate metabolism to elevated CO{sub 2} is less well documented. The authors examined the diurnal response of these two processes in yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedling exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment under field conditions. One-year-old seedlings of yellow-poplar and white oak were grown in open-top chambers and exposed to ambient, +150 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, or +300 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} concentrations. After 24 weeks, mature leaves of yellow-poplar and white oak seedlings grown at high CO{sub 2} showed a 37% and 52% reduction in nighttime respiration, respectively. Morning starch levels for yellow-poplar and white oak grown at +300 {mu}mol mol{sup {minus}1} increased 72% and 40%, respectively, compared to ambient-grown plants. Yellow-poplar and white oak seedlings grown at high CO{sub 2} contained 17% and 27% less morning sucrose, respectively than did plants grown at ambient CO{sub 2} concentration. Starch accumulation and the subsequent depletion of sucrose for plants grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, resulted in a pronounced rise in the starch/sucrose ratio with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. The diurnal pattern of dark respiration suggested that a relationship with carbohydrate status might exist.

Wullschleger, S.D.; Norby, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hendrix, D.L. (Western Cotton Research Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1991-05-01

229

Spatial and temporal changes in abundance of the infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba (Lamarck, 1818) during a time of drought in the seasonally-closed Hopkins River Estuary, Victoria, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infaunal bivalve Soletellina alba is susceptible to mass mortalities during annual winter flooding in the Hopkins River Estuary, southern Australia. Periods of low salinity (?1) are the likely cause of these mass mortality events, which can occur in seasonally-closed estuaries when high winter flows are sufficient to flush all salt water from the estuary. Core samples of S. alba were collected from two water depths across four times and at three sites near the mouth of the estuary. Minimal to zero abundances of large S. alba (>1 mm) were expected to be sampled, particularly at the shallower water depth, during a typical winter flood event. However, the present study occurred during a period of drought, which led to the absence of winter flooding. This absence of winter flooding prevented the occurrence of lethal salinities (i.e. ?1) in the estuary during this period and a greater number of living S. alba adults were sampled. Abundances of juvenile and adult S. alba were still variable, even in the absence of winter flooding, and reflected an interaction between date, site and water depth. However, no mass mortalities of adults were observed during the drought conditions in contrast to what occurs during typical winter flood events and provides support for the hypothesis that winter flooding is responsible for past mass mortalities.

Matthews, T.

2006-01-01

230

Hydraulic traits are associated with the distribution range of two closely related Mediterranean firs, Abies alba Mill. and Abies pinsapo Boiss.  

PubMed

Abies alba and Abies pinsapo are two closely related fir species that occur in the Iberian Peninsula under very different environmental conditions. Abies alba proliferates in the humid European mountains, including the Spanish Pyrenees. In contrast, A. pinsapo is a relict species that occurs in some restricted areas of the Mediterranean mountain ranges in Spain and Morocco, which experience intense summer drought periods. To cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand during summer, A. pinsapo may either have a high resistance to xylem cavitation or develop a very efficient conducting system to reduce the soil-to-leaf water potential gradient. To investigate such hypotheses, we measured (i) the xylem vulnerability to cavitation for different populations, and (ii) several anatomical and hydraulic parameters indicating xylem sufficiency for -supplying water to the shoot in two contrasting populations of both species. Our results show that the resistance to cavitation was not different between species or populations. However, hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)), leaf-specific conductivity (LSC) and whole-shoot hydraulic conductance (K(shoot)) were higher in A. pinsapo, indicating a higher efficiency of water transport, which should contribute to maintaining its xylem tension below the threshold for rapidly increasing cavitation. The higher K(s) in A. pinsapo was largely a result of its wider tracheids, suggesting that this species may be much more vulnerable to freeze-thaw-induced cavitation than A. alba. This is consistent with the absence of A. pinsapo in northern mountain ranges with cooler winters. These physiological differences could partly explain the niche segregation and the geographical separation of these two firs. PMID:21937669

Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Cochard, Hervé; Barredo, Gonzalo; Villarroya, Dido; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

2011-09-21

231

Temporal Evolution of Volcanic Eruption, Fluvial Drainage Systems and Faulting on the Northwest Flank of Alba Patera as Revealed by Photogeological Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Alba Patera is the largest volcano in aerial extent in the solar system (˜6.8 km high and >1000 km in radius), the geologic processes responsible for shaping its exceedingly low-angle flanks remain poorly constrained. These flanks are covered in lava flows, valleys and both radial and annular grabens. Previous attempts, limited by the resolution of the satellite images, assume that the annular grabens formed during the terminal stage of volcanic development whereas surface water flow occurred in the early stage of volcanic construction. In this study, we analyze high-resolution CTX satellite images in conjunction with digital topographic data from MOLA. Our work reveals complex cross cutting relationships between faults, drainage network development and lava flows on the northwestern flank of Alba Patera. We observe a minimum of three generations of lava flows, three generations of drainage channels and three generations of faults. Mutual and successive cross-cutting relationships between drainage channels and faults indicate that the tectonic processes responsible for creating grabens on the volcano flank operated continuously and were coeval with drainage formation. The lava flows are observed to be the oldest geomorphic features and the third generation of faults as the youngest geomorphic features in our mapped region. Crater counting indicates that the surface within the mapped region is Amazonian in age. An analysis of the crater densities reveals a decline in crater densities from the south to the north section of the mapped region. This could be attributed to resurfacing in the north due to sediments deposited by northward flowing drainage channels. Crater counting age estimates for the south section yield a result of ˜ 1.74 Ga, +/- 0.12 Ga and ˜ 1.35 Ga, +/- 0.26 Ga for the north section. Hence, the younger age estimates of the northern surface could help further constrain the age of the drainage channels and faults on the northwest flank of Alba Patera.

Chowdhury, Diya

232

Chemical, ultrastructural and supramolecular analysis of tension wood in Populus tremula x alba as a model substrate for reduced recalcitrance  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is one of the most abundant potential sustainable sources for fuel and material production, however to fully realize this potential an improved understanding of lignocellulosic recalcitrance must be developed. In an effort to appreciate the underlying phenotypic, biochemical and morphological properties associated with the reduced recalcitrance observed in tension stress-induced reaction wood, we report the increased enzymatic sugar yield and corresponding chemical and ultrastructural properties of Populus tension wood. Populus tremula x alba (PTA) was grown under tension and stem segments containing three different wood types: normal wood (NW), tension wood (TW) from the elongated stem side and opposite wood (OW) from the compressed stem side were collected. A variety of analytical techniques were used to describe changes occurring as a result of the tension stress-induced formation of a gelatinous cell wall layer (G-layer). For example, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose in TW is greater than that of cellulose acquired from NW. Whole cell ionic liquid and other solid-state NMR analysis detailed the structure of lignin and hemicellulose in the samples, detecting the presence of variations in lignin and hemicellulose sub-units, linkages and semi-quantitatively estimating the relative amounts of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PB) monolignol units. It was confirmed that TW displayed an increase in PB or H-like lignin and S to G ratio from 1.25 to 1.50 when compared to the NW sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) were also used to evaluate the morphology and corresponding spatial distribution of the major lignocellulosic components. We found changes in a combination of cell wall properties appear to influence recalcitrance more than any single factor alone.

Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Hubbell, Christopher A [ORNL; Samuel, Reichel [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Ding, Shi-You [ORNL; Zeng, Yining [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Sykes, Virginia R [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

2011-01-01

233

Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents applied to plants, urban run-off, mining, soil erosion, sewage effluents, air pollution fallout and other sources. Plants can be affected directly by air pollutants, as well as indirectly through the contamination of soil and water. At the same time, plant is a member of the food chain and may create a risk for man and animals through contamination of food supplies. In recent years a considerable progress has been made in the assay of trace elements in environmental plant samples. For higher plants, the accumulation of metals, especially cadmium, was tested when plants grew on sewage sludge-amended soils or in soils of cadmium residues from phosphate fertilizers. No reports were accessible to us on the direct effect of tested metals (Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Cd) on seed germination and root growth. The paucity of literature initiated our present work. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the acute toxicity of five metals (Cr[sup 6+], Cd[sup 2+], Hg[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], As[sup 5+]) which are widely spread in the environment and are widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. As the testing subject, mustard seeds (Sinapis alba) were used and their germination and root growth were observed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

Fargasova, A. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czech Republic))

1994-03-01

234

Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.  

PubMed

Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry. PMID:21834225

Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

2011-07-01

235

Subcellular Localization of 2-(beta-d-Glucosyloxy)-Cinnamic Acids and the Related beta-glucosidase in Leaves of Melilotus alba Desr.  

PubMed

The distribution of the glucosides of trans- and cis-2-hydroxy cinnamic acid and of the beta-glucosidase which hydrolyzes the latter glucoside was examined in preparations of epidermal and mesophyll tissue obtained from leaves of sweet clover (Melilotus alba Desr.). The concentrations of glucosides in the two tissues were about equal when compared on the basis of fresh or dry weight. Inasmuch as the epidermal layers account for no more than 10% of the leaf volume, the mesophyll tissue contains 90% or more of the glucosides. Vacuoles isolated from mesophyll protoplasts contained all of the glucosides present initially in the protoplasts.The specific activities of the beta-glucosidase in the two tissues were also similar; thus, most of the enzyme is contained in mesophyll tissue. However, the amount of enzyme in mesophyll protoplast extracts amounts to only 1 to 2% of the activity present in leaf homogenates when chlorophyll was the basis for comparison. (This small amount of coumarin-beta-glucosidase present in protoplasts is not associated with chlorophyll-containing fractions.) In contrast, 90% of the uridine diphosphate glucose-o-coumaric acid glucosyl transferase activity present in leaf homogenate was recoverable in protoplasts prepared from intact leaves. Such results indicate that most of the coumarin-beta-glucosidase in M. alba leaves is located in the extracytoplasmic space. Only a small fraction (7%) of this extra cytoplasmic beta-glucosidase was associated with individual cells or cell clusters isolated from clover leaves. PMID:16662108

Oba, K; Conn, E E; Canut, H; Boudet, A M

1981-12-01

236

Community structure and temporal variability of juvenile fish assemblages in natural and replanted mangroves, Sonneratia alba Sm., of Gazi Bay, Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The juvenile fish community associated with natural, degraded and replanted Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay was sampled during the South East and North East monsoons between April 2002 and June 2003. A total of 1800 individuals belonging to 49 taxa and 34 families were collected from the intertidal forest using stake nets. Fish abundance ranged from 0.93 ± 0.20 ind. m-2 (SEM02) to 1.16 ± 0.18 ind. m-2 (SEM03) between seasons and between 0.54 ± 0.07 ind. m-2 and 1.64 ± 0.33 ind. m-2 for individual sites across seasons. Five taxa accounted for approximately 70% of the total fish abundance, with Gobidae and Gerres oyena dominating. ANOSIM revealed seasonal differences in fish species composition and abundance (p = 0.01) due to fluctuating abundances of primarily Terapon sp. and Thryssa sp. The majority (65%) of fishes were reef associates, which implies a tight coupling between mangroves and coral reefs. The high proportion (75%) of commercial species indicates that fringing S. alba mangroves of Gazi Bay are important in sustaining coastal fisheries in the area. The fact that the replanted mangroves of Gazi Bay harbor a significant number of commercially important species as juveniles suggest their function as nursery habitats for nekton may well have been restored. This study is original in quantitatively evaluating the use of replanted intertidal mangroves by juvenile fish in the West Indian Ocean; a topic poorly studied worldwide to date.

Crona, B. I.; Rönnbäck, P.

2007-08-01

237

Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L.  

PubMed

In this study, biological activities of methanolic extracts from Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. plants, collected in Centre of Tunisia, were investigated. Results showed an important phenolic composition of Artemisia herba-alba (123.95±4.3g GAE/kg of dry mass). The extract of this plant showed, using different antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and AAPH/linoleic acid methods) and an IFN-?/LPS induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages' assay, the highest antioxidant (IC50 (DPPH assay) 20.64±0.84mg/L) and anti-inflammatory (72% inhibition at 150mg/L) activities, respectively. Excepting Peganum harmala L. extract, the two other extracts showed a high anticancer activity against several cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma Hep2 and human myelogenous leukemia K562), for A. herba-laba IC50=81.59±4.4, 59.05±3.66 and 90.96mg/L respectively, but not on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All these biological activities are well correlated with the phenolic contents of these extracts. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of these plants as valuable source of antioxidants with exhibit original and interesting anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacities. PMID:23333573

Khlifi, Daycem; Sghaier, Rabiaa Manel; Amouri, Sameh; Laouini, Dhafer; Hamdi, Mokhtar; Bouajila, Jalloul

2013-01-16

238

Se(IV) phytotoxicity for monocotyledonae cereals (Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum aestivum L.) and dicotyledonae crops (Sinapis alba L., Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

The phytotoxicity of Se(IV) was determined through root and shoot growth inhibition, biomass (dry (DM), fresh (FM)) production, water content, photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) levels and Se accumulation in the roots and shoots. The sensitivities of monocotyledonae (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum) and dicotyledonae plants (Sinapis alba, Brassica napus) were also compared. Except for H. vulgare, Se(IV) inhibited root growth more than shoot growth. As for biomass production, Se reduced both FM and DM of all studied plants' roots. Although in shoots FM was decreased with increased Se concentration, DM was reduced only in monocotyledonae plants (H. vulgare, T. aestivum). No significant differences between roots and shoots were confirmed for the DM/FM relationship, except for S. alba seedlings. In all of the tested plants, except for B. napus, chlorophyll b was the strongest reduced pigment. Accumulation of Se was higher in the roots than in the shoots of all studied plants. Selenium concentration in the roots was at least 3-times higher than that in controls. Se(IV) accumulation in the shoots was not significantly different from that in controls. The exception was confirmed only for B. napus (87 mg Se(IV)l(-1)) and T. aestivum (36 mg Se(IV)l(-1)). PMID:19709809

Molnárová, Marianna; Fargasová, Agáta

2009-08-06

239

Characterization of five new low-molecular-mass trypsin inhibitors from white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed.  

PubMed

Five new low-molecular-mass trypsin inhibitors belonging to the RTI/MTI-2 family were identified from white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ; MTI-2) seed. Purified MTI-2 consisted of a peptide mixture, displaying Ile or Arg at position 43, Trp or kynurenine (Kyn) at position 44, and C-terminal ragged ends. The occurrence of Ile or Arg at position 43 suggested that MTI-2 inhibitors originated from different genes. The presence of 5-oxo-proline (pyroglutamic acid; 5-oxoPro1) and Kyn44 reflected post-translational processing of the serine proteinase inhibitor. MTI-2 showed approximately 70% amino-acid identity with low-molecular-mass trypsin inhibitors isolated from oil rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera; RTI-III) seed and with serine proteinase inhibitors mapped in Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome II (ATTI). Furthermore, MTI-2 was homologous to brazzein, the sweet-tasting protein from Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon fruit ( approximately 30% amino-acid identity). Although snake-venom toxins showed a low amino-acid identity (< 20%) with MTI-2, RTI-III, and ATTI, some structurally relevant residues were conserved. The disulfide bridge pattern of MTI-2 (Cys5-Cys27, Cys18-Cys31, Cys42-Cys52, and Cys54-Cys57) corresponded to that of RTI-III and of snake-venom toxins, being different from that of brazzein. Therefore, protein similarity might be attributable to the three-dimensional arrangement rather than to the amino-acid sequence. Values of Ka for MTI-2 binding to bovine beta-trypsin (trypsin) and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin were 6.3 x 109 M-1 and 2.0 x 106 M-1, respectively, at pH 8.0 and 21.0 degrees C. Moreover, values of kon for MTI-2 binding to trypsin and of koff for the dissociation of the serine proteinase:inhibitor complex were 5.6 x 105 M-1.s-1 and 8.9 x 10-5 M-1.s-1, respectively, at pH 8.0 and 21.0 degrees C. Despite the heterogeneity of the purified inhibitor peptide mixture, the inhibition properties of the different MTI-2 inhibitors were indistinguishable. PMID:11029593

Ruoppolo, M; Amoresano, A; Pucci, P; Pascarella, S; Polticelli, F; Trovato, M; Menegatti, E; Ascenzi, P

2000-11-01

240

The relationship between isoprene emission rate and dark respiration rate in white poplar (Populus alba L.) leaves.  

PubMed

In past studies, it was hypothesized that reductions in chloroplast isoprene emissions at high atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were caused by competition between cytosolic and mitochondrial processes for the same substrate, possibly phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). We conducted field and laboratory experiments using leaves of white poplar (Populus alba L.) to identify whether an inverse relationship occurs between the dark respiration rate (a mitochondrial process) and the isoprene emission rate. Field experiments that were carried out in a free-air CO(2)-enriched (FACE) facility showed no clear effect of elevated CO(2) on either isoprene emission rate or respiration rate by leaves. In young, not yet fully expanded leaves, low isoprene emission and high dark respiration rates were measured in both ambient and elevated CO(2). In these leaves, isoprene emission was inversely correlated with dark respiration. It is possible to interpret from these results that, in young leaves, high rates of growth respiration compete with isoprene biosynthesis for the same substrate. However, it is also possible that the negative correlation reflects the contrasting reductions in growth respiration and increases in expression of the enzyme isoprene synthase at this final stage of leaf maturation. In contrast to our observations on young leaves, respiration rate and isoprene emission rate were positively correlated in older, fully expanded leaves (8 and 11 from apex). A positive correlation was also found between respiration rate and isoprene emission rate when these parameters were modulated using different ozone exposure, growth light intensity, growth temperature and exposure to different leaf temperatures in laboratory experiments. These data show that competition for substrate between isoprene biosynthesis and leaf respiration does not determine the rate of isoprene emission in most circumstances that affect both processes. A negative correlation was observed across all experiments between isoprene emission rate and the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc), a cytosolic enzyme that competes with isoprene biosynthesis for substrate. The cytosolic metabolite, PEP, occurs at a metabolic branch point from which substrate flows into three processes: (1) the production of pyruvate for mitochondrial respiration, (2) the production of oxaloacetate (OAA) by PEPc for anabolic support of mitochondrial respiration and (3) transport into the chloroplast to support chloroplastic demands for pyruvate, including isoprenoid biosynthesis. The results of our observations suggest that only the second process competes for substrate with isoprenoid synthesis, while the partitioning of PEP between mitochondrial respiration and chloroplast isoprenoid biosynthesis is controlled in a way that retains balance in substrate demand. PMID:17407543

Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro; Barta, Csengele; Calfapietra, Carlo; Fares, Silvano; Monson, Russell K

2007-05-01

241

The influence of pH on concentrations of protein and phenolics and resource quality of decomposing floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L. (Nymphaeaceae) for the detritivore Asellus aquaticus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescent floating leaf material of Nymphaea alba L., collected in an acidified moorland pool, was used in decomposition studies in two aquatic systems that differed greatly in pH, alkalinity and nutrient concentration. Concentrations of extractable protein and phenolics in the decomposing leaf material were measured during the incubation period. Protein levels were not significantly different in the leaf material from

C. J. Kok; C. H. J. Hof; J. P. M. Lenssen; G. Velde

1992-01-01

242

alba36.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new international vortal portal boasts over 50,000 entries. The site indexes vertical portals (vortals), subject-specific search sites, and other key search tools in five languages (English, German, Spanish, French, and Italian). The entries are organized under six headings: Current & Regional Events, Culture, Society, Entertainment, Trade & Economics, and Knowledge, with the 36 most-requested sub-topics given pride of place on the front page. Users can also search for a category by keyword. Links can be listed in order of popularity or alphabetically by site name and include short descriptions along with flags indicating languages used at the site. Users can also subscribe to receive a free weekly email featuring "the top 36 of the best web sites." An interesting tool that is especially notable for its coverage of non-English language sites.

243

Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to analysis for ß-glucosidase, invertase and CM-cellulase activity. The main physical and chemical properties of the soils were also determined (total C and N contents, pH in water and in KCl, texture, etc) and the apparent density measured to enable the results to be expressed per unit of weight as well as per unit of volume. The mean values of total C and N in the afforested soils were slightly higher than in the cropped soils, independently of whether the results were expressed relative to weight or volume. The differences were not significant in any of the cases. Afforestation appeared to cause small increases in ß-glucosidase and invertase activities, but a decrease in CM-cellulase activity. Again the same results were obtained independently of whether the values were expressed per unit of weight or volume. The same was also found when the values were expressed relative to the N content of the soils, but when the values were expressed relative to the total C content, the ß-glucosidase activity was found to be the same in afforested and cropped soils. The greater availability of plant remains as the result of the change in land use may have favoured increased activity of enzymes that act on the most readily decomposable substrates (ß-glucosidase and invertase), which in turn would generate an increase in the substrates available for microorganisms, and possibly contribute to the higher respiratory activity observed in these soils (García-Campos et al., 2010, EGU General Assembly, Session 13). Acknowledgements. This research was financially supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (CGL2008-01992/BTE).

Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, M? Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

2010-05-01

244

Xanalteric acids I and II and related phenolic compounds from an endophytic Alternaria sp. isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia alba.  

PubMed

Two new 10-oxo-10H-phenaleno[1,2,3-de]chromene-2-carboxylic acids, xanalteric acids I (1) and II (2), and 11 known secondary metabolites were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia alba collected in China. The metabolites were confirmed to be of fungal origin, and the structures of the new natural products were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic studies and mass spectrometric analysis. The two new compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Altenusin (3) displayed broad antimicrobial activity against several additional multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:19835393

Kjer, Julia; Wray, Victor; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Ebel, Rainer; Pretsch, Alexander; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

2009-11-01

245

(1)H and (13)C NMR assignments of eight nitrogen containing compounds from Nocardia alba sp.nov (YIM 30243(T)).  

PubMed

An unprecedented new natural product named nocarsin A (1), 5H-4a,6,7a-triazacyclopenta[cd]indene-5,7(6H)-dione (1), together with seven known compounds lumichrome (2), cyclo (L-Leu-L-Tyr) (3), cyclo (L-Ala-L-Ile) (4), cyclo (L-Ala-L-Leu) (5), cyclo (L-Val-L-Ala) (6), 5-methyluracil (7) and uracil (8), was isolated from Nocardia alba sp.nov (YIM 30243(T)), which was isolated from a soil sample collected from Yunnan Province, P. R. China. NMR techniques including COSY, HSQC, ROESY, and HMBC were used to elucidate the structures of these compounds. We report the unambiguous assignments of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the new compound nocarsin A (1). PMID:19165845

Ding, Zhang-Gui; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Yang, Pei-Wen; Li, Ming-Gang; Huang, Rong; Cui, Xiao-Long; Wen, Meng-Liang

2009-04-01

246

Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.  

PubMed

Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC. PMID:21299139

Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

2010-12-01

247

Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze.  

PubMed

Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer. PMID:22358424

Hatano, V Y; Torricelli, A S; Giassi, A C C; Coslope, L A; Viana, M B

2012-02-25

248

ENOD40 Gene Expression and Cytokinin Responses in the Nonnodulating, Nonmycorrhizal (Nod?Myc?) Mutant, Masym3, of Melilotus alba Desr.  

PubMed Central

Several nonnodulating, nonmycorrhizal (Nod?Myc?) mutants of Melilotus alba Desr. (white sweetclover) have been described. However, the details of their responses to Sinorhizobium meliloti have not been fully elucidated. We investigated rhizobial entry and colonization using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy on the Masym1–5 mutants and isolated an early nodulin (ENOD40) gene from wild-type M. alba. We focused on Masym3, the least responsive of the mutants to S. meliloti and VA-fungi, to determine its response to cytokinin. Cytokinin appears to be a downstream signal in the nodule developmental pathway based not only on our previous observations whereby Nod?Myc? alfalfa roots treated with cytokinin accumulated several ENOD gene transcripts, but also on recent reports showing the importance of cytokinin receptors for nodulation. Here we show that applying 10?6 M 6-benzylaminopurine to uninoculated Masym3 roots elicited ENOD40 transcript accumulation. In addition, Masym3 root hairs inoculated with either wild-type S. meliloti or Nod? S. meliloti expressing the trans-zeatin synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens exhibited tip swelling, suggesting that cytokinin mediated this response. However, Masym3 root hair tips swelled following inoculation with Nod? S. meliloti or after mock-inoculation, a response resembling the phenotype of root hairs, after handling, of the Medicago truncatula mutant, dmi2. Mtdmi2 is Nod?Myc? due to a defect in a gene encoding a Nodule Receptor Kinase (NORK). Like Mtdmi2, the root hair swelling response appears in part to be mediated by touch because Masym3 root hairs not contacted by either bacteria or drops of water or buffer remain elongated and do not exhibit tip swelling.

Lee, Angie; Lum, Michelle R

2007-01-01

249

Benzo[ a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba×matsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15–20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over

Jeremy A. Rentz; Pedro J. J. Alvarez; Jerald L. Schnoor

2005-01-01

250

Rechenverfahren des optischen Korrektionsprogrammms "COMO". Teil 1.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COMO is a program of an orthogonalization type that was developed in order to achieve that each elementary correction step makes immediate use of the shortest possible step in the system data space even if many rigid boundary conditions are to be taken into account (optimization under constraints). COMO usually does not correct aberrations simultaneously (by minimization), but one after the other. The order is given by the optical designer. For each aberration (paraxial data included) one can either specify a target value or a bandwidth between a lower and an upper limit.

Marx, H.

1989-03-01

251

Distribution, Status and Habitat Utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park District Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to gather information about the distribution, population, presence and habitat utilization of Alectoris chukar in Machiara National Park. Surveys were usually scheduled early in the morning (5 to 8 AM) and at evening (3 to 6 PM). The areas, which Alectoris chukar occupied, had dominant vegetation of Morus alba, Barberes lycium, Acacia arabica, Ficus palmata, Acacia

MOHAMMAD NAEEM AWAN; MIR MOHAMMAD SALEEM; M. SIDDIQUE AWAN; KHAWAJA BASHARAT

252

Efficient and low cost devices for solar energy conversion: Efficiency and stability of some natural-dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-sensitized solar cells, named by us Dye-Cells, are one of the most promising devices for solar energy conversion due to their reduced production cost and low environmental impact, especially those sensitized by natural dyes. The efficiency and stability of devices based on natural sensitizers such as mulberry (Morus alba Lam), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Lam), and jaboticaba's skin (Mirtus cauliflora Mart)

A. O. T. Patrocínio; S. K. Mizoguchi; L. G. Paterno; C. G. Garcia; N. Y. Murakami Iha

2009-01-01

253

A multiresidue method for the determination 234 pesticides in Korean herbs using gas chromatography mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method based on dispersive solid phase extraction sample preparation and gas chromatography with the mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of 234 pesticides in Korean herbs (Acanthopanax senticosus, Morus alba L., Hovenia dulcis) has been developed. Method recoveries were found to be between 62 and 119% with relative standard deviation lower than 21% for

Thanh Dong Nguyen; Kyung Jun Lee; Myoung Hee Lee; Gae Ho Lee

2010-01-01

254

Analysis of Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, and Phenolic Acid Contents of Ten Fruits and Antioxidant Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).

Supachai Samappito; Luchai Butkhup

2010-01-01

255

Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.  

PubMed

Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

2006-05-01

256

Impact of amoco cadiz oil spill on the muddy fine sand Abra alba and Melinna palmata community from the Bay of Morlaix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen quantitative quarterly samples of the Abra alba-Melinna palmata community from the Bay of Morlaix (France) were taken from August 1977 to August 1980. The quantitative and qualitative changes in the community subsequent to the Amoco Cadiz oil pollution (March 1978) could thus be studied. Hydrocarbons were present in the sediments in exceptionally high quantities for more than a year after the oil spill, and then they decreased sharply. The numbers of species in the community increased as a whole during the 3 years' observation; in fact, a regular increase in the species numbers in polychaetes was observed, compensating for a reduction in the species numbers in amphipods after the oil pollution. Some species that disappeared after April 1978 have not yet re-appeared. Density and biomass showed important seasonal variations, with summer maxima and winter minima and with a net dominance by the polychaete populations, particularly of Chaetozone setosa. During the first annual cycle after the pollution, there was a sharp increase in the density of some species which were present in very low (Mediomastus fragilis, Tharyx marioni) or very high (Chaetozone setosa) numbers before the pollution. Neither Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness indices nor Gray's log-normal diagram were useful in describing the effects of the pollution on the community structure. The present study shows that, under such conditions, it is often difficult to employ highly synthetic methods to expose a perturbation in the structure of a benthic community.

Dauvin, Jean-Claude

1982-05-01

257

Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Quercus alba Seedlings in Nutrient-Poor Soil 1  

PubMed Central

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO2. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO2 enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO2. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO2, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO2. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO2-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO2 concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO2 may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO2 enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand.

Norby, Richard J.; O'Neill, Elizabeth G.; Luxmoore, R. J.

1986-01-01

258

Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1?-Induced NF-?B Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1? for up to 72?h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), ?1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation by inhibition of I?B? phosphorylation, I?B? degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-?B targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1?-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, ?1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1?. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1?-induced NF-?B activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-?B plays pathophysiological roles.

Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

2012-01-01

259

Enhanced expression of glutamine synthetase (GS1a) confers altered fibre and wood chemistry in field grown hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X alba) (717-1B4).  

PubMed

Hybrid poplar (Populus tremula X P. alba) genetically engineered to express the pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene (GS1a) has been previously shown to display desirable field performance characteristics, including enhancements in growth and nitrogen use efficiency. Analysis of wood samples from a 3-year-old field trial of three independently transformed GS1a transgenic hybrid poplar lines revealed that, when compared with wild-type controls, ectopic expression of GS1a resulted in alterations in wood properties and wood chemistry. Included were significant enhancements in wood fibre length, wood density, microfibre angle, per cent syringyl lignin and elevated concentrations of wood sugars, specifically glucose, galactose, mannose and xylose. Total extractive content and acid-insoluble lignin were significantly reduced in wood of GS1a transgenics when compared with wild-type trees. Together, these cell wall characteristics resulted in improved wood pulping attributes, including improved lignin solubilization with no concurrent decrease in yield. Trees with increased GS1a expression have improved characteristics for pulp and paper production and hold potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. PMID:22672155

Coleman, Heather D; Cánovas, Francisco M; Man, Huimin; Kirby, Edward G; Mansfield, Shawn D

2012-06-02

260

UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis as a powerful technique for rapidly exploring potential chemical markers to differentiate between radix paeoniae alba and radix paeoniae rubra.  

PubMed

To explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for differentiating Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, a method is proposed based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Batches of commercial samples were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The datasets of t(R)-m/z pair, ion intensities and sample codes were further processed with orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to compare holistically the difference between these two kinds of samples. Then statistics were used to generate an S-plot, in which the variables (t(R)-m/z pair) contributing most to the difference were clearly depicted as points at the two ends of "S", and the components correlated to these ions should be regarded as the chemical markers. The identities of the most changed markers can be identified by comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of known compounds published in the literature. Using this proposed approach, albflorin, paeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, galloylalbiflorin and paeoniflorigenone were found to be the differentiating components for discrimination of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra. Moreover, paeoniflorin sulfonate and its isomer, isomaltopaeoniflorin sulfonate, were found to be the characteristic markers for all Radix Paeoniae Alba samples that were processed by sulfurdioxide gas fumigation. The results suggested that this newly established approach could be used to explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for herbs with similar chemical characteristics. PMID:23738461

Luo, Nian-Cui; Ding, Wen; Wu, Jing; Qian, Da-Wei; Li, Zhen-Hao; Qian, Ye-Fei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao

2013-04-01

261

Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

2007-12-01

262

Redox states of glutathione and ascorbate in root tips of poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) depend on phloem transport from the shoot to the roots  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) are important antioxidants that are involved in stress defence and cell proliferation of meristematic root cells. In principle, synthesis of ASC and GSH in the roots as well as ASC and GSH transport from the shoot to the roots by phloem mass flow is possible. However, it is not yet known whether the ASC and/or the GSH level in roots depends on the supply from the shoot. This was analysed by feeding mature leaves with [14C]ASC or [35S]GSH and subsequent detection of the radiolabel in different root fractions. Quantitative dependency of root ASC and GSH on shoot-derived ASC and GSH was investigated with poplar (Populus tremula×P. alba) trees interrupted in phloem transport. [35S]GSH is transported from mature leaves to the root tips, but is withdrawn from the phloem along the entire transport path. When phloem transport was interrupted, the GSH content in root tips halved within 3?d. [14C]ASC is also transported from mature leaves to the root tips but, in contrast to GSH, ASC is not removed from the phloem along the transport path. Accordingly, ASC accumulates in root tips. Interruption of phloem transport disturbed the level and the ASC redox state within the entire root system. Diminished total ASC levels were attributed mainly to a decline of dehydroascorbate (DHA). As the redox state of ASC is of particular significance for root growth and development, it is concluded that phloem transport of ASC may constitute a shoot to root signal to coordinate growth and development at the whole plant level.

Herschbach, Cornelia; Scheerer, Ursula; Rennenberg, Heinz

2010-01-01

263

Perfluoroalkyl substances in soft tissues and tail feathers of Belgian barn owls (Tyto alba) using statistical methods for left-censored data to handle non-detects.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in tail feathers and soft tissues (liver, muscle, preen gland and adipose tissue) of barn owl (Tyto alba) road-kill victims (n=15) collected in the province of Antwerp (Belgium). A major PFAS producing facility is located in the Antwerp area and levels of PFASs in biota from that region have been found to be very high in previous studies. We aimed to investigate for the first time the main sources of PFASs in feathers of a terrestrial bird species. Throughout this study, we have used statistical methods for left-censored data to cope with levels below the limit of detection (LOD), instead of traditional, potentially biased, substitution methods. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all tissues (range: 11ng/g ww in muscle-1208ng/g ww in preen oil) and in tail feathers (<2.2-56.6ng/g ww). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was measured at high levels in feathers (<14-670ng/g ww), but not in tissues (more than 50%

Jaspers, Veerle L B; Herzke, Dorte; Eulaers, Igor; Gillespie, Brenda W; Eens, Marcel

2012-12-23

264

Effects of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the growth and mineral nutrition of Quercus alba seedlings in nutrient-poor soil  

SciTech Connect

One-year-old dormant white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings were planted in a nutrient-deficient forest soil and grown for 40 weeks in growth chambers at ambient (362 microliters per liter) or elevated (690 microliters per liter) levels of CO/sub 2/. Although all of the seedlings became severely N deficient, CO/sub 2/ enrichment enhanced growth by 85%, with the greatest enhancement in root systems. The growth enhancement did not increase the total water use per plant, so water-use efficiency was significantly greater in elevated CO/sub 2/. Total uptake of N, S, and B was not affected by CO/sub 2/, therefore, tissue concentrations of these nutrients were significantly lower in elevated CO/sub 2/. An increase in nutrient-use efficiency with respect to N was apparent in that a greater proportion of the limited N pool in the CO/sub 2/-enriched plants was in fine roots and leaves. The uptake of other nutrients increased with CO/sub 2/ concentration, and P and K uptake increased in proportion to growth. Increased uptake of P by plants in elevated CO/sub 2/ may have been a result of greater proliferation of fine roots and associated mycorrhizae and rhizosphere bacteria stimulating P mineralization. The results demonstrate that a growth response to CO/sub 2/ enrichment is possible in nutrient-limited systems, and that the mechanisms of response may include either increased nutrient supply or decreased physiological demand. 30 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.

1986-01-01

265

Description of Labrenzia alexandrii gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll a, and a proposal for reclassification of Stappia aggregata as Labrenzia aggregata comb. nov., of Stappia marina as Labrenzia marina comb. nov. and of Stappia alba as Labrenzia alba comb. nov., and emended descriptions of the genera Pannonibacter, Stappia and Roseibium, and of the species Roseibium denhamense and Roseibium hamelinense.  

PubMed

A slightly pink-coloured strain, strain DFL-11(T), was isolated from single cells of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium lusitanicum and was found to contain the genes encoding two proteins of the photosynthetic reaction centre, pufL and pufM. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strain belonged to the alpha-2 subgroup of the Proteobacteria and was most closely related to Stappia aggregata (97.7 % similarity), Stappia alba (98.0 %) and Stappia marina (98.0 %). Dark-grown cells of strain DFL-11(T) contained small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a (bchl a) and a carotenoid. Cells of strain DFL-11(T) were rods, 0.5-0.7 x 0.9-3.0 microm in size and motile by means of a single, subpolarly inserted flagellum. The novel strain was strictly aerobic and utilized a wide range of organic carbon sources, including fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and sugars. Biotin and thiamine were required as growth factors. Growth was obtained at sea salt concentrations of between 1 and 10 % (w/v), at a pH between 6 and 9.2 and at a temperature of up to 33 degrees C (optimum, 26 degrees C). Nitrate was not reduced and indole was not produced from tryptophan. Strain DFL11(T) was resistant to potassium tellurite and transformed it to elemental tellurium. The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q10). The polar lipids comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified aminolipid and the glycolipid sulphoquinovosyldiacylglyceride. The fatty acids comprised 16 : 1 omega7c, 16 : 0, 18 : 1 omega7c, 18 : 0, 11-methyl 18 : 1 omega6t, 11-methyl 20 : 1 omega6t, 20 : 1 omega7c, 22 : 0, 22 : 1 and the hydroxy fatty acids 3-OH 14 : 0, 3-OH 16 : 0 (ester-linked), 3-OH 18 : 0, 3-OH 20 : 1 and 3-OH 20 : 0, all of which are amide-linked. The DNA G+C value was 56 mol%. Comparative analysis of alpha-2 subgroup 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the type species of the genus Stappia, Stappia stellulata, is only distantly related to S. aggregata (95.3 % sequence similarity). Based on the combination of the 16S rRNA gene sequence data, a detailed chemotaxonomic study and the biochemical and physiological properties of members of the genera Stappia, Pannonibacter and Roseibium, it is proposed that S. aggregata, S. alba, S. marina are transferred to a new genus, Labrenzia gen. nov., as Labrenzia aggregata comb. nov., Labrenzia alba comb. nov. and Labrenzia marina comb. nov. The type species of the new genus is Labrenzia alexandrii sp. nov., with strain DFL-11(T) (=DSM 17067(T)=NCIMB 14079(T)) as the type strain. The pufLM genes of the photosynthesis reaction centre were shown to be present in some, but not all, species of the new genus Labrenzia and they were identified for the first time in S. stellulata. In accordance with the new data collected in this study, emended descriptions are provided for the genera Pannonibacter, Roseibium and Stappia. PMID:17473266

Biebl, Hanno; Pukall, Rüdiger; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Schulz, Stefan; Allgaier, Martin; Tindall, Brian J; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

2007-05-01

266

Management of Lake Como: a multiobjective analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a heuristic approach for improving the performance of multipurpose reservoirs that have already been in operation for a certain number of years. The main characteristic of the method is that the analyst must first learn from the past experience of the manager and synthesize it into a simple operating rule. Then, the analyst must point out, with the help of the manager, what the acceptable modifications of such a rule are. After this has been accomplished, the optimal improvements of the operating rule can be obtained by using standard optimization techniques. Quite satisfactory results have been obtained by applying this approach to Lake Como (Northern Italy), which has been regulated since the end of World War II. In fact, the method shows that both flood protection on the lake shores and water supply to the downstream agricultural areas can be substantially improved, without lowering the mean yearly electricity production of the downstream run-of-river plants. For this reason the operating rule proposed by the method has been programmed on a microcomputer, which is now used every day by the manager as an essential support for his final decision. This and the fact that other actions suggested by this analysis have indeed been undertaken by the local authorities gave to this study the chance to have a positive and direct impact on the lake management.

Guariso, G.; Rinaldi, S.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

1986-02-01

267

An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration system for leaf explants of two elite aspen hybrid clones Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana.  

PubMed

Transgenic technology has been successfully used for gene function analyses and trait improvement in cereal plants. However, its usage is limited in woody plants, especially in the difficult-to-transform but commercially viable hybrid poplar. In this work, an efficient regeneration and transformation system was established for the production of two hybrid aspen clones: Populus alba × P. berolinensis and Populus davidiana × P. bolleana. A plant transformation vector designed to express the reporter gene uidA, encoding ?-glucuronidase (GUS), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was used to detect transformation event at early stages of plant regeneration, and to optimize the parameters that may affect poplar transformation efficiency. Bacterium strain and age of leaf explant are two major factors that affect transformation efficiency. Addition of thidiazuron (TDZ) improved both regeneration and transformation efficiency. The transformation efficiency is approximately 9.3% for P. alba × P. berolinensis and 16.4% for P. davidiana × P. bolleana. Using this system, transgenic plants were usually produced in less than 1 month after co-cultivation. The growth characteristics and morphology of transgenic plants were identical to the untransformed wild type plants, and the transgenes could be inherited by vegetative propagation, as confirmed by PCR, Southern blotting, RT-PCR and ?-glucuronidase staining analyses. The establishment of this system will help to facilitate the studies of gene functions in tree growth and development at a genome level, and as well as the introduction of some valuable traits in aspen breeding. PMID:21717184

Wang, Haihai; Wang, Cuiting; Liu, Hua; Tang, Renjie; Zhang, Hongxia

2011-06-30

268

Involvement of cytochrome P450 in oxime production in glucosinolate biosynthesis as demonstrated by an in vitro microsomal enzyme system isolated from jasmonic acid-induced seedlings of Sinapis alba L.  

PubMed Central

An in vitro enzyme system for the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been established by the combined use of an improved isolation medium and jasmonic acid-induced etiolated seedlings of Sinapis alba L. An 8-fold induction of de novo biosynthesis of the L-tyrosine-derived p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was obtained in etiolated S. alba seedlings upon treatment with jasmonic acid. Formation of inhibitory glucosinolate degradation products upon tissue homogenization was prevented by inactivation of myrosinase by addition of 100 mM ascorbic acid to the isolation buffer. The biosynthetically active microsomal enzyme system converted L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and the production of oxime was strictly dependent on NADPH. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme system were 346 microM and 538 pmol per mg of protein per h, respectively. The nature of the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of amino acid to oxime in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates has been subject of much speculation. In the present paper, we demonstrate the involvement of cytochrome P450 by photoreversible inhibition by carbon monoxide. The inhibitory effect of numerous cytochrome P450 inhibitors confirms the involvement of cytochrome P450. This provides experimental documentation of similarity between the enzymes converting amino acids into the corresponding oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4

Du, L; Lykkesfeldt, J; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A

1995-01-01

269

Radix Paeoniae Rubra and Radix Paeoniae Alba Attenuate CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury: An Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) Based Metabolomic Approach for the Pharmacodynamic Study of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs).  

PubMed

Metabolomics has been frequently used in pharmacodynamic studies, especially those on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra are popularly used in TCM, and both have hepatoprotective effects. In this study, a CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury rat model was established and confirmed by the observed serum aminotransferase activities. The metabolomics approach was applied to study the influence of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra on the metabolic changes in rats with acute liver injury. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of rat serum and their ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) fingerprints allowed discrimination of controlled, acute liver injury-model rats after administration of the two types of TCMs. The time-dependent PLS-DA plots showed that the changes in the metabolic patterns of the rats, which were administered with the TCMs, had stabilized within 2 h after they received the intraperitoneal CCl(4) injection. The results indicated the protective effect of TCMs against liver injury. Several potential biomarkers were detected and identified, which included creatine, deoxycholic acid, choline, 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate, folic acid, and glycocholic acid. The physiological significance of these metabolic changes was discussed. PMID:23203085

Wang, Rui; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Teng, Zhong-Qiu; Yang, Qi-Wei; Shi, Yan-Hong; Yang, Li

2012-11-09

270

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Xin-Pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-Yang; Cao, Liang

2013-08-19

271

Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb.

Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

2013-01-01

272

Cuticular uptake of xenobiotics into living plants. Part 2: influence of the xenobiotic dose on the uptake of bentazone, epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin, applied in the presence of various surfactants, into Chenopodium album, Sinapis alba and Triticum aestivum leaves.  

PubMed

This study has determined the uptake of three pesticides, applied as commercial or model formulations in the presence of a wide range of surfactants, into the leaves of three plant species (bentazone into Chenopodium album L. and Sinapis alba L., epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin into Triticum aestivum L.). The results have confirmed previous findings that the initial dose (nmol mm(-2)) of xenobiotic applied to plant foliage is a strong, positive determinant of uptake. This held true for all the pesticide formulations studied, although surfactant concentration was found to have an effect. The lower surfactant concentrations studied showed an inferior relationship between the amount of xenobiotic applied and uptake. High molecular mass surfactants also produced much lower uptake than expected from the dose uptake equations in specific situations. PMID:16718743

Forster, W Alison; Zabkiewicz, Jerzy A; Liu, Zhiqian

2006-07-01

273

Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 ?g/mL to 79 ?g/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs.

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

274

In vitro antioxidant properties of indigenous underutilized fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of methanol extracts from 10 underutilized fruits viz., Syzygium cumini, Murraya koenigii, Coccinia grandis, Opuntia dillenii, Carissa carandus, Kirganalia reticulata, Canthium parviflorum,\\u000a Lantana camara, Alangium lamarckii, and Morus alba were evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2?azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium

Nataraj Loganayaki; Sellamuthu Manian

2010-01-01

275

Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland  

SciTech Connect

The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Rural Development and Technology

1996-10-01

276

Effect of leaf ration on dietary water budget of the larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori and eri silkworm Philosamia ricini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary water intake in penultimate two instars of silkwormBombyx mori and eri silkwormPhilosamia ricini fedad libitum on mulberry leafMorus alba and castor leafRicinus communis respectively at 26±2°C is reported. The lower ration level results in accumulation of water content in the body of insects.\\u000a The water retention efficiency (per cent of absorbed water retained in the body) increases with the

M R Delvi; P G Radhakrishna; Noor Pasha

1988-01-01

277

Oxyresveratrol as the Potent Inhibitor on Dopa Oxidase Activity of Mushroom Tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyresveratrol (2,3?,4,5?-tetrahydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found inMorus albaL., exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis. Oxyresveratrol with 0.3 to 5 ?M exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitions (25 to 84%) on the enzyme activity, where 50% of inhibition was shown at the concentration of about 1 ?M. Oxyresveratrol

Nam-Ho Shin; Shi Yong Ryu; Eun Ju Choi; Seh-Hoon Kang; IL-Moo Chang; Kyung Rak Min; Youngsoo Kim

1998-01-01

278

Effect of replacement of concentrate mixture with isonitrogenous leaf meal mixture on growth, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing concentrate mixture with leaf meal mixture of Leucaena leucocephala–Melia azedarach–Morus alba in equal proportion on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen metabolites in growing goats using completely randomized design. Twelve male non-descript goats were divided into two groups, control and experimental, consisting of six animals in each group. The control

Ajit Pal; R. K. Sharma; Ravindra Kumar; K. Barman

2010-01-01

279

LA BIO?TICA COMO QUEHACER FILOS?FICO  

PubMed Central

El artículo examina el estatuto epistemológico de la bioética como disciplina académica. El autor sostiene que el estatuto epistemológico de un discurso lo determina la pregunta fundamental que se plantea y la respuesta que se busca, focos integradores del discurso. En el caso de la bioética, la pregunta fundamental es de índole moral. La bioética es pues una disciplina ética que tiene su hogar epistemológico en la filosofía. El autor también defiende el concepto de “éticas aplicadas”. Sugiere finalmente que el método de la bioética, sobre todo la que se hace desde nuestras latitudes, debería adoptar el círculo hermenéutico como metodología para su filosofar.

Ferrer, Jorge Jose

2009-01-01

280

Infância, exclusão social e educação como utopia realizável  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A infância, como construção social, tem sofrido, no decurso da 2ª modernidade, processos de reinstitucionalização que, em larga medida, põem em causa as representações e imagens das crianças, dominantes nos últimos 200 anos. A análise da (re)construção das identidades sociais e das subjectividades infantis constitui, desse modo, uma tarefa teórica da mais exigente actualidade. O que, entretanto, aqui se

Manuel Jacinto Sarmento

2002-01-01

281

Adorno, arte e educação: negócio da arte como negação  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O eixo temático desta investigação trata de compreender que a obra de arte corporifica na sua forma interna uma autonomia relativa com relação à realidade empírica sobre a qual se torna refle- xão crítica. Ao se caracterizar como mediação com a realidade social que a produziu, a arte é por isso mesmo a sua negação. É esse princí- pio

Luiz Hermenegildo Fabiano

2003-01-01

282

PIER PAOLO PASOLINI E O CINEMA COMO POESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O artigo visa a tecer algumas considerações acerca da noção de linguagem cinematográfica de Pasolini tomando como referência seu texto Il cinema di poesia. O objetivo é conhecer aspectos da percepção estética e política desse intelectual e refletir sobre o objetivo de Pasolini de mostrar que o cinema é a linguagem expressiva da realidade. A poesia está no modo

Ana Paula Schlesener

283

From Como to Copenhagen: The Beginnings and Ends of Complementarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the transformation of Bohr's interpretation of quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, known as complementarity, from the version presented in his famous Como lecture (1927), which introduced complementarity, to a new version that was developed by Bohr shortly thereafter, in part under the impact of his intervening exchanges with Einstein. While the existence of more than one version of Bohr's complementarity (and of still different versions of the Copenhagen interpretation by others) has been noted, Bohr's rethinking itself of complementarity has rarely been adequately addressed. Apart from refining and indeed correcting the Como argument, the transformation in question was, I argue, defined by a shift from a more philosophical to a more experimental argument. My aim is to explore both this shift and the complexity of the relationships between physics and philosophy in Bohr's thinking in order to understand better the beginnings and the ends, also in the sense of aims, of Bohr's complementarity.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2007-12-01

284

Applicant Services in COMO: Analysis of Data from the U.S. Training and Employment Service Applicant Follow-Up Survey (COMO Data Analysis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study evaluates services provided to job-applicants by the 'COMO' (Comprehensive Model) model Employment Service Offices. One-month follow-up data was collected on samples of ES applicants in 6 COMO cities and 3 non-COMO cities at different points in ...

1973-01-01

285

O trabalho como principio educativo e o trabalho na forma social do capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O texto tem como finalidade analisar criticamente a concepção do trabalho como princípio educativo no interior da forma social do capital. À luz da contribuição teórica de Marx, sobretudo em O Capital, discute o significado das três categorias fundantes de trabalho ? trabalho concreto, trabalho abstrato e trabalho produtivo ?, bem como a relação de contradição que ocorre entre

Paulo Sergio Tumolo

286

Efetividade da reabilitação pulmonar como tratamento coadjuvante da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Introdução: O paciente portador de DPOC diminui sua atividade física global devido a piora progressiva da função pulmonar como conseqüência de qualquer forma de esforço físico por ele realizado. A reabilitação pulmonar (RP) é utilizada nos EUA e Europa como alternativa terapêutica no tratamento da DPOC. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do programa de RP como tratamento coadjuvante da DPOC.

SÉRGIO LEITE RODRIGUES; CARLOS ALBERTO DE ASSIS VIEGAS; TEREZINHA LIMA

2002-01-01

287

LA ORALIDAD COMO EXPRESIÓN DE LA CULTURA POPULAR TRADICIONAL EN LA COMUNIDAD LA JOSEFA EN CAONAO  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente artículo tiene como título: “La oralidad como expresión de la cultura popular tradicional en la comunidad La Josefa en Caonao” se centra en analizar la significación de la tradición oral para la comunidad de la Josefa. Sobre la base de los conceptos de cultura, cultura identitaria y tradición se analiza a la tradición oral como expresión de la

Yoanelys Mirabal Pérez; Lahera Alejandre

2011-01-01

288

Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account.

Lans, Cheryl A

2006-01-01

289

A TV Digital Interativa como Ferramenta de Apoio à Educação Infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Televisão Digital e Interativa (TVDI) deve revolucionar o mundo das mídias digitais de forma similar à inserção da televisão há cinqüenta anos ou a Web na última década. Na fase atual de discussão do tema, é importante não apenas considerar aspectos técnicos, como também os impactos sociais dessa tecnologia no nosso País. O governo brasileiro coloca a educação como

C. A. S. Santos; Tatiana Aires

2007-01-01

290

DE VIAJES Y MIEDOS: LA AGORAFOBIA COMO UNA FORMA DE CONTROL ECONÓMICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es describir casos análogos de fobia o miedo a los viajes en otras culturas y tiempos diferente a los modernos. En este sentido, consideramos que tanto la cultura aymará como la vida en la antigua roma nos proveen de ejemplos suficientes para considerar a la fobia a los viajes como un problema en extensión. Por

Maximiliano Korstanje

2008-01-01

291

El desarrollo de la escucha como habilidad para comprender, a partir de la asignatura inglés  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo aborda una problemática actual al profundizar en el desarrollo de la habilidad Escuchar como habilidad para comprender, se hace una sistematización de conocimientos teóricos sobre la temática, se intenta mostrar cómo una actividad común de audición encontrada en la mayoría de los libros de texto modernos de la enseñanza del EFL (inglés como idioma extranjero), puede ser explotada

Rafael Lorenzo Hechavarría Pérez

2011-01-01

292

In vitro hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of some indigenous plants.  

PubMed

Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has ancient herbal treatment methods. Present work is based on the study of six indigenous plants Eugenia jambolana, Lawsonia inermis, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum graecum which show the inhibitory effect of glucose utilization, and are in use as hypoglycemic agents of varying degree in traditional system of medicine. The glucose uptake activity of (methanolic extracts) of these plants was tested in vitro and glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method. The results in three different media revealed that, hypoglycemic activity is more prominent in neutral and basic media as compared to acidic medium. PMID:17604247

Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Mirza, Agha Zeeshan; Zuberi, M Hashim; Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

2007-10-01

293

Atomic-Scale Structure of Co–Mo–S Nanoclusters in Hydrotreating Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it has been possible to obtain the first atomic-scale images of the Co–Mo–S structure present in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. Information on the catalytically important edge structures has been obtained by synthesizing single-layer Co–Mo–S nanoclusters using the Au(111) herringbone structure as a template. It is observed that the presence of the Co promoter atoms

J. V Lauritsen; S Helveg; E Lægsgaard; I Stensgaard; B. S Clausen; H Topsøe; F Besenbacher

2001-01-01

294

Influencia de los bancos y cajas como accionistas y acreedores en la manipulación contable de las empresas  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo utilizamos una base de datos formada por 13247 empresas españolas para el periodo 1996-2000 y estudiamos el efecto de la presencia de instituciones financieras –bien sea como accionista o como acreedor- en las practicas de manipulación de beneficios (earnings management) de las empresas. Encontramos que las instituciones financieras como accionistas estimulan las prácticas de manipulación contable en

Jordi Surroca; Josep A. Tribo

2007-01-01

295

Las lenguas como elementos de cohesión social. Del multilingüismo al desarrollo de habilidades para la comunicación intercultural  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen La lengua, entendida como factor de cohesión social, ha sido considerada desde diversas perspectivas asimilacionistas como necesaria y prioritaria para la integración en una sociedad receptora de quienes proceden de otras comunidades lingüísticas y culturales. Este artículo propone una reflexión sobre la diversidad como elemento ineludible en la construcción de una nueva ciudadanía multicultural en la que la lengua

Martina Tuts; Colectivo Yedra

296

On the structural differences between alumina-supported CoMoS type I and alumina-, silica, and carbon-supported CoMoS type II phases studied by XAFS, MES, and XPS  

SciTech Connect

In this study the local structure of the Mo and Co promoter atoms in CoMoS type I and II on alumina, and CoMoS type II on various supports is compared using in situ XAFS spectroscopy as the main technique with XPS and MES in a supporting role. In the CoMoS phase the Co atoms are positioned at the edge of the MoS[sub 2] particles, in the same place as the Mo atoms. The CoMoS phase in all catalysts shows a well defined Co-Mo and a Mo-Co coordination. On alumina the CoMoS type II phase is present as a multilayer structure. The silica-supported CoMoS type II closely resembles its alumina-supported counterpart. However, the Mo-S coordination number, the structural ordering and degree of stacking of the carbon-supported type II CoMoS phase is much more similar to the type I CoMoS phase supported on alumina. This contradicts the common opinion that the CoMoS type II phase is fully sulfided and not chemically bonded to the support. Two different types of Co-sites can be distinguished in the suite of catalysts studied in this paper. A Co-site with an approximately fivefold Co-S coordination and possibly a single Co-Mo coordination is predominant in the least active alumina-supported CoMoS type I and CoMoS type II (with Co/Mo = 0.39 at/at) samples. The other Co-site has a sixfold Co-S coordination with possibly a twofold Co-Mo coordination and has the highest activity for HDS. The latter site constitutes a large part of the Co-sites in silica-supported CoMoS phase II and alumina-supported CoMoS type (II) (with Co/Mo = 0.32) and is exclusively present in the carbon-supported CoMoS phase II. 46 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Bouwens, S.M.A.M.; Zon, F.B.M. van; Veen, J.A.R. van; Koningsberger, D.C. (Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Dijk, M.P. van (Koninklijke/Shell Laboratorium Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Kraan, A.M. van der (Delft Univ. of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands))

1994-04-01

297

El dolor como terapia. La médula común de los campos de concentración nazis y franquistas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los campos de concentración franquistas y los nazis evidencian un cuerpo común. En ambos se desarrollaba una terapia para los internos que tenía al cuerpo como vehículo de aprendizaje. El tratamiento político prescribía penalidades físicas — la suciedad, el hambre, la sed— y morales que debían conducir a los prisioneros a comprender la finalidad buscada por el Estado totalitario alemán

Mirta Núñez Díaz-Balart

2005-01-01

298

O papel dos Larídeos como portadores de Salmonella e Listeria spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Tal como noutros países, a população de gaivotas (larídeos) aumentou exponencialmente em Portugal. Para averi- guar as implicações na Saúde Pública deste sobrecrescimento, duzentas e oitenta e cinco amostras de fezes de gaivotas foram analisadas para dois agentes potencialmente patogénicos para o Homem, Salmonella spp. e Listeria sp. Isolou-se Salmonella sp em trinta e sete amostras (13%). Os serotipos

E. L. Duartea; M. M. Guerra; F. M. Bernardo; CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS

299

La hipnosis como adjunto en el tratamiento del hábito de fumar. Estudio de caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 33 años con dependencia a la nicotina que lle vaba 9 años fu- mando una media de 35 cigarrillos diarios. Intentó dejarlo hace 3 años pero tuvo una recaída a los seis meses por problemas de ansiedad y continuó con su adicción. El tr atamiento tuvo como objetivo que la paciente dejara

María Elena; Mendoza Figueroa

2000-01-01

300

El mobbing como modelo de relaciones laborales en la Banca japonesa en España  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo analiza cómo ciertos modelos empresariales de culturas tradicionales y fuertemente jerarquizadas como la japonesa, junto a factores de globalización, competitividad, fusiones o crisis económica, son el caldo de cultivo para que el acoso psicológico se institucionalice y forme parte de la cultura de empresa y de las relaciones laborales. El análisis se ha realizado en uno de los

Martínez García

301

Frogs and salamanders from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation (Quarry Nine, Como Bluff) of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously undescribed frog and salamander bones from the Morrison Formation, at Quarry Nine, Como Bluff, Wyoming, are reported. One anuran ilium is diagnostically discoglossid and forms the basis of Enneabatrachus hechti, gen. et sp. nov. A second ilium is diagnostically pelobatid and is the earliest record for the family Pelobatidae, although it is indeterminate below family level. Salamander vertebrae appear

Susan E. Evans; Andrew R. Milner

1993-01-01

302

Espessura Endometrial como Fator Orientador do Tratamento Clínico da Gravidez Tubária Íntegra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetivos: avaliar a contribuição da medida da espessura endometrial como fator orientador do tratamento clínico da gravidez tubária íntegra. Métodos: estudo observacional longitudinal, no qual se avaliou a maior medida da espessura endometrial em milímetros, no eixo longitudinal uterino, por meio da ultra-sonografia transvaginal, parâmetro que foi correlacionado com a evolução dos casos. Foram incluídas no estudo 181 pacientes que

Roberto da Costa Soares; Júlio Elito Junior; Kyung Koo Han; Luiz Camano

2002-01-01

303

Chromatic weathering of black limestone quarried in Varenna (Lake Como, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of chromatic weathering in black limestone have been investigated on samples from the main quarry of Varenna (Lake Como, Italy), which provided building stones for Lombard architecture. Our studies have been carried out combing colorimetric, mineralogical, chemical, microstructural and geochemical observations. The results suggest that the chromatic weathering affecting the surfaces of black limestone is not due to

Nicoletta Marinoni; Alessandro Pavese; Angelo Riva; Fiorenza Cella; Tiziano Cerulli

2007-01-01

304

Garcinia cambogia - uma espécie vegetal como recurso terapêutico contra a obesidade?6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Atualmente, a obesidade é um problema de saúde pública mundial, tanto nos países desenvolvidos como nos em desenvolvimento, apresentando elevação de sua prevalência. A transição nutricional é um processo de modificações seqüenciais no padrão de nutrição e consumo que acompanha mudanças econômicas, sociais e demográficas, e mudanças do perfil de saúde das populações. Este trabalho objetiva abordar a comprovação

Ana C S Santos; Michelle S Alvarez; Priscila B Brandão; Ary G Silva

305

El ejercicio físico como terapia complementaria en el cáncer de próstata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo presenta como el ejercicio físico es una terapia complementaria en el tratamiento del cáncer próstata. En concreto presentamos el diseño e implementación de un programa de ejercicio físico de fuerza-resistencia adaptado al cáncer de próstata. El modelo base corresponde a la guía de la American College Sports Medicine Position Stand (ACSM 1998). La adaptación y transformación del programa

Bernat Carles Serdà Ferrer; Pilar Monreal Bosch; Arantza Del Valle

2009-01-01

306

Hydrologic flowpaths and biogeochemical cycles in the subalpine Como Creek catchment, Colorado Front Range, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outstanding question for snowmelt-dominated watersheds of the western US are the responses of biogeochemical processes to two major drivers of environmental change: directional changes in climate and increasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in wetfall. In the Colorado Front Range, atmospheric deposition of DIN has increased several-fold in the last 25 years. In response, nitrate concentrations at the alpine Green Lakes 4 (GL4) catchment have increased from 1985 to 2009 by 0.27 ?eq L-1 yr-1. In contrast, we see no directional change in either nitrate concentrations or fluxes in the subalpine Como Creek catchment. We hypothesize that differences in surface/groundwater interactions result in the differing behavior of stream nitrate between the alpine and subalpine catchments that are receiving similar amounts of DIN from atmospheric deposition. For both basins we sampled precipitation, snowpack, snowmelt, surface water, and subsurface waters. All water samples are analyzed for geochemical, nutrient and isotopic (?18O, ?D) composition. Stream chemistry data from the last ten years at Como Creek show increases in nitrate concentration during baseflow conditions and then a sharp decline during snowmelt. In contrast, in the alpine basin there is sharp increase in surface water nitrate during snowmelt. Hydrograph separation at the alpine GL4 using end member mixing analysis (EMMA) shows that stream flow is a mixture of three components, groundwater, talus, and new snowmelt that each contribute to roughly a third of discharge, with talus flow supplying the majority of nitrate. In contrast, and somewhat surprisingly, EMMA shows that for the subalpine Como Creek basin, annual streamflow is a mixture of only two components, groundwater and new snowmelt. During snowmelt the groundwater and snow contributions are nearly equal and subsurface flows dominate the remainder of the year. Newly installed piezometers at Como Creek provide evidence that the basin is largely a losing reach during snowmelt, with water levels in the piezometers increasing 5-7 m. After peak snowmelt however, Como Creek becomes a gaining stream, with piezometer levels dropping. Thus, both EMMA and piezometers show that surface-groundwater interactions are tightly coupled during snowmelt, with snowmelt at Como first replenishing the subsurface water deficit and increasing groundwater levels before contributing to discharge. Thus, in contrast to the alpine GL4 basin, DIN released in snowmelt is assimilated belowground as snowmelt infiltrates the subsurface in the subalpine basin. Interestingly, at the subalpine Como Creek basin, isotopic and geochemical solute concentrations undergo shifts during periods of winter baseflow prior to snowmelt. In winter much of the stream is frozen and we hypothesize that cryo-concentration of solutes and fractionation of isotopes may influence the concentrations of winter stream samples.

Cowie, R. M.; Williams, M. W.; Zeliff, M. M.; Parman, J.

2011-12-01

307

On the structural differences between alumina-supported CoMoS type I and alumina-, silica-, and carbon-supported CoMoS type II phases studied by XAFS, MES, and XPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the local structure of the Mo and Co promoter atoms in CoMoS type I and II on alumina, and CoMoS type II on various supports is compared using in situ XAFS spectroscopy as the main technique with XPS and MES in a supporting role. In the CoMoS phase the Co atoms are positioned at the edges of

D. C. Koningsberger; S. M. A. M. Bouwens; F. B. M. van Zon; Kraan van der AM; A. M. van der Kraan; Veen van JAR

1994-01-01

308

Plant regeneration of mulberry ( Morus indica ) from mesophyll-derived protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol is presented for regenerating plants from protoplasts of tropical mulberry. Leaves from seedling node cultures maintained in vitro were used as donor tissue. Optimal cell wall digestion was achieved with a combination of cellulase (2%) and macerozyme (1%). The plant growth regulator (PGR) combination zeatin (2.3 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2.3 ?M) resulted in the highest number (29%) of

Pavan Umate; K. Venugopal Rao; K. Kiranmayee; T. Jaya Sree; A. Sadanandam

2005-01-01

309

Package Insert - ALBAclone (Alba Bioscience Limited) Anti-c ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Rh antigens are controlled by a series of closely linked ... Bearing this in mind, care should be taken to ... red blood cells suitable fo r the control of Anti ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

310

AlbaQ-Chek Simulated Whole Blood Controls  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Quick Links: Skip to main page content Skip to Search Skip to Topics Menu Skip to Section Content Menu Skip to Common Links. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

311

Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

312

Package Insert - ALBAclone Alba Bioscience Limited Anti-A, B ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... ABO antigens are not fully expressed at birth and, therefore, tests involving cord/neonatal red blood cells should be interpreted with particular care. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

313

Package Insert - ALBAclone (Alba Bioscience Limited) Anti-M ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... buildup. As this reagent is of anim al origin car e must be taken duri ng use and disposal as there is a potential infection risk. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

314

DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACI?N ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA  

PubMed Central

Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia.

Silvia, Mejia-Arango; Clemente, y Zuniga-Gil

2012-01-01

315

Kinetic modeling of the SWNT growth by CO disproportionation on CoMo catalysts.  

PubMed

A kinetic model has been developed to describe the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in the CoMoCAT method, which is based on the disproportionation of CO on supported CoMo catalysts. The model attempts to capture mathematically the different stages involved in this method: (i) catalyst activation or in-situ creation of active sites, i.e., reduced Co clusters by transformation of CoMoOx precursor species, or oxidized sites; (ii) CO decomposition over active sites, which increases the surface fugacity of carbon until reaching a certain threshold; (iii) nucleation of ordered forms of carbon; (iv) C diffusion (both across the surface and into the metal particle); (v) SWNT growth; (vi) termination, by either deactivation of the catalyst active sites or by increase in the carbon concentration at the metal/SWNT interface, approaching that of the metal/gas interface and eliminating the driving force for diffusion. Previous investigations have only explained the growth termination by the former. Here, we emphasize the possible contribution of the later and propose a novel "hindrance factor" to quantify the effect of nanotube interaction with its surroundings on the growth termination. To test the kinetic model and obtain typical values of the physical parameters, experiments have been conducted on a CoMo/SiO2 catalyst in a laboratory flow reactor, in which the rate of carbon deposition was continuously evaluated by the direct measurement of the CO2 evolution as a function of time. The experimental data are fitted very well with model. PMID:19198356

Monzon, A; Lolli, G; Cosma, S; Mohamed, S B; Resasco, D E

2008-11-01

316

UNA “MUY OTRA” FORMA DE HACER POLÍTICA EN MÉXICO, LA RESISTENCIA INDÍGENA EN CHIAPAS COMO HISTORIA DEL HACHA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El argumento central de los zapatistas como práctica de lucha es la apropiación de la exclusión. La exclusión es un proceso histórico de dominio hacia los indígenas. A lo largo de 16 años de existencia pública han hecho evidente tal cuestión. El primero de enero de 1994 le dijeron al mundo que a partir de ese momento la exclusión ha

Juquila Araceli González Nolasco

2010-01-01

317

ASPECTOS NUTRICIONAIS E TOXICOLÓGICOS DAS DROGAS VETERINARIAS USADAS COMO PROMOTORAS DO CRESCIMENTO ANIMAL NO ÜLTIMO DECENIO. PERSPECTIVAS FUTURAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referência aos principais grupos de compostos farmacologicamente activos usados como promotores do crescimento dos animais destinados ao consumo humano. São referidas as incertezas quanto à sua segurança, as pressões do consumidor, as decisões políticas e as resultantes restrições legislativas no que respeita ao seu uso. O recurso aos agonistas ß-adrenérgicos na última década, a controvérsia das suas acções no organismo

M. Lourdes A. S. Bastos; Margarida A. Ferreira

1996-01-01

318

Provenance studies of the white marble of the cathedral of Como by neutron activation analysis and data reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marble samples from major Italian quarries and from the Como Cathedral were analyzed for their trace element content, which is indicative of their provenance. Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U elements were determined by neutron activation analysis. Results as well as their precision

M. Oddone; S. Meloni; E. Mello

1985-01-01

319

Feeding scenario of the silkworm Bombyx Mori, L. in the BLSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple subunit of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) consisting of the ground-controlled mulberry ( Morus alba L.) and the silkworms was set up on the ground. The mulberry tree could provide nutrient mulberry fruits for astronauts and its leaves as the main feedstuff for the silkworms until their third instar. Astronauts utilized curled lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) stem as vegetables and the silkworms over third instar could be fed on 65% of inedible leaves of the lettuce. About 71.4% of protein were detected in the silkworm larval powder; thus, 105 silkworms could satisfy the requirement of one person per day. Besides, 18 kinds of amino acids were determined in the obtained silkworm powder. Moreover, the R-criterion was suggested to estimate and optimize the animal feeding facilities. The scenario of treating the wastes is also proposed in this paper. Our results may be valuable for the establishment of a complex BLSS in the future.

Yu, XiaoHui; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling

320

Seasonal variations in isoprene emission from tropical deciduous tree species.  

PubMed

Isoprene is a dominant constituent of the global biogenic volatile organic compounds budget. It plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including tropospheric ozone concentrations. In this study, monthly measurements of isoprene emission rates were carried out over a 1-year period (December 2002-November 2003) from four Indian deciduous tree species, namely Ficus relegiosa, Ficus infectoria, Pongamia pinnata, and Morus alba, using branch enclosure method. Significantly high monthly variations in isoprene emission rates were observed in all four-plant species. Also, each plant species exhibited pronounced seasonal variation in isoprene emission. Maximum isoprene emissions were observed during summer and minimum during the winter or spring months. PMID:17242968

Singh, Abhai Pratap; Varshney, C K; Singh, U K

2007-01-23

321

Effect of Maturity on Phenolics (Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids) Profile of Strawberry Cultivars and Mulberry Species from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated how the extent of ripeness affects the yield of extract, total phenolics, total flavonoids, individual flavonols and phenolic acids in strawberry and mulberry cultivars from Pakistan. In strawberry, the yield of extract (%), total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) ranged from 8.5–53.3%, 491–1884 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW and 83–327 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g DW, respectively. For the different species of mulberry the yield of extract (%), total phenolics and total flavonoids of 6.9–54.0%, 201–2287 mg GAE/100 g DW and 110–1021 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively, varied significantly as fruit maturity progressed. The amounts of individual flavonols and phenolic acid in selected berry fruits were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Among the flavonols, the content of myricetin was found to be high in Morus alba (88 mg/100 g DW), the amount of quercetin as high in Morus laevigata (145 mg/100 g DW) while kaempferol was highest in the Korona strawberry (98 mg/100 g DW) at fully ripened stage. Of the six phenolic acids detected, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acid were the major compounds in the strawberry. M. laevigata and M. nigra contained p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid while M. macroura and M. alba contained p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and chlorogenic acid as the major phenolic acids. Overall, a trend to an increase in the percentage of extraction yield, TPC, TFC, flavonols and phenolic acids was observed as maturity progressed from un-ripened to fully-ripened stages.

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

322

Computational tools for pulverized-coal combustion. Seventh quarterly report, October 1982December 1982. [Combustion model COMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion model (COMO) consists of a number of relatively independent modules that represent the major processes involved in pulverized-coal combustion. These modules will be continually upgraded over the course of the contract. During the first quarter, detailed life-of-the-project task descriptions were prepared, literature searches were conducted, and process models were selected. In the second quarter, formulation and coding of

W. J. Oberjohn; D. K. Cornelius; W. A. Fiveland

1983-01-01

323

A computa»c~ao numerica como ferramenta para o professor de F¶‡sica do Ensino Medio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposta deste trabalhoe apresentar ao professor de F¶‡sica do ensino medio uma forma de empregar recur- sos computacionais para esclarecer e aprofundar conceitos de F¶‡sica que s~ao explorados de forma limitada por n~ao se poder recorrer ao Calculo Diferencial e Integral. O p^endulo simplese usado como prototipo para o trata- mento sugerido. Mostramos que apenas com o aux¶‡lio de

Augusto Cesar; Claudio Gon; Marcus Vinicius; Tovar Costa

324

The mixing aspects of NiMo and CoMo hydrotreating catalysts in ebullated-bed reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Shuaiba Refinery of Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) conducted a test run using mixed NiMo\\/CoMo catalysts in one of the H–Oil reactors to verify the specifications of a CoMo catalyst. However, reduced unit performance and unstable operation were experienced. This led to the unit shut-down and process time loss. To search the causes for the different reactor behaviours,

Ezra K. T. Kam; Mohammad H. Al-Mashan; Homoud Al-Azmi

1999-01-01

325

Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry ( Morus nigra ) juice concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating,\\u000a at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes\\u000a of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at\\u000a 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using

Mahboubeh Fazaeli; Ghazale Hojjatpanah; Zahra Emam-Djomeh

326

Invertebrados Aquáticos como Bioindicadores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aquatic invertebrates can indicate the quality of freshwater ecosystem habitats. Their presence or absence can be interpreted as signals of changes in the environment, or help to diagnose the causes of an environmental problem. Anthropogenic impacts are reducing water quality and freshwater biodiversity. Here, we discuss the value of benthic macroinvertebrates as example of potential ecological indicators in Environmental

Marcos Callisto; José Francisco Gonçalves Jr; Pablo Moreno

327

A ESCRITA COMO \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writing if configures as a device of formation and autoformation in the formative space of the superior education. In the research that we have carried through with professors in the carried through initial formation in the space of the university we operate with the writing as a tool that places the implied citizens as \\

Valeska Fortes de Oliveira

328

In-situ HRTEM study of the reactive carbide phase of Co/MoS2 catalyst.  

PubMed

Hydrotreatment catalytic operations are commonly performed industrially by layered molybdenum sulfide promoted by cobalt or nickel in order to remove heteroelements (S, N, O) from fossil fuels and biofuels. Indeed, these heteroelements are responsible of the emission of pollutants when these fuels are used in vehicles. In this respect, previous studies made by our research group have shown that the active phase under steady state conditions is partially carbided while strong bending effects of MoS2 slabs were also observed. However, up to now, the morphology of the resulting Co/MoSxCy carbided catalyst has not been fully characterized. In the present study, for the first time, a chemical reaction between the carbon content of a TEM Cu/C grid and a freshly sulfide Co/MoS2 catalyst was in situ observed at 300 °C and 450 °C by HRTEM experimental techniques at ~10 nm of resolution. Results indicate that bending of MoS2 layers occurred due to carbon addition on MoS2 edge sites, as observed in stabilized catalysts after HDS reaction. Using a silicon grid, only cracks of MoS2 slabs were observed without bending effect confirming the role of structural-carbon in this change of morphology. PMID:22925737

Ramos, Manuel; Ferrer, Domingo; Martinez-Soto, Eduan; Lopez-Lippmann, Hugo; Torres, Brenda; Berhault, Gilles; Chianelli, Russell R

2012-07-27

329

O 2 Chemisorption, ESR Spectroscopy, and Hydrodesulfurization Activity on Sulfided CoMo/ Gamma -Al 2 O 3 : Progress Report for July Through September 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxygen chemisorption and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) have been used to characterize sulfided CoMo/ gamma -Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalysts with different atomic Co/(Co + Mo) ratios ( alpha ). Chemisorption of O sub 2 on sulfided Mo/ gamma -Al sub...

M. Boudart X. H. Kang J. S. Arrieta D. G. Loeffler

1984-01-01

330

A combined X-ray photoelectron and Mossbauer emission spectroscopy study of the state of cobalt in sulfided, supported, and unsupported Co-Mo catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Alumina-supported and unsupported Co-Mo catalysts, as well as Co metal, Co/sub 9/S/sub 8/, and CoMo/sub 2/S/sub 4/ samples, have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Mossbauer emission spectroscopy (MES). The main aim of the study was to examine the feasibility of using XPS to characterize the different Co-containing phases which may be present in sulfided Co-Mo catalysts. The Co phase distributions in the catalyst samples studied by XPS were determined by means of MES. The different cobalt phases observed in the catalysts were Co-Mo-S and Co/sub 9/S/sub 8/, and for the supported catalysts cobalt in the alumina lattice was also observed. Although Co metal, Co/sub 9/S/sub 8/, Co-Mo-S, and CoMo/sub 2/S/sub 4/ are structurally and chemically different and give rise to very different MES spectra, the Co 2p spectra of these compounds are similar. It is shown, however, that by a combination of accurate determinations of binding energy differences and comparisons of peak shapes it is possible to distinguish the different Co phases in the catalysts by XPS. The Co 2p binding energies of Co/sub 9/S/sub 8/ are about 0.5eV smaller than those of Co-Mo-S, and also the Co 2p peak shapes are different. Using XPS, Co/sub 9/S/sub 8/ can only be distinguished from Co metal by a detailed comparison of the Co 2p peak shapes. The close similarity between the Co 2p spectra of Co-Mo-S and CoMosigmaS/sub 4/ suggests that the electronic state of Co in Co-Mo-S is similar to that in CoMo/sub 2/S/sub 4/. However, the MES results show that the two phases are structurally different.

Alstrup, I.; Chorkendorff, I.; Candia, R.; Clausen, B.S.; Topsoe, H.

1982-10-01

331

Ab initio DFT study of hydrogen dissociation on MoS 2, NiMoS, and CoMoS: mechanism, kinetics, and vibrational frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides detailed discussions about the structures, relative stabilities, and vibrational frequencies of hydrogen species on MoS2, NiMoS, and CoMoS catalyst edge surfaces. The transition states and activation energies for molecular hydrogen dissociation and surface migration of atomic hydrogen on catalyst edge surfaces have been calculated by complete linear synchronous transit (LST) and quadratic synchronous transit (QST) search

Mingyong Sun; Alan E. Nelson; John Adjaye

2005-01-01

332

Linfoma não-Hodgkin apresentando-se como massa hepática única* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a single liver mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJETIVO: Descrever as principais características de imagem do linfoma não-Hodgkin apresentando-se como massa hepática única. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizamos estudo retrospectivo mediante análise de ca- sos de pacientes com massa hepática única aos exames de ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética, com diagnóstico histológico de linfoma não-Hodgkin. Esses exames foram analisa- dos por dois examinadores em consenso. RESULTADOS: Identificamos três

Mila Correia; Góis Peixoto; Araújo Alves; Peixoto Filho; Alessandra Caivano; Rodrigues Ribeiro; Giuseppe D'Ippolito

2009-01-01

333

Low-cost and high-performance CoMoS4 and NiMoS4 counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Porous chalcogels CoMoS4 and NiMoS4 made by a facile solution reaction displayed good electrocatalytic activity in the redox reaction of the I(-)/I3(-) shuttle. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these ternary compounds as counter electrodes (CEs) showed photovoltaic performance similar to the devices made with noble metal platinum CE (7.46%). PMID:24022304

Zheng, Xiaojia; Guo, Jiahao; Shi, Yantao; Xiong, Fengqiang; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Ma, Tingli; Li, Can

2013-09-24

334

O pensamento de Antônio Gramsci como referencial teórico na pesquisa em história da Enfermagem The thought of Antonio Gramsci as a theoretical benchmark of study in the history of Nursing El pensamiento de Antonio Gramsci como referencial teórico de estudios en historia de la Enfermería  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Cada pesquisador em história da enfermagem é livre nas suas interpretações. Todos nós sentimos necessidade de ordenar nosso campo teórico, para não cairmos no niilismo do caminhar desordenado pela história. Este artigo tem por objetivo propor uma reflexão teórica sobre o pensamento de Antônio Gramsci como referencial téorico de estudos em história da enfermagem. Para GRAMSCI, as relações de

Miriam Heidemann; Maria da Luz; Barbosa Gomes; Maritza Consuelo; Ortiz Sanchez

335

XAS Study at Mo and Co K-Edges of the Sulfidation of a CoMo / Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Because of its impact on environment, the removal of sulfur is an indispensable step, called hydrotreatment, in the refining of petroleum. One of the most commonly used hydrotreating catalysts is CoMo-type catalyst which is composed of molybdenum disulfide slabs promoted by cobalt atoms (CoMoS phase) and well dispersed on a high specific area alumina. As far as the highest sulfur content allowed in gasoline and diesel is continually decreasing, more and more efficient and active hydrotreating catalysts are required. In order to optimize the reactivity of the CoMo-type catalyst in hydrotreatment, a better understanding of the processes used to produce the active phase (CoMoS slabs) of the catalyst is necessary. The study reported here deals with the sulfiding mechanism of the slabs and the influence of temperature on the phenomenon. Ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was used to study the evolution of the structure of CoMo-type catalyst sulfided at various temperatures (from 293 to 873 K). XAS analysis was performed at both molybdenum and cobalt K-edges to obtain a cross-characterization of the sulfidation of the slabs. It evidenced the formation of various compounds, including two molybdenum oxides, MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) and Co9S8, at specific steps of the sulfiding process. It showed the role of intermediate played by MoS3 (or MoS3-like compound) during the formation of the slabs and the competition between the appearance of promoted slabs (CoMoS phase) and Co9S8. At last, it leaded to the proposal of a mechanism for the sulfidation of the catalyst.

Pichon, C.; Gandubert, A. D.; Legens, C. [IFP-Lyon, Physics and Analysis Division, Materials Characterization Department, BP3, 69390 Vernaison (France); Guillaume, D. [IFP-Lyon, Catalysis and Separation Division, Heterogeneous Catalysis Department, BP3, 69390 Vernaison (France)

2007-02-02

336

Lo multicultural como mitología y como coartada del racismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

La noción de cultura en tanto que conjunto de caracteres de un colectivo nacional, tribal o religioso, ha venido a reemplazar por equivalencia la noción de raza, desprestigiada por la experiencia nazi. Pero su funcionamiento objetivo es el mismo. Raza, nación y cultura son constructos nacidos a la sombra del Romanticismo, de la reacción antiiluminista. El multiculturalismo es la ideología

Horacio Vázquez Rial

2007-01-01

337

Conservation genetics of small relic populations of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the northern Apennines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and isolated silver fir populations from the Emilian Apennines (northern Italy) were studied to assess their level of genetic variation and their relationship with Alpine populations. We investigated the variability of two chloroplast microsatellites to analyse the within?population genetic variability of four peripheral and fragmented Apennine populations and to determine their phylogenetic relatedness to seven Alpine populations covering the

P. Piovani; S. Leonardi; A. Piotti; P. Menozzi

2010-01-01

338

Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba.  

PubMed

The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks' feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird. PMID:20637873

Pabisch, S; Puchegger, S; Kirchner, H O K; Weiss, I M; Peterlik, H

2010-07-15

339

Hyperspectral proximal sensing of salix alba trees in the sacco river valley (latium, Italy).  

PubMed

Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the physiological state of vegetation. Two systems for hyperspectral imaging have been designed and developed at DICEA-Sapienza University of Rome, one based on the use of spectrometers, the other on tunable interference filters. Both systems provide a high spectral and spatial resolution with low weight, power consumption and cost. This paper describes the set-up of the tunable filter platform and its application to the investigation of the environmental status of the region crossed by the Sacco river (Latium, Italy). This was achieved by analyzing the spectral response given by tree samples, with roots partly or wholly submerged in the river, located upstream and downstream of an industrial area affected by contamination. Data acquired is represented as reflectance indices as well as reflectance values. Broadband and narrowband indices based on pigment content and carotenoids vs. chlorophyll content suggest tree samples located upstream of the contaminated area are 'healthier' than those downstream. PMID:24172281

Moroni, Monica; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

2013-10-29

340

Irradiance dependency of the phytochrome system in cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The irradiance dependency of the phytochrome system in the cotyledons of the mustard seedling has been analyzed, using the\\u000a steady state level of total phytochrome (P\\u000a tot) under continuous far red light as a parameter. The steady state level was found to be proportional to the reciprocal of\\u000a the irradiance of the far red light. This is in quantitative agreement

E. Schiller; H. Mohr

1974-01-01

341

Distribution pattern of antioxidants in white cabbage heads ( Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. alba )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper has been to investigate the occurrence of health-promoting antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E as\\u000a well as antioxidative enzymes, e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase in different parts of the cabbage head (the\\u000a outer one green leaves, the central leaf layer and the inner layer young, etiolated leaves). Vitamin C content in both the

Micha? Nosek; Ewa Surówka; Stanis?aw Cebula; Andrzej Libik; Sylwia Goraj; Andrzej Kornas; Zbigniew Miszalski

342

ARTICLE Soil characteristics of Rocky Mountain National Park grasslands invaded by Melilotus officinalis and M. alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Invasion of nitrogen-fixing non-native plant species may alter soil resources and impact native plant communities. Altered soils may be the driving mechanism that provides a suitable environment to facilitate future invasions and decrease native biodiversity. We hypothesized that Melilotus invasion would increase nitrogen availability and produce soil microclimate and biochemical changes, which could in turn alter plant species composition

J. J. Wolf; S. W. Beatty; T. R. Seastedt

343

Tonotopic and somatotopic representation in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl, Tyto alba.  

PubMed

We have investigated the somatosensory and auditory representations in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl. In pigeons and finches, the nucleus basalis contains a representation of the beak and an auditory area. In the barn owl, the nucleus basalis also contains a complete somatotopic map of the head and body (as in the budgerigar), with a tonotopically organized auditory area in close proximity to the representation of the facial ruff and the preaural area. Recordings within and around the nucleus basalis revealed predominantly (about 80%) contralateral responses to somatic stimulation. The somatotopic map was oriented with the head down and rostral. Penetrations revealed an over-representation of the feet in dorsal basalis, followed by the rest of the body and wings more ventrally. Towards more rostral positions in nucleus basalis, responses from the head and beak predominated ventrally. The auditory response area was encountered below the region that responded to stimulation of the facial ruff and preaural flap regions and above a region responsive to beak stimulation. Auditory responses were tonotopically organized, with low best frequencies dorsal. Some penetrations yielded predominantly monaural responses with a fairly broad dynamic range, similar to those recorded from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLV) and the cochlear nucleus angularis, whereas other penetrations contained predominantly binaural responses sensitive to interaural time differences (ITD). The physiological responses could be predicted on the basis of auditory projections to the nucleus basalis. An injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in the auditory region of nucleus basalis retrogradely labeled cells in both the caudal and rostral parts of the intermediate lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLIc and LLIr), and a few cells in the anterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLDa, previously known as nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis, pars anterior, or VLVa) and in the posterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLDp, previously known as nucleus ventralis lemnisci lateralis, pars posterior, or VLVp). A large injection of cholera toxin B-chain (CTB) into the nucleus basalis also produced dense retrograde labeling of a previously unidentified nucleus on the lateral aspect of the rostral pons, that we here call nucleus pontis externus (PE). An injection of CTB into PE produced dense retrograde labeling of the contralateral dorsal column nuclei and anterograde labeling of the ipsilateral lateral and dorsolateral nucleus basalis. Together these results define major somatosensory and auditory projections to the owl telencephalon that bypass the thalamus. PMID:11359047

Wild, J M; Kubke, M F; Carr, C E

2001-01-01

344

Adaptation in the auditory midbrain of the barn owl (Tyto alba) induced by tonal double stimulation.  

PubMed

During hunting, the barn owl typically listens to several successive sounds as generated, for example, by rustling mice. As auditory cells exhibit adaptive coding, the earlier stimuli may influence the detection of the later stimuli. This situation was mimicked with two double-stimulus paradigms, and adaptation was investigated in neurons of the barn owl's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Each double-stimulus paradigm consisted of a first or reference stimulus and a second stimulus (probe). In one paradigm (second level tuning), the probe level was varied, whereas in the other paradigm (inter-stimulus interval tuning), the stimulus interval between the first and second stimulus was changed systematically. Neurons were stimulated with monaural pure tones at the best frequency, while the response was recorded extracellularly. The responses to the probe were significantly reduced when the reference stimulus and probe had the same level and the inter-stimulus interval was short. This indicated response adaptation, which could be compensated for by an increase of the probe level of 5-7 dB over the reference level, if the latter was in the lower half of the dynamic range of a neuron's rate-level function. Recovery from adaptation could be best fitted with a double exponential showing a fast (1.25 ms) and a slow (800 ms) component. These results suggest that neurons in the auditory system show dynamic coding properties to tonal double stimulation that might be relevant for faithful upstream signal propagation. Furthermore, the overall stimulus level of the masker also seems to affect the recovery capabilities of auditory neurons. PMID:22288481

Singheiser, Martin; Ferger, Roland; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

2012-02-01

345

Neuroethology of prey capture in the barn owl (Tyto alba L.).  

PubMed

Barn owls are a model system for studying prey capture. These animals can catch mice by hearing alone, but use vision whenever light conditions allow this. The silent flight, the frontally oriented eyes, and the facial ruffs are specializations that evolved to optimize prey capture. The auditory system is characterized by high absolute sensitivity, a use of interaural time difference for azimuthal sound-localization over almost the total hearing range up to at least 9kHz, and the use of interaural level difference for elevational sound localization in the upper frequency range. Response latencies towards auditory targets were shortened by covert attention, while overt attention helped to orient towards salient visual objects. However, only 20% of the fixation movements could be explained by the saliency of the fixated objects, suggesting a top-down control of attention. In a visual-search experiment the birds turned earlier and more often towards and spent more time at salient objects. The visual system also exhibits high absolute sensitivity, while the spatial resolution is not particularly high. Last but not least, head movements may be classified as fixations, translations, and rotations combined with translations. These motion primitives may be combined to complex head-movement patterns. With the expected easy availability of genetic techniques for specialists in the near future and the possibility to apply the findings in biomimetic devices prey capture in barn owls will remain an exciting field in the future. PMID:22510644

Wagner, Hermann; Kettler, Lutz; Orlowski, Julius; Tellers, Philipp

2012-04-01

346

The Structure of Ipalbine, a New Hexahydroindolizine Alkaloid, Isolated from Ipomoea Alba L..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent phytochemical studies have shown that the seeds of several members of the Convolvulaceae family, in particular certain Rivea, Ipomoea, and Argyreia species contain significant amounts of ergoline alkaloids. The isolation and structural determinatio...

J. M. Gourley R. A. Heacock A. G. McInnes B. Nikolin D. G. Smith

1969-01-01

347

Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland ...  

Treesearch

St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest ... and nesting provides increased thermal cover and security from predators which may ... Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of ...

348

Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba  

PubMed Central

The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks’ feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1 m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird.

Pabisch, S.; Puchegger, S.; Kirchner, H.O.K.; Weiss, I.M.; Peterlik, H.

2010-01-01

349

El hombre como cazador sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all men there are two realities: a “primitive” side, determined by ancestral genes that have not had sufficient time to adjust to the current situation and a “civilized” side, resulting from education and culture. Understanding this psychobiologic reality helps to understand many aspects of male sexual behavior. Reproductive capacity over the lifespan, as well as a physiology that allows

José M. Pomerol Monseny

2007-01-01

350

Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be considered when assessing potential changes to the distribution and characteristics of habitats from increased anthropogenic disturbances such as large scale offshore wind, wave and tidal renewable deployments.

Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

2013-10-01

351

La economía social como enfoque metodológico, como objeto de estudio y como disciplina científica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article continues an article written by the same author and published by CIRIEC-España in 1997 (no. 25). It analyses social economy at three cognitive levels: first, as a social reality (Social Economy); second, as a scientific discipline which studies its previous reality (the science of Social Economy); third, as a methodological approach in social sciences (the approach of Social

Rafael Chaves

1999-01-01

352

Antioxidant enzyme changes in neem, pigeonpea and mulberry leaves in two stages of maturity  

PubMed Central

Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes in various growth and differentiation stages has been documented in several plant species. We studied here, the difference in the levels of protein content and antioxidant enzymes activity at two stages of maturity, named young and mature in neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) mill sp) and mulberry (Morus Alba L.) leaves. The results showed that detached neem and pigeonpea mature leaves possessed higher activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) and lower activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as compared with young leaves. However, glutathione reductase (GR) showed higher activity in mature leaves of neem, whereas no change in its activity was observed in pigeonpea. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes in mulberry showed either positive (PPO) or negative (POD, GR, APX) correlation with the progression of leaf maturity. Apparently the trend of changes in antioxidant enzymes activity during leaf development is species-specific: their activity higher at mature stage in some plants and lower in others.

Goud, Prashanth B.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

2012-01-01

353

Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts.  

PubMed

Several Thai spices/dietary ingredients were previously shown to have hypocholesterolaemic effects. These studies were mostly conducted in animal models in which the mechanisms of action were not yet well-established. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of hypocholesterolaemic action of 12 selected plants, namely Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Zingiber officinale, Morus alba L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Piper nigrum L., Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Curcuma zedoaria Rose, Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and Piper retrofractum Vahl., widely used as spices and ingredients in various types of Thai food. The extract of P. nigrum at 100 µg mL(-1) was found to be the most effective cholesterol uptake inhibitor whereas those of A. galanga and C. sinensis effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with IC50 values of 8.99±3.41 and 12.36±1.23 µg mL(-1), respectively. The potency of extracts from H. sabdariffa, M. oleifera and C. moschata at 100 µg mL(-1) were found to be similar to 0.4 µg mL(-1) pravastatin in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and possibly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis. This study also demonstrated that several of the tested plants possessed multiple sites of action that were possibly responsible for their cholesterol-lowering effect in the in vivo model. PMID:20623425

Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

2010-07-08

354

Determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat and mulberry by cation exchange HPLC/ESI-Q-MS.  

PubMed

D-Fagomine is an iminosugar first found in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) which if used as a dietary supplement or functional food component may reduce the risks of developing insulin resistance, becoming overweight and suffering from an excess of potentially pathogenic bacteria. As D-fagomine may become increasingly important to the food industry, a reliable analytical method for its determination in natural plant sources and foodstuffs is desirable. We have devised a method to separate D-fagomine from its diastereomers 3-epi-fagomine and 3,4-di-epi-fagomine in a single run by cation exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection and quantification by mass spectrometry using electrospray ionisation and a simple quadrupole analyser (ESI-Q-MS). The method is validated and applied to the determination of D-fagomine in buckwheat groats (6.7-44 mg kg(-1)), leaves, bran and flour. We show that buckwheat contains 3,4-di-epi-fagomine (1.0-43 mg kg(-1)), which has not previously been reported in this source. The procedure is also applied to mulberry (Morus alba) leaves, which contain D-fagomine and 3-epi-fagomine as minor components. The new method provides a means for convenient and accurate determination of D-fagomine in plant samples and foodstuffs. PMID:22207282

Amézqueta, Susana; Galán, Esther; Fuguet, Elisabet; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Torres, Josep Lluís

2011-12-30

355

Effects of oral administration of some herbal extracts on food consumption and blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies in our laboratories suggest that oral administration of some herbal extracts reduce blood glucose concentrations in rats, possibly by interfering with food consumption and/or gastrointestinal absorption of food. Accordingly, we monitored the amounts of food consumed and body weights in separate groups of nondiabetic and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats, orally treated with some plant extracts (20 mg 100 g -1 body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Control animals were administered the vehicle, citrate buffer (0.1 ml 100 g -1 body weight). Separate groups of rats administered allopathic hypoglycemic drugs metformin (50 mg 100 g -1 body weight) or glibenclamide (5 microg 100 g -1 body weight) acted as positive control animals. After 5 weeks, blood glucose concentrations were reduced in all the groups. Tapinanthus nyasicus leaf, Ficus thoningii bark, Solanum incanum fruit, and Morus alba leaf extracts decreased weekly food consumption throughout the 5-week study period. Similar results were obtained for the groups treated with metformin or glibenclamide. However, food consumption was increased by S. incanum root, Aloe chabaudii leaf, or Allium sativum bulb extracts, and this was associated with high prevalence of diarrhea. The herbal extracts and metformin did not affect serum insulin concentration in nondiabetic rats, while glibenclamide increased serum insulin concentration. In conclusion, it may be inferred that the herbal extracts examined produced hypoglycemia, probably by interfering with either food intake or gastrointestinal glucose absorption (as reported for metformin). These findings merit long-term investigation. PMID:16801983

Musabayane, C T; Bwititi, P T; Ojewole, J A O

2006-05-01

356

Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation.  

PubMed

Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. PMID:15862401

Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L

2005-08-01

357

The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.  

PubMed

In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

2004-01-01

358

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for high-throughput screening of ADAMTS1 inhibitors.  

PubMed

A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motifs-1 (ADAMTS1) plays a crucial role in inflammatory joint diseases and its inhibitors are potential candidates for anti-arthritis drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, we reported the development and validation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of the ADAMTS1 inhibitors. A FRET substrate was designed for a quantitative assay of ADAMTS1 activity and enzyme kinetics studies. The assay was developed into a 50-µL, 384-well assay format for high throughput screening of ADAMTS1 inhibitors with an overall Z' factor of 0.89. ADAMTS1 inhibitors were screened against a diverse library of 40,960 total compounds with the established HTS system. Four structurally related hits, naturally occurring compounds, kuwanon P, kuwanon X, albafuran C and mulberrofuran J, extracted from the Chinese herb Morus alba L., were identified for further investigation. The results suggest that this FRET assay is an excellent tool, not only for measurement of ADAMTS1 activity but also for discovery of novel ADAMTS1 inhibitors with HTS. PMID:22186957

Peng, Jianhao; Gong, Lili; Si, Kun; Bai, Xiaoyu; Du, Guanhua

2011-12-20

359

Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells.  

PubMed

The inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis and nitric oxide production have been considered as potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we evaluated approximately 170 methanol extracts of natural products including Korean herbal medicines for the inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) production (for COX-2 inhibitors) and nitric oxide formation (for iNOS inhibitors) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophages RAW264.7 cells. As a result, several extracts such as Aristolochia debilis, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum loureirii, Curcuma zedoaria, Eugenia caryophyllata, Pterocarpus santalius, Rehmania glutinosa and Tribulus terrestris showed potent inhibition of COX-2 activity (>80% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 micro g/ml). In addition, the extracts of A. debilis, Caesalpinia sappan, Curcuma longa, C. zedoaria, Daphne genkwa and Morus alba were also considered as potential inhibitors of iNOS activity (>70% inhibition at the test concentration of 10 micro g/ml). These active extracts mediating COX-2 and iNOS inhibitory activities are warranted for further elucidation of active principles for development of new cancer chemopreventive and/or anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:12413723

Hong, Chae Hee; Hur, Sun Kyung; Oh, O-Jin; Kim, Sun Sook; Nam, Kyung Ae; Lee, Sang Kook

2002-11-01

360

Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.  

PubMed

Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

2007-03-03

361

Comparison of dry, wet and microwave digestion methods for the multi element determination in some dried fruit samples by ICP-OES.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was used to investigate the level of trace metals (Ba, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr and Fe) in some dried fruits (Prunus domestica L., Ficus carica L., Morus alba L., Vitis vinifera L., Prunus armeniaca L., and Malus domestica) samples from Turkey. Trace elements were determined by ICP-OES after dry, wet and microwave digestion methods in dried fruit samples. Validation of the proposed method was carried out by using a NIST-SRM 1515-Apple Leaves certified reference material. Element concentrations in dried fruit samples were 0.33-1.77 (Ba), 0.12-0.54 (Cd), 0.25-1.03 (Co), 0.45-2.30 (Cr), 0.43-2.74 (Cu), 0.56-4.87 (Mn), 0.61-2.54 (Ni), 0.40-2.14 (Pb), 2.16-6.54 (Zn), 0.83-12.02 (Al), 11.82-40.80 (Fe) and 0.16-6.34 (Sr) ?g/g. The analytical parameters show that the microwave oven digestion procedure provided best results as compared to the wet and dry digestion procedures. The results were compared with the literature values. PMID:21843582

Altundag, Huseyin; Tuzen, Mustafa

2011-08-06

362

Thermal effects on Co/Mo2C multilayer mirrors studied by soft x-ray standing wave enhanced photoemission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here is presented the spectroscopic study of the evolution of the first buried interfaces of a B4C capped Co/Mo2C multilayer mirror induced by thermal treatment up to 600°C. This kind of study is typically performed to simulate the response of multilayer optics working in extreme conditions, as for instance when irradiated by new high brilliance sources as Free Electron Lasers. In fact, the efficiency of multilayers is related to the optical contrast between the alternating high and low density layers, and then to the degree of interdiffusion and the creation or evolution of interface compounds. The analysis has been performed at the Co L23 edge with different soft x-ray spectroscopic techniques including diffuse and specular reflectivity, total electron and fluorescent yield at the BEAR beamline at Elettra (Trieste) (http://www.elettra.trieste.it/elettra-beamlines/bear.html). The presentation is focused on the spectroscopic results obtained by soft x-ray standing wave enhanced photoemission (XSW) from the Mo 3d, B 1s, C 1s, O 1s core levels by using a photon energy close to the Co L23 edge and corresponding to the first Bragg peak of the multilayer. The experimental results have been compared with simulations to obtain information both on the chemical state (e.g. oxidation state) and interface morphology in terms of profiles of distribution of elements and interdiffusion of B, oxidized B and C in the interface region. In summary, it is possible to conclude in favour of a good stability of the multilayer in the investigated temperature range, as confirmed by the good performance in terms of reflectivity. These results confirm the usefulness of XSW for this kind analysis of multilayer optics.

Giglia, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mahne, N.; Nannarone, S.; Jonnard, P.; Le Guen, K.; Yuan, Y.-Y.; André, J.-M.; Wang, Z.-S.; Li, H.-C.; Zhu, J.-T.

2013-05-01

363

Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.  

PubMed

A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)alba cortex (0.0625 mg/ml)=Siegesbeckia pubescens aerial part (0.0625 mg/ml)alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B. cereus in foods. PMID:23290233

Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2012-11-12

364

A EFICIÊNCIA DOS PROGRAMAS EDUCATIVOS IMPLEMENTADOS POR EMPRESAS E ORGÃOS GOVERNAMENTAIS COMO FORMA DE PREVENÇÃO AO IMPACTO AMBIENTAL CAUSADO PELO DESCARTE INCORRETO DAS EMBALAGENS DE AGROTÓXICOS EM CAMPOS GERAIS NO SUL DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudo atua com uma ferramenta de feedback quanto aos resultados obtidos com os programas educacionais em combate ao descarte incorreto de embalagens vazias no município de Campos Gerais no Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Os objetivos são mensurar a eficiência dos -programas educativos implementados por empresas e órgãos governamentais como forma de prevenção ao impacto ambiental causado pelo

Jairo Gustavo De Lima; Marcelo Marcio Romaniello; Cristhiane Oliveira Da Graca Amancio

2008-01-01

365

Coaching como herramienta de liderazgo para el desarrollo de equipos de alto desempeño en el área de ventas (Coaching like tool of leadership for the development of teams of high acting in the area of sales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. El presente artículo busca vincular el coaching como herramienta de liderazgo para el desarrollo de equipos de alto desempeño en el área de ventas. Para cumplir con este propósito se realizó una revisión de bibliografía y documentos publicados en la web sobre a esta temática, que permitieron definir conceptualmente su relación con el coaching y los distintos estilos de

Fidel Moreno

2009-01-01

366

INVESTIGAÇÕES EM SISTEMAS DE SERVIÇOS DE SAÚDE COMO FERRAMENTA PARA O ALCANCE DE PROGRAMAS DE CONTROLE DA HANSENÍASE MAIS EFETIVOS NO B RASIL* Health systems research training as a tool for more effective Hansen's disease control programmes in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO No Brasil, a hanseníase permanece como um importante problema de saúde pública. Embora um grande progresso tenha sido obtido nos Programas de Controle da Hanseníase (PCH), em todos os níveis do governo nos últimos 20 anos, algumas ações não foram potencializadas. O motivo: lacunas de informação relacionadas a áreas específicas da doença, exacerbadas pela ausência de instrumentos apropriados para

Alberto Novaes Ramos Jr; Jorg Heukelbach; Marcia Gomide; Pieter A. M. Schreuder

367

La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) como plaga y vectora de virus en fríjol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) as pest and vector of plant viruses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Resumen. La mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci es una de las plagas más ampliamente distribuidas en regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo donde afecta más de 600 especies de plantas cultiva- das y silvestres. Los daños que causa se deben a diversos efectos del insecto en las plantas atacadas, como el debilitamiento de la planta por la extracción de nutrientes;

MARÍA ELENA CUÉLLAR; FRANCISCO J. MORALES

2006-01-01

368

Difusión de resultados iniciales del Estudio del Tamoxifeno y del Raloxifeno (STAR): el fármaco para el tratamiento de la osteoporosis, raloxifeno, es tan efectivo como el Tamoxifeno en la prevención de cáncer de seno invasor  

Cancer.gov

Los resultados iniciales del Estudio del Tamoxifeno y del Raloxifeno, STAR, demuestran que el fármaco raloxifeno, actualmente utilizado para prevenir y tratar la osteoporosis en mujeres posmenopáusicas, funciona tan bien como el tamoxifeno para reducir el riesgo de cáncer de seno entre las mujeres posmenopáusicas que tienen riesgo elevado de padecer la enfermedad. Preguntas y respuestas

369

Single-molecule magnet based on a C-type polyoxomolybdate with an S = 11 ground state: [Fe5CoMo22As2O85(H2O)]15-.  

PubMed

A C-type polyoxomolybdate containing a mixed-transition metal cluster Fe(5)Co has been prepared as an ammonium salt, (NH(4))(15)[Fe(5)CoMo(22)As(2)O(85)(H(2)O)]·15H(2)O (1). Interestingly, the magnetism measurements show that the compound exhibits not only an overall ferromagnetic cluster with a large spin ground state of S = 11 but also the behavior of single-molecule magnets. PMID:23135131

Zhen, Yanzhong; Liu, Bin; Li, Lili; Wang, Danjun; Ma, Ying; Hu, Huaiming; Gao, Shengli; Xue, Ganglin

2013-01-01

370

The effect of boron addition on the hydrodesulfurization activity of MoS 2\\/Al 2O 3 and Co–MoS 2\\/Al 2O 3 catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of boron addition was studied on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene over MoS2\\/B\\/Al2O3 and Co–MoS2\\/B\\/Al2O3 (CVD-Co\\/MoS2\\/B\\/Al2O3), which was prepared by a CVD technique using Co(CO)3NO as a precursor of Co. The catalysts were characterized by means of NO adsorption and TEM. The HDS activity of MoS2\\/B\\/Al2O3 catalysts kept constant up to a boron content of about 0.6 wt%

Usman; Takeshi Kubota; Yasuhiro Araki; Katsuaki Ishida; Yasuaki Okamoto

2004-01-01

371

The effect of illumination of the malic acid content and anion/cation balance of mustard leaves (Sinapis alba).  

PubMed

1. Mustard plants have been grown under conditions in which the length of artificial day could be controlled. 2. Leaf samples were analysed for malic acid and citric acid, and for a number of inorganic anions and cations. A simple method is described by which sap was obtained from 0.5g. samples of leaves. 3. In days of 16hr. or more, malic acid was accumulated; the chief cation accumulated was calcium. 4. When the day-length was reduced the malic acid content decreased considerably but the calcium content remained the same. There was little change in the pH value of the sap, the balance of anions and cations having been maintained mainly by increases in citrate and nitrate contents. Analyses of the whole leaf still showed some deficiency in anion after sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, inorganic phosphate, chloride, malate and citrate had been accounted for. 5. Analyses at shorter intervals revealed a large diurnal variation in malic acid content, which increased during the first 5-6hr. of the light period, and fell during darkness. 6. The significance of these findings is discussed, and it is suggested that malic acid accumulation is a by-product of photosynthesis, calcium being taken up irreversibly to maintain anion/cation balance, and hence creating a continuing need for anions to balance it. PMID:6030291

Palmer, M J; Bacon, J S

1967-01-01

372

Laboratory and field evaluation of the transgenic Populus alba × Populus glandulosa expressing double coleopteran-resistance genes.  

PubMed

Expression of the two coleopteran-resistant proteins (Bt-Cry3A and oryzacystatin I) was detected in the leaves of field-grown transgenic poplar (BOGA-5) in two or three subsequent years. The BOGA-5 contained ?10 ?g g(-1) of Cry3A over the individual years with no detection in the control, and protein extracts from BOGA-5 displayed a higher reduction in papain activity (?42%) compared with ?21% in the control. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that the total mortality of the target pest Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera, Chrysomelida) larvae fed with BOGA-5 leaves was 76.7%, significantly higher than that of the control (P

Zhang, Bingyu; Chen, Min; Zhang, Xiaofen; Luan, Hehui; Diao, Shu; Tian, Yingchuan; Su, Xiaohua

2011-05-10

373

The use of IR thermography to measure the radiative temperature and heat loss of a barn owl ( Tyto alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared (IR) thermography was used to identify the major sites of heat loss from a female barn owl at an air temperature of 17.6°C. When perched, the mean radiative temperature of the owl was 21.1°C (SD=3.5). The facial disc averaged 23.9°C (SD=9.1) and the temperature of the eyes was greater than 33°C. Images showed an area on the lower abdomen

D. J. McCafferty; J. B. Moncrieff; I. R. Taylor; G. F. Boddie

1998-01-01

374

Effect of Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr on germination and root growth of Sinapis alba seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals have been widely recognized as highly toxic and dangerous. Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, creating ion influx\\/efflux for ionic balance and synthesizing small peptides. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. Metals come from the natural weathering processes of the earth's crust, industrial discharge, pest or disease control agents

Fargasova

1994-01-01

375

Elevated CO2 and/or ozone modify lignification in the wood of poplars (Populus tremula x alba)  

PubMed Central

Trees will have to cope with increasing levels of CO2 and ozone in the atmosphere. The purpose of this work was to assess whether the lignification process could be altered in the wood of poplars under elevated CO2 and/or ozone. Young poplars were exposed either to charcoal-filtered air (control), to elevated CO2 (800 ?l l?1), to ozone (200 nl l?1) or to a combination of elevated CO2 and ozone in controlled chambers. Lignification was analysed at different levels: biosynthesis pathway activities (enzyme and transcript), lignin content, and capacity to incorporate new assimilates by using 13C labelling. Elevated CO2 and ozone had opposite effects on many parameters (growth, biomass, cambial activity, wood cell wall thickness) except on lignin content which was increased by elevated CO2 and/or ozone. However, this increased lignification was due to different response mechanisms. Under elevated CO2, carbon supply to the stem and effective lignin synthesis were enhanced, leading to increased lignin content, although there was a reduction in the level of some enzyme and transcript involved in the lignin pathway. Ozone treatment induced a reduction in carbon supply and effective lignin synthesis as well as transcripts from all steps of the lignin pathway and some corresponding enzyme activities. However, lignin content was increased under ozone probably due to variations in other major components of the cell wall. Both mechanisms seemed to coexist under combined treatment and resulted in a high increase in lignin content.

Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Tozo, Koffi; Pollet, Brigitte; Maillard, Pascale; Huber, Francoise; Priault, Pierrick; Banvoy, Jacques; Gross, Patrick; Dizengremel, Pierre; Lapierre, Catherine; Perre, Patrick; Cabane, Mireille

2012-01-01

376

The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather coverts.  

PubMed

The feathers in the train of the peacock serve not for flying but for sexual display. They are long, slender beams loaded in bending by their own weight. An outer circular conical shell, the cortex, is filled by a closed foam of 7.6% relative density, the medulla, both of feather keratin. Outer diameter and thickness of the cortex decrease linearly from the body toward the tip. This self-similar geometry leads to a division of labor. The cortex (longitudinal Young's modulus 3.3 GPa, transverse modulus 1 GPa) provides 96% of the longitudinal strength and bending rigidity of the feather. The medulla (Young's modulus 10 MPa) provides 96% of the transverse compressive rigidity. Fracture stress of the cortex, both longitudinal and transverse, is 120 MPa. PMID:20853418

Weiss, Ingrid M; Kirchner, Helmut O K

2010-09-17

377

The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) II. The molecular parameters of feather keratin plasticity.  

PubMed

Thermal activation analysis of plastic deformation of peacock tail feathers, by temperature changes and stress relaxation, gave for the keratin cortex an activation enthalpy of 1.78 ± 0.89?eV and an activation volume of 0.83 ± 0.13?nm³, for both the blue and the white subspecies. These values suggest that breaking of electrostatic bonds is responsible for plasticity in feather keratin. These might be bonds between keratin and nonkeratinous matrix or keratin-keratin cross-links. The mechanical properties of the rachis cortex are surprisingly uniform along the length of the feathers. PMID:21404446

Weiss, Ingrid M; Schmitt, Karl P; Kirchner, Helmut O K

2011-03-14

378

The appearance of competence for phytochrome-mediated anthocyanin synthesis in the cotyledons of Sinapis alba L  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that phytochrome-mediated anthocyanin synthesis in the epidermal cells of mustard seedling cotyledons takes place only 27 h after sowing onwards (at 25°C). This “starting point” cannot be shifted by light treatments or by nutrients. The late appearance of competence for Pfr (Pr and Pfr, red- and far-red absorbing forms of phytochrome, respectively) with regard to anthocyanin synthesis

B. Steinitz; H. Drumm; H. Mohr

1976-01-01

379

Identification and sensory evaluation of dehydro- and deoxy-ellagitannins formed upon toasting of oak wood (Quercus alba L.).  

PubMed

Traditionally, spirits such as whiskey are matured in toasted wood barrels to improve the sensory quality of the final beverage. In order to gain first insight into the puzzling road map of thermal ellagitannin transformation chemistry and provide evidence for the changes in sensory active nonvolatiles in oak wood during toasting, the purified oak ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, their corresponding dimers roburin A and roburin D, and 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin were thermally treated in model experiments. Besides mouth-coating and golden-brown colored melanoidin-type polymers, individual major reaction products were produced as transient intermediates which were identified for the first time by means of LC-MS/MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy. Depending strongly on the stereochemistry, castalagin is oxidized to the previously unreported dehydrocastalagin, whereas its diastereomer vescalagin, differing only in the stereochemistry at carbon C-1, is most surprisingly converted into deoxyvescalagin. Comparative model experiments with 33-carboxy-33-deoxyvescalagin revealed castalagin, vescalagin, dehydrocastalagin, and deoxyvescalagin as typical reaction products, thus indicating decarboxylation as a key step in the thermal degradation of that ellagitannin. Similar to the ellagitannin monomers, LC-MS/MS analyses gave strong evidence that the corresponding dimer roburin A, containing the vescalagin configuration at C-1, was converted into the deoxyroburin A, whereas roburin D, exhibiting the castalagin configuration at C-1, was oxidized to give the dehydroroburin D. Human sensory experiments revealed that the ellagitannin derivatives imparted an astringent mouth-coating sensation with threshold concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 126.0 micromol/L, depending strongly on their chemical structure. PMID:17444655

Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

2007-04-20

380

On the Origin of the Extracellular Field Potential in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

The neurophonic is a sound-evoked, frequency-following potential that can be recorded extracellularly in nucleus laminaris of the barn owl. The origin of the neurophonic, and thus the mechanisms that give rise to its exceptional temporal precision, has not yet been identified. Putative generators of the neurophonic are the activity of afferent axons, synaptic activation of laminaris neurons, or action potentials in laminaris neurons. To identify the generators, we analyzed the neurophonic in the high-frequency (>2.5 kHz) region of nucleus laminaris in response to monaural pure-tone stimulation. The amplitude of the neurophonic is typically in the millivolt range. The signal-to-noise ratio reaches values beyond 30 dB. To assess which generators could give rise to these large, synchronous extracellular potentials, we developed a computational model. Spike trains were produced by an inhomogeneous Poisson process and convolved with a spike waveform. The model explained the dependence of the simulated neurophonic on parameters such as the mean rate, the vector strength of phase locking, the number of statistically independent sources, and why the signal-to-noise ratio is independent of the spike waveform and subsequent filtering of the signal. We found that several hundred sources are needed to reach the observed signal-to-noise ratio. The summed coherent signal from the densely packed afferent axons and activation of their synapses on laminaris neurons are alone sufficient to explain the measured properties of the neurophonic.

Wagner, Hermann; Ashida, Go; Carr, Catherine E.

2010-01-01

381

Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia  

PubMed Central

Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts), taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative description of the feathers and the specific structures of owl feathers can be used as a model for the construction of a biomimetic airplane wing or, in general, as a source for noise-reducing applications on any surfaces subjected to flow fields.

Bachmann, Thomas; Klan, Stephan; Baumgartner, Werner; Klaas, Michael; Schroder, Wolfgang; Wagner, Hermann

2007-01-01

382

Wait before running for your life: defensive tactics of spiny mice ( Acomys cahirinus ) in evading barn owl ( Tyto alba ) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raptor–prey encounters were studied to evaluate the strategies and success rate of both predator attack and prey defense.\\u000a We compared the success of barn owls in catching stationary simulated prey (food item) with that of moving prey (food item\\u000a that was pulled in various directions). We also tracked real encounters between barn owls and spiny mice in a captive environment.

Amiyaal Ilany; David Eilam

2008-01-01

383

Neural correlates of binaural masking level difference in the inferior colliculus of the barn owl (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

Humans and animals are able to detect signals in noisy environments. Detection improves when the noise and the signal have different interaural phase relationships. The resulting improvement in detection threshold is called the binaural masking level difference. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying the release from masking in the inferior colliculus of barn owls in low-frequency and high-frequency neurons. A tone (signal) was presented either with the same interaural time difference as the noise (masker) or at a 180 degrees phase shift as compared with the interaural time difference of the noise. The changes in firing rates induced by the addition of a signal of increasing level while masker level was kept constant was well predicted by the relative responses to the masker and signal alone. In many cases, the response at the highest signal levels was dominated by the response to the signal alone, in spite of a significant response to the masker at low signal levels, suggesting the presence of occlusion. Detection thresholds and binaural masking level differences were widely distributed. The amount of release from masking increased with increasing masker level. Narrowly tuned neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus had detection thresholds that were lower than or similar to those of broadly tuned neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Broadly tuned neurons exhibited higher masking level differences than narrowband neurons. These data suggest that detection has different spectral requirements from localization. PMID:20618828

Asadollahi, Ali; Endler, Frank; Nelken, Israel; Wagner, Hermann

2010-07-06

384

The Effects of Exposure of the Human Body to RADON. Integrated Measurements Performed in Alba County, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In many countries, radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking. The proportion of lung cancers attributable\\u000a to radon is estimated to range from 3 to 14% . The hygiene requirements, the people’s health and environment protection should\\u000a be observed according to the regulations in force. In such a context, is included the protection against radioactive

L. E. Muntean; D. L. Manea; C. Cosma

385

Secondary metabolites synthesis in transformed cells of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Potentilla alba L. as producents of radioprotective compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the Chernobyl explosion, screening for new drugs of radioprotective activity has been initiat? ed in Ukraine. The European licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.,) is a pharmacologically important species which is rich in flavonoids and saponins, especially in the roots. To increase the pharmacological potential of this plant, the authors have obtained transformed licorice protoplasts with higher production of target compounds.

P. G. Kovalenko; V. P. Antonjuk; S. S. Maliuta

386

Frequency-dependent seed size selection on Cryptocarya alba (Mol.) Looser (Lauraceae): testing the effect of background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed size affects the probability of seed predation. Large seeds should be preferred over small seeds but the selective responses of seed predators may also be frequency-dependent. Seed predators may prefer the most common seed sizes (apostatic selection), the rarest ones (antiapostatic selection) or even be unresponsive to the size of seeds. More- over, seed density may further modify the

J. L. CELIS-DIEZ; R. O. BUSTAMANTE

2005-01-01

387

CUIDADOS CRÍTICOS: LA COMUNICACIÓN COMO TERAPIA IMPRESCINDIBLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good interpersonal communication impro- ves and facilitates human relationships, gran- ting effectiveness, but the practice of modern Medicine does not consider it as a priority. Critical Care Units are not an exception. Although care is taken effi ciently against ill- ness, the patients and their families are not always satisfi ed with communication between them and caregivers and, at the

Clara Llubiá

2008-01-01

388

Isoprene emission from Indian trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 ?molm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 ?g g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (<1 ?g g-1 h-1), 6 species were low emitting (1 ? to <10 ?g g-1 h-1), 5 species were moderate emitting (10? to <25 ?g g-1 h-1), and 11 species were high isoprene emitting (?25 ?g g-1 h-1). Maximum isoprene emission rate (81.5 ?g g-1 h-1) was observed in the case of Dalbergia sissoo Linn. It was interesting to find that Citrus limon Linn., Citrus reticulata Linn., Citrus sinensis Linn., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn., and Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 ?g g-1 h-1) in the present study.

Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

2003-12-01

389

Anti-diabetic effect of a traditional Chinese medicine formula.  

PubMed

An anti-diabetic TCM formula consisting of Schizandra chinensis Baill. (SC), Coptis chinensis (CC), Psidium guajava L. leaves (PG) and Morus alba L. leaves (MA) was developed based on its ?-glucosidase, DPP-4 and AGE inhibitory activities in vitro using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the in vivo study was carried out to confirm the anti-diabetic function of the formula. RSM results showed that the optimum anti-diabetic TCM formula is the combination SC (3000 ?g mL(-1)), CC (80 ?g mL(-1)), PG (374.56 ?g mL(-1)) and MA (480 ?g mL(-1)). For the in vivo study, insulin resistant mice were induced by high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) feeding for 6 weeks. Administration of the developed formula significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose in the HF/HS diet mice. Moreover, the formula decreased blood glucose levels in the insulin tolerance test. These results indicated that the anti-diabetic mechanism of the formula might be due to decreased insulin resistance. The serum fructosamine level in the high dose group was significantly lower than the HF/HS and normal control groups, indicating that the formula could improve middle term glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications. The contents of berberine and 1-deoxynojirimycin in the formula were 4.7 ± 0.4 and 77.1 ± 1.1 ?g mL(-1), respectively. These two compounds can be used as indicators for quality control during production. PMID:22899105

Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

2012-11-01

390

Changes in composition, structure and aboveground biomass over seventy-six years (1930-2006) in the Black Rock Forest, Hudson Highlands, southeastern New York State.  

PubMed

We sought to quantify changes in tree species composition, forest structure and aboveground forest biomass (AGB) over 76 years (1930-2006) in the deciduous Black Rock Forest in southeastern New York, USA. We used data from periodic forest inventories, published floras and a set of eight long-term plots, along with species-specific allometric equations to estimate AGB and carbon content. Between the early 1930s and 2000, three species were extirpated from the forest (American elm (Ulmus americana L.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (nigra) (Mill.) BSP)) and seven species invaded the forest (non-natives tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) and white poplar (Populus alba L.) and native, generally southerly distributed, southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), cockspur hawthorn (Crataegus crus-galli L.), red mulberry (Morus rubra L.), eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and slippery elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.)). Forest canopy was dominated by red oak and chestnut oak, but the understory tree community changed substantially from mixed oak-maple to red maple-black birch. Density decreased from an average of 1500 to 735 trees ha(-1), whereas basal area doubled from less than 15 m(2) ha(-1) to almost 30 m(2) ha(-1) by 2000. Forest-wide mean AGB from inventory data increased from about 71 Mg ha(-1) in 1930 to about 145 Mg ha(-1) in 1985, and mean AGB on the long-term plots increased from 75 Mg ha(-1) in 1936 to 218 Mg ha(-1) in 1998. Over 76 years, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) canopy trees stored carbon at about twice the rate of similar-sized canopy trees of other species. However, there has been a significant loss of live tree biomass as a result of canopy tree mortality since 1999. Important constraints on long-term biomass increment have included insect outbreaks and droughts. PMID:18244941

Schuster, W S F; Griffin, K L; Roth, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D; Tissue, D T

2008-04-01

391

Potencial de los caldos rizósfera y súper cuatro como biofertilizantes para la sostenibilidad del cultivo de cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa) Potential of the rhizosphere and super four broths as biofertilizers for the sustainability of the onion bulb (Allium cepa) culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el potencial de los caldos rizósfera y súper cuatro como biofertilizantes para la sostenibilidad del cultivo de cebolla de bulbo. Los caldos se analizaron química y microbiológicamente y se aplicaron a materas, en concentración del 10% a los 20, 40 y 60 días del trasplante. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con

Silvio E. Viteri; Marcela Granados; Ana Rosa González

2008-01-01

392

Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments. PMID:19579945

Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

2009-01-15

393

EFFECTS OF Artemisia sieberi Besser (A. herba-alba) ON HEART RATE AND SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Artemisia sieberi Besser on heart rate and some hematological values in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. It was found that water extract of Artemisia sieberi produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after 10 days of treatment; however, there was a significant (p<0.05)

Kamal Mansi; Jamil Lahham

394

Expression of Bt-Cry3A in transgenic Populus alba × P. glandulosa and its effects on target and non-target pests and the arthropod community.  

PubMed

During the growing seasons of 2006-2008, feeding tests and field studies were conducted in Beijing, China, to investigate the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) poplar (BGA-5) expressing the Cry3A protein (0.0264-0.0326% of the total soluble protein) on target and non-target pests and the arthropod community. The effects of BGA-5 on the target pest Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and a non-target pest Clostera anachoreta (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae), were assessed under laboratory conditions. Total mortality of P. versicolora larvae fed with BGA-5 leaves was significantly higher than that of the control (P < 0.05). The exuviation index of P. versicolora larvae fed with BGA-5 tended to be higher than that of CK, but it was not significantly different. The pupation rate and eclosion rate of the survived larvae fed with BGA-5 were lower than that of CK, but it was also not significantly different. Additionally, no significant differences were detected in the mortality, exuviations index, pupation rate, or eclosion rate of C. anachoreta fed with leaves of transgenic and non-transgenic poplars. Furthermore, the arthropod communities in the Bt poplar and CK field stands were similar, as indicated by four diversity indices (Berge-Parker index, Shannon-Wiener indices, evenness index, and Simpson's inverted index) and the Bray-Curtis index. Therefore, the Bt-Cry3A poplar decreased damage by the target pest (P. versicolora), had no effects on a non-target pest (C. anachoreta), and generally did not have any significant negative effect on the poplar arthropod community. PMID:20703808

Zhang, Bingyu; Chen, Min; Zhang, Xiaofen; Luan, Hehui; Tian, Yingchuan; Su, Xiaohua

2010-08-12

395

Foliar retention of 15N-nitrate and 15N-ammonium by red maple (Acer rubrum) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves from simulated rain  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nitrogen cycling in forests indicate that trees assimilate atmospheric nitrate and ammonium and that differences between atmospheric deposition to the forest canopy and deposition measured in forest throughfall can be attributed to the removal of these ions from rain by tree leaves. Red maple and white oak leaves were exposed to artificial rain solutions (pH 4.1) containing {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate (3.5 {micro}g N/ml) or ammonium (2.2 {micro}g N/ml). At two time intervals after exposure (2 hr and 2 days) an exposed leaf and a control (non-exposed) leaf were removed from replicate seedlings. Based on results from {sup 15}N analysis, most of the nitrate applied to tree leaves was removed by washing with water; the mean per cent removal ({+-} standard error, N = 4) was 87 {+-} 1 and 73 {+-} 4% of the {sup 15}NO-N Applied to red maple and white oak leaves, respectively. Relative retention of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}-N by the leaves was greater than that observed for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}-N. In red maple and white oak leaves, 58 {+-} 9 and 84 {+-} 7% (mean {+-} standard error, N = 4), respectively, of the applied ammonium was not removed by washing treatments. Our results show that the foliar uptake of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} from simulated rain by deciduous tree leaves is greater than that for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Greater retention of NH{sub 4}{sup +} than NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions by red maple and white oak leaves from simulated rainfall is consistent with field observations showing a preferential retention of ammonium from rainfall by forest canopies. As nitrogen chemistry and the relative importance of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere change in response to proposed emission reductions (and possibly climate change), an improved understanding of the fate of airborne nitrogen compounds in forest biogeochemical cycles will be necessary.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

1990-07-01

396

Measurements of cytochrome f and P-700 in intact leaves of Sinapis alba grown under high-light and low-light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation and reduction of cytochrome f and P-700 is measured spectrophotometrically in leaves of low-light and high-light plants. After illumination with red light, an induction phenomenon for cytochrome f oxidation is observed which indicates a regulation of photosystem I activity through energy distribution between the pigment systems by the energy state of the membrane. After far-red excitation the reduction

W. Rfihle; A. Wild

1979-01-01

397

Identification of Tyr74 and Tyr177 as substrate oxidation sites in cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase from Populus alba L.  

PubMed

Cationic cell wall-bound peroxidase (CWPO-C) has the capability to oxidize sinapyl alcohol, ferrocytochrome c, and synthetic lignin polymers, unlike most peroxidases that have been characterized in flowering plants, such as horseradish peroxidase and Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidase A2. It has been suggested that the oxidation site is located on the CWPO-C surface, and homology modeling and chemically modified CWPO-C studies suggest that Tyr74 and/or Tyr177 are possible participants in the catalytic site. The present study clarifies the importance of these Tyr residues for substrate oxidation, using recombinant CWPO-C and recombinant mutant CWPO-C with phenylalanine substitution(s) for tyrosine. Such recombinant proteins, produced in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies, were successfully refolded to yield the active form, and purified recombinant protein solutions exhibited typical spectra of high-spin ferric protein and displayed H(2) O(2) -dependent oxidation of guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and syringaldazine. Measurement of peroxidase activity with these guaiacyl and syringyl compounds as reducing substrates indicated that a single mutation, Y74F or Y177F, resulted in substantial loss of oxidation activity (? 40-60% and 82%, respectively). Also, over 95% of the oxidation activity was lost with a double mutation, Y74F/Y177F. These results indicated that Tyr74 and Tyr177, rather than the heme pocket, play a central role in the oxidation of these substrates. This is the first report of active residues on an enzyme surface being identified in a plant peroxidase. This study also suggests that sinapyl alcohol incorporation into lignin is performed by a peroxidase that generates Tyr radicals on its surface. PMID:22099451

Shigeto, Jun; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2011-12-09

398

Establishment and growth of oak ( Quercus alba, Quercus prinus) seedlings in burned and fire-excluded upland forests on the Cumberland Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent problems with regeneration of oaks (Quercus spp.) have been documented across a wide range of ecosystems. In oak-dominated forests of the central and Appalachian hardwood regions of the United States, a lack of competitive oak regeneration has been tied, in part, to fire suppression in these landscapes, and managers throughout the region are using prescribed fire to address this

Jacob Royse; Mary A. Arthur; Angela Schörgendorfer; David L. Loftis

2010-01-01

399

Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation.  

PubMed

Phage-resistant and -susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover, grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as diverse genotypes of Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA) and protein-encoding (atpD and recA) genes, Southern hybridization/RFLP and a range of phenotypic characteristics. Among phage-resistant bacteria, one genotype of Rhizobium sp. predominated on alfalfa (frequency approximately 68 %) but was recovered infrequently ( approximately 1 %) from sweet clover. A second genotype was isolated infrequently only from alfalfa. These genotypes fixed nitrogen poorly in association with sweet clover and Phaseolus vulgaris, but were moderately effective with alfalfa. They produced a near-neutral reaction on mineral salts agar containing mannitol, which is atypical of the genus Rhizobium. A single isolate of Ensifer sp. and two of Phyllobacterium sp. were recovered only from sweet clover. All were highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ensifer sp. strain T173 is closely related to, but separate from, the non-symbiotic species 'Sinorhizobium morelense'. Strain T173 is unique in that it possesses a 175 kb symbiotic plasmid and elicits ineffective nodules on alfalfa, sweet clover, Medicago lupulina and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The two Phyllobacterium spp. were non-symbiotic and probably represent bacterial opportunists. Three genotypes of E. meliloti that were symbiotically effective with alfalfa and sweet clover were encountered infrequently. Among phage-susceptible isolates, two genotypes of E. medicae were encountered infrequently and were highly effective with alfalfa, sweet clover and Medicago polymorpha. The ecological and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19875436

Bromfield, E S P; Tambong, J T; Cloutier, S; Prévost, D; Laguerre, G; van Berkum, P; Thi, T V Tran; Assabgui, R; Barran, L R

2009-10-29

400

Assessment of Cr and Ni phytotoxicity from cutlery-washing waste-waters using biomass and chlorophyll production tests on mustard Sinapis alba L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The aim of this work was to determine phytotoxicity of washing waste-waters from a cutlery production line with high content\\u000a of Cr and Ni. These waters were previously classified, without verification, as dangerous and it is now necessary to question\\u000a the justice of the present classification under the new legislation for waste management (Waste Law No. 223\\/2001)

Agáta Fargašová; Marianna Molnárová

2010-01-01

401

Traditional Chinese Medicine improves dysfunction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein on abnormalities in lipid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats.  

PubMed

We report the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma oriental, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata. The rats were separated randomly into five groups; the CD group (n=10), which was fed a control diet for 10 weeks, the ED group (n=10), which was fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing ethanol for 10 weeks and given daily oral doses of TCM (0.222 g/kg/day; TCM222, 0.667 g/kg/day; TCM667, and 2.000 g/kg/day; TCM2000, n=10, respectively) over the last four weeks of the study. The ED group developed fatty livers, as determined by their lipid profiles and liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group. Also, free fatty acids (FFA) levels increased in both plasma and liver during the administration of ethanol. On the other hand, when rats were administrated with TCM, their liver/body weight, plasma TG, TC and FFA, liver TG, TC and FFA, plasma ALT and AST decreased significantly and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group. Proper function of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is essential for the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the secretion of triglycerides from the liver. mRNAs for PPARalpha and MTP were reduced in the livers of ethanol-fed rats. TCM restored the mRNA levels of PPARalpha and MTP, and prevented development of fatty livers in ethanol-fed rats. Impairment of PPARalpha and MTP function during ethanol consumption contributes to the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver, which can be overcome by TCM. PMID:16410638

Kwon, Hyun Jeong; Hyun, Sun Hee; Choung, Se Young

2005-01-01

402

The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.  

PubMed

Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root/shoot ratios, root surface areas, specific root areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the young mulberry trees in the DH were all significantly higher than those of the control group (DM). Leaf water potential, instantaneous water use efficiency, and abscisic acid content of DH were all significantly lower than DM. Under different degrees of drought stress, the growth of mulberry trees will be inhibited, but the trees can respond to the stress by increasing the root absorptive area and enhancing capacity for water retention. Mulberry trees demonstrate strong resistance to drought stress, and furthermore drought resistance can be improved by drought hardening during the seedling stage. PMID:23250728

Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

2012-12-19

403

Antioxidant activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of diabetes.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155

Al-Mustafa, Ahmed H; Al-Thunibat, Osama Y

2008-02-01

404

IN VITRO HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SOME INDIGENOUS PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pakistan is rich in medicinally important plants and has ancient herbal treatment methods. Present work is based on the study of six indigenous plants Eugenia jambolana, Lawsonia inermis, Momordica charantia, Morus

Tomlinson K-C; Gardiner SM; Hebden RA; Bennett T

405

Cojera como forma de debut de un linfoma Burkitt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint in pediatrics usually related to benign conditions. However, it may also represent the initial symptom of serious diseases such as infections, malignancies or orthopedic emergencies.We present the case of a child diagnosed with Burkitt's lymphoma whose initial presentation was a limp. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case reported in

Marta Barrios López; Rocío Casado Picón; Jaime de Inocencio Arocena; José Luis Vivanco Martínez

2011-01-01

406

Crítica literária e sociedade: como representa o texto literário?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses, from a theoretical point of view, the paradoxical relationship between literature and society. On the one hand, it criticizes a reading of literature with a sociologizing bias disseminated by the culturalist critique, but tries to retrieve positive aspects mentioned by authors such as Mignolo, Moreiras, Polar and Bhabba. On the other hand, it proposes a reading of

Juan Pablo Chiappara

2006-01-01

407

Depósitos de Tsunami como indicadores de riesgo: evidencias sedimentarias1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents the main keys that have been used for the tsunami deposits study, like evidences to determine: i) phenomenon intensity, ii) frequency, and iii) inundation levels reached by the waves. This is crucial information in the risk management for this kind of natural threat. The highly energetic character of tsunami leaves geomorphologics and sedimentary records clearly identifi able

408

Los indicadores de insustentabilidad urbana como indicadores de conflicto social  

Microsoft Academic Search

Las ciudades son ecológicamente insostenibles. Sus «huellas ecológicas» son muchos mayores que sus propios límites administrativos. Las ciudades procesan unas grandes cantidades de materiales y energía y excretan residuos de distintos tipos. Sin embargo, este artículo se pregunta de manera optimista si acaso no son las ciudades los lugares donde se producen las innovaciones tecnológicas ecoeficientes. Se pregunta también si

Joan Martínez Alier

2002-01-01

409

Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A implantação de microcentrais hidrelétricas é uma das alternativas para suprir com energia comunidades pequenas e isoladas, situadas normalmente na área rural. O aproveitamento de potenciais hidráulicos de pequeno porte é uma alternativa cada vez mais viável devido não só à falta de recursos financeiros para os grandes empreendimentos, mas também pelo imenso potencial de geração em centrais de

Carlos R. Balarim; Luiz A. Targa; Jorim S. Virgens Filho; Alceu G. Andrade Filho; Giovana K. Wiecheteck

2004-01-01

410

Como Planear Mi Vida = Make a Life for Yourself.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for teenagers about life planning is presented in parallel English and Spanish versions with a special focus on young Hispanics growing up in America. It discusses hopes and dreams that adolescents may have and gives tips for reaching goals. A sentence completion exercise is included to help readers set goals. Four important goals for…

Haffner, Debra; Casey, Sean

411

Make a Life for Yourself = Como Planear Mi Vida.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was devised to help Hispanic teenagers develop a life plan. It provides information for making decisions, and is written in both English and Spanish. Tips are provided for setting goals. A sentence-completion task helps the teenager focus on specific issues, and use concrete language when talking about the goals. Specific goals are…

Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

412

Como Organizar una Cooperativa (How to Organize a Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four pamphlets explain co-ops in general, co-ops as businesses, how co-ops succeed and how to form a co-op. Co-ops in the American Private Enterprise System compares co-ops with other businesses. The Business Co-op explains how a co-op can function as a p...

1971-01-01

413

GEOIDEA - Geotecnologia como instrumento da inclusão digital e educação ambiental  

Microsoft Academic Search

GEOIDEA1 Project (Geo-technology as Instrument of Digital Inclusion and Environmental Education) aims to develop and apply a methodology focused on students digital inclusion through the use of Geographical Information System, in particular, in Geography classes. This work has generated, in digital environment, the means for teaching and learning subjects related to mapping, space technology, environment, for example, themes like watersheds,

Angelica Carvalho Di Maio

414

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2013-04-01

415

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2010-04-01

416

21 CFR 73.2190 - Henna.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive henna is the dried leaf and petiole of Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.). It may be identified by its characteristic...plant material from Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lawsonia inermis L.) other than the leaf and...

2009-04-01

417

Free entry may reduce total willingness-to-pay 1 Part of the research for this paper was done while Perrakis was visiting at the Athens Laboratory of Business Administration (ALBA) during 1997–98. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a natural oligopoly with quality commitments, entry accommodation may induce an incumbent to adopt a lower quality relative to a protected monopolist. Due to quality distortion a protected monopoly may be welfare superior to a duopoly even absent cost considerations.

Christos Constantatos; Stylianos Perrakis

1999-01-01

418

Pedro Schacht Pereira - Uma Filosofia Buissonnieuse, ou de como o narrador desce as escadas: Como ler a questão da \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I address a long-standing issue in Machadian studies, that of the relationship between philosophy and literature in the fiction of Machado de Assis. I start by acknowledging my indebtedness to the studies that Abel Barros Baptista has recently dedicated to the Brazilian author. In his article, \\

Pedro Schacht Pereira

2007-01-01

419

Fatty acid diversity of Section Inflexae Limnanthes (meadowfoam)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes ssp.) is a rich source of unique unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The commercial crop is based on L. alba (Section Inflexae of the Limnanthaceae). We describe the fatty acid diversity of L. alba and other Section Inflexae taxa. The unsaturated fatty acid percentage for L. alba seed oil was 97.9%. Significant differences were found for 20:1?5, 22:1?5, 22:1?13,

Steven J. Knapp; Jimmie M. Crane

1995-01-01

420

Dear Doctor Letter - Standardized Grass Pollen Extracts  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Bluegrass (Poa pratensis), Meadow Fescue (Festuca elatior), Orchard (Dactylis glomerata), Perennial Rye (Lolium perenne), Redtop (Agrostis alba ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability

421

A junk-food hypothesis for gannets feeding on fishery waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide fisheries generate large volumes of fishery waste and it is often assumed that this additional food is beneficial to populations of marine top-predators. We challenge this concept via a detailed study of foraging Cape gannets Morus capensis and of their feeding environment in the Benguela upwelling zone. The natural prey of Cape gannets (pelagic fishes) is depleted and birds

David Gremillet; Lorien Pichegru; G regoire Kuntz; G. Woakes

2008-01-01

422

Characterization and safety evaluation of the traditional Greek fruit distillate “Mouro” by flavor compounds and mineral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouro is the spirit beverage that comes from the distillation of fermented fruits of the mulberry tree (Morus nigra L.). Mouro is also the Greek common name of this fruit. Usually, it is used for the production of syrups, jams and jellies. In Greece it is also used for the production of the traditional aromatic mouro distillate. As far as

E. H Soufleros; Ageliki S Mygdalia; P Natskoulis

2004-01-01

423

Two structurally identical mannose-specific jacalin-related lectins display different effects on human T lymphocyte activation and cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant lectins displaying similar single sugar-binding specificity and identical molecular structure might present various biological effects. To explore this possibility, the effects on human lymphocytes of two mannose-specific and structurally closely re- lated lectins, Morniga M from Morus nigra and arto- carpin from Artocarpus integrifolia were investi- gated. In silico analysis revealed that Morniga M presents a more largely open

H. Benoist; R. Culerrier; G. Poiroux; B. Segui; A. Jauneau; E. J. M. Van Damme; W. J. Peumans; A. Barre; P. Rouge

2009-01-01

424

Effect of ‘antidiabetis’ herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in NOD mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L.)), patent

R. Petlevski; M. Hadžija; M. Slijep?evi?; D. Jureti?

2001-01-01

425

Estudio de la histerectomía obstétrica como morbilidad en el Hospital América Arias en el año 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective, longitudinal study was performed of all patients who underwent obstetric hysterectomy in the America Arias Obstetrics and Gynecology Teaching Hospital in 2003. A thorough review of the medical records of 20 patients who underwent surgery was performed. The total number of births in the hospital during this period was 3583. Personal data, the number of cases in each

J. R. Cutié; A. Laffita; A. Velazco; M. Toledo

2005-01-01

426

Más allá del amo y del esclavo. La lógica del resentimiento como nuevo escenario filosófico  

Microsoft Academic Search

¿Cuáles son los elementos constitutivos, específicos de nuestro tiempo, pero más o menos generales, de ese deseo identitario de reconocimiento que a menudo parece alimentar una política de la recriminación, una tendencia a hacer reproches al poder más a que aspirar a él? Gilles Deleuze —junto a Nietzsche y otros pensadores contemporáneos— trata de atender al hecho de la lógica

Germán Cano

2009-01-01

427

ELABORACÃO DE UMA BARRA DE CEREAIS COMO ALIMENTO COMPENSADOR PARA PRATICANTES DE ATIVIDADE FÍSICA E ATLETAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study had as objective the elaboration of a bar of cereals, with characteristics appropriate nutricionais to the apprentice's of physical activity needs and athlete. They were used as ingredients: isolated protein of the serum of milk (Whey Protein), flakes of rice, oat in flakes, maltodextrina, concentrated juice of passion fruit, glucose, glycerin, inulina, canola oil, dehydrated apple, chestnut of

Larissa Grden; Cristina Soltovski de Oliveira; Eliana Queiroz Bortolozo

2008-01-01

428

LA RAZA COMO DETERMINANTE DEL ACCESO A UN EMPLEO DE CALIDAD: UN ESTUDIO PARA CALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

La discriminación laboral por raza ha sido un tema ampliamente analizado en la economía del trabajo a partir de la estimación de ecuaciones de ingreso para determinar diferenciales en el salario, pero la influencia de este factor en el acceso a un empleo de calidad no se ha explorado lo suficiente. Realizar este análisis cobra vital importancia para una ciudad

CHRISTIAN DAVID BUSTAMANTE; SANTIAGO ARROYO

2008-01-01

429

Efectividad de la vacuna anti-varicela-zoster como profilaxis post-exposición  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Introduction. Chickenpox is an endemic and highly contagious viral disease affecting mostly pre- school and school children. We evaluated the effectiveness of an Oka strain Varicella Vaccine (VV) in susceptible children who have had direct contact with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infected

Angela Gentile; José Marcó del Pont; Emilio Martínez Iriart; Gustavo Pueta; Walter Joaquín; Silvia Castrillón; Marcelo Serantes; Patricia Lamy; Ricardo Rüttimann

430

Como Ayudar a sus Hijos a Aprender Ciencia (Helping Your Child Learn Science).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because most parents say they do not or cannot help their children with science, this booklet was designed to help them do so, easily and with pleasure for both parent and child. The introduction presents information on why and how parents should help their children and provides a general orientation to the ideas and activities offered in the…

Paulu, Nancy; Martin, Margery

431

COMO IMPLANTAR UM PROGRAMA DE ATIVIDADE FÍSICA NA EMPRESA: SUGESTÃO SEM IMPOSIÇÃO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the practice of sport in the company, an expedient that has existed for a long time in European and Asian countries, later adopted in the United States, and arriving in Brazil in the second half of the past century, particularly in the South West and Southern regions - São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do

José Maurício Capinussú

2005-01-01

432

Statement from the 1987 Como Meeting of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the 1987 meeting of the ICRP is given. Topics covered include the work on cancer risk assessment, in particular the atomic bomb survivor studies, the risk of mental retardation by exposure of children to radiation in utero, health risks from ...

1987-01-01

433

«BAILANDO COMO NEGRO»: RITMO, RAZA Y NACIÓN EN ESMERALDAS, ECUADOR1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the African diaspora blackness has long been associated with rhythmic dancing abilities. The association is often naturalised in popular discourses to suggest that black people have an innate sense of rhythm - that rhythm is «in their blood». This charaterisation is at times appropriated by individuals who self identify as black and consider their dancing skills an important part

Emily Walmsley

434

Em Busca de Delimitações do Enquadramento do Franchising como Alianças Estratégicas AUTORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper is questioned the service franchises if it can be classified as strategic alliances. Two reasons impel the discussion. First, the relevance that this franchise type wins in terms of number of establishments and participation in the world economy; and second, the existent gap as the discussion regarding the system of franchising of services as a strategic

PEDRO LUCAS DE RESENDE; FELIPE MENDES BORINI

435

"Tanto Necesitamos De Aqui Como Necesitamos De Alla": "Leer Juntas" among Mexican Transnational Mothers and Daughters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents part of the results of a qualitative study about literacy practices of Mexican transnational mothers, who live in and frequently cross the border between two countries (the United States and Mexico). Drawing on sociocultural approaches to literacy and literature on transnationalism, I analyze one practice: "leer juntas"…

de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

2011-01-01

436

Como Mantener los Socios en su Cooperativa (How to Maintain Membership in Your Cooperative).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Active membership in cooperatives is the major factor that makes co-ops survive. Five short pamphlets discuss issues for maintaining membership. (1) Strengthening Cooperative Member Interest and Support describes priority areas: creating pride in the co-o...

1970-01-01

437

Papel de los receptores tipo toll en las infecciones virales: el VIH-1 como modelo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toll-like receptors are an essential component of the innate and adaptive immune response. They are responsible for the recognition of different pathogens agents and trigger responses directed at eliminating the pathogens as well as the development of immunological long-term memory. During viral infections, several different toll-like receptors are activated. These generally induce a protective immune response, but at the

Juan Carlos Hernández; Carlos Julio Montoya; Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima

2007-01-01

438

"Las Charlas" como expresion oral diaria ["Chats" as Daily Oral Practice].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An oral practice system of "chats" in the classroom functions as an extemporaneous speaking exercise or chat (without notes or prompt sheets), occurring between two students for a minute or so at the beginning of class, following which the presenters respond to other students' questions. (CNP)|

Borden, Matt

2002-01-01

439

Os métodos científicos como possibilidade de construção de conhecimentos no ensino de ciências  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the scientific method in the area of science teaching. It focuses on its role in the process of building knowledge. It tries to show how the scientific method can be used in the definition and construction of concepts, especially those inherent to science itself. It treats these aspects from an acceptance point of view as a

Marly Aparecida Giraldelli Marsulo; Maria Ghisolfi da Silva

2005-01-01

440

POLÍTICAS CIENTÍFICAS EN MATERIA DE RENOVABLES: EL CASO DEL HIDRÓGENO COMO FUENTE BÁSICA ENERGÉTICA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper tries to realize a valuation on the implication of the hydrogen economy in the society. The Global Warning has led the governments to designing diffe- rent policies favoring the alternative energies and improve the environment. Though, in most cases performances have spread out with more intention that real. With this paper there are tried to put in scene

Jesús A. Valero Matas; Juan Romay Coca; Grupo Compostela

2009-01-01

441

Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

Corbell, Gloria; And Others

442

LA COMUNICACIÓN DE CRISIS COMO ELEMENTO CLAVE DE LA COMUNICACIÓN EMPRESARIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crisis communication is part of the company communication area. The crisis management of a company or institution includes several topics and among them we must position the crisis communication. When the communication is considered as a whole, the areas which form part of it (including, for example: governmen- tal relations, public relations, or image management) work together in a

Pilar Saura Pérez; Directora de Comunicación

2010-01-01

443

Paleoecology of the Quarry 9 vertebrate assemblage from Como Bluff, Wyoming (Morrison Formation, Late Jurassic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quarry 9 is among the richest microvertebrate localities in the Morrison Formation, having thus far produced the remains of dozens of Late Jurassic taxa. Because this lenticular claystone deposit records such a high diversity of contemporaneous species, it provides an exceptionally detailed view of their paleoecology and local paleoenvironment. In this study, we reexamined the entire Quarry 9 collection, totaling

Matthew T. Carrano; Jorge Velez-Juarbe

2006-01-01

444

Investigação da infância e crianças como investigadoras: metodologias participativas dos mundos sociais das crianças  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second modernity the childhood participation is assumed as a fundamental principle to a large extent of the scientific speeches that are produced concerning childhood. The Sociology of Childhood, when considering the children as social actors and as citizens of rights, assumes the question of children's participation as central in the definition of a social statute of childhood and

Natália Fernandes Soares; Manuel Jacinto Sarmento; Catarina Tomás

445

Como se posicionam os professores perante manifestações culturais com impacto na natureza. Resultados de uma investigação  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is part of a wider research, the aim of which was to investigate the extent to which teachers involved in Environmental Education (EE) projects at the various levels of the Portuguese schooling system supported anthropocentric, biocentric or ecocentric perspectives on the environment. To this end, 60 teachers were interviewed on a variety of issues related to the

António Almeida

2009-01-01

446

Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes (How To Apply for Federal Student Aid).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, written in Spanish, discusses reasons for going to college, how to pay for college, and how to apply for federal student aid in a series of brief, clear illustrations. Following outlines of financial benefits of college, college costs, and space to note costs for the student's area, the guide outlines these steps in the application…

Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

447

El caduceo como emblema de la medicina: un error de casi cinco siglos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The snake has been associated to healing arts since the ancient times, probably because its skin-change ability and to symbolize that sola dosis facit venenum. The Staff of Aesculapius and the caduceum derivate from worshipping the snake; it is undeniable that both mythological symbols originated from the Life Tree, which represents wisdom and immortality. The inaccuracy of adopting the caduceum

Feliciano Blanco Dávila; Hernán Ramírez Vel

448

Adubação verde como alternativa agroecológica para recuperação da fertilidade do solo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recuperação da fertilidade do solo, especialmente do nutriente fósforo (P) tem custo bastante elevado, principalmente quando utilizadas fontes de adubos solúveis. Portanto, é necessário encontrar alternativas de menor custo para recuperação da fertilidade-P. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar o potencial de produtividade de fi tomassa de espécies de adubos verdes de verão e de inverno submetidas a

Cristiano André Pott; Marcelo Marques; Lopes Müller; Patrick Batista Bertelli

449

Evaluación de algunos residuos orgánicos como sustrato para el cultivo de hongos comestibles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Edible mushrooms have an excellent nutritional content; they have all of the essential amino acids, unsaturated fat acids, sugar, vitamins and fiber, and a wide variety of compounds that act against some human diseases. Objective: To evaluate garden remains as a substract to pro- duce two types of the Pleotorus fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius and standarize the

Adelaida María; Garcés Molina; Natalia Velez Cardona; Santiago Ruiz Alzate; Juan Guillermo Serna DLeón; Ernesto Suarez Holguín

450

LAS LEVADURAS MARINAS COMO HERRAMIENTAS CIENTÍFICA Y BIOTECNOLÓGICA Marine yeasts as Scientific and Biotechnology tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine yeasts comprise a group of microorganisms which existence has been questioned. As a result, the knowledge about its physiology and biotechnology use is scarce. The ecological importance of the marine yeasts is due, at least in part, to their contribution in the ocean's organic matter recycling. In addition, they are valuable sources of biological reagents, cell protein, vitamins, pigments,