Science.gov

Sample records for mosaicism

  1. Mosaicism

    MedlinePlus

    ... A diagnosis of mosaicism may cause confusion and uncertainty. A genetic counselor may help answer any questions ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  2. Garden Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ann Marie; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Garden Mosaics, a program funded by the National Science Foundation. Garden Mosaics combines science learning with intergenerational mentoring, multicultural understanding, and community service. The program's mission is "connecting youth and elders to explore the mosaics of plants, people, and cultures in gardens, to learn…

  3. Mosaic Horses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson inspired by Sicilian mosaics. The author first presented a PowerPoint presentation of mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale and reviewed complementary and analogous colors. Students then created mosaics using a variety of art materials. They presented their work to their peers and discussed the thought and…

  4. Mosaic RASopathies

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Groesser, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    “RASopathies” are a group of developmental syndromes with partly overlapping clinical symptoms that are caused by germline mutations of genes within the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Mutations affecting this pathway can also occur in a mosaic state, resulting in congenital syndromes often distinct from those generated by the corresponding germline mutations. For syndromes caused by mosaic mutations of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, the term “mosaic RASopathies” has been proposed. In the following article, genetic and phenotypic aspects of mosaic RASopathies will be discussed. PMID:23255105

  5. Hellas Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic comprises about 50 red-, green-, and violet-filter Viking Orbiter images, mosaiced in an orthographic projection at a scale of 1 km/pixel. The images were acquired in 1980 during late northern summer on Mars. The mosaic covers the region from latitude -70 degrees to 50 degrees and longitude 260 degrees to 360 degrees. The bright white region near the bottom of the image is due to carbon dioxide frost in the Hellas impact basin, which is about 2000 km in diameter. The bright yellow region at top is the Arabia region of Mars.

  6. Mosaic Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Through the generosity of a Lowes Toolbox for Education Grant and a grant from the Bill Graham Foundation, an interdisciplinary mosaic mural was created and installed at Riverview Middle School in Bay Point, California. The actual mural, which featured a theme of nurturing students through music, art, sports, science, and math, took about three…

  7. EUVI Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    A mosaic of the extreme ultraviolet images from the STEREO Ahead observatory's SECCHI/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope taken on Dec. 4, 2006, its first day of imaging. These false color images show the sun's atmospheres at a range of different temperatures. Clockwise from top left: 1 million degrees Kelvin (171 A), 1.5 million K (195 A), 60,000-80,000 K (304 A), 2.5 million K (286 A).

  8. Triton mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This picture of Triton is a mosaic of the highest resolution images taken by Voyager 2 on Aug. 25, 1989 from a distance of about 40,000 kilometers (24,800 miles). The mosaic is superimposed on the lower resolution mapping images taken about 2 hours earlier in order to fill in gaps between high resolution images. The smallest features that can be seen on the images are about 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles) across. The terminator (line separating day and night) is at the top of the picture and is centered at about 30 degrees north latitude and 330 degrees longitude. These highest resolution images were targeted for the terminator region to show details of the topography by the shadows it casts. Near the center of the picture is a depression filled with smooth plains that are probably ices which were once erupted in a fluid state. The depth of the depression is about 300 meters (900 feet) and the prominent fresh impact crater on its floor is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter and about 1 kilometer (0.6 mile) deep. On the right is an elongate crater with adjacent dark deposits above it. This feature may be an explosive eruption vent formed by gaps within the ice. The linear structure on the left is probably a fracture along which fresh ice has been extruded. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  9. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  10. Raspberry Mosaic Disease Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry mosaic disease (RMD) is an overarching term used to describe a range of diseases caused by various combinations of different viruses that are each transmitted by aphids. In the scientific literature RMD has been given various alternative names, including red raspberry mosaic, type b mosaic...

  11. North America Mosaic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Natural Color Mosaic of North America     View Larger ... at lower right. In addition to the contiguous United States, the scene spans from British Columbia in the northwest to Newfoundland ...

  12. Mosaic image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Kapil A.; Reeves, Stanley J.

    2005-02-01

    Most consumer-level digital cameras use a color filter array to capture color mosaic data followed by demosaicking to obtain full-color images. However, many sophisticated demosaicking algorithms are too complex to implement on-board a camera. To use these algorithms, one must transfer the mosaic data from the camera to a computer without introducing compression losses that could generate artifacts in the demosaicked image. The memory required for losslessly stored mosaic images severely restricts the number of images that can be stored in the camera. Therefore, we need an algorithm to compress the original mosaic data losslessly so that it can later be transferred intact for demosaicking. We propose a new lossless compression technique for mosaic images in this paper. Ordinary image compression methods do not apply to mosaic images because of their non-canonical color sampling structure. Because standard compression methods such as JPEG, JPEG2000, etc. are already available in most digital cameras, we have chosen to build our algorithms using a standard method as a key part of the system. The algorithm begins by separating the mosaic image into 3 color (RGB) components. This is followed by an interpolation or down-sampling operation--depending on the particular variation of the algorithm--that makes all three components the same size. Using the three color components, we form a color image that is coded with JPEG. After appropriately reformatting the data, we calculate the residual between the original image and the coded image and then entropy-code the residual values corresponding to the mosaic data.

  13. THEMIS Global Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, N. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed techniques to make seamless, controlled global mosaics from the more than 50,000 multi-spectral infrared images of the Mars returned by the THEMIS instrument aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. These images cover more than 95% of the surface at 100m/pixel resolution at both day and night local times. Uncertainties in the position and pointing of the spacecraft, varying local time, and imaging artifacts make creating well-registered mosaics from these datasets a challenging task. In preparation for making global mosaics, many full-resolution regional mosaics have been made. These mosaics typically cover an area 10x10 degrees or smaller, and are constructed from only a few hundred images. To make regional mosaics, individual images are geo-rectified using the USGS ISIS software. This dead-reckoning is sufficient to approximate position to within 400m in cases where the SPICE information was downlinked. Further coregistration of images is handled in two ways: grayscale differences minimization in overlapping regions through integer pixel shifting, or through automatic tie-point generation using a radial symmetry transformation (RST). The RST identifies points within an image that exhibit 4-way symmetry. Martian craters tend to to be very radially symmetric, and the RST can pin-point a crater center to sub-pixel accuracy in both daytime and nighttime images, independent of lighting, time of day, or seasonal effects. Additionally, the RST works well on visible-light images, and in a 1D application, on MOLA tracks, to provide precision tie-points across multiple data sets. The RST often finds many points of symmetry that aren't related to surface features. These "false-hits" are managed using a clustering algorithm that identifies constellations of points that occur in multiple images, independent of scaling or other affine transformations. This technique is able to make use of data in which the "good" tie-points comprise even less than 1% of total

  14. MOSAIC: a new wavefront metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher; Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-02-02

    MOSAIC is a new wavefront metrology that enables complete wavefront characterization from print or aerial image based measurements. Here we describe MOSAIC and verify its utility with a model-based proof of principle.

  15. Callisto Scarp Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of two images shows an area within the Valhalla region on Jupiter's moon, Callisto. North is to the top of the mosaic and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The smallest details that can be discerned in this picture are knobs and small impact craters about 155 meters (170 yards) across. The resolution is 46 meters (50 yards) per picture element, and the mosaic covers an area approximately 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A prominent fault scarp crosses the mosaic. This scarp is one of many structural features that form the Valhalla multi-ring structure, which has a diameter of 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles). Scientists believe Valhalla is the result of a large impact early in the history of Callisto. Several smaller ridges are found parallel to the prominent scarp. Numerous impact craters ranging in size from 155 meters (170 yards) to 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles) are seen in the mosaic. The images which form this mosaic were obtained by the solid state imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 4, 1996 (Universal Time).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  16. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  17. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  18. Middle East Mosaic

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... camera (right) are comprised of data covering World Reference System-2 paths 165-179 for the period August 16 - August 30, ... mosaic. Because these images are created from 400-kilometer wide orbital swaths acquired on different dates, discontinuities are visible ...

  19. Large-Scale Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Greater Latrobe Senior High School in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, is a school where art is supported both by the administration and the local community. While the school was undergoing renovations, this author was given the task of creating a six-foot round mosaic in the entrance of the school. The design was to be student-created and was to represent…

  20. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  1. Mosaic of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This detailed mosaic of the underside of the Cassini Division was obtained by Voyager 1 with a resolution of about 10 kilometers. The classical Cassini Division appears here to the right of center as five bright rings with substantial blacks gap on either side. The inner edge of the A Ring, to the left of center, is the brightest part of this image. The fine-scale wave structure in this region has been interpreted as being the result of gravitational density waves.

  2. Callisto Crater Chain Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of three images shows an area within the Valhalla region on Jupiter's moon, Callisto. North is to the top of the mosaic and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The smallest details that can be discerned in this picture are knobs and small impact craters about 160 meters (175 yards) across. The mosaic covers an area approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) across. It shows part of a prominent crater chain located on the northern part of the Valhalla ring structure.

    Crater chains can form from the impact of material ejected from large impacts (forming secondary chains) or by the impact of a fragmented projectile, perhaps similar to the Shoemaker-Levy 9 cometary impacts into Jupiter in July 1994. It is believed this crater chain was formed by the impact of a fragmented projectile. The images which form this mosaic were obtained by the solid state imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 4, 1996 (Universal Time).

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  3. Mosaic of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of images of Io acquired during orbit C3, showing more than half of Io's surface. These are the best images available to show topographic features over most of this region. The map projection is called Simple Cylindrical, and the grid lines mark 10 degree intervals of latitude and longitude.

    The mosaic covers an area of about 8 million square kilometers, and the finest details that can discerned are about 2.5 kilometers in size. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The images which form this mosaic were obtained through the clear filter of the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 6, 1996 (Universal Time) at a range which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Effect of Sugarcane Mosaic caused by Sorghum mosaic virus on sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic is caused by two viruses, Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCVM) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV). In Louisiana, SrMV is the predominant mosaic pathogen affecting sugarcane. In a field experiment established in 2012, plots were planted with seed cane with or without mosaic symptoms. The mosaic...

  5. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  6. Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center of parcel with mosaics. Mosaics consist of everyday throwaway objects of all kinds set in concrete mortar on ground. Leaning Tower of Bottle Village in front of Rumpus Room primary façade with 12' scale (in tenths). Camera facing north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  7. Global Mercator Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Io's volcanic plains are shown in this Voyager 1 image mosaic which covers the area roughly from latitude 60 degrees N. to latitude 60 degrees S. and longitude 100-345. North is up. Numerous volcanic calderas, lava flows, and volcanic eruption plumes are visible here. The composition of Io's volcanic plains and lava flows has not been determined, but they could consist dominantly of sulfur with surface frosts of sulfur dioxide or of silicates (such as basalt) encrusted with sulfur and sulfur dioxide condensates. The bright whitish patches probably consist of freshly deposited sulfur dioxide frost.

  8. Jovian Ring System Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired this mosaic of Jupiter's ring system (top) when the spacecraft was in Jupiter's shadow looking back toward the Sun. Jupiter's ring system (inset diagram) is composed of three parts: an outermost gossamer ring, a flat main ring, and an innermost donut-shaped halo. These rings are made up of dust-sized particles that are blasted off of the nearby inner satellites by small impacts. This image was taken on November 9, 1996 at a distance of 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles).

  9. Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with numerous lentigines and multiple cafe-au-lait macules on both sides of the face, neck, and trunk as well as on the proximal area of the upper extremities and in the axillae. The pigmented lesions had a Blaschko-linear distribution on the upper trunk and were limited to the left side of the abdomen, with a sharp demarcation at the midline. Multiple, cutaneous neurofibromas were found on the trunk, and ophthalmologic examination showed a Lisch nodule in the left iris. The clinical findings and their widespread but segmental distribution were consistent with a diagnosis of mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18627742

  10. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  12. Satellite Image Mosaic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2006-01-01

    A computer program automatically builds large, full-resolution mosaics of multispectral images of Earth landmasses from images acquired by Landsat 7, complete with matching of colors and blending between adjacent scenes. While the code has been used extensively for Landsat, it could also be used for other data sources. A single mosaic of as many as 8,000 scenes, represented by more than 5 terabytes of data and the largest set produced in this work, demonstrated what the code could do to provide global coverage. The program first statistically analyzes input images to determine areas of coverage and data-value distributions. It then transforms the input images from their original universal transverse Mercator coordinates to other geographical coordinates, with scaling. It applies a first-order polynomial brightness correction to each band in each scene. It uses a data-mask image for selecting data and blending of input scenes. Under control by a user, the program can be made to operate on small parts of the output image space, with check-point and restart capabilities. The program runs on SGI IRIX computers. It is capable of parallel processing using shared-memory code, large memories, and tens of central processing units. It can retrieve input data and store output data at locations remote from the processors on which it is executed.

  13. Moon - 18 Image Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This mosaic picture of the Moon was compiled from 18 images taken with a green filter by Galileo's imaging system during the spacecraft's flyby on December 7, 1992, some 11 hours before its Earth flyby at 1509 UTC (7:09 a.m. Pacific Standard Time) December 8. The north polar region is near the top part of the mosaic, which also shows Mare Imbrium, the dark area on the left; Mare Serenitatis at center; and Mare Crisium, the circular dark area to the right. Bright crater rim and ray deposits are from Copernicus, an impact crater 96 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter. Computer processing has exaggerated the brightness of poorly illuminated features near the day/night terminator in the polar regions, giving a false impression of high reflectivity there. The digital image processing was done by DLR the German aerospace research establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Dermatoglyphics in mosaic Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Priest, J H; Tishler, P V; Rosner, B

    1976-04-01

    To determine whether quanitative dermal indices are useful in ascertaining the liability for or severity of mosaic Down's syndrome (DS), dermatoglyphics of 107 subjects with proven 46/47,+21 DS were scored by four quantitative dermal indices. The distribution of mosaics by weighted mean percentage of +21 cells ranged from 1 to 95 and was bimodal. Mean maternal age at birth of mosaics (32.9 +/- 7.5 years) was elevated when compared with control maternal ages in the literature. The distribution of quantitative dermal indices for the total mosaic population fell roughly midway between those in the literature for normal and full DS individuals: 73% of mosaics were classified as definitively DS, 21% were in the intermediate range, and 6% were normal. For mosaics who were minimally affected, 24% were DS, 53% intermediate, and 23% normal. One can conclude: (1) For any suspect mosaic, a dermal score in the DS range is highly suggestive of karyotypic pathology. (2) The high prevalence of intermediate scores in normal subjects severely restricts their diagnostic value in screening for mosaics in the general population. For a selected population, such as parents of +21 children, the screening value of quantitative dermal indices remains an open question. Weighted regression analyses demonstrate a highly significant correlation (P less than 0.001) of dermal index score with the weighted mean proportion of +21 cells transformed to the logit scale. One may exploit this correlation to predict the ratio of +21/normal cells in infants, in whom early karyotype evolution can preclude an estimate of the ultimate syndrome based on initial degree of mosaicism. Furthermore, this correlation provides additional indirect evidence that dermal microsymptoms in DS are a reflection of the presence of +21 cells. PMID:131014

  15. Reconfigurable mosaic annular arrays.

    PubMed

    Thomenius, Kai E; Wodnicki, Robert; Cogan, Scott D; Fisher, Rayette A; Burdick, Bill; Smith, L Scott; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Lin, Der-Song; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bonitz, Barry; Davies, Todd; Thomas, Glen; Woychik, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Mosaic annular arrays (MAA) based on reconfigurable array (RA) transducer electronics assemblies are presented as a potential solution for future highly integrated ultrasonic transducer subsystems. Advantages of MAAs include excellent beam quality and depth of field resulting from superior elevational focus compared with 1-D electronically scanned arrays, as well as potentially reduced cost, size, and power consumption resulting from the use of a limited number of beamforming channels for processing a large number of subelements. Specific design tradeoffs for these highly integrated arrays are discussed in terms of array specifications for center frequency, element pitch, and electronic switch-on resistance. Large-area RAs essentially function as RC delay lines. Efficient architectures which take into account RC delay effects are presented. Architectures for integration of the transducer and electronics layers of large-area array implementations are reviewed. PMID:24960699

  16. Earth - Antarctica Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of the limb of the Earth, looking north past Antarctica, is a mosaic of 11 images taken during a ten-minute period near 5:45 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, by Galileo's imaging system. Red, green and violet filters were used. The picture spans about 1,600 miles across the south polar latitudes of our planet. The morning day/night terminator is toward the right. The South Pole is out of sight below the picture; the visible areas of Antarctica are those lying generally south of South America. The violet-blue envelope of Earth's atmosphere is prominent along the limb to the left. At lower left, the dark blue Amundsen Sea lies to the left of the Walgreen and Bakutis Coasts. Beyond it, Peter Island reacts with the winds to produce a striking pattern of atmospheric waves.

  17. Tyrrhena Patera Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image of Tyrrhena Patera is a mosaic of daytime thermal infrared images colorized with a mosaic of nighttime temperature images (purple/blue is coldest, yellow/red is warmest).

    The colder nighttime temperatures (blue hues) in the caldera and on the flanks of the volcano indicate that this area is likely covered with finer-grained materals. This contrasts strongly against the warm (red) area to the northwest. These warmer temperatures indicate a rockier surface, possibly even exposed bedrock. This is especially probably where the red hues conform with the topography.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Registration assisted mosaic generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorre, Jean J.; Handley, Thomas H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a general strategy for assembling mosaics from numerous individual images where uncertainty exists in the position and orientation of those images. Both of the presented applications relate to remotely operated camera platforms, the first being the Galileo solid state imaging (SSI) camera presently in orbit around Jupiter, and the second being the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) stereo camera on Mars. A basic strategy in both applications is to determine the correct relative camera pointing followed by direct map projection of the images. It is assumed that approximate camera pointing exists sufficient to locate adjacent images and to place initial tiepoints within reach of the correlator. Spatial correlation is used to fix tiepoints whose initial locations are predicted by the camera pointing. We use either an fast fourier transform (fft) algorithm or a variant of Gruen's scheme permitting limited image rotation and skew. The Gruen correlator has three hierarchical modes: 1) A classical spatial least squares correlation on integral pixel boundaries used when rotation is small. 2) An annealing non-deterministic search used when rotations are unknown. A simplex deterministic search used for the end game. The correlation operation can be performed either interactively or autonomously. The final camera pointing solution relies upon a simplex downhill search in 2n or 3n dimensions where n is the number of images comprising the mosaic and the objective function to be minimized is the disagreement between tiepoint locations predicted from the camera pointing with those observed by the correlator. For Galileo the 3n unknowns are euler angles defining camera pointing in planet coordinates, and for Mars Pathfinder they are 2n unknowns representing commanded azimuth and elevation in the Lander coordinate system.

  19. The Viking Mosaic Catalog, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N.

    1982-01-01

    A collection of more than 500 mosaics prepared from Viking Orbiter images is given. Accompanying each mosaic is a footprint plot, which identifies by location, picture number, and order number, each frame in the mosaic. Corner coordinates and pertinent imaging information are also included. A short text provides the camera characteristics, image format, and data processing information necessary for using the mosaic plates as a research aide. Procedures for ordering mosaic enlargements and individual images are also provided.

  20. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  1. Radar Mosaic of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.

    Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of

  2. Full Jupiter Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This image of Jupiter is produced from a 2x2 mosaic of photos taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), and assembled by the LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The telescopic camera snapped the images during a 3-minute, 35-second span on February 10, when the spacecraft was 29 million kilometers (18 million miles) from Jupiter. At this distance, Jupiter's diameter was 1,015 LORRI pixels -- nearly filling the imager's entire (1,024-by-1,024 pixel) field of view. Features as small as 290 kilometers (180 miles) are visible.

    Both the Great Red Spot and Little Red Spot are visible in the image, on the left and lower right, respectively. The apparent 'storm' on the planet's right limb is a section of the south tropical zone that has been detached from the region to its west (or left) by a 'disturbance' that scientists and amateur astronomers are watching closely.

    At the time LORRI took these images, New Horizons was 820 million kilometers (510 million miles) from home -- nearly 51/2 times the distance between the Sun and Earth. This is the last full-disk image of Jupiter LORRI will produce, since Jupiter is appearing larger as New Horizons draws closer, and the imager will start to focus on specific areas of the planet for higher-resolution studies.

  3. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  4. Mosaic Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David L.; Horner, Scott D.; Aamodt, Earl K.

    2002-12-01

    Advances in systems engineering, applied sciences, and manufacturing technologies have enabled the development of large ground based and spaced based astronomical instruments having a large Field of View (FOV) to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A larger FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optical elements, improved support structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPA). A mFPA designed for astronomy can use multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single camera baseplate integrated at the instrument plane of focus. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tighter control on the design trades, component development, CCD characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the capability Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company's (LMSSC) Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has developed to perform CCD characterization, mFPA assembly and alignment, and mFPA system level testing.

  5. Mosaic Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, D.; Horner, S.; Aamodt, E.

    Advances in manufacturing and applied sciences have enabled the development of large ground and spaced based astronomical instruments having a Field of View (FOV) large enough to capture a large portion of the universe in a single image. A large FOV can be accomplished using light weighted optics, improved structures, and the development of mosaic Focal Plane Assemblies (mFPAs). A mFPA comprises multiple Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) mounted onto a single baseplate integrated at the focus plane of the instrument. Examples of current, or proposed, missions utilizing mFPA technology include FAME, GEST, Kepler, GAIA, LSST, and SNAP. The development of a mFPA mandates tight control on the design trades of component development, CCD definition and characterization, component integration, and performance verification testing. This paper addresses the results of the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC), Advanced Technology Center (ATC) developed mFPA. The design trades and performance characterization are services provided by the LMSSC ATC but not detailed in this paper.

  6. MOSAIC: Software for creating mosaics from collections of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varosi, F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a powerful, versatile image processing and analysis software package called MOSAIC, designed specifically for the manipulation of digital astronomical image data obtained with (but not limited to) two-dimensional array detectors. The software package is implemented using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and incorporates new methods for processing, calibration, analysis, and visualization of astronomical image data, stressing effective methods for the creation of mosaic images from collections of individual exposures, while at the same time preserving the photometric integrity of the original data. Since IDL is available on many computers, the MOSAIC software runs on most UNIX and VAX workstations with the X-Windows or Sun View graphics interface.

  7. Mars Digital Image Mosaic Globe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The photomosaic that forms the base for this globe was created by merging two global digital image models (DIM's) of Mars-a medium-resolution monochrome mosaic processed to emphasize topographic features and a lower resolution color mosaic emphasizing color and albedo variations.

    The medium-resolution (1/256 or roughly 231 m/pixel) monochromatic image model was constructed from about 6,000 images having resolutions of 150-350 m/pixel and oblique illumination (Sun 20 o -45 o above the horizon). Radiometric processing was intended to suppress or remove the effects of albedo variations through the use of a high-pass divide filter, followed by photometric normalization so that the contrast of a given topographic slope would be approximately the same in all images.

    The global color mosaic was assembled at 1/64 or roughly 864 m/pixel from about 1,000 red- and green-filter images having 500-1,000 m/pixel resolution. These images were first mosaiced in groups, each taken on a single orbit of the Viking spacecraft. The orbit mosaics were then processed to remove spatially and temporally varying atmospheric haze in the overlap regions. After haze removal, the per-orbit mosaics were photometrically normalized to equalize the contrast of albedo features and mosaiced together with cosmetic seam removal. The medium-resolution DIM was used for geometric control of this color mosaic. A green-filter image was synthesized by weighted averaging of the red- and violet-filter mosaics. Finally, the product seen here was obtained by multiplying each color image by the medium-resolution monochrome image. The color balance selected for images in this map series was designed to be close to natural color for brighter, redder regions, such as Arabia Terra and the Tharsis region, but the data have been stretched so that the relatively dark regions appear darker and less red than they actually are.

    The images are presented in a projection that portrays the entire surface of Mars in a

  8. Asgard Scarp Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Low-resolution color data were combined with a higher resolution mosaic to produce this infrared composite image of a pair of ancient multi-ringed impact basins on Jupiter's moon, Callisto. The region imaged is on the leading hemisphere of Callisto near 26 degrees north, 142 degrees west, and is almost 1,400 kilometers (860 miles) across. North is toward the top of the picture and the Sun illuminates the surface from the east. Dominating the scene is the impact structure, Asgard, centered on the smooth, bright region near the middle of the picture and surrounded by concentric rings up to 1,700 kilometers (about 1,050 miles) in diameter. A second ringed structure with a diameter of about 500 kilometers (310 miles) can be seen to the north of Asgard, partially obscured by the more recent, bright-rayed crater, Burr. The icy materials excavated by the younger craters contrast sharply with the darker and redder coatings on older surfaces of Callisto.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  9. Arsia Mons Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of the Tharsis volcanoes. It is 270 miles in diameter, almost 12 miles high, and the summit caldera is 72 miles wide. For comparison, the largest volcano on Earth is Mauna Loa. From its base on the sea floor, Mauna Loa measures only 6.3 miles high and 75 miles in diameter. The image here is a mosaic of several daytime IR images. The indentations on the SW and NE sides align with the Pavonis Mons and Ascreaus Mons to the NE. This may indicate a large fracture/vent system was responsible for the eruptions that formed all three volcanoes.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Mosaic Postcards from Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K. G.; Chapman, C. R.; Edmonds, J.; Goldstein, J.; Hirshon, B.; Solomon, S. C.; Vanhala, H.; Weir, H. M.; Messenger Education; Public Outreach Team

    2010-12-01

    On its journey to become the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury, NASA’s MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has followed a trajectory that included three flybys of the innermost planet. During the flybys, images captured by the Mercury Dual Imaging System revealed parts of the planet’s surface never before seen at close range, as well as high-resolution views of craters, crater rays, scarps, faults, and volcanic vents and flows. To help students and teachers better understand this revealing new look at Mercury, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team will share these high-resolution images of Mercury's surface throughout the upcoming Year of the Solar System. By means of an intriguing format that mimics methods used by the MESSENGER team, a series of images printed at large postcard size will each highlight a small "slice" of Mercury, such as a crater or fault. The individual cards can then be pieced together, puzzle-style, on a poster-sized grid to reveal a larger mosaic view of the planet. Each card contains engaging text, the URL for an accompanying website, and coordinates for that region of the planet, helping students understand scientific concepts related to and revealed by MESSENGER's journey. The first set of cards will feature scarps, volcanic plains, the topography of a crater and the composition of its interior units, rayed craters, nested craters, and a deposit produced by explosive volcanic eruptions. Cards will be available for free on the accompanying website, distributed by MESSENGER Educator Fellows, or handed out at meetings, conferences, and workshops.

  11. Mosaicism for trisomy 21: a review.

    PubMed

    Papavassiliou, Paulie; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan; Rafferty, Kelly; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical and cytogenetic findings associated with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome are the focus of this review. The primary topics discussed in this overview of the extant literature include the history of this condition and its diagnosis, the incidence of mosaicism, the meiotic and/or mitotic chromosomal malsegregation events resulting in mosaicism, the observation of mosaicism in the parents of children with the non-mosaic form of Down syndrome, and the variation in phenotypic outcome for both constitutional and acquired traits present in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome, including cognition, fertility, and overall phenotypic findings. Additional topics reviewed include the social conditions of people with mosaicism, as well as age-related and epigenetic alterations observed in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome. . PMID:25412855

  12. Somatic mosaicism and variable expressivity.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Trifiro, M A

    2001-02-01

    For more than 50 years geneticists have assumed that variations in phenotypic expression are caused by alterations in genotype. Recent evidence shows that 'simple' mendelian disorders or monogenic traits are often far from simple, exhibiting phenotypic variation (variable expressivity) that cannot be explained entirely by a gene or allelic alteration. In certain cases of androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by identical mutations in the androgen receptor gene, phenotypic variability is caused by somatic mosaicism, that is, somatic mutations that occur only in certain androgen-sensitive cells. Recently, more than 30 other genetic conditions that exhibit variable expressivity have been linked to somatic mosaicism. Somatic mutations have also been identified in diseases such as prostate and colorectal cancer. Therefore, the concept of somatic mutations and mosaicism is likely to have far reaching consequences for genetics, in particular in areas such as genetic counseling. PMID:11173116

  13. Neurocutaneous Manifestations of Genetic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, Maurice A M

    2015-09-01

    Genetic mosaicism is defined as the presence of two or more genetically distinct cell populations in a single individual. Ever more disorders are found to be manifestations of mosaicism and together constitute a significant proportion of the morbidity confronting pediatric specialists. An emerging category is that of overgrowth syndromes with skin manifestations and neurological or developmental abnormalities, such as the well-known Proteus syndrome. In recent years, we have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of these disorders and we now know the genetic basis of many of them. This has profound consequences for diagnosis, counselling, and even treatment, with therapies targeted to specific pathways becoming available for clinical use. Recognizing such overgrowth syndromes, therefore, is more important than ever. Fortunately, their skin manifestations can provide important diagnostic clues when evaluated in the entire phenotypic context. In this review, I provide an overview of the most frequently seen mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and discuss their molecular basis. PMID:27617125

  14. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  15. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  16. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  17. Language: Mosaic or Special Faculty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Describes the "special destiny-special faculty" paradigm that has dominated western thinking about the nature and origins of language and argues instead that language systems are like technologies and that language acquisition and use involves a range of capacities and skills, a view that could be called the "mosaic development paradigm." (15…

  18. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  19. Near Global Mosaic of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Turner, S.; Nguyen, L.; Selby, C.; Denevi, B. W.; Murchie, S. L.; McNutt, R. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 the MESSENGER spacecraft made two close flybys (M1 and M2) of Mercury and imaged about 74% of the planet at a resolution of 1 km per pixel, and at higher resolution for smaller portions of the planet. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged about 42% of Mercury’s surface more than 30 years ago. Combining image data collected by the two missions yields coverage of about 83% of Mercury’s surface. MESSENGER will perform its third and final flyby of Mercury (M3) on 29 September 2009. This will yield approximately 86% coverage of Mercury, leaving only the north and south polar regions yet to be imaged by MESSENGER after orbit insertion in March 2011. A new global mosaic of Mercury was constructed using 325 images containing 3566 control points (8110 measures) from M1 and 225 images containing 1465 control points (3506 measures) from M2. The M3 flyby is shifted in subsolar longitude only by 4° from M2, so the added coverage is very small. However, this small slice of Mercury fills a gore in the mosaic between the M1 and M2 data and allows a complete cartographic tie around the equator. We will run a new bundle block adjustment with the additional images acquired from M3. This new edition of the MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) global mosaic of Mercury includes many improvements since the M2 flyby in October 2008. A new distortion model for the NAC camera greatly improves the image-to-image registration. Optical distortion correction is independent of pointing error correction, and both are required for a mosaic of high quality. The new distortion model alone reduced residual pointing errors for both flybys significantly; residual pixel error improved from 0.71 average (3.7 max) to 0.13 average (1.7 max) for M1 and from 0.72 average (4.8 max.) to 0.17 average (3.5 max) for M2. Analysis quantifying pivot motor position has led to development of a new model that improves accuracy of the pivot platform attitude. This model improves

  20. Cutaneous mosaicisms: concepts, patterns and classifications*

    PubMed Central

    Kouzak, Samara Silva; Mendes, Marcela Sena Teixeira; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic is an organism composed of two or more genetically distinct cell populations derived from a genetically homogeneous zygote. Cutaneous mosaicisms are the clinical expressions of these disorders. The main event which allows the existence of mosaicism is a genetic mutation, either structural or functional. Cutaneous mosaicisms usually manifest by specific patterns on the skin and the archetypic pattern is the system of Blaschko lines, but others include checkerboard, phylloid, large patches without midline separation and lateralization. Since 1901, when Blaschko lines were first described, the study of mosasicism has helped to elucidate the behavior of numerous genetic diseases, generating therapeutic perspectives for these pathologies, including the promising gene therapy. PMID:24068120

  1. Goltz Syndrome and PORCN Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, D.A.; Chirpich, M.; Contreras, Y.; Hanson, H.; Dent, K.

    2014-01-01

    Goltz syndrome, also known as focal dermal hypoplasia, is characterized primarily by ectodermal and mesodermal defects. Manifestations include cutis aplasia, dermal hypoplasia, papillomas, chorioretinal colobomas, absent/dysplastic teeth, and skeletal anomalies. Goltz syndrome is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in PORCN, with a predominance of females affected. Germline mutations in PORCN are thought to result in embryonically lethality in males. We present a boy with a phenotype consistent with Goltz syndrome with low level mosaicism for a novel mutation in PORCN from peripheral blood (c.956dupA; p.Asn320GlufsX99). PMID:25040319

  2. Making Mosaics Of SAR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, John C.; Kwok, Ronald; Pang, Shirley S.; Pang, Amy A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceborne synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images useful for mapping of planets and investigations in Earth sciences. Produces multiframe mosaic by combining images along ground track, in adjacent cross-track swaths, or in ascending and descending passes. Images registered with geocoded maps such as ones produced by MAPJTC (NPO-17718), required as input. Minimal intervention by operator required. MOSK implemented on DEC VAX 11/785 computer running VMS 4.5. Most subroutines in FORTRAN, but three in MAXL and one in APAL.

  3. Mosaic: NCSA Internet Network Navigational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Mosaic, an Internet resource locator and navigation tool developed at the University of Illinois' National Center for Super-Computing Applications (NCSA). Topics discussed include the relationship with the World Wide Web; flexibility; obtaining Mosaic client software; and file transfer protocol instructions. (Contains seven references.)…

  4. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  5. Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percivall, George; Plesea, Lucian

    2003-01-01

    The WMS Global Mosaic provides access to imagery of the global landmass using an open standard for web mapping. The seamless image is a mosaic of Landsat 7 scenes; geographically-accurate with 30 and 15 meter resolutions. By using the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) interface, any organization can use the global mosaic as a layer in their geospatial applications. Based on a trade study, an implementation approach was chosen that extends a previously developed WMS hosting a Landsat 5 CONUS mosaic developed by JPL. The WMS Global Mosaic supports the NASA Geospatial Interoperability Office goal of providing an integrated digital representation of the Earth, widely accessible for humanity's critical decisions.

  6. The least square optimization in image mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-dong; Yang, Yong-yue

    2015-02-01

    Image registration has been a hot research spot in the computer vision technology and image processing. Image registration is one of the key technologies in image mosaic. In order to improve the accuracy of matching feature points, this paper put forward the least square optimization in image mosaic based on the algorithm of matching similarity of matrices. The correlation coefficient method of matrix is used for matching the module points in the overlap region of images and calculating the error between matrices. The error of feature points can be further minimized by using the method of least square optimization. Finally, image mosaic can be achieved by the two pair of feature points with minimized residual sum of squares. The experimental results demonstrate that the least square optimization in image mosaic can mosaic images with overlap region and improve the accuracy of matching feature points.

  7. Mosaic two-lengthscale quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Dotera, T; Oshiro, T; Ziherl, P

    2014-02-13

    Over the past decade, quasicrystalline order has been observed in many soft-matter systems: in dendritic micelles, in star and tetrablock terpolymer melts and in diblock copolymer and surfactant micelles. The formation of quasicrystals from such a broad range of 'soft' macromolecular micelles suggests that they assemble by a generic mechanism rather than being dependent on the specific chemistry of each system. Indeed, micellar softness has been postulated and shown to lead to quasicrystalline order. Here we theoretically explore this link by studying two-dimensional hard disks decorated with step-like square-shoulder repulsion that mimics, for example, the soft alkyl shell around the aromatic core in dendritic micelles. We find a family of quasicrystals with 10-, 12-, 18- and 24-fold bond orientational order which originate from mosaics of equilateral and isosceles triangles formed by particles arranged core-to-core and shoulder-to-shoulder. The pair interaction responsible for these phases highlights the role of local packing geometry in generating quasicrystallinity in soft matter, complementing the principles that lead to quasicrystal formation in hard tetrahedra. Based on simple interparticle potentials, quasicrystalline mosaics may well find use in diverse applications ranging from improved image reproduction to advanced photonic materials. PMID:24487618

  8. Moon - North Polar Mosaic, Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft surveyed the Moon on December 7, 1992, on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-1997. The left part of this north pole view is visible from Earth. This color picture is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter. The left part of this picture shows the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left), Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. Mosaicism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011:chap 76. Stankiewicz P, Lupski JR. Gene, genomic, and chromosomal disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  10. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  11. A MOSAIC for the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Costa, D.; Cadigan, J.; Clements, C.; May, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a project to engage secondary and undergraduate students in authentic inquiry-based science learning using a network of inexpensive spectrometers monitoring the mesospheric ozone concentration. The MOSAIC system observes the 11 GHz emission line of ozone using electronics built around satellite television equipment. The possibilities for student investigation are broad and scientifically significant. MOSAIC observations have confirmed diurnal variations in mesospheric ozone concentration and detected semiannual variations that may be due to inter-hemispheric meridional circulation of water vapor. Possible future projects include monitoring the temperature of the mesosphere and correlations with the solar cycle. Students are also encouraged to design their own investigations with MOSAIC data. Early results have been reported in a major scientific journal, and further scientific progress is likely as future MOSAIC systems are deployed -- increasing the sensitivity and geographic coverage of the network. Complete teaching units, including slides, laboratory activities, background information, student worksheets, and conformance with national and Massachusetts educational standards, have been developed to integrate MOSAIC into a classroom environment. One unit introduces the layers of the atmosphere, Earth's energy balance, the greenhouse effect, processes of ozone creation and destruction, noctilucent clouds, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, radio waves (including radio astronomy), and fluid behavior. A second unit, currently being tested in classrooms, uses the MOSAIC system to motivate and deepen understanding of a large portion of electromagnetism in a conceptual physics class. MOSAIC has also been used in a local high school chemistry class. MOSAIC is still in development and is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Mosaic organization of DNA nucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Havlin, S.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-range power-law correlations have been reported recently for DNA sequences containing noncoding regions. We address the question of whether such correlations may be a trivial consequence of the known mosaic structure ("patchiness") of DNA. We analyze two classes of controls consisting of patchy nucleotide sequences generated by different algorithms--one without and one with long-range power-law correlations. Although both types of sequences are highly heterogenous, they are quantitatively distinguishable by an alternative fluctuation analysis method that differentiates local patchiness from long-range correlations. Application of this analysis to selected DNA sequences demonstrates that patchiness is not sufficient to account for long-range correlation properties.

  13. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text.

    Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired.

    This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method on the mosaicism detection rate is especially highlighted. As next-generation sequencing technologies constitute a promising methodological solution in mosaicism detection in the coming years, revisions in current diagnostic protocols are necessary to increase the detection rate of the unrevealed mosaicism events. Since mosaicism identification is a complex process, numerous examples of multistep mosaicism investigations are presented and discussed. PMID:26481646

  15. Mars Pathfinder 'Filled Donut' Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is a product of 3data sets: a color mosaic image of the 'Gallery Panorama', an image which indicates the distance to the nearest object at each pixel location, referred to as a range image, and a digital image of a full-scale museum model of the MPF Lander.

    The Gallery Pan image and the range image were projected onto a continuous cylindrical/perspective coordinate system spanning 360 degrees of azimuth. The range image was then treated as a displacement map with respect to a sphere's surface, and the color image mosaic was draped onto the inside of the sphere so that lines of constant azimuth radiate from the center and lines of constant elevation are concentric circles. The position of the camera is fixed at the sphere's center, while its viewing direction is in this case looking at the south pole of the sphere. This projection preserves the resolution of the original panorama.

    The distortion visible near the edges of this image is due to the large field of view, as well as the limitation introduced by using cylindrically-projected images on the sphere - the effects of which are less apparent when smaller fields of view are used.

    The center of the image consists of the museum model image, which has been geometrically warped to spatially register with the projected Gallery Pandata. The position of the camera was fixed above the model so that the IMPMast was roughly at Nadir.

    The image has been rotated so that the main points of interest, which are the 'Rock Garden', the rover Sojourner and the rock 'Yogi', are visible arching across the upper hemisphere. In fixed Mars Surface coordinates, the top of the image looks out towards a point a few degrees north of West. Color has been enhanced to improve contrast in features, and is derived from IMP spectral filters 5, 9 and 0.

  16. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  17. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  18. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  19. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  20. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. 174.514... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  1. Preparing for Themis Controlled Global Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Weller, L.; Sides, S.; Cushing, G.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    We have begun work to prepare for producing controlled 2001 Mars Odyssey THEMIS infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) global mosaics of Mars. This effort is being coordinated with colleagues from Arizona State University and on the THEMIS team who plan to address radiometric issues in making such mosaics. We are concentrating on geometric issues. Several areas of investigation are now in progress, including: a) characterizing the absolute pointing accuracy of THEMIS images; b) investigating whether automatic tie point matching algorithms could be used to provide connections between overlapping THEMIS images; c) developing algorithms to allow for the photogrammetric (bundle) adjustment of the THEMIS IR (line scanner) camera images. Our primary goal in this pilot study effort will be to make several test control THEMIS mosaics and better determine which methods could be used, which require development, and what level of effort is required, in order to make large regional or global controlled THEMIS mosaics.

  2. Recurrence risk for germinal mosaics revisited.

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, M A; van der Meulen, M J; te Meerman, G J

    1995-01-01

    A formula to calculate recurrence risk for germline mosaicism published by Hartl in 1971 has been updated to include marker information. For practical genetic counselling new, more elaborate tables are given. PMID:7760316

  3. NEAR MSI Mosaics of 433 Eros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Edmonds, J.; Lutsey, J.; Milne, A.; Moore, K.; Prockter, L.; Wilcox, B.

    2002-03-01

    We have produced over 300 handlaid mosaics of Eros with resolutions ranging from ~20 m/pixel down to 2 cm pixel. These data are available to assist both the science community and education and outreach activities.

  4. Somatic Mosaicism in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Donald; Stevens, Eric L.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism refers to the occurrence of two genetically distinct populations of cells within an individual, derived from a postzygotic mutation. In contrast to inherited mutations, somatic mosaic mutations may affect only a portion of the body and are not transmitted to progeny. These mutations affect varying genomic sizes ranging from single nucleotides to entire chromosomes and have been implicated in disease, most prominently cancer. The phenotypic consequences of somatic mosaicism are dependent upon many factors including the developmental time at which the mutation occurs, the areas of the body that are affected, and the pathophysiological effect(s) of the mutation. The advent of second-generation sequencing technologies has augmented existing array-based and cytogenetic approaches for the identification of somatic mutations. We outline the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques and highlight recent insights into the role of somatic mosaicism in causing cancer, neurodegenerative, monogenic, and complex disease. PMID:25513881

  5. A rare case: mosaic trisomy 22.

    PubMed

    Basaran, N; Berkil, H; Ay, N; Durak, B; Ataman, C; Ozdemir, M; Ozon, Y H; Kaya, I

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old female child of healthy parents (mother: 43 years, father: 44 years) was referred to our center because of severe mental retardation. While pedigree analysis was not contributory, two older sibs were normal and healthy. Physical examination revealed facial dysmorphism, microcephaly and hyperflexibility of all joints. Her chromosome constitution showed a mosaic pattern; mos 46,XX[98]/47,XX,+22[2]. So skin biopsy was performed and mosaic trisomy 22 was confirmed with FISH analysis (46,XX[73]/47,XX,+22[27]). Physical features of this case seemed consistent with her mosaic constitution. This report would be a demonstrative example to show the significant contribution of FISH in states of mosaicism. PMID:11755102

  6. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing. PMID:25547535

  7. Mosaic Neurocutaneous Disorders and Their Causes.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Martino; Praticò, Andrea D

    2015-12-01

    Neurocutaneous disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions (mainly) affecting the skin [with pigmentary/vascular abnormalities and/or cutaneous tumours] and the central and peripheral nervous system [with congenital abnormalities and/or tumours]. In a number of such disorders, the skin abnormalities can assume a mosaic patterning (usually arranged in archetypical patterns). Alternating segments of affected and unaffected skin or segmentally arranged patterns of abnormal skin often mirror similar phenomena occurring in extra-cutaneous organs/tissues [eg, eye, bone, heart/vessels, lung, kidney and gut]. In some neurocutaneous syndromes the abnormal mosaic patterning involve mainly the skin and the nervous system configuring a (true) mosaic neurocutaneous disorder; or an ordinary trait of a neurocutaneous disorder is sometimes superimposed by a pronounced linear or otherwise segmental involvement; or, lastly, a neurocutaneous disorder can occur solely in a mosaic pattern. Recently, the molecular genetic and cellular bases of an increasing number of neurocutaneous disorders have been unravelled, shedding light on the interplays between common intra- and extra-neuronal signalling pathways encompassing receptor-protein and protein-to-protein cascades (eg, RAS, MAPK, mTOR, PI3K/AKT and GNAQ pathways), which are often responsible of the mosaic distribution of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features. In this article we will focus on the well known, and less defined mosaic neurocutaneous phenotypes and their related molecular/genetic bases, including the mosaic neurofibromatoses and their related forms (ie, spinal neurofibromatosis and schwannomatosis); Legius syndrome; segmental arrangements in tuberous sclerosis; Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes; microcephaly/megalencephaly-capillary malformation; blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome; Wyburn-Mason syndrome; mixed vascular nevus syndrome; PHACE syndrome; Incontinentia pigmenti; pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito

  8. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  9. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

  10. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  11. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  12. Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergou, Attila; Berriman, Bruce; Good, John; Jacob, Joseph; Katz, Daniel; Laity, Anastasia; Prince, Thomas; Williams, Roy

    2005-01-01

    "Montage" is the name of a service of the National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and of software being developed to implement the service via the World Wide Web. Montage generates science-grade custom mosaics of astronomical images on demand from input files that comply with the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard and contain image data registered on projections that comply with the World Coordinate System (WCS) standards. "Science-grade" in this context signifies that terrestrial and instrumental features are removed from images in a way that can be described quantitatively. "Custom" refers to user-specified parameters of projection, coordinates, size, rotation, and spatial sampling. The greatest value of Montage is expected to lie in its ability to analyze images at multiple wavelengths, delivering them on a common projection, coordinate system, and spatial sampling, and thereby enabling further analysis as though they were part of a single, multi-wavelength image. Montage will be deployed as a computation-intensive service through existing astronomy portals and other Web sites. It will be integrated into the emerging NVO architecture and will be executed on the TeraGrid. The Montage software will also be portable and publicly available.

  13. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Viurus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully reduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystals grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were visually perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the x-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This stylized ribbon model shows the protein coat in white and the nucleic acid in yellow. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California at Irvin.

  14. Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

  15. Graph models of habitat mosaics.

    PubMed

    Urban, Dean L; Minor, Emily S; Treml, Eric A; Schick, Robert S

    2009-03-01

    Graph theory is a body of mathematics dealing with problems of connectivity, flow, and routing in networks ranging from social groups to computer networks. Recently, network applications have erupted in many fields, and graph models are now being applied in landscape ecology and conservation biology, particularly for applications couched in metapopulation theory. In these applications, graph nodes represent habitat patches or local populations and links indicate functional connections among populations (i.e. via dispersal). Graphs are models of more complicated real systems, and so it is appropriate to review these applications from the perspective of modelling in general. Here we review recent applications of network theory to habitat patches in landscape mosaics. We consider (1) the conceptual model underlying these applications; (2) formalization and implementation of the graph model; (3) model parameterization; (4) model testing, insights, and predictions available through graph analyses; and (5) potential implications for conservation biology and related applications. In general, and for a variety of ecological systems, we find the graph model a remarkably robust framework for applications concerned with habitat connectivity. We close with suggestions for further work on the parameterization and validation of graph models, and point to some promising analytic insights. PMID:19161432

  16. The categories of cutaneous mosaicism: A proposed classification.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Mosaic disorders can most easily be studied in the skin. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different forms of cutaneous mosaicism. Major categories are genomic versus epigenetic mosaicism and nonsegmental versus segmental mosaicism. The class of nonsegmental mosaics includes single point mosaicism as exemplified by solitary benign or malignant skin tumors; disseminated mosaicism as noted in autosomal dominant tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1; and patchy mosaicism without midline separation as found in giant melanocytic nevus. The class of segmental mosaics includes segmental manifestation of lethal genes surviving by mosaicism as noted in Proteus syndrome; type 1 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting heterozygosity for a postzygotic new mutation; type 2 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting loss of heterozygosity that occurred at an early developmental stage in a heterozygous embryo; and isolated or superimposed segmental mosaicism of common polygenic skin disorders such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. A particular form of genomic mosaicism is didymosis (twin spotting). Revertant mosaicism is recognizable as one or more areas of healthy skin in patients with epidermolysis bullosa or other serious genodermatoses. The category of epigenetic mosaicism includes several X-linked, male lethal disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, and the patterns of lyonization as noted in X-linked non-lethal disorders such as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type. An interesting field of future research will be the concept of epigenetic autosomal mosaicism that may explain some unusual cases of autosomal transmission of linear hypo- or hypermelanosis. PMID:26494396

  17. Detectable Clonal Mosaicism in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic mosaicism is the presence of two or more cellular populations with distinct genotypes in an individual who developed from a single fertilized ovum. While initially observed across a spectrum of rare genetic disorders, detailed assessment of data from genome-wide association studies now reveal that detectable clonal mosaicism involving large structural alterations (> 2 Mb) can also be seen in populations of apparently healthy individuals. The first generation of descriptive studies have generated new interest in understanding the molecular basis of the affected genomic regions, percent of the cellular subpopulation involved, and developmental timing of the underlying mutational event, which could reveal new insights into the initiation, clonal expansion and phenotypic manifestations of mosaic events. Early evidence indicates detectable clonal mosaicism increases in frequency with age and could preferentially occur in males. The observed pattern of recurrent events affecting specific chromosomal regions indicates some regions are more susceptible to these events, which could reflect inter-individual differences in genomic stability. Moreover, it is also plausible that the presence of large structural events could be associated with cancer risk. The characterization of detectable genetic mosaicism reveals that there could be important dynamic changes in the human genome associated with the aging process, which could be associated with risk for common disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. PMID:24246702

  18. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Hasell, Philip G., Jr.; Sellman, Albert N.; Smedes, Harry W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled thermographic mosaic, which covers most of the area of Yellowstone National Park, has been compiled. The recording of aerial thermographic data on videotape is established as one of the prerequisites for the preparation of more accurate mosaics. Post-mission processing of the videotape record can rectify the nadir line to a topographic map base, correct for v/h variations in adjacent flight lines, correct for yaw distortions, rectify distortions caused by pitch, and rectify distortions produced by non-linearity of the side-wise scan. Installation of a thermal infrared scanning radiometer in a gyrostabilized mount and post-mission processing of the videotape record (principally rectification of side-wise scan distortion) would yield a controlled, photogrammetrically accurate thermographic mosaic. However, the techniques used in the preparation of the uncontrolled thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park can be immediately applied to the preparation of regional thermographic mosaics, important to geologists and other scientists and engineers in studies of geothermal and volcanic areas, and to other types of environmental investigations such as pollution studies of large water bodies (e.g., harbors, estuaries, lakes, etc.), where a precise planimetric image is not critical.

  19. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Mark E.; Friedman, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans. PMID:25898403

  20. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J; Clayton, P; Price, D; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
METHODS—Four girls with mosaic Turner syndrome underwent a full ophthalmological assessment, including examination under anaesthesia where indicated.
RESULTS—Three of the four patients presented with congenital glaucoma. Two had the karyotype 45, X/46, X, idic(Y) and one a 45, X/47, XXX karyotype. The remaining child had a Rieger malformation of the iris and the karyotype 45, X/46, X, r(X).
CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that Turner syndrome mosaicism (where there are two abnormal cell lines) is associated with anterior segment dysgenesis. The findings in these four patients are compared with those seen in other mosaic phenotypes and it is postulated that the presence of two or more genetically different cell lines may have an adverse effect on anterior segment development.

 PMID:9349149

  1. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  2. Mosaic of Europa's Ridges, Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view of the icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is a mosaic of two pictures taken by the Solid State Imaging system on board the Galileo spacecraft during a close flyby of Europa on February 20, 1997. The pictures were taken from a distance of 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles). The area shown is about 14 kilometers by 17 kilometers (8.7 miles by 10.6 miles), and has a resolution of 20 meters (22 yards) per pixel. Illumination is from the right (east). The picture is centered at about 14.8 north latitude, 273.8 west longitude, in Europa's trailing hemisphere.

    One of the youngest features seen in this area is the double ridge cutting across the picture from the lower left to the upper right. This double ridge is about 2.6 kilometers (1.6 miles) wide and stands some 300 meters (330 yards) high. Small craters are most easily seen in the smooth deposits along the south margin of the prominent double ridge, and in the rugged ridged terrain farther south. The complexly ridged terrain seen here shows that parts of the icy crust of Europa have been modified by intense faulting and disruption, driven by energy from the planet's interior.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington D.C. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  3. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  4. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high-resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Fahrenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas includes what is called the cantaloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  5. Monochorionic twins discordant for mosaic trisomy 14.

    PubMed

    He, Mai; Pepperell, John R; Gundogan, Fusun; De Paepe, Monique E; Maggio, Lindsay; Lu, Shaolei; Kostadinov, Stefan; O'Brien, Barbara; Delamonte, Suzanne; Pinar, Halit; Tantravahi, Umadevi

    2014-05-01

    Monochorionic-diamniotic twins are usually monozygotic twins and known to be associated with adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Cases of discordant karyotype of monozygotic twins are rare and most involves sex chromosomes. We present the first case of monochorionic twins with discordant karyotype manifested as mosaic trisomy 14 in one twin (B) and a normal karyotype in the other (A). We describe the postmortem pathological and imaging findings of the trisomic twin and for the first time neuropathological findings of this entity. Metaphase chromosome analysis of twin B using fetal tissue showed a 47,XX, +14 karyotype. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) using fetal tissue revealed 38% mosaicism. CMA with placental tissue from both sides demonstrated normal karyotype and confirmed monozygosity, highlighting the value of array based testing on diagnosing mosaicism and zygosity. PMID:24458767

  6. An image mosaic method based on corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zetao; Nie, Heting

    2015-08-01

    In view of the shortcomings of the traditional image mosaic, this paper describes a new algorithm for image mosaic based on the Harris corner. Firstly, Harris operator combining the constructed low-pass smoothing filter based on splines function and circular window search is applied to detect the image corner, which allows us to have better localisation performance and effectively avoid the phenomenon of cluster. Secondly, the correlation feature registration is used to find registration pair, remove the false registration using random sampling consensus. Finally use the method of weighted trigonometric combined with interpolation function for image fusion. The experiments show that this method can effectively remove the splicing ghosting and improve the accuracy of image mosaic.

  7. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  8. Triticum mosaic virus isolates in the southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, a Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)-resistant wheat variety RonL was found to have mosaic symptoms similar to WSMV. The virus inducing the symptoms was determined to be previously unknown and given the name Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV). Since, TriMV has been found in plant samples isolate...

  9. Characterization of the Triticum Mosaic Virus Genome and Interactions between Triticum Mosaic Virus and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides encoding a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids. The proteins of TriMV possess only 33-44% (with NIb protein) and 15-29% (with P1 protein) amino acid identity with the reported members of Pot...

  10. Technique for improving solid state mosaic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saboe, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    Method identifies and corrects mosaic image faults in solid state visual displays and opto-electronic presentation systems. Composite video signals containing faults due to defective sensing elements are corrected by a memory unit that contains the stored fault pattern and supplies the appropriate fault word to the blanking circuit.

  11. Pulling the Internet Together with Mosaic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Presents the history of the Internet with specific emphasis on Mosaic; discusses hypertext and hypermedia information; and describes software and hardware requirements. Sidebars include information on the National Center for Super Computing Applications (NCSA); World Wide Web browsers for use in Windows, Macintosh, and X-Windows (UNIX); and…

  12. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  13. Barley stripe mosaic and Barley yellow stripe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley stripe mosaic was described in Wisconsin as "barley false stripe" in 1910, making it perhaps the first cereal virus disease described in the United States. The disease has been reported from most barley-producing areas of the world, including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, an...

  14. The Viking Mosaic catalog, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N.

    1982-01-01

    Martian geographic location information for Viking Orbiter mosaic images is provided. The photographic sequences were chosen based upon image content. The footprinting task was carried out, post factor, in order to facilitate research activities. Early activities were centered around the examination of candidate landing sites.

  15. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  16. Mosaic as a Vehicle for Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Robin; Wilson, Bill

    Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania) developed a program which centered on NCSA Mosaic as a vehicle for collaborative learning. The project involved a select number of incoming freshmen who lived together in the then-experimental residential college program. Goals included mastery of basic library and computer skills, gaining familiarity with…

  17. Multicultural Mosaic: A Family Book Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias-Mitchell, Laurie; Harris, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Authors, a library media specialist and a literature/language arts teacher, both recipients of Theodore R. Sizer Fellowships, describe their joint project, "Multicultural Mosaic: A Family Book Club." Their proposal was to strengthen the home-school connection by establishing a book club accessible to all middle and high school students and their…

  18. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Jack; Farve, Catherine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2002-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of 5 in latitude by approximately equal to 6 degrees in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  19. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of approx. 5 in latitude by approx. 6 deg in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  20. Tobacco mosaic virus: Proof by synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linear, non-self-replicating DNA molecule encoding Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was enzymatically synthesized in vitro from DNA templates made from overlapping oligonucleotides. The molecule was a replica of the alphabetic text rendering of the first TMV genome sequence elucidated by Goelet et al. ...

  1. Ultrahigh Thermoelectric Performance in Mosaic Crystals.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Lu, Ping; Shi, Xun; Xu, Fangfang; Zhang, Tiansong; Snyder, Gerald Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-24

    Successful research strategies to enhance the dimensionless figure of merit zT above 2 rely on either bulk nanomaterials or on single crystals. A new physical mechanism of nanoscale mosaicity is shown that goes beyond the approaches in single crystals or conventional nanomaterials. A zT value of 2.1 at 1000 K in bulk nanomaterials is achieved. PMID:25962487

  2. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2003-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  3. Highland's Mosaic Mural: The Project, the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Jan; Imming, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Describes how a group of upper-elementary students in Highland, Illinois, designed and constructed a large mosaic mural depicting their city. Students were enthusiastic and highly motivated by the project. Widespread publicity excited intense community interest and involvement. The problems of design and construction are discussed. (AM)

  4. Expanding the phenotype of mosaic trisomy 20.

    PubMed

    Willis, Mary J H; Bird, Lynne M; Dell'Aquilla, Marie; Jones, Marilyn C

    2008-02-01

    Mosaic trisomy 20 is one of the more common cytogenetic abnormalities found on amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Studies have shown that outcome is normal in 90-93% of prenatally diagnosed cases. There are however, reports in the literature of children with mosaic trisomy 20 described as having an assortment of dysmorphic features and varying levels of developmental delay. Unfortunately, the literature has not defined a specific phenotype for this entity. Here we report on three patients with mosaic trisomy 20, two of whom were identified prenatally. Over a number of years of follow-up it has become apparent that there are some striking similarities among the three. Comparison between our patients and the literature cases indicates a more consistent phenotype than has previously been suggested. Recurring features include; spinal abnormalities (including spinal stenosis, vertebral fusion, and kyphosis), hypotonia, lifelong constipation, sloped shoulders, and significant learning disabilities despite normal intelligence. These findings may be overlooked on routine history and physical exam or assumed to be standard pediatric problems. It is not our intention to suggest that there is a distinctive face for this entity but to suggest that a subtle phenotype does exist. We have attempted to identify a set of findings for which any child diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 20 should be assessed or followed even in the presence of an apparently normal physical exam at birth. PMID:18203170

  5. Genetics of seed transmission Soybean mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is an aphid- and seed-transmitted member of the Potyviridae that infects soybean plants and, in years when virus infections are widespread, can cause significant reductions in the quantity and quality of seed harvested. Because seed-borne infections are the primary sources...

  6. Increased chromosome 21 mosaicism in older Down syndrome individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Schupf, N.; Harris, M.

    1994-09-01

    Loss of one chromosome 21 in older Down syndrome individuals has been reported recently. During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease, our preliminary observations indicated increased mosaicism for the loss of a chromosome 21 in whole blood cultures from Down syndrome individuals who were age 50 or over from a cohort of 22 individuals. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in 189 cases of Down syndrome ranging in age from 1 day to 71 years. In a combined total of 212 individuals, 39 were age 50 or more of whom 7 or 18% were mosaic, while 169 were under age 50 of whom 4 or 2% were mosaic. Therefore the occurrence of mosaicism was strikingly increased in the group of individuals who were age 50 or over ({chi}{sup 2}=12.8, p<.001). Our observations confirm the above reports of increased mosaicism for chromosome 21 loss in lymphocyte cultures from older Down syndrome individuals. Since the older individuals were not karyotyped at birth, it is not possible to determine whether the age-related increase in mosaicism is due to increased survival of mosaic individuals or acquired mosaicism. Assuming 1% mosaicism at birth for Down syndrome and assuming the general population`s death rates for these mosaic individuals, life table methods showed that the expected proportion of these individuals at age 70 was 5%. This was less than 1/3 of our observations suggesting that acquired mosaicism was the predominant mechanism for our findings.

  7. MOSAIC for multiple-reward environments.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Haruno, Masahiko; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-03-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) can provide a basic framework for autonomous robots to learn to control and maximize future cumulative rewards in complex environments. To achieve high performance, RL controllers must consider the complex external dynamics for movements and task (reward function) and optimize control commands. For example, a robot playing tennis and squash needs to cope with the different dynamics of a tennis or squash racket and such dynamic environmental factors as the wind. In addition, this robot has to tailor its tactics simultaneously under the rules of either game. This double complexity of the external dynamics and reward function sometimes becomes more complex when both the multiple dynamics and multiple reward functions switch implicitly, as in the situation of a real (multi-agent) game of tennis where one player cannot observe the intention of her opponents or her partner. The robot must consider its opponent's and its partner's unobservable behavioral goals (reward function). In this article, we address how an RL agent should be designed to handle such double complexity of dynamics and reward. We have previously proposed modular selection and identification for control (MOSAIC) to cope with nonstationary dynamics where appropriate controllers are selected and learned among many candidates based on the error of its paired dynamics predictor: the forward model. Here we extend this framework for RL and propose MOSAIC-MR architecture. It resembles MOSAIC in spirit and selects and learns an appropriate RL controller based on the RL controller's TD error using the errors of the dynamics (the forward model) and the reward predictors. Furthermore, unlike other MOSAIC variants for RL, RL controllers are not a priori paired with the fixed predictors of dynamics and rewards. The simulation results demonstrate that MOSAIC-MR outperforms other counterparts because of this flexible association ability among RL controllers, forward models, and reward

  8. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  9. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  10. Towards Luminescence Dating Of Mosaic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Sibila, E.; Villa, I.

    The possibility of dating archaeological glass by means of luminescent techniques has been investigated in recent years, despite the difficulties of this application, mainly linked to the amorphous structure of the material. We focused in particular on mosaic glass, after the encouraging results obtained on byzantine and medieval samples. Further studies were devoted to the comprehension of the luminescent mechanisms in silica glasses, and to the investigation of the relationships between luminescence, colouring or opacifier ions and crystalline phase of the vitreous matrix. The results of a study on the dosimetric characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of a few medieval blue-green mosaic glasses from the San Lorenzo church (Milan) are presented, and the experimental protocols established to identify their suitability for dating are discussed.

  11. Mosaic Infrared Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of mosaic infrared detector/focal plane arrays for space astronomy is reported. The Mosaic IR Sensor for Space Astronomy (MIRSSA) Program is an effort to develop PV HgCdTe detector arrays with the spectral response of up to 5 micron and silicon CCDs for low temperature applications. Desired background-limited performance (BLIP) for space applications requires an extremely high R sub A product which can be achieved by selecting the detector materials and the operating temperature. The parameters were determined by measurement of HgCdTe PV detector arrays at various temperatures in the SW and MW spectral bands. It is demonstrated that high performance PV HgCdTe detectors can be fabricated for low temperature applications.

  12. Mosaic double aneuploidy: Down syndrome and XYY.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Mayur; Koshy, Beena; Srivastava, Vivi Miriam

    2013-07-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are seen in nearly 1% of live born infants. We report a 5-year-old boy with the clinical features of Down syndrome, which is the most common human aneuploidy. Cytogenetic analysis showed a mosaicism for a double aneuploidy, Down syndrome and XYY. The karyotype was 47, XY,+21[19]/48, XYY,+21[6]. ish XYY (DXZ1 × 1, DYZ1 × 2). Mosaic double aneuploidies are very rare and features of only one of the aneuploidies may predominate in childhood. Cytogenetic analysis is recommended even if the typical features of a recognized aneuploidy are present so that any associated abnormality may be detected. This will enable early intervention to provide the adequate supportive care and management. PMID:24339550

  13. Digital Elevation Model Mosaic of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. C.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    At CEPS (Center for Earth and Planetary Studies) work has been underway since 2000 to semi-automatically stereo match all Mariner 10 stereo pairs. The resulting matched image coordinates are converted into longitude, latitude, and height points and then combined to form a map projected Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic of the planet's surface. Stereo images from Mariner 10 cover one quarter of the planet's surface, mostly in the southern hemisphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Forest bird demography in a landscape mosaic

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, D.L.

    1986-12-01

    A tandem approach of field studies and simulation modeling was used to examine avian demography in a landscape mosaic of habitat patches. A particular goal was to attempt to account for the regional decline in abundance of a subset of bird species sensitive to forest fragmentation. Species abundance patterns in forest patches were framed as the consequence of individual birds' demographics, constrained by their landscape context; this context was partitioned to emphasize habitat availability (or area), accessibility (or isolation), and localized factors affecting reproductive success (nest predation and brood parasitism). Each of these constraints was examined in turn, to assess their relative contribution to species abundance patterns observed in landscape mosaics. A forest simulation model was used to develop a theoretical basis for the importance of microhabitat pattern in forest bird communities. Hypotheses about microhabitat variety and bird species distribution in landscapes were not supported by data from woodlots in Cadiz Township, southern Wisconsin. The hierarchical conceptual model developed in this study represents a synthetic general model, a framework that can be simplified under specified scenarios to provide predictions about bird species abundance patterns in landscape mosaics.

  15. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  16. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  17. Hypothesis: Somatic Mosaicism and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing genetic disorders can occur during mitotic cell division after fertilization, which is called somatic mutations. This leads to somatic mosaicism, where two or more genetically distinct cells are present in one individual. Somatic mutations are the most well studied in cancer where it plays an important role and also have been associated with some neurodegenerative disorders. The study of somatic mosaicism in Parkinson disease (PD) is only in its infancy, and a case with somatic mutation has not yet been described. However, we can speculate that a somatic mutation affecting cells in the central nervous system including substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons could lead to the development of PD through the same pathomechanisms of genetic PD even in the absence of a germ-line mutation. Theoretically, a number of genes could be candidates for genetic analysis for the presence of somatic mosaicism. Among them, SNCA and PARK2 could be the best candidates to analyze. Because analyzing brain tissues in living patients is impossible, alternative tissues could be used to indicate the genetic status of the brain. Performance of the technology is another factor to consider when analyzing the tissues. PMID:25548528

  18. Constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism syndrome: case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Achandira M.; Al-Kindy, Adila

    2013-01-01

    Trisomy 8 mosaicism (Warkany syndrome) is a rare viable condition with variable phenotypes, ranging from mild dysmorphic features to severe malformations. Karyotyping and fluorescence in-situ hybridization potentially help detecting this low mosaic clone to confirm the diagnosis of patients with classical and unusual clinical presentations. This report reviews few previous cases to describe our case - a boy who had trisomy 8 mosaicism with severe dysmorphic features, born to a consanguineous Arabic couple. This study concludes that careful cytogenetic diagnoses of trisomy 8 mosaicism is essential for appropriate management and follow up of this rare disorder.

  19. A 3D mosaic algorithm using disparity map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bo; Kakeya, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    Conventionally there exist two major methods to create mosaics in 3D videos. One is to duplicate the area of mosaics from the image of one viewpoint (the left view or the right view) to that of the other viewpoint. This method, which is not capable of expressing depth, cannot give viewers a natural perception in 3D. The other method is to create the mosaics separately in the left view and the right view. With this method the depth is expressed in the area of mosaics, but 3D perception is not natural enough. To overcome these problems, we propose a method to create mosaics by using a disparity map. In the proposed method the mosaic of the image from one viewpoint is made with the conventional method, while the mosaic of the image from the other viewpoint is made based on the data of the disparity map so that the mosaic patterns of the two images can give proper depth perception to the viewer. We confirm that the proposed mosaic pattern using a disparity map gives more natural depth perception of the viewer by subjective experiments using a static image and two videos.

  20. Response of maize (Zea mays L.) lines carrying Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3 to the potyviruses Johnsongrass mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize dwarf mosaic disease is one of the most important viral diseases of maize throughout the world. It is caused by a set of related viruses in the family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), and S...

  1. First report of blueberry mosaic disease caused by blueberry mosaic associated virus in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2011, a grower in Casey County Kentucky observed persistent yellow, green, and red mosaic patterns on leaves of highbush blueberry plants. Twenty-three randomly-scattered ‘Bluecrop’ plants out of approximately 1,400 5-year-old plants showed symptoms, with coverage ranging from 5% to 100%. Asympto...

  2. First report of Sorghum mosaic virus causing mosaic in Miscanthus sinesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miscanthus is being evaluated as a bioenergy feedstock because of its potentially significant biomass production, perennial habit, and lack of major diseases and pests. It is also a valuable parent in the sugarcane breeding program as source of cold tolerance. Mosaic symptoms were observed on a clo...

  3. High-Resolution South Polar Cap Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The layered terrains of the polar regions of Mars are among the most exotic planetary landscapes in our Solar System. The layers exposed in the south polar residual cap, vividly shown in the top view, are thought to contain detailed records of Mars' climate history over the last 100 million years or so. The materials that comprise the south polar layers may include frozen carbon dioxide, water ice, and fine dust. The bottom picture shows complex erosional patterns that have developed on the south polar cap, perhaps by a combination of sublimation, wind erosion, and ground-collapse. Because the south polar terrains are so strange and new to human eyes, no one (yet) has entirely adequate explanations as to what is being seen.

    These images were acquired by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during the southern spring season in October 1999. Each of these two pictures is a mosaic of many individual MOC images acquired at about 12 m/pixel scale that completely cover the highest latitude (87oS) visible to MOC on each orbital pass over the polar region. Both mosaics cover areas of about 10 x 4 kilometers (6.2 x 2.5 miles) near 87oS, 10oW in the central region of the permanent--or residual--south polar cap. They show features at the scale of a small house. Sunlight illuminates each scene from the left.'Gaps' at the upper and lower right of the second mosaic, above, are areas that were not covered by MOC in October 1999.

  4. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  5. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X full mutation, which is associated with the phenotypic expression of the disorder, is characterized by an expansion of CGG repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to the FMR1 gene. New mutations leading to amplification of the CGG repeat have not been reported. We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of two affected sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. This was confirmed by dosage analysis of the Southern blot using StB12-3 and an additional probe against the dystrophin gene and by PCR analysis of DXS548 alleles. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. The case reported here clearly demonstrates that FMR1 deletions, unlike the expansions, are not always inherited and the finding of heterozygosity or normal dosage from lymphocyte DNA in the mother of a deletion case does not necessarily rule out the possibility of having a second affected child. The deletion of FMR1 gene may be responsible for a small but significant number of fragile X cases. Therefore, it is imperative that those involved in genetic counseling recognize this diagnostic pitfall. Since it depends upon the size of the mutant clone in the mosaic mother, the exact recurrence risk in germline carriers is unknown. However, prenatal and carrier testing should be performed independently of the outcome of the mother. Furthermore, it is possible that the deletion may not be restricted to the germline, and therefore the mother may actually be a somatic mosaic.

  6. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  7. Goldenhar sequence and mosaic trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Gill, W.L.; Shapira, E.

    1995-12-04

    We describe a term infant with facio-auriculo-vertebral {open_quotes}dysplasia{close_quotes} (Goldenhar sequence), hypertelorism, and mosaic trisomy 22: peripheral blood, 46, XY/47, XY,+22 (72%/28%); skin fibroblasts, 47, XY,+22(100%). This is the second report of Goldenbar anomaly with epibulbar dermoids in a live-born infant with aneuploidy. Hypertelorism is rare in Goldenhar sequence, but typical of trisomy 22. We recommend chromosome analysis in all patients with Goldenhar sequence. Those with hypertelorism may be more likely to have aneuploidy as well. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Hasell, P. G., Jr.; Sellman, A. N.; Smedes, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    An uncontrolled aerial thermographic mosaic of Yellowstone National Park was assembled from the videotape record of 13 individual thermographs obtained with linescan radiometers. Post mission processing of the videotape record rectified the nadir line to a topographic map base, corrected for v/h variations in adjacent flight lanes, corrected for yaw and pitch distortions, and distortions produced by nonlinearity of the side-wise scan. One of the purposes of the thermographic study was to delineate the areas of thermal emission (hot springs, geysers, etc.) throughout the Park, a study which could have great value in reconnaissance surveys of geothermal areas in remote regions or regions of high relief.

  9. First Report of Pepino Mosaic Virus Infecting Tomato in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic has become endemic greenhouse tomato disease in many countries around the world. Its occurrence in Mexico has yet to be determined. In early spring of 2010, symptoms of yellow mosaic, chlorotic patches and fruit marbling were observed in approximately 50% of tomato plants in a commerc...

  10. Global Digital Image Mosaics of Mars: Assessment of Geodetic Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R.; Archinal, B. A.; Lee, E. M.; Davies, M. E.; Colvin, T. R.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    A revised global image mosaic of Mars (MDIM 2.0) was recently completed by USGS. Comparison with high-resolution gridded Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) digital image mosaics will allow us to quantify its geodetic errors; linking the next MDIM to the MOLA data will help eliminate those errors. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.

  12. An Experimental Host Range of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus isolated from wheat. This study was conducted to determine an experimental host range for TriMV and identify species that could serve as differential hosts for isolating TriMV from Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). Plants tested were mechan...

  13. New Viruses Identified in Fig Trees Exhibiting Fig Mosaic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fig mosaic disease has been known for decades, but the causal agent has been elusive. Here we present data on the incidence of at least four new viruses isolated from fig trees exhibiting mosaic symptoms. One of the viruses is closely related to the recently identified European mountain ash ringspo...

  14. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  15. Forest bird demography in a landscape mosaic

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, D.L.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.; DeAngelis, D.L.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1988-07-01

    A tandem approach of field studies and simulation modeling was used to examine avian demography in a landscape mosaic of habitat patches. A particular goal was to attempt to account for the regional decline in abundance of a subset of bird species sensitive to forest fragmentation. Species abundance patterns in forest patches were framed as the consequence of individual birds' demographics, constrained by their landscape context; this context was partitioned to emphasize habitat availability (or area), accessibility (or isolation), and localized factors affecting reproductive success (nest predation and brood parasitism). Each of these constraints was examined in turn, to assess their relative contribution to species abundance patterns observed in landscape mosaics. A forest simulation model was used to develop a theoretical basis for the importance of microhabitat pattern in forest bird communities. Simulated patterns in microhabitat availability could provide for successional trends in bird species diversity, a relation between niche position and species abundance, the occurrence of more rare species than common ones, and a species/area effect. Hypotheses about microhabitat variety and bird species distribution in landscapes were not supported by data from woodlots in Cadiz Township, southern Wisconsin. 39 refs., 41 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Mosaic Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    García-Romero, Maria Teresa; Parkin, Patricia; Lara-Corrales, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Confusion is widespread regarding segmental or mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1 (MNF1). Physicians should use the same terms and be aware of its comorbidities and risks. The objective of the current study was to identify and synthesize data for cases of MNF1 published from 1977 to 2012 to better understand its significance and associations. After a literature search in PubMed, we reviewed all available relevant articles and abstracted and synthetized the relevant clinical data about manifestations, associated findings, family history and genetic testing. We identified 111 articles reporting 320 individuals. Most had pigmentary changes or neurofibromas only. Individuals with pigmentary changes alone were identified at a younger age. Seventy-six percent had localized MNF1 restricted to one segment; the remainder had generalized MNF1. Of 157 case reports, 29% had complications associated with NF1. In one large case series, 6.5% had offspring with complete NF1. The terms "segmental" and "type V" neurofibromatosis should be abandoned, and the correct term, mosaic NF1 (MNF1), should be used. All individuals with suspected MNF1 should have a complete physical examination, genetic testing of blood and skin, counseling, and health surveillance. PMID:26338194

  17. Quantification of yield loss caused by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus in winter wheat under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infect winter wheat in the Great Plains region of the United States. The two viruses are transmitted by wheat curl mites, which also transmit High Plains virus. In a field study conducted in 2011 and 2012, winter wheat cultivars Mi...

  18. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  19. Attempts to Improve the Method of Screening Cowpea Germplasm for Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of visual symptom screening for cowpea plants in field plots improved screening for Blackeye Cowpea Mosaic Virus (BICMV)-resistance. However, the method failed to improve the speed or accuracy of screening for Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV)-resistance. Plants that displayed few visual virus sympt...

  20. Detection of Corchorus golden mosaic virus Associated with Yellow Mosaic Disease of Jute (Corchorus capsularis).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raju; Palit, Paramita; Paul, Sujay; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Roy, Anirban

    2012-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease, caused by a whitefly transmitted New World Begomovirus, named Corchorus golden mosaic virus (CoGMV), is emerging as a serious biotic constraint for jute fibre production in Asia. For rapid and sensitive diagnosis of the Begomovirus associated with this disease, a non-radiolabelled diagnostic probe, developed against the DNA A component of the east Indian isolate of CoGMV, detected the presence of the virus in infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies following Southern hybridization and nucleic acid spot hybridization tests. Presence of the virus was also confirmed when polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using virus-specific primers on DNA templates isolated from infected plants and viruliferous whiteflies. PMID:23730007

  1. Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Collier, James; Craymer, Loring; Curkendall, David

    2005-01-01

    yourSkyG is the second generation of the software described in yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet (NPO-30556), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 6 (June 2003), page 45. Like its predecessor, yourSkyG supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. Whereas yourSky constructs mosaics on a local multiprocessor system, yourSkyG performs the computations on NASA s Information Power Grid (IPG), which is capable of performing much larger mosaicking tasks. (The IPG is high-performance computation and data grid that integrates geographically distributed 18 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 computers, databases, and instruments.) A user of yourSkyG can specify parameters describing a mosaic to be constructed. yourSkyG then constructs the mosaic on the IPG and makes it available for downloading by the user. The complexities of determining which input images are required to construct a mosaic, retrieving the required input images from remote sky-survey archives, uploading the images to the computers on the IPG, performing the computations remotely on the Grid, and downloading the resulting mosaic from the Grid are all transparent to the user

  2. The eMOSAIC model for humanoid robot control.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Morimoto, Jun; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we propose an extension of the MOSAIC architecture to control real humanoid robots. MOSAIC was originally proposed by neuroscientists to understand the human ability of adaptive control. The modular architecture of the MOSAIC model can be useful for solving nonlinear and non-stationary control problems. Both humans and humanoid robots have nonlinear body dynamics and many degrees of freedom. Since they can interact with environments (e.g., carrying objects), control strategies need to deal with non-stationary dynamics. Therefore, MOSAIC has strong potential as a human motor-control model and a control framework for humanoid robots. Yet application of the MOSAIC model has been limited to simple simulated dynamics since it is susceptive to observation noise and also cannot be applied to partially observable systems. Our approach introduces state estimators into MOSAIC architecture to cope with real environments. By using an extended MOSAIC model, we are able to successfully generate squatting and object-carrying behaviors on a real humanoid robot. PMID:22366503

  3. Parallel-Processing Software for Creating Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Deen, Robert; McCauley, Michael; DeJong, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A computer program implements parallel processing for nearly real-time creation of panoramic mosaics of images of terrain acquired by video cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rover). Because the original images are typically acquired at various camera positions and orientations, it is necessary to warp the images into the reference frame of the mosaic before stitching them together to create the mosaic. [Also see "Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images," Software Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007) page 26.] The warping algorithm in this computer program reflects the considerations that (1) for every pixel in the desired final mosaic, a good corresponding point must be found in one or more of the original images and (2) for this purpose, one needs a good mathematical model of the cameras and a good correlation of individual pixels with respect to their positions in three dimensions. The desired mosaic is divided into slices, each of which is assigned to one of a number of central processing units (CPUs) operating simultaneously. The results from the CPUs are gathered and placed into the final mosaic. The time taken to create the mosaic depends upon the number of CPUs, the speed of each CPU, and whether a local or a remote data-staging mechanism is used.

  4. Two-image mosaic of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This computer-assembled two-image mosaic of Saturn's rings, taken by NASA's Voyager 1 on Nov. 6, 1980 at a range of 8 million kilometers (5 million miles), shows approximately 95 individual concentric features in the rings. The extraordinarily complex structure of the rings is easily seen across the entire span of the ring system. The ring structure, once thought to be produced by the gravitational interaction between Saturn's satellites and the orbit of ring particles, has now been found to be too complex for this explanation alone. The 14th satellite of Saturn, discovered by Voyager 1, is seen (upper left) just inside the narrow F-ring, which is less than 150 kilometers (93 miles wide). The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  5. Calibration and Mosaicing of SMART-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, J. M.; Grieger, B.; Mora, A.; Almeida, M.; Costa, M.; Antunes, L.; Fernandes, V. A.

    2012-09-01

    Since mid 2010 the scientific community has access to the data collected by SMART-1 mission that orbited the Moon between 2004 and 2006. The onboard camera (AMIE) collected during that period images with the then state-of-the-art resolution and coverage of the lunar surface. The scientific interest of SMART-1 images is historical, as the data offers a snapshot of the lunar surface during the mission period, allowing comparative studies of the lunar surface. Our aim in this work is to build the atlas of the Moon as SMART-1 captured it. During the Earth escape phase, the AMIE CCD was damaged by radiation, invalidating the laboratorial flat field correction algorithm. A new image calibration procedure was developed based on the in-flight images and on theoretical models. This was followed by a mosaicing technique applied to all the 31947 collected images , to select, compensate geometrical distortions and compose a total of 88 maps of the lunar surface.

  6. Think about it: FMR1 gene mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Bonarrigo, Francesca Andrea; Russo, Silvia; Vizziello, Paola; Menni, Francesca; Cogliati, Francesca; Giorgini, Valentina; Monti, Federico; Milani, Donatella

    2014-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation, intellectual disability, and autism. Most cases are the result of an expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene and the subsequent functional loss of the related protein. We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who clinically presents mild psychomotor delay without any major clinical dysmorphisms. Molecular analysis of the FMR1 gene showed mosaicism in terms of size and methylation, with one normal and 1 fully mutated allele, which is very rare in this syndrome. Physicians should therefore consider a diagnosis of FXS even if the patient's phenotype is mild. Although rare, diagnosing this condition has important consequences for the patient's rehabilitation and the family planning of parents and relatives. PMID:24065579

  7. Methods of Spectral Analysis in C++ (MOSAIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engesser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stellar spectroscopic classification is most often still done by hand. MOSAIC is a project focused on the collection and classification of astronomical spectra using a computerized algorithm. The code itself attempts to accurately classify stellar spectra according to the broad spectral classes within the Morgan-Keenan system of spectral classification, based on estimated temperature and the relative abundances of certain notable elements (Hydrogen, Helium, etc.) in the stellar atmosphere. The methodology includes calibrating the wavelength for pixels across the image by using the wavelength dispersion of pixels inherent with the spectrograph used. It then calculates the location of the peak in the star's Planck spectrum in order to roughly classify the star. Fitting the graph to a blackbody curve is the final step for a correct classification. Future work will involve taking a closer look at emission lines and luminosity classes.

  8. Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. Comparison of barley stripe mosaic virus strains.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Elsayed E; Abdel Aleem, Engy E; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2008-01-01

    BSMV (barley stripe mosaic virus) particles were obtained in a pure state from infected host plant tissues of Hordeum vulgare. The three genomic parities (alpha, beta and gamma) were amplified by PCR using specific primers for each particle; each was cloned. Partial sequence of the alpha, beta and gamma segments was determined for the Egyptian isolate of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV AE1). Alignment of nucleotide sequences with that of other known strains of the virus, BSMV type strains (CV17, ND18 and China), and the generation of phylogenetic trees was performed. A low level of homology was detected comparing 467 bp of the a and 643 bp of the segments to that of the other strains, and thus BSMV alpha and beta segments were in separate clusters. However, 1154 bp of the gamma segments of BSMV AE1 showed a high level of homology especially to strain BSMV ND18, as they both formed a distinct cluster. Northern blotting of pure BSMV AE1 virus and H. vulgare-infected tissue were compared using an alpha ND18 specific probe. Western blotting using antibodies specific for the coat protein (CP) and the triple gene block 1 (TGB1) protein, which are both encoded by the beta ND18 segment, still indicated a high level of similarity between proteins produced by BSMV ND18 and AE1. We suggest that the BSMV AE1 isolate is a distinct strain of BSMV which reflects the genetic evolutionary divergence among BSMV strains and members of the Hordeivirus group. PMID:18533473

  10. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  11. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  12. Mosaicism for a chromosome 8-derived minute marker chromosome in a patient with manifestations of trisomy 8 mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Spinner, N.B.; Grace, K.R.; Owens, N.L.

    1995-03-13

    We describe a patient with manifestations of the mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome and mosaicism for a minute marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a chromosome 8 probe confirmed that the marker was derived from chromosome 8. This is the smallest piece of chromosome 8 to be reported in a patient with mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome. When the clinical picture is strongly suggestive of trisomy for a specific chromosome region, we believe that FISH can be used to test markers in a guided, rather than random, fashion. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE FLOOR, TILE WAINSCOT AND SHOWER SURROUND, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, EXPOSED-CORNER TUB, FLUSH VALVE TOILET, TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 8. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM OF THREE FIGURES IN BOLD RELIEF ABOVE FIREPLACE - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  16. 79. DETAIL, MOSAIC FLOOR IN HALL 355 AT ENTRANCE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. DETAIL, MOSAIC FLOOR IN HALL 355 AT ENTRANCE TO REGENTS' ROOM, THIRD FLOOR - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Detail view of floor mosaic in first floor lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of floor mosaic in first floor lobby - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Hitchcock Hall, 2700 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue, Southeast, 588-604 Redwood Street, Southeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Perkins, Simon; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Fischer, William M.; Theiler, James; Letvin, Norman; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Yusim, Karina; Kuiken, Carla

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, ASBESTOS CEMENT WALL BOARD, AND OPEN TRANSOM OVER THE SHOWER DOORWAY. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  20. Mosaic Double Aneuploidy of X and G Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Singh, D. N.

    1975-01-01

    Reported are case histories of three severely retarded adolescents with typical Down's Syndrome features but whose cytogenetic analysis revealed a rare chromosomal anomaly of mosaicism of Down's and Turner's syndromes. (CL)

  1. A new national mosaic of state landcover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, I.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current landcover mapping efforts and presented a new preliminary, national mosaic of Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC) landcover data with a discussion of techniques, problems faced, and future refinements.

  2. Update on High-Resolution Geodetically Controlled LROC Polar Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Richie, J.; Edmundson, K.; Laura, J.; Robinson, M.; Speyerer, E.; Boyd, A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Wagner, R.; Nefian, A.

    2015-10-01

    We describe progress on high-resolution (1 m/pixel) geodetically controlled LROC mosaics of the lunar poles, which can be used for locating illumination resources (for solar power or cold traps) or landing site and surface operations planning.

  3. Global and regional/seasonal color mosaics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1993-01-01

    Four regional mosaics of Mars acquired during different seasons, along with their composite as a single global mosaic, have been completed in two colors (red and violet) at scales of 1/16 and 1/64 degrees/pixel. These mosaics were put together from a set of 51 separate mosaics, each acquired from a single Viking orbiter spacecraft orbital revolution. Special techniques were developed and applied to suppress large variations between mosaics introcued by highly variable, optically thin, condensate hazes. The techniques utilize a combination of the spatial characteristics of the hazes (generally broad, low-frequency) along with their modulation of the reginal color ratios (strongly enhancing the violet/red ratios). Photometric-function normalization was applied following the haze removal. Most of the single-orbit mosaics consist of red and violet or red, green, and violet filters, but a few mosaics with only red-filter data were included to fill gaps in global coverage at high northern latitudes. Global coverage is approximately 99 percent complete in red-filter mosaics and approximately 95 percent and approximately 60 percent complete in corresponding violet- and green-filter mosaics, respectively. All of the mosaics are geometrically tied to the 1/256 deg per pixel Mars Digital Image Map (MDIM), which is available on Compact Disk (CD), and which will be used as the base map for Mars Observer data sets. Early in 1993, the single-orbit color mosaics will be distributed to the science community in a six-volume set of CDs. Perhaps the most scientifically interesting parts of this dataset are the overlap regions, which show significant temporal variations in surface and atmospheric features. Surface changes can be categorized as (1) changes that probably occurred during the great dust storms of 1977; (2) changes that occurred soon after 1977 storms due to removal of redistribution of recently deposited dust; (3) changes in the northern lowlands that probably occurred

  4. 43. CUTTING APART PIECES OF A MOSAIC. WHEN SEPARATED, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CUTTING APART PIECES OF A MOSAIC. WHEN SEPARATED, THE PIECES CAN BE INDIVIDUALLY GLAZED, SMOKED, OR FINISH FIRED TO PRODUCE A MULTI-COLORED IMAGE WHEN REASSEMBLED. NOTE THE SUBSTITUTION OF BUFF FOR RED CLAY IN SEVERAL PIECES OF MOSAIC ON THE LEFT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  5. Delineation of a clinical syndrome caused by mosaic trisomy 15

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, E.M.; Bienz, G.; Straumann, E.; Bosceh, N.

    1996-03-15

    We report on a boy with mosaic trisomy 15. The clinical manifestations are compared with those of the few cases reported up to now. A clinical syndrome is delineated consisting of a characteristic shape of the nose and other minor craniofacial anomalies, as well as typical deformities of the hands and feet. Different degrees of mosaicism may explain the more or less severe manifestations in individual patients. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next to Living Trailer (rear steps seen frame left). "They Last" tile in center surrounded by tiles, irons, glasses, toy guns, license plates, bottle caps, and plastic parts. The mosaic was created in sections as squares and linear strips, as cement was mixed and objects were collected – the edges of these sections and variation of objects is noticeable. View looking north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  7. Mosaic trisomy 8 detected by fibroblasts cultured of skin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Ana M; Mora, Lina; Suarez-Obando, Fernando; Moreno, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosaic trisomy 8 or "Warkany's Syndrome" is a chromosomopathy with an estimated prevalance of 1:25,000 to 1:50,000, whose clinical presentation has a wide phenotypic variability. Case Description: Patient aged 14 years old with antecedents of global retardation of development, moderate cognitive deficit and hypothyroidism of possible congenital origin. Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed palpebral ptosis, small corneas and corectopia, hypoplasia of the upper maxilla and prognathism, dental crowding, high-arched palate, anomalies of the extremities such as digitalization of the thumbs, clinodactyly and bilateral shortening of the fifth finger, shortening of the right femur, columnar deviation and linear brown blotches that followed Blaschko's lines. Cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance revealed type 1 Chiari's malformation and ventriculomegaly. Although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood (46,XY), based on the finding of cutaneous mosaicism the lesions were biopsied and cytogenetic analysis demonstrated mosaic trisomy 8: mos 47,XY,+8[7]/46,XY[93]. Clinical Relevance: Trisomy 8 is clinically presented as a mosaic, universal cases being unfailingly lethal. In this particular case, cutaneous lesions identified the mosaic in tissue, although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood. The cutaneous mosaicism represented by brown linear blotches which follow Blaschko's lines is a clinical finding that has not previously been described in Warkany's syndrome. PMID:27546932

  8. Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

  9. Galileo Regio Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Galileo Regio region on Ganymede (Latitude 18 N, Longitude: 149 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, about 58 degrees above the horizon. The smallest features that can be discerned are about 80 meters (262 feet) in size in the Galileo images. These Galileo images show fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. Ancient impact craters of various sizes and states of degradation testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. The images reveal distinctive variations in albedo from the brighter rims, knobs, and furrow walls to a possible accumulation of dark material on the lower slopes, and crater floors. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,580 kilometers (4,738 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. Mosaic-Detector-Based Fluorescence Spectral Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah; Moon, Jeong

    2007-01-01

    A battery-powered, pen-sized, portable instrument for measuring molecular fluorescence spectra of chemical and biological samples in the field has been proposed. Molecular fluorescence spectroscopy is among the techniques used most frequently in laboratories to analyze compositions of chemical and biological samples. Heretofore, it has been possible to measure fluorescence spectra of molecular species at relative concentrations as low as parts per billion (ppb), with a few nm spectral resolution. The proposed instrument would include a planar array (mosaic) of detectors, onto which a fluorescence spectrum would be spatially mapped. Unlike in the larger laboratory-type molecular fluorescence spectrometers, mapping of wavelengths to spatial positions would be accomplished without use of relatively bulky optical parts. The proposed instrument is expected to be sensitive enough to enable measurement of spectra of chemical species at relative concentrations <1 ppb, with spectral resolution that could be tailored by design to be comparable to a laboratory molecular fluorescence spectrometer. The proposed instrument (see figure) would include a button-cell battery and a laser diode, which would generate the monochromatic ultraviolet light needed to excite fluorescence in a sample. The sample would be held in a cell bounded by far-ultraviolet-transparent quartz or optical glass. The detector array would be, more specifically, a complementary metal oxide/ semiconductor or charge-coupled- device imaging photodetector array, the photodetectors of which would be tailored to respond to light in the wavelength range of the fluorescence spectrum to be measured. The light-input face of the photodetector array would be covered with a matching checkerboard array of multilayer thin film interference filters, such that each pixel in the array would be sensitive only to light in a spectral band narrow enough so as not to overlap significantly with the band of an adjacent pixel. The

  11. A New Moon: Improved Lunar Orbiter Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Photographs of the five Lunar Orbiter missions in 1965 and 1966 provide comprehensive coverage of the moon at resolutions in the range of about 1 meter to 300 meters. With a few exceptions, they are taken at a moderately low sun angle to clearly show the topography. These photos, especially the set edited by Bowker and Hughes, are still in active use in books, papers, and slide presentations and they are likely to be used in planning the missions of future lunar spacecraft. Scanning artifacts (sometimes called the 'venetian blind effect') detract from the visual quality of the photographs, particularly when they are printed at high contrast to show albedo variations such as rays or subtle topology features such as the margins of lava flows. The author has written a program to estimate and remove the artifacts from the pictures, greatly improving their cosmetic quality. The program detects lines between framelets of a mosaic, removes the lines caused by light leaking between framelets, estimates the systematic streaks caused by cathode ray tube scanning in the spacecraft and the Ground Reconstruction Equipment, and compensates for these streaks. Non-linearity introduced by contrast enhancement in the production of the input photos is considered in the compensation process.

  12. Mosaic nature of the wolbachia surface protein.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Laura; Lo, Nathan; Werren, John H

    2005-08-01

    Lateral gene transfer and recombination play important roles in the evolution of many parasitic bacteria. Here we investigate intragenic recombination in Wolbachia bacteria, considered among the most abundant intracellular bacteria on earth. We conduct a detailed analysis of the patterns of variation and recombination within the Wolbachia surface protein, utilizing an extensive set of published and new sequences from five main supergroups of Wolbachia. Analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence variations confirms four hypervariable regions (HVRs), separated by regions under strong conservation. Comparison of shared polymorphisms reveals a complex mosaic structure of the gene, characterized by a clear intragenic recombining of segments among several distinct strains, whose major recombination effect is shuffling of a relatively conserved set of amino acid motifs within each of the four HVRs. Exchanges occurred both within and between the arthropod supergroups. Analyses based on phylogenetic methods and a specific recombination detection program (MAXCHI) significantly support this complex partitioning of the gene, indicating a chimeric origin of wsp. Although wsp has been widely used to define macro- and microtaxonomy among Wolbachia strains, these results clearly show that it is not suitable for this purpose. The role of wsp in bacterium-host interactions is currently unknown, but results presented here indicate that exchanges of HVR motifs are favored by natural selection. Identifying host proteins that interact with wsp variants should help reveal how these widespread bacterial parasites affect and evolve in response to the cellular environments of their invertebrate hosts. PMID:16030235

  13. The mosaic acquisition of grammatical relations.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, M

    1991-10-01

    The view that grammatical relations have substantial essence, designated as 'subject' or 'object' has difficulty in accounting for the variety of naturally acquirable grammatical relations. The acquisition of grammatical relations is examined from a theoretical framework, ROLE AND REFERENCE GRAMMAR, in which grammatical relations are decomposed into two separate types of structure: logical (semantic) structure and information (pragmatic) structure. The acquisition of grammatical relations from four languages is compared: (1) the definite accusative suffix and pragmatically motivated word order of Turkish; (2) Kaluli verb agreement, case and focus marking postpositions, and pragmatically motivated word order; (3) Hungarian definite and indefinite verb conjunction; and (4) Italian participial agreement and anaphoric, accusative case pronouns. Two conditions on structures are found to cause difficulty: the neutralization of a semantic or pragmatic distinction by interfering structures (e.g. Kaluli and Italian), and global case marking which forces the child to discover relevant semantic characteristics of both the actor and the undergoer (e.g. Hungarian and Kaluli). Structures that encode semantic or pragmatic distinctions independently are more easily acquired (e.g. Turkish). Piecing together discrete structures in a mosaic fashion, the child can acquire the great variety of grammatical relations that exist in human languages. PMID:1761612

  14. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2011-06-01

    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  15. Germline mosaicism in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tajir, Mariam; Fergelot, Patricia; Lancelot, Guenaelle; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Arveiler, Benoit; Lacombe, Didier; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2013-04-15

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple congenital anomalies and genetic heterogeneity. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic facial features. Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CREBBP; OMIM 600140) on chromosome 16p13, account for about 50% to 70% of patients. Most of CREBBP mutations are de novo and the rate of recurrence in a family is low. Families with several affected children are extremely rare. We report here a Moroccan family with two children with RSTS and apparently unaffected parents. The molecular studies showed a heterozygous mutation c.4361T>A (p.Leu1454His) in exon 26 of the CREBBP gene in the two affected siblings. Neither the parents, nor the healthy brother, carry this mutation in hematologic cells. The mutation was also absent in buccal epithelial cells of both parents. We discuss the hypothesis of germinal mosaicism. This concept is very important because it complicates genetic counseling of this family who has a risk of recurrence of the mutation in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:23352794

  16. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy R

    2016-02-01

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat and maize. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus evaded thorough molecular characterization for many years due to the experimental challenges of mite transmission and manipulating multisegmented negative sense RNA genomes. Recently, the complete genome sequence of a Nebraska isolate of WMoV revealed eight segments, plus a variant sequence of the nucleocapsid protein-encoding segment. Here, near-complete and partial consensus sequences of five more WMoV isolates are reported and compared to the Nebraska isolate: an Ohio maize isolate (GG1), a Kansas barley isolate (KS7), and three Ohio wheat isolates (H1, K1, W1). Results show two distinct groups of WMoV isolates: Ohio wheat isolate RNA segments had 84% or lower nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate, whereas GG1 and KS7 had 98% or higher nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate. Knowledge of the sequence variability of WMoV isolates is a step toward understanding virus biology, and potentially explaining observed biological variation. PMID:26590326

  17. Prenatal studies of a family with 4p- mosaicism

    SciTech Connect

    Pulijaal, V.; Ben-Yishay, M.; Nitowsky, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Mosaicism for an autosomal structural abnormality is rare. Only two cases have been reported for mosaicism involving a deletion of the short arm of number 4 chromosome (one prenatal and one postnatal). We report mosaicism for 4p- in the amniocyte cultures from a G3P2 41-year-old patient who had amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. Chromosome analysis of amniotic cultures by in situ and flask methods in Chang-supplemented McCoy`s medium revealed a mosaic karyotype, 46,XX/46,XX,del(4)(p13) with 15 (62.5%) and 9 (37.5%) metaphases, respectively. Parental blood chromosome studies yielded a paternal mosaic karyotype with 2 out of 98 cells (2%) exhibiting a deletion in the short arm of number 4 chromosome (46,XX,del(4)(p13)) as seen in the fetus. After genetic counseling, the family decided to terminate the pregnancy. Studies of fetal tissue confirmed the amniocentesis results for 4p- mosaicism (18.3%). Cytogenetic studies in father confirmed mosaicism for 4p- in fibroblast cultures from skin (2%). In none of the blood or skin fibroblast cultures was there evidence of a spontaneous fragile site at 4p13. However, cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood under conditions of folate deprivation (medium 199) showed a fragile site at 4q13 in 30% of the metaphases and 4p- cells are absent. The coincidence of the breakpoints and folate-induced fragile site in 4p- may be related phenomena in this family.

  18. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  19. Fusion Based Seamless Mosaic for Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Li, Shutao; Fu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    A fusion based seamless mosaic method for stitching remote sensing images is introduced in this paper. The proposed method focuses on one major problem in the process of mosaic: how to generate visually pleasant stitching result in the cases of misalignment, global and local intensity differences between images. First, two partially overlapped images are decomposed into high-frequency components and low-frequency components with Gaussian low-pass filter. Second, by considering the information characteristics contained in both separated components, different mosaic schemes are designed to accomplish stitching process accordingly. For the low-frequency components consisting of coarse shape and illumination information, two-dimension weighted blending rule is utilized to achieve smoothing transition. For the high-frequency components including rich details, an improved seam searching strategy based on dynamic programming is introduced. With the obtained stitching seam guiding the stitching process, visible structural break can be avoided. Finally, the mosaic result is produced by linearly composing both stitching results of different components together. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in generating seamless mosaic results without introducing any unexpected blurring or artifacts.

  20. Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N; Dean, Michael C; Jacobs, Kevin B; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M; Gaudet, Mia M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Berndt, Sonja I; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Michael B; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Greene, Mark H; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Robert N; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C; Beaty, Terri H; Bierut, Laura J; Desch, Karl C; Doheny, Kimberly F; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A; Kang, Jae H; Laurie, Cecilia A; Li, Jun Z; Lowe, William L; Marazita, Mary L; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelson, Sarah C; Pasquale, Louis R; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Laurie, Cathy C; Caporaso, Neil E; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10(-31)) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. PMID:25748358

  1. Relative time NDVI mosaics as an indicator of crop growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Igor Y.; Negre, Thierry

    2003-03-01

    Relative time NDVI mosaics are proposed as a tool for crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting. The mosaics are constructed for the region of interest for a given phenological phase of crop development (for example, flowering). Mosaics for different years, created for the same characteristic time of crop development, are used for crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting. The approach is illustrated through two case studies: - forecasting of wheat yield in the countries of Northern Africa (relative time NDVI mosaics are constructed for the flowering stage of crop development); - assessing winter crop status in southern areas of Russia after the winter season (mosaics are constructed two dekads before the establishment of snow cover and two dekads after its disappearance). NDVI values, calculated from SPOT4-Vegetation data, were used in both cases. Dates of crop phenological phases were determined applying the WOFOST crop growth model and ECMWF-derived meteorological grid data. Results demonstrate the validity of the approach and the improvements obtained as compared with traditional methods.

  2. Report of a Case with Trisomy 9 Mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Shadmani, Zahra; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 9 is a rare chromosome disorder with high neonatal mortality. It is often seen in mosaic form. Most patients who survive are severely mentally retarded. The main features of this syndrome are “bulbous” nose, microphthalmia, dislocated limbs, and other anomalies of skeletal, cardiac, genitourinary, and central nervous system. Most patients have developmental and cognitive impairment. Patients with mosaicism survive longer than non-mosaics, but it was believed that the degree of mosaicism in lymphocytes or fibroblasts does not associate with survival or degree of impairment. In this report, we present a 2.5-year-old male case of mosaic trisomy 9, to show the wide range of clinical findings in this chromosome disorder. The patient had cardiac anomalies, inguinal hernia, and undescendent testes. He had low-set slightly malformed ears, deeply-set malformed eyes, small palpebral fissures, micrognathia, developmental delay and unilateral optic hypoplasia. The most prominent facial anomaly in this patient was eye anomalies. Cytogenetic analysis with G banding showed karyotype 47XY,+9 in 44% of peripheral lymphocytes examined (47XY,+9[22], 46XY[28]). His parents’ karyotypes were normal. Moderate developmental delay, which was detected in this patient shows that the range of motor and cognitive impairment in this chromosomal disorder is quite broad. This fact should be considered in genetic counseling as well as prenatal diagnosis of this chromosomal disorder. PMID:27217611

  3. The mosaic of "seronegative" antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conti, Fabrizio; Capozzi, Antonella; Truglia, Simona; Lococo, Emanuela; Longo, Agostina; Misasi, Roberta; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido; Sorice, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical practice it is possible to find patients with clinical signs suggestive of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), who are persistently negative for the laboratory criteria of APS, that is, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-β2-GPI antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Therefore, it was proposed for these cases the term of seronegative APS (SN-APS). In order to detect autoantibodies with different methodological approaches, sera from 24 patients with SN-APS were analysed for anti-phospholipid antibodies using TLC immunostaining, for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for anti-annexin V and anti-prothrombin antibodies by ELISA and dot blot. Control groups of our study were 25 patients with APS, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 32 healthy controls. Results revealed that 13/24 (54.2%) SN-APS sera were positive for aCL (9 of whom were also positive for lysobisphosphatidic acid) by TLC immunostaining, 11/24 (45.8%) for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies, 3/24 (12.5%) for anti-prothrombin antibodies, and 1/24 (4.2%) for anti-annexin V antibodies. These findings suggest that in sera from patients with SN-APS, antibodies may be detected using "new" antigenic targets (mainly vimentin/cardiolipin) or methodological approaches different from traditional techniques (mainly TLC immunostaining). Thus, SN-APS represents a mosaic, in which antibodies against different antigenic targets may be detected. PMID:24741593

  4. Robust matching algorithm for image mosaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Luan; Tan, Jiu-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to improve the matching accuracy and the level of automation for image mosaic, a matching algorithm based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features is proposed as detailed below. Firstly, according to the result of cursory comparison with the given basal matching threshold, the collection corresponding SIFT features which contains mismatch is obtained. Secondly, after calculating all the ratio of Euclidean distance from the closest neighbor to the distance of the second closest of corresponding features, we select the image coordinates of corresponding SIFT features with the first eight smallest ratios to solve the initial parameters of pin-hole camera model, and then calculate maximum error σ between transformation coordinates and original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features. Thirdly, calculating the scale of the largest original image coordinates of the eight corresponding features to the entire image size, the scale is regarded as control parameter k of matching error threshold. Finally, computing the difference of the transformation coordinates and the original image coordinates of all the features in the collection of features, deleting the corresponding features with difference larger than 3kσ. We can then obtain the exact collection of matching features to solve the parameters for pin-hole camera model. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is stable and reliable in case of the image having some variation of view point, illumination, rotation and scale. This new method has been used to achieve an excellent matching accuracy on the experimental images. Moreover, the proposed method can be used to select the matching threshold of different images automatically without any manual intervention.

  5. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  6. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  7. Art with Stones: From the Cave Age until Today with Parallels Seen in the Artistic, Symbolic and Creative Development of Young Children's Mosaic Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matejovsky-Nikoltsos, Catherine

    This paper first gives a historical overview of mosaics, discussing mosaic masks made by the Aztecs and floor mosaics made by the Greeks, as well as the Roman mosaics at Pompeii and the Byzantine decorative mosaics exemplified by those at Ravenna. The paper then elaborates on children's mosaic making observed during research conducted between 1986…

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Tomato Mosaic Virus Isolated from Jasmine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fillmer, Kornelia; Adkins, Scott; Pongam, Patchara; D'Elia, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Tomato mosaic virus was reported from jasmine in Florida. We present the first complete genome sequence of a tomato mosaic virus isolate from this woody perennial plant in the United States. PMID:26159525

  9. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rajbanshi, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. PMID:27103724

  10. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rajbanshi, Naveen; Ali, Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. PMID:27103724

  11. Mosaic KCNJ2 mutation in Andersen-Tawil syndrome: targeted deep sequencing is useful for the detection of mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Ohno, S; Kimura, H; Itoh, H; Makiyama, T; Yoshida, Y; Horie, M

    2015-03-01

    Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is an inherited disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. It results from a heterozygous mutation of KCNJ2, but little is known about mosaicism in ATS. We performed genetic analysis of KCNJ2 in 32 ATS probands and their family members and identified KCNJ2 mutations in 25 probands, 20 families who underwent extensive genetic testing. These tests revealed that seven probands carried de novo mutations while 13 carried inherited mutations from their parents. We then specifically assessed a single proband and the respective family. The proband was a 9 year old girl who fulfilled the ATS triad and carried an insertion mutation (p.75_76insThr). We determined that the proband's mother carried a somatic mosaicism and that the proband's younger brother also carried the ATS phenotype with the same insertion mutation. The mother, who exhibited mosaicism, was asymptomatic, although she exhibited Q(T)U prolongation. Mutant allele frequency was 11% as per TA cloning and 17.3% as per targeted deep sequencing. Our observations suggest that targeted deep sequencing is useful for the detection of mosaicism and that the detection of mosaic mutations in parents of apparently sporadic ATS patients can help in the process of genetic counseling. PMID:24635491

  12. Graph theory approach for match reduction in image mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Elibol, Armagan; Gracias, Nuno; Garcia, Rafael; Kim, Jinwhan

    2014-04-01

    One of the crucial steps in image mosaicing is global alignment, which requires finding the best image registration parameters by employing nonlinear minimization methods over correspondences between overlapping image pairs for a dataset. Based on graph theory, we propose a simple but efficient method to reduce the number of overlapping image pairs without any noticeable effect on the final mosaic quality. This reduction significantly lowers the computational cost of the image mosaicing process. The proposed method can be applied in a topology estimation process to reduce the number of image matching attempts. The method has been validated through experiments on challenging underwater image sequences obtained during sea trials with different unmanned underwater vehicles. PMID:24695139

  13. Somatic Mosaicism: Implications for Disease and Transmission Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian M.; Shaw, Chad A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all of the genetic material among cells within an organism is identical. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels, copy number variants (CNVs), and other structural variants (SVs) continually accumulate as cells divide during development. This process results in an organism composed of countless cells, each with its own unique personal genome. Thus, every human is undoubtedly mosaic. Mosaic mutations can go unnoticed, underlie genetic disease or normal human variation, and may be transmitted to the next generation as constitutional variants. Here, we review the influence of the developmental timing of mutations, the mechanisms by which they arise, methods for detecting mosaic variants, and the risk of passing these mutations on to the next generation. PMID:25910407

  14. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling. PMID:24511326

  15. Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles target surface vimentin on cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Nicole F; Cho, Choi-Fong; Ablack, Amber; Lewis, John D; Manchester, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Aims Vimentin, a type III intermediate filament, is upregulated during epithelial–mesenchymal transition and tumor progression. Vimentin is surface-expressed on cells involved in inflammation; the function remains unknown. We investigated the expression of surface vimentin on cancer cells and evaluated targeting nanoparticles to tumors exploiting vimentin. Materials & methods Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles that interact with surface vimentin were used as probes. Tumor homing was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane model with human tumor xenografts. Results & discussion Surface vimentin levels varied during cell cycle and among the cell lines tested. Surface vimentin expression correlated with cowpea mosaic virus uptake, underscoring the utility of cowpea mosaic virus to detect invasive cancer cells. Targeting to tumor xenografts was observed; homing was based on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Our data provide novel insights into the role of surface vimentin in cancer and targeting nanoparticles in vivo. PMID:21385137

  16. Phenotypic extremes in liveborn monozygotic twins with mosaic Edwards syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Neidin; Cunningham, Katie; Green, Andrew; Ryan, C Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Mosaic trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) in monozygotic diamniotic liveborn twins is rare. We describe such a case involving preterm male infants. Although both infants had a low percentage of trisomy 18 cells in peripheral blood leucocytes, their varied phenotypic presentation of mosaic trisomy 18 resulted in one twin surviving, with the other twin's demise at 1 month of age. Despite the presence of trisomy 18 in peripheral leucocytes, further analysis of a buccal smear and skin biopsy of the surviving twin did not show evidence of trisomy 18. Establishing such diagnoses in a timely manner is imperative for the child, parents and clinicians. The clinical course of these twins reflects the unpredictable prognosis associated with the diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18, and emphasises the challenges that can be encountered when counselling parents. PMID:26561224

  17. Characterization of interfaces in mosaic CVD diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnikov, Anatoly B.; Radishev, Dmitry B.; Vikharev, Anatoly L.; Gorbachev, Alexei M.; Mitenkin, Anatoly V.; Drozdov, Mikhail N.; Drozdov, Yuri N.; Yunin, Pavel A.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed description of a way to accrete diamond single crystals in one plate using the CVD method is presented. It was found that each region of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal grown over a certain seed substrate "inherits" the crystallographic orientation of its substrate. No correlation was found between the value of misorientation of the accreted crystals and entrance of hydrogen to the boundary. It is shown that successful accretion of single crystal diamond plates in a single mosaic crystal occurs even in the case of great misorientation of crystals. The mechanical stresses appear during the fabrication of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal. Stresses accumulate during accretion of the regions, which grow over substrates with different orientations, in a common structure.

  18. Mosaic acquisition and processing for optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Peng; Shi, Wei; Chee, Ryan K. W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2012-08-01

    In optical-resolution photo-acoustic microscopy (OR-PAM), data acquisition time is limited by both laser pulse repetition rate (PRR) and scanning speed. Optical-scanning offers high speed, but limited, field of view determined by ultrasound transducer sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a hybrid optical and mechanical-scanning OR-PAM system with mosaic data acquisition and processing. The system employs fast-scanning mirrors and a diode-pumped, nanosecond-pulsed, Ytterbium-doped, 532-nm fiber laser with PRR up to 600 kHz. Data from a sequence of image mosaic patches is acquired systematically, at predetermined mechanical scanning locations, with optical scanning. After all imaging locations are covered, a large panoramic scene is generated by stitching the mosaic patches together. Our proposed system is proven to be at least 20 times faster than previous reported OR-PAM systems.

  19. Constitutional partial 1q trisomy mosaicism and Wilms tumor.

    PubMed

    Mark, Hon Fong L; Wyandt, Herman; Pan, Agen; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2005-10-15

    We report on a female patient with severe-profound mental retardation, multiple congenital anomalies, as well as a history of mosaicism for partial 1q trisomy in the amniotic fluid and a previous Wilms tumor specimen. Peripheral blood and fibroblasts were studied and did not demonstrate the mosaicism initially detected for 1q. Array comparative genomic hybridization yielded negative results. Additional cytogenetic studies helped clarify the previous findings and revealed evidence of partial 1q trisomy mosaicism in normal kidney tissue and in a kidney lesion. GTG-banded results showing low-percentage mosaicism for the structural rearrangement der(1)t(1;1)(p36.1;q23) in both tissues were corroborated by fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. We hypothesize that the partial 1q trisomy predisposed the target tissue (in this case kidney) to neoplasia. This study provides further support for the hypothesis that certain constitutional chromosomal abnormalities can predispose to cancer. As detection of a low-percentage mosaicism may be hampered by the limits imposed by currently available technology and the constraint of a finite sample size, extra vigilance in monitoring other somatic tissues will be needed throughout the patient's lifetime. Anticipatory clinical guidance and prognostication are meaningful only if given accurate cytogenetic diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Wilms tumor associated with constitutional partial 1q trisomy, either in pure or mosaic form, with the particular 1q23 breakpoint in conjunction with a break on 1p36.1. PMID:16213366

  20. Characterisation and diagnosis of frangipani mosaic virus from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Solanki, Vikas; Verma, H N; Mandal, Bikash

    2015-10-01

    Frangipani mosaic virus (FrMV) is known to infect frangipani tree (Plumeria rubra f. acutifolia) in India but the virus has not been characterized at genomic level and diagnosis is not available. In the present study, an isolate of FrMV (FrMV-Ind-1) showing greenish mosaic and vein-banding symptoms in P. rubra f. acutifolia in New Delhi was characterized based on host reactions, serology and genome sequence. The virus isolate induced local symptoms on several new experimental host species: Capsicum annuum (chilli), Nicotiana benthamiana, Solanum lycopersicum and S. melongena. N. benthamiana could be used as an efficient propagation host as it developed systemic mottle mosaic symptoms all round the year. The genome of FrMV-Ind-1 was 6643 (JN555602) nucleotides long with genome organization similar to tobamoviruses. The Indian isolate of FrMV shared a very close genome sequence identity (98.3 %) with the lone isolate of FrMV-P from Australia. FrMV-Ind-1 together with FrMV-P formed a new phylogenetic group i.e. Apocynaceae-infecting tobamovirus. The polyclonal antiserum generated through the purified virus preparation was successfully utilized to detect the virus in field samples of frangipani by ELISA. Of the eight different tobamoviruses tested, FrMV-Ind-1 shared distant serological relationships with only cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, bell pepper mottle virus and kyuri green mottle mosaic virus. RT-PCR based on coat protein gene primer successfully detected the virus in frangipani plants. This study is the first comprehensive description of FrMV occurring in India. PMID:26239043

  1. Clinical features of 58 Japanese patients with mosaic neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Katsumi; Ota, Arihito; Kamide, Ryoichi; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Niimura, Michihito

    2014-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the NF1 tumor-suppressor gene, and may sometimes manifest in a mosaic form. "Segmental NF1" is generally assumed to be the result of somatic mosaicism for a NF1 mutation, and patients with mosaic NF1 have typical features of NF1 limited to specific body segments. The clinical features of 58 patients (42 females and 16 males; aged 1-69 years; mean age, 23.4 years) with mosaic NF1 seen at the Jikei University Hospital during 2004-2007 and at the Jikei University Daisan Hospital during 2007-2011, were retrospectively studied. Somatic or gonosomal mosaicism was not investigated. Patients were classified into four groups: (i) pigmentary changes (café-au-lait spots and freckling) only (n = 32); (ii) neurofibromas only (n = 5); (iii) neurofibromas and pigmentary changes (n = 13); and (iv) solitary plexiform neurofibromas (n = 8). The area of involvement was variable. The majority of patients were asymptomatic, except patients with plexiform neurofibromas who presented most commonly with pain or tenderness. Lisch nodules were rarely seen. Only four of our 58 patients (6.9%) had specific NF1 complications, including language delay (n = 1) and bone deformity (n = 3). Two patients were ascertained through their children with generalized NF1. Patients with mosaic NF1 are at low risk of developing disease-associated complications, except patients with plexiform neurofibromas. However, they need to be aware of the small risk of having a child with generalized NF1. PMID:25041723

  2. Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Peters, Len K.

    2008-07-03

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC), with a special focus on addressing the long-standing issues associated with solving the dynamic partitioning of semi-volatile inorganic gases (HNO3, HCl, and NH3) to size-distributed atmospheric aerosol particles. The coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE) for dynamic gas-particle mass transfer are extremely stiff, and the available numerical techniques are either too expensive or produce oscillatory and/or inaccurate steady-state solutions. These limitations are overcome in MOSAIC, which couples an accurate and computationally efficient thermodynamic module [Zaveri et al., 2005a,b] with a new dynamic gas-particle partitioning module described here. The algorithm involves time-split integrations of non-volatile and semi-volatile species, and a new concept of “dynamic pH” and an adaptive time-stepping scheme hold the key to smooth, accurate, and efficient solutions over the entire relative humidity range. MOSAIC is found to be in excellent agreement with a benchmark version of the model that uses LSODES (a Gear solver) for rigorously integrating the stiff ODEs. The steady-state MOSAIC results for monodisperse aerosol test cases are also in excellent agreement with those obtained with the benchmark equilibrium model AIM. MOSAIC is also evaluated within a 3-D model, and the average CPU speed is estimated to be over 100 times faster than the dynamic aerosol model MADM [Pilinis et al., 2000]. These results suggest that MOSAIC is highly attractive for use in 3-D aerosol and air quality models in which both accuracy and efficiency are critically important.

  3. Mosaic structural variation in children with developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel A.; Jones, Wendy D.; Crow, Yanick J.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Foster, Nicola A.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Harris, Jade; Hellens, Stephen W.; Homfray, Tessa; Innes, Josie; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Joss, Shelagh; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Mansour, Sahar; Morris, Andrew D.; Parker, Michael J.; Porteous, David J.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Smith, Blair H.; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Tolmie, John L.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vasudevan, Pradeep C.; Wakeling, Emma; Wright, Michael; Plomin, Robert; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Delineating the genetic causes of developmental disorders is an area of active investigation. Mosaic structural abnormalities, defined as copy number or loss of heterozygosity events that are large and present in only a subset of cells, have been detected in 0.2–1.0% of children ascertained for clinical genetic testing. However, the frequency among healthy children in the community is not well characterized, which, if known, could inform better interpretation of the pathogenic burden of this mutational category in children with developmental disorders. In a case–control analysis, we compared the rate of large-scale mosaicism between 1303 children with developmental disorders and 5094 children lacking developmental disorders, using an analytical pipeline we developed, and identified a substantial enrichment in cases (odds ratio = 39.4, P-value 1.073e − 6). A meta-analysis that included frequency estimates among an additional 7000 children with congenital diseases yielded an even stronger statistical enrichment (P-value 1.784e − 11). In addition, to maximize the detection of low-clonality events in probands, we applied a trio-based mosaic detection algorithm, which detected two additional events in probands, including an individual with genome-wide suspected chimerism. In total, we detected 12 structural mosaic abnormalities among 1303 children (0.9%). Given the burden of mosaicism detected in cases, we suspected that many of the events detected in probands were pathogenic. Scrutiny of the genotypic–phenotypic relationship of each detected variant assessed that the majority of events are very likely pathogenic. This work quantifies the burden of structural mosaicism as a cause of developmental disorders. PMID:25634561

  4. Wheat streak mosaic virus-Structural parameters for a Potyvirus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Lauren; Kendall, Amy; Berger, P.H.; Shiel, P.J.; Stubbs, Gerald . E-mail: gerald.stubbs@vanderbilt.edu

    2005-09-15

    Wheat streak mosaic virus is a Tritimovirus, a member of the Potyviridae family, which includes the very large Potyvirus genus. We have examined wheat streak mosaic virus by electron microscopy and fiber diffraction from partially oriented sols, and analyzed the results to estimate the symmetry and structural parameters of the viral helix. The virions have an apparent radius of 63 {+-} 5 A. The viral helix has a pitch of 33.4 A {+-} 0.6 A. There appear to be 6.9 subunits per turn of the helix, although we cannot completely eliminate values of 5.9 or 7.9 for this parameter.

  5. A new ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Thekke-Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2014-08-30

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new ophiovirus in symptomatic plants. The virus was detected in all BMD samples collected from several production areas of North America and was thus named blueberry mosaic associated virus. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by high bootstrap values, places the virus within the family Ophioviridae. The genome organization resembles that of citrus psorosis virus, the type member of the genus Ophiovirus. The implications of this discovery in BMD control and blueberry virus certification schemes are also discussed. PMID:24874194

  6. Acne in Klinefelter Syndrome-46XY/47XXY Mosaicism?

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Swarnalakshimi, Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KFS) is the most common non-heritable sex chromosome anomaly caused by nondisjunction during cell division and contains two or more X chromosomes. More than two third of all cases are homogenous (47XXY) and the remaining are mosaic (46XY/47XXY). Lower limb ulcers are frequently observed and attributed to impaired fibrinolysis. A case of KFS with post acne scars and leg ulcers is presented. The rarity of acne in this syndrome is explained by the phenomenon of mosaicism. PMID:26538700

  7. Digital Mammography with a Mosaic of CCD Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); McAdoo, James A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A digital mammography device uses a mosaic of electronic digital imaging arrays to scan an x-ray image is discussed. The mosaic of arrays is repositioned several times to expose different portions of the image, until the entire image is scanned. The data generated by the arrays during each exposure is stored in a computer. After the final exposure, the computer combines data of the several partial images to produce a composite of the original x-ray image. An aperture plate is used to reduce scatter and the overall exposure of the patient to x-rays.

  8. Role of wheat streak mosaic virus-encoded proteins in disease development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are the type species of Tritimovirus and Poacevirus genera, respectively, in the family Potyviridae. TriMV and WSMV exhibit differential symptom phenotypes on wheat: TriMV elicits mild mosaic and mottling ...

  9. First report of Sugarcane mosaic virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic symptoms in sorghum can be caused by several potyviruses [family Potyviridae], including Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). SrMV and SCMV are responsible for global economic losses in sorghum, maize, and sugarcane. Ten plants of Columbus grass (Sorghum almum) exhib...

  10. HEXAGON MOSAIC MAPS FOR DISPLAY OF UNIVARIATE AND BIVARIATE GEOGRAPHICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexagon mosaic maps and hexagon-based ray glyph maps are presented. he phrase "hexagon mosaic map" refers to maps that use hexagons to tessellate major areas of a map such as land masses. exagon mosaic maps are similar to color-contour (isarithm) maps and show broad regional patt...

  11. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  12. Development of a multiplexed PCR detection method for Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses, Wheat Spindle Streak Virus, Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses (B/CYDVs), Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic (WSSMV), Soil-Borne Wheat Mosaic (SBWMV) Mosaic Virus and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) constitute the most economically important group of wheat viruses. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chai...

  13. The mosaics of Mars: As seen by the Viking Lander cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinthal, E. C.; Jones, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The mosaics and derivative products produced from many individual high resolution images acquired by the Viking Lander Camera Systems are described: A morning and afternoon mosaic for both cameras at the Lander 1 Chryse Planitia site, and a morning, noon, and afternoon camera pair at Utopia Planitia, the Lander 11 site. The derived products include special geometric projections of the mosaic data sets, polar stereographic (donut), stereoscopic, and orthographic. Contour maps and vertical profiles of the topography were overlaid on the mosaics from which they were derived. Sets of stereo pairs were extracted and enlarged from stereoscopic projections of the mosaics.

  14. EXPRESSION OF THE MAIZE MOSAIC VIRUS GLYCOPROTEIN IN INSECT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize mosaic virus (genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae) is transmitted in a persistent-propagative manner by Peregrinus maidis, the corn planthopper. Like other rhabdoviruses, the MMV genome encodes a surface glycoprotein that is likely involved in virus attachment and entry into host ce...

  15. Asymmetry and skin pigmentary anomalies in chromosome mosaicism.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C G; Bankier, A; Curry, J; Sheffield, L J; Slaney, S F; Smith, K; Voullaire, L; Wellesley, D

    1994-01-01

    We report six persons mosaic for a chromosome anomaly. All were mentally retarded and dysmorphic. Unilateral or asymmetrical features were found in all cases, in one an unusual transverse terminal limb anomaly, and in the others various degrees of hemiatrophy of the left side of the body. Five of the subjects had skin pigmentary anomalies which were distributed in the lines of Blaschko. The abnormal cell lines found were ring chromosome 22, trisomy 22, a large acrocentric marker, a deletion of 18q, a deletion of 8q, and triploidy. In four cases the clinical diagnosis was only confirmed by skin biopsy. In one case low level mosaicism in blood was fortuitously detected because of cytogenetic fragile X screening and confirmed in a skin biopsy. The sixth case was of dynamic mosaicism of a non-mosaic deletion 18q with a chromosome 18 derived marker present in a proportion of cells. Chromosome mosaicisn may cause subtle and asymmetrical clinical features and can require repeated cytogenetic investigations. The diagnosis should be actively sought as it enables accurate genetic counselling to be given. Images PMID:7815438

  16. A nearly real-time UAV video flow mosaic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Jiang, C.; Sun, M.; Li, X. D.; Xiang, R.; Liu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of low accuracy and high computation cost of current video mosaic methods, and also to acquire large field of view images by the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), which have high accuracy and high resolution, this paper propose a method for near real-time mosaic of video flow, so that we can provide essential reference data for the earthquake relief, as well as post-disaster reconstruction and recovery, in time. In this method, we obtain the flight area scope in the route planning process, and calculate the sizes of each frame with sensor sizes and altitudes. Given an overlap degree, time intervals are calculated, and key frames are extracted. After that, feature points are detected in each frame, and they are matched using Hamming distance. The RANSAC algorithm is then applied to remove error matching and calculate parameters of the transformation model. In one-strip case, the newly extracted frame is taken as the reference image in the first half, while after the middle frame is extracted, it is the reference one until the end. Experimental results show that our method can reduce the cascading error, and improve the accuracy and quality of the mosaic images, near real-time mosaic of aerial video flow is feasible.

  17. RNAi mediated, stable resistance to Triticum mosaic virus in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), discovered in 2006, affects wheat production systems in the Great Plains of the United States. There are no available TriMV resistant commercial varieties. RNA interference (RNAi) was evaluated as an alternative strategy to generate resistance to TriMV. An RNAi pANDA...

  18. 42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. PRESSING A SLAB OF CLAY ONTO A MOSAIC MOLD. THE MOLD, WHICH HAS A RAISED DESIGN, LEAVES AND OUTLINE IN THE SLAB, THE PIECES THUS DEFINED, ARE THEN CUT APART TO BE FIRED SEPARATELY AND REASSEMBLED. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  19. First report of apple mosaic virus in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus) is one of the oldest and most economically important viruses of apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Yield losses may vary from negligible to as high as fifty percent, depending on the affected cultivar. Although ApMV is found worldwide...

  20. Mosaic. Hispanic Sub-Cultural Values: Similarities and Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Inst. for Intercultural Relations and Ethnic Studies.

    This issue of Mosaic magazine contains several articles focusing on the similarities and differences between different Hispanic groups. Each article examines a specific Hispanic culture in order to improve existing and future intercultural education and to foster cultural awareness. The following topics are addressed: (1) values involved in…

  1. Research of x-ray automatic image mosaic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Chen, Shunan; Guo, Lianpeng; Xu, Wanpeng

    2013-10-01

    Image mosaic has widely applications value in the fields of medical image analysis, and it is a technology that carries on the spatial matching to a series of image which are overlapped with each other, and finally builds a seamless and high quality image which has high resolution and big eyeshot. In this paper, the method of grayscale cutting pseudo-color enhancement was firstly used to complete the mapping transformation from gray to the pseudo-color, and to extract SIFT features from the images. And then by making use of a similar measure of NCC (normalized cross correlation - Normalized cross-correlation), the method of RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) was used to exclude the pseudofeature points right in order to complete the exact match of feature points. Finally, seamless mosaic and color fusion were completed by using wavelet multi-decomposition. The experiment shows that the method we used can effectively improve the precision and automation of the medical image mosaic, and provide an effective technical approach for automatic medical image mosaic.

  2. 9. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 451 MADISON AVENUE, MAIN HALL, SOUTH WALL, MOSAIC TYMPANUM WITH SHELL AND URN MOTIF ENTITLED 'PAX' BY AUGUSTUS SAINT-GAUDENS TO WEST OF FIREPLACE - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  3. A Personal Journey through the "Mosaic of Thought."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penticoff, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the book "Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop" by Ellin Oliver Keene and Susan Zimmerman requires teachers to examine their reading strategies. Examines essential strategies for students to become engaged and independent readers. Considers strategies such as: metacognition; activating prior knowledge;…

  4. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    DOEpatents

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  5. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  6. Familial recurrences of FOXG1-related disorder: Evidence for mosaicism.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Kelly Q; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ma, Mandy; Barry, Brenda J; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Dobyns, William B; Scott, Richard H; Trump, Natalie; Kurian, Manju A; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    FOXG1-related disorders are caused by heterozygous mutations in FOXG1 and result in a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes including postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, chorea, and corpus callosum abnormalities. The recurrence risk for de novo mutations in FOXG1-related disorders is assumed to be low. Here, we describe three unrelated sets of full siblings with mutations in FOXG1 (c.515_577del63, c.460dupG, and c.572T > G), representing familial recurrence of the disorder. In one family, we have documented maternal somatic mosaicism for the FOXG1 mutation, and all of the families presumably represent parental gonadal (or germline) mosaicism. To our knowledge, mosaicism has not been previously reported in FOXG1-related disorders. Therefore, this report provides evidence that germline mosaicism for FOXG1 mutations is a likely explanation for familial recurrence and should be considered during recurrence risk counseling for families of children with FOXG1-related disorders. PMID:26364767

  7. A DNA polymerase activity is associated with Cauliflower Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed Central

    Menissier, J; Laquel, P; Lebeurier, G; Hirth, L

    1984-01-01

    A DNA polymerase activity is found within the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) particle. Analysis of the reaction product reveals that the linear form of the virion DNA is preferentially labelled. The molecular weight of the DNA polymerase as determined on an "activity gel" is 76 kDa. Images PMID:6514573

  8. Somatic mosaicism in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Colman, S. D.; Rasmussen, S. A.; Ho, V. T.; Abernathy, C. R.; Wallace, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    Using loss of heterozygosity analysis, a method designed to detect moderate to large gene deletions, we have identified a new-mutation neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient who is somatically mosaic for a large maternally derived deletion in the NF1 gene region. The deletion extends at least from exon 4 near the 5' end of the gene to intron 39 near the 3' end. The gene-coding region is, therefore, mostly or entirely deleted, encompassing a loss of > or = 100 kb. We hypothesize that the deletion occurred at a relatively early developmental timepoint, since signs of NF1 in this patient are not confined to a specific body region, as seen in "segmental" NF, and since both mesodermally and ectodermally derived cells are affected. This report provides the first molecular evidence of somatic mosaicism in NF1 and, taken together with a recent report of germ-line mosaicism in NF1, adds credence to the concept that mosaicism plays an important role in phenotypic and genetic aspects of NF1 and may even be a relatively common phenomenon. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8644707

  9. Zucchini tigre mosaic virus infection of cucurbits in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini tigre mosaic virus (ZTMV) was identified infecting cucurbits in Florida in 2002 and again in 2015. This is the first report of ZTMV in the U.S. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants, and research and regulatory scientists....

  10. Real-time mosaicing of fetoscopic videos using SIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Pankaj; Chadebecq, François; Shakir, Dzhoshkun I.; Herrera, Luis Carlos G.; Tella, Marcel; Dwyer, George; David, Anna L.; Deprest, Jan; Stoyanov, Danail; Vercauteren, Tom; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2016-03-01

    Fetoscopic laser photo-coagulation of the placental vascular anastomoses remains the most effective therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monochorionic twin pregnancies. However, to ensure the success of the intervention, complete photo-coagulation of all anastomoses is needed. This is made difficult by the limited field of view of the fetoscopic video guidance, which hinders the surgeon's ability to locate all the anastomoses. A potential solution to this problem is to expand the field of view of the placental surface by creating a mosaic from overlapping fetoscopic images. This mosaic can then be used for anastomoses localization and spatial orientation during surgery. However, this requires accurate and fast algorithms that can operate within the real-time constraints of fetal surgery. In this work, we present an image mosaicing framework that leverages the parallelism of modern GPUs and can process clinical fetoscopic images in real-time. Initial qualitative results on ex-vivo placental images indicate that the proposed framework can generate clinically useful mosaics from fetoscopic videos in real-time.

  11. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  12. Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking down at mosaics of everyday objects next to Living Trailer. Bottle Village is spelled out in shell casings, there are also keys, tiles, watch faces, and plastic parts. View looking north. - Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village, 4595 Cochran Street, Simi Valley, Ventura County, CA

  13. PDS Archive of Dawn Framing Camera Vesta Global Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Elgner, S.; Schroeder, S. E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-06-01

    The Dawn mission mapped the surface of the asteroid 4 Vesta over a period of nearly ten months at altitudes below ~700 km. Global mosaics created from the High and Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO and LAMO) have been generated and archived with PDS.

  14. New Viruses Found in Fig Exhibiting Mosaic Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic is the most widespread viral disease of fig, affecting the crop wherever it is grown. The causal agent of the disease was poorly characterized, and until recently it was considered a virus-like agent with double membrane bound semispherical bodies transmitted by eriophyid mites. During the mo...

  15. A new Ophiovirus is associated with blueberry mosaic disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry mosaic disease (BMD) was first described more than 60 years ago and is caused by a yet unidentified graft transmissible agent. A combination of traditional methods and next generation sequencing disclosed the presence of a new negative-strand RNA virus in symptomatic plants. The virus was ...

  16. Transmission of Switchgrass mosaic virus by Graminella aureovitatta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass mosaic virus (SwMV) was identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and was proposed as a new marafivirus based on its genome sequence and comparison with its closest relative, Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), a type member of the genus, Marafivirus. MRFV only infects maize (Zea mays) an...

  17. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  18. Hispanic Women's Health Issues: Understanding A Mosaic Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Cousins, Jennifer C.

    According to recent research, Hispanic women are a "mosaic" population, being characterized not only according to subethnic group (Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Spanish speakers from other countries) and social dimension (educational attainment, linguistic facilities, cultural and ethnic self-identification), but also according to…

  19. Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Indian cassava mosaic virus transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) adults from colonies reared on cassava or sweet potato plants were studied to determine their ability to transmit Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) from cassava to cassava. Virus acquisition access (feeding) periods (AAP) of 48 h on ICMV-infec...

  20. Variants of Triticum mosaic virus isolated from wheat in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat. We compared the Colorado isolates C10-492 and C11-775 with the 06-123 isolate of TriMV from Kansas (TriMV-K). Comparisons were made using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), infectivity assay, host range, dry weig...

  1. Fluid Mosaic Membranes and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the fluid mosaic membrane structure and light reactions of photosynthesis as exemplified by the Hill and Bendall "Z-scheme"; (2) the arrangement of light-harvesting pigments, electron transport components, and ATP synthesis on chloroplast membranes; and (3) how these topics are treated in A-level textbooks. (JN)

  2. False Color Mosaic of Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color mosaic shows a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other. Light at each of Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths is displayed here in the visible colors red, green and blue. Light at 886 nanometers, strongly absorbed by atmospheric methane and scattered from clouds high in the atmosphere, is shown in red. Light at 732 nanometers, moderately absorbed by atmospheric methane, is shown in green. Light at 757 nanometers, scattered mostly from Jupiter's lower visible cloud deck, is shown in blue. The lower cloud deck appears bluish white, while the higher layer appears pinkish. The holes in the upper layer and their relationships to features in the lower cloud deck can be studied in the lower half of the mosaic. Galileo is the first spacecraft to image different layers in Jupiter's atmosphere.

    The edge of the planet runs along the right side of the mosaic. North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 280 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on Nov. 5, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  3. Characterization of Large Structural Genetic Mosaicism in Human Autosomes

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N.; Dean, Michael C.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A.; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Michael B.; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Greene, Mark H.; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S.; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G.; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beaty, Terri H.; Bierut, Laura J.; Desch, Karl C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae H.; Laurie, Cecilia A.; Li, Jun Z.; Lowe, William L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelson, Sarah C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L.; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10−31) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. PMID:25748358

  4. A new mosaic method for three-dimensional surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Zhaokun; Ding, Yongjun

    2011-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) data mosaic is a indispensable link in surface measurement and digital terrain map generation. With respect to the mosaic problem of the local unorganized cloud points with rude registration and mass mismatched points, a new mosaic method for 3-D surface based on RANSAC is proposed. Every circular of this method is processed sequentially by random sample with additional shape constraint, data normalization of cloud points, absolute orientation, data denormalization of cloud points, inlier number statistic, etc. After N random sample trials the largest consensus set is selected, and at last the model is re-estimated using all the points in the selected subset. The minimal subset is composed of three non-colinear points which form a triangle. The shape of triangle is considered in random sample selection in order to make the sample selection reasonable. A new coordinate system transformation algorithm presented in this paper is used to avoid the singularity. The whole rotation transformation between the two coordinate systems can be solved by twice rotations expressed by Euler angle vector, each rotation has explicit physical means. Both simulation and real data are used to prove the correctness and validity of this mosaic method. This method has better noise immunity due to its robust estimation property, and has high accuracy as the shape constraint is added to random sample and the data normalization added to the absolute orientation. This method is applicable for high precision measurement of three-dimensional surface and also for the 3-D terrain mosaic.

  5. A compensating wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Robertsonian translocation conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), is a potentially devastating disease of common wheat in the Great Plains of North America. So far, two genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and used in cultivar improvement. Here we report a new source of resistance that was derived from a wheat-Th. i...

  6. Occurrance in Korea of three major soybean viruses, Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) revealed by a nationwide survey of soybean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) were recently isolated in Korea, and it hasn’t been reported how these two viruses were dispersed in Korea. In 2012, we performed a nationwide survey of subsistence soybean farms in Korea. Leaves that appeared ...

  7. Application of non-destructive techniques to assess the state of Hagia Sophia's mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Karoglou, Maria; Labropoulos, Kyriakos C.; Delegou, Ekaterini T.; Katsiotis, Nikolaos K.; Karagiannis-Bakolas, Asterios

    2012-04-01

    The church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is a world heritage monument that epitomizes the byzantine ecclesiastic architecture. The church is decorated with mosaics from various historic periods. The preservation state of the mosaics is of high importance. In this study, non-destructive techniques (ground penetrating radar, infra-red thermography, fibreoptics microscopy) were employed on south upper gallery mosaic areas. The main aim of this on-site investigation was the evaluation of the preservation state of the mosaics and the previous interventions (materials characterization and decay diagnosis) in order to assess the performance of previous conservation/restoration interventions, as well as to verify the presence of mosaics in layers below the external plaster surfaces. Results indicated that is indeed possible to locate the grid of rendered mosaics. Regarding the preservation state of the mosaics, it was indicated that the main environmental decay factors were the high relative humidity levels with co-action of salt damp as well as the air pollutants. Moreover, it was revealed that previous incompatible restoration/conservation interventions have often accelerated the mosaics' degradation processes. Using non-destructive techniques it was possible to identify areas where the mosaic materials (tesserae and mortars) presented decay problems and in addition identify sub-layers that pose risk of detachment or decay intensification. In this way, NDT can contribute to the development of a strategic planning for mosaics conservation, protection and revealing.

  8. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  9. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  10. Interactive Visualization of Computational Fluid Dynamics using Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clucas, Jean; Watson, Velvin; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Web provides new Methods for accessing Information world-wide, but the current text-and-pictures approach neither utilizes all the Web's possibilities not provides for its limitations. While the inclusion of pictures and animations in a paper communicates more effectively than text alone, It Is essentially an extension of the concept of "publication." Also, as use of the Web increases putting images and animations online will quickly load even the "Information Superhighway." We need to find forms of communication that take advantage of the special nature of the Web. This paper presents one approach: the use of the Internet and the Mosaic interface for data sharing and collaborative analysis. We will describe (and In the presentation, demonstrate) our approach: using FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit), a scientific visualization package, as a data viewer and interactive tool called from MOSAIC. Our intent is to stimulate the development of other tools that utilize the unique nature of electronic communication.

  11. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature

    PubMed Central

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A.; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G.; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  12. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Visualization and interaction tools for aerial photograph mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, João Pedro; Fonseca, Alexandra; Pereira, Luís; Faria, Adriano; Figueira, Helder; Henriques, Inês; Garção, Rita; Câmara, António

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the development of a digital spatial library based on mosaics of digital orthophotos, called Interactive Portugal, that will enable users both to retrieve geospatial information existing in the Portuguese National System for Geographic Information World Wide Web server, and to develop local databases connected to the main system. A set of navigation, interaction, and visualization tools are proposed and discussed. They include sketching, dynamic sketching, and navigation capabilities over the digital orthophotos mosaics. Main applications of this digital spatial library are pointed out and discussed, namely for education, professional, and tourism markets. Future developments are considered. These developments are related to user reactions, technological advancements, and projects that also aim at delivering and exploring digital imagery on the World Wide Web. Future capabilities for site selection and change detection are also considered.

  14. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature.

    PubMed

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes. PMID:26137340

  15. Linear magnetoresistance in mosaic-like bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Ott, Christian; Heide, Christian; Kampert, Erik; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann; Shallcross, Sam; Weber, Heiko B.

    2015-08-01

    The magnetoresistance of conductors usually has a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, however, examples exist of non-saturating linear behaviour in diverse materials. Assigning a specific microscopic mechanism to this unusual phenomenon is obscured by the co-occurrence and interplay of doping, mobility fluctuations and a polycrystalline structure. Bilayer graphene has virtually no doping fluctuations, yet provides a built-in mosaic tiling due to the dense network of partial dislocations. We present magnetotransport measurements of epitaxial bilayer graphene that exhibits a strong and reproducible linear magnetoresistance that persists to B = 62 T at and above room temperature, decorated by quantum interference effects at low temperatures. Partial dislocations thus have a profound impact on the transport properties in bilayer graphene, a system that is frequently assumed to be dislocation-free. It further provides a clear and tractable model system for studying the unusual properties of mosaic conductors.

  16. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus. PMID:26925452

  17. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  18. False Color Mosaic of Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    False-color mosaic of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other. Light at each of Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths is displayed here mapped to the visible colors red, green, and blue. Light at 886 nanometers, strongly absorbed by atmospheric methane and scattered from clouds high in the atmosphere, is shown in red. Light at 732 nanometers, moderately absorbed by atmospheric methane, is shown in green. Light at 757 nanometers, scattered mostly from Jupiter's lower visible cloud deck, is shown in blue. The lower cloud deck appears bluish white, while the higher layer appears pinkish. The holes in the upper layer and their relationships to features in the lower cloud deck can be studied in the lower half of the mosaic. Galileo is the first spacecraft to image different layers in Jupiter's atmosphere.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Mosaic and Concerted Evolution in the Visual System of Birds

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Moore, Bret A.; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Corfield, Jeremy R.; Krilow, Justin M.; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Wylie, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Two main models have been proposed to explain how the relative size of neural structures varies through evolution. In the mosaic evolution model, individual brain structures vary in size independently of each other, whereas in the concerted evolution model developmental constraints result in different parts of the brain varying in size in a coordinated manner. Several studies have shown variation of the relative size of individual nuclei in the vertebrate brain, but it is currently not known if nuclei belonging to the same functional pathway vary independently of each other or in a concerted manner. The visual system of birds offers an ideal opportunity to specifically test which of the two models apply to an entire sensory pathway. Here, we examine the relative size of 9 different visual nuclei across 98 species of birds. This includes data on interspecific variation in the cytoarchitecture and relative size of the isthmal nuclei, which has not been previously reported. We also use a combination of statistical analyses, phylogenetically corrected principal component analysis and evolutionary rates of change on the absolute and relative size of the nine nuclei, to test if visual nuclei evolved in a concerted or mosaic manner. Our results strongly indicate a combination of mosaic and concerted evolution (in the relative size of nine nuclei) within the avian visual system. Specifically, the relative size of the isthmal nuclei and parts of the tectofugal pathway covary across species in a concerted fashion, whereas the relative volume of the other visual nuclei measured vary independently of one another, such as that predicted by the mosaic model. Our results suggest the covariation of different neural structures depends not only on the functional connectivity of each nucleus, but also on the diversity of afferents and efferents of each nucleus. PMID:24621573

  20. Expression of tobacco mosaic virus RNA in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, J; Yoshioka, M; Meshi, T; Okada, Y; Ohno, T

    1988-03-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a message-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that infects many Solanaceae plants. A full-length cDNA copy of TMV genomic RNA was constructed and introduced into the genomic DNA of tobacco plants using a disarmed Ti plasmid vector. Transformed plants showed typical symptoms of TMV infection, and their leaves contained infectious TMV particles. This is the first example of the expression of RNA virus genomic RNAs in plants. PMID:2835637

  1. Precise Determination of the Helical Repeat of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, A.; McDonald, M.; Stubbs, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 {angstrom}. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-}0.03 {angstrom} by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  2. Precise determination of the helical repeat of tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Stubbs, Gerald

    2007-12-05

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a distance standard in electron microscopy, fiber diffraction, and other imaging techniques. The dimension used as a reference is the pitch of the viral helix, 23 A. This distance, however, has never been measured with any great degree of precision. The helical pitch of TMV has been determined to be 22.92 {+-} 0.03 A by X-ray fiber diffraction methods using highly collimated synchrotron radiation.

  3. A Mole's Eye View: Marcellus as Mosaic by Rachel Sager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, R.

    2013-12-01

    I am an artist living and working in the energy vortex of Southwestern Pennsylvania and am watching great upheaval, both good and bad, happen to my land and its citizens due to the phenomenon caused by our particular geologic formation; the Marcellus Shale. My work embraces the earth itself through the medium of mosaic, and I have found it to be a great communicator to many groups of people: landowners, gas industry workers, environmentalists. I tell the story of how I came to be so dependent on my native stone, coming from a long line of coal miners and farmers who taught me to be aware of what lies beneath my feet. With my stone hammer, I chop up shale, sandstone, limestone, and coal, transforming it into tiny, expressive pieces that tell stories and help people to grasp geologic concepts that can otherwise be overwhelming and mysterious. I address the industry itself by representing the controversial enterprise of fracking, but also delve intimately into building relationships with the stone that I gather, wash, categorize, cut, and lay into mortar. By depicting these layers of earth, I am building touchable, organic images of geologic time that are highly accessible to the human brain and sensibility. There is something personal and immediate about standing in front of one of these mosaics, being able to touch it that gives the viewer power over an idea that often leaves them feeling in the dark. As a classically trained mosaic artist, I bring back the skills, culture, and tradition of a Euro-centered art form and weave it into my North American geology. Through a highly detailed and dynamic PowerPoint presentation of my work, I help people to see the earth beneath their feet with new eyes. Rachel Sager, artist www.rachelsagermosaics.com Contemporary Art in a Geologic Medium: Rachel Sager Mosaics

  4. High Resolution Mosaic of Ridges, Plains, and Mountains on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic shows some of the highest resolution images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing hundreds of ridges that cut across each other, indicating multiple episodes of ridge formation either by volcanic or tectonic activity within the ice. Also visible in the image are numerous isolated mountains or 'massifs'. The highest of these, located in the upper right corner and lower center of the mosaic, are approximately 500 meters (1,640 feet) high. Irregularly shaped areas where the ice surface appears to be lower than the surrounding plains (e.g., in the left-center and lower left corner of the mosaic) may be related to the 'chaos' areas of iceberg-like features seen in earlier SSI images of Europa.

    The mosaic, centered at 35.4 degrees north latitude and 86.8 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 108 kilometers by 90 kilometers (66 miles by 55 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 68 meters (223 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 3,250 kilometers (1,983 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. [Mosaic portrait method in the prognosis of myocardial infarct complications].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, G M; Ardashev, V N; Kats, M D; Galkina, T A

    1981-06-01

    A mosaic portrait of variants of the course of myocardial infarction differing in the clinical picture of the first days of the disease was created by means of methods of Boolean algebra and electronic computers. A total of 354 patients with transmural myocardial infarction were examined., The created models allow the development of some complications of myocardial infarction to be prognosticated exact within 90%. PMID:7021950

  6. Building large mosaics of confocal edomicroscopic images using visual servoing.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Benoît; Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Vercauteren, Tom; Herman, Benoît; Szewczyk, Jérôme; Morel, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy provides real-time microscopic images of tissues contacted by a small probe that can be inserted in vivo through a minimally invasive access. Mosaicking consists in sweeping the probe in contact with a tissue to be imaged while collecting the video stream, and process the images to assemble them in a large mosaic. While most of the literature in this field has focused on image processing, little attention has been paid so far to the way the probe motion can be controlled. This is a crucial issue since the precision of the probe trajectory control drastically influences the quality of the final mosaic. Robotically controlled motion has the potential of providing enough precision to perform mosaicking. In this paper, we emphasize the difficulties of implementing such an approach. First, probe-tissue contacts generate deformations that prevent from properly controlling the image trajectory. Second, in the context of minimally invasive procedures targeted by our research, robotic devices are likely to exhibit limited quality of the distal probe motion control at the microscopic scale. To cope with these problems visual servoing from real-time endomicroscopic images is proposed in this paper. It is implemented on two different devices (a high-accuracy industrial robot and a prototype minimally invasive device). Experiments on different kinds of environments (printed paper and ex vivo tissues) show that the quality of the visually servoed probe motion is sufficient to build mosaics with minimal distortion in spite of disturbances. PMID:23192481

  7. Spatial Geographic Mosaic in an Aquatic Predator-Prey Network

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Johnson, Steven G.; Hulsey, C. Darrin

    2011-01-01

    The geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts 1) spatial variation in predatory structures as well as prey defensive traits, and 2) trait matching in some areas and trait mismatching in others mediated by gene flow. We examined gene flow and documented spatial variation in crushing resistance in the freshwater snails Mexipyrgus churinceanus, Mexithauma quadripaludium, Nymphophilus minckleyi, and its relationship to the relative frequency of the crushing morphotype in the trophically polymorphic fish Herichthys minckleyi. Crushing resistance and the frequency of the crushing morphotype did show spatial variation among 11 naturally replicated communities in the Cuatro Ciénegas valley in Mexico where these species are all endemic. The variation in crushing resistance among populations was not explained by geographic proximity or by genetic similarity in any species. We detected clear phylogeographic patterns and limited gene flow for the snails but not for the fish. Gene flow among snail populations in Cuatro Ciénegas could explain the mosaic of local divergence in shell strength and be preventing the fixation of the crushing morphotype in Herichthys minckleyi. Finally, consistent with trait matching across the mosaic, the frequency of the fish morphotype was negatively correlated with shell crushing resistance likely reflecting the relative disadvantage of the crushing morphotype in communities where the snails exhibit relatively high crushing resistance. PMID:21799865

  8. Spatial geographic mosaic in an aquatic predator-prey network.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Johnson, Steven G; Hulsey, C Darrin

    2011-01-01

    The geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts 1) spatial variation in predatory structures as well as prey defensive traits, and 2) trait matching in some areas and trait mismatching in others mediated by gene flow. We examined gene flow and documented spatial variation in crushing resistance in the freshwater snails Mexipyrgus churinceanus, Mexithauma quadripaludium, Nymphophilus minckleyi, and its relationship to the relative frequency of the crushing morphotype in the trophically polymorphic fish Herichthys minckleyi. Crushing resistance and the frequency of the crushing morphotype did show spatial variation among 11 naturally replicated communities in the Cuatro Ciénegas valley in Mexico where these species are all endemic. The variation in crushing resistance among populations was not explained by geographic proximity or by genetic similarity in any species. We detected clear phylogeographic patterns and limited gene flow for the snails but not for the fish. Gene flow among snail populations in Cuatro Ciénegas could explain the mosaic of local divergence in shell strength and be preventing the fixation of the crushing morphotype in Herichthys minckleyi. Finally, consistent with trait matching across the mosaic, the frequency of the fish morphotype was negatively correlated with shell crushing resistance likely reflecting the relative disadvantage of the crushing morphotype in communities where the snails exhibit relatively high crushing resistance. PMID:21799865

  9. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  10. CCD mosaic technique for large-field digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Jalink, A.; McAdoo, J.; Halama, G.; Liu, H.

    1996-06-01

    The authors present a novel technique for large-field digital mammography. The instrument uses a mosaic of electronic digital imaging [charge coupled device (CCD)] arrays, novel area scanning, and a radiation exposure and scatter reducing mechanism. The imaging arrays are mounted on a carrier platform in a checker-board pattern mosaic. To fill in the gaps between array-active areas the platform is repositioned three times and four X-ray exposures are made. The multiple image areas are then recombined by a digital computer to produce a composite image of the entire region. To reduce X-ray scatter and exposure, a lead aperture plate is interposed between X-ray source and patient. The aperture plate has a mosaic of square holes in alignment with the imaging array pattern and the plate is repositioned in synchronism with the carrier platform. The authors discuss proof-of-concept testing demonstrating technical feasibility of their approach. The instrument should be suitable for incorporation into standard mammography units. Unique features of the new technique are: large field coverage (18 x 24 cm); high spatial resolution (14--17 lp/mm); scatter rejection; and excellent contrast characteristics and lesion detectability under clinical conditions.

  11. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (in the near infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the near-infrared (756 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image, taken approximately 10 hours after the first mosaic of the Great Red Spot, is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over an 80 second interval beginning at universal time 14 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds, on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Interannual Variability of the Mosaic Land-Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Houser, Paul R.; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-01-01

    Recently, NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) reanalysis data has been used to provide forcing for the Koster and Suarez Mosaic Land-surface Model (LSM). The LSM was integrated off-line at all global land points for the period of 1983 - 1995 by the Off-line Land- surface GEOS Assimilation system (OLGA). Here, we compare the interannual variability of OLGA, GEOS-1 and surface observing stations temperature and moisture. Particular attention is given to the United States because of the extreme seasons of 1988 and 1993. Furthermore, the comparison of OLGA is extended to include the analysis of data on the'tiles' (different surface types) in the Mosaic LSM. Results indicate that the GEOS-1 near-surface temperature and moisture reasonably represents the interannual variability in more normal years. However, OLGA also simulates the extreme drought and floods years well. The analysis of the tile information shows that the "Bare soil" surface type is most sensitive to the climate extremes. Off-line testing has provided valuable information on the performance of the Mosaic LSM prior to its incorporation into the new version of the GEOS Data Assimilation System and the integration of a new long reanalysis.

  13. Mosaic Attenuation: Etiology, Methods of Differentiation, and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Seth J; Henry, Travis; Lin, Cheng T; Franks, Teri J; Galvin, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Mosaic attenuation is a commonly encountered pattern on computed tomography that is defined as heterogeneous areas of differing lung attenuation. This heterogeneous pattern of attenuation is the result of diverse causes that include diseases of the small airways, pulmonary vasculature, alveoli, and interstitium, alone or in combination. Small airways disease can be a primary disorder, such as respiratory bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis, or be part of parenchymal lung disease, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or large airways disease, such as bronchiectasis and asthma. Vascular causes resulting in mosaic attenuation are typically chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by organizing thrombi in the elastic pulmonary arteries, or pulmonary arterial hypertension, a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting the distal pulmonary arterioles. Diffuse ground-glass opacity can result in a mosaic pattern related to a number of processes in acute (eg, infection, pulmonary edema), subacute (eg, organizing pneumonia), or chronic (eg, fibrotic diseases) settings. Imaging clues that can assist the radiologist in pinpointing a diagnosis include evidence of large airway involvement, cardiovascular abnormalities, septal thickening, signs of fibrosis, and demonstration of airtrapping at expiratory imaging. PMID:26274445

  14. Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Kevin B; Yeager, Meredith; Zhou, Weiyin; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Hutchinson, Amy; Deng, Xiang; Liu, Chenwei; Horner, Marie-Josephe; Cullen, Michael; Epstein, Caroline G; Burdett, Laurie; Dean, Michael C; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Sampson, Joshua; Chung, Charles C; Kovaks, Joseph; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Teras, Lauren T; Gaudet, Mia M; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Philip R; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M; Hu, Nan; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liao, Linda; Ding, Ti; Qiao, You-Lin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harris, Curtis C; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret R; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Zanetti, Krista A; Ziegler, Regina G; Figueroa, Jonine D; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Malats, Nuria; Marenne, Gaelle; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Landi, Maria Teresa; Goldin, Lynn; Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Rotunno, Melissa; Rajaraman, Preetha; Andersson, Ulrika; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Berg, Christine D; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Carreon, Tania; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Hartge, Patricia; Henriksson, Roger; Inskip, Peter D; Johansen, Christoffer; Landgren, Annelie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Michaud, Dominique S; Melin, Beatrice S; Peters, Ulrike; Ruder, Avima M; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Silverman, Debra T; Kogevinas, Manolis; Gonzalez, Juan R; Villa, Olaya; Li, Donghui; Duell, Eric J; Risch, Harvey A; Olson, Sara H; Kooperberg, Charles; Wolpin, Brian M; Jiao, Li; Hassan, Manal; Wheeler, William; Arslan, Alan A; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron D; Holly, Elizabeth A; Klein, Alison P; LaCroix, Andrea; Mandelson, Margaret T; Petersen, Gloria; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Canzian, Federico; Chang, Kenneth; Cotterchio, Michelle; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Jenab, Mazda; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; McWilliams, Robert R; Mendelsohn, Julie B; Rabe, Kari G; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Elena, Joanne W; Yu, Herbert; Amundadottir, Laufey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Kraft, Peter; Schumacher, Fredrick; Stram, Daniel; Savage, Sharon A; Mirabello, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Wunder, Jay S; García, Ana Patiño; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Barkauskas, Donald A; Gorlick, Richard G; Purdue, Mark; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E; Schwartz, Kendra L; Davis, Faith G; Hsing, Ann W; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B; Graubard, Barry I; Kratz, Christian P; Greene, Mark H; Erickson, Ralph L; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Real, Francisco X; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Caporaso, Neil E; Tucker, Margaret; Rothman, Nathaniel; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Chanock, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls drawn from 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones from DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. Mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of size >2 Mb were observed in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%) with abnormal cell proportions between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, the frequency increased with age; 0.23% under 50 and 1.91% between 75 and 79 (p=4.8×10−8). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid-tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals, OR=1.25, p=0.016), with a stronger association for cases who had DNA collected prior to diagnosis or treatment (OR=1.45, p=0.0005). Detectable clonal mosaicism was common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least one year prior to diagnosis of leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR=35.4, p=3.8×10−11). These findings underscore the importance of the role and time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and other late-onset diseases. PMID:22561519

  15. Chromosomal mosaicism of extraembryonic cells detected by prenatal diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotukhina, T.V.; Shilova, N.V.

    1995-09-01

    Data on detection of chromosomal mosaicism in amniotic cells and chorionic villi obtained by prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis are presented. The frequency of chromosomal mosaicism in preparations of amniotic fluid cell culture was 2.6% (6 out of 226), and that in {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} villus preparations was 1.6% (13 out of 774). The necessity to perform an additional analysis of other fetal cells or neonatal lymphocytes to specify the diagnosis was shown. The analysis of the outcome of pregnancies during which chromosomal mosaicism in the extraembryonic cells was detected indicates that these women form a high-risk group, both genetically and obstetrically; in only 8 out of 19 cases did pregnancies end in normal deliveries at term; in three cases, spontaneous abortions occurred at 16-31 weeks of gestation; in three cases, the pregnancies were terminated due to fetal chromosomal aberrations in nonmosaic form; the outcome of pregnancy in five cases was preterm delivery of an underweight newborn. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Mosaicing of optical microscope imagery based on visual information.

    PubMed

    Carozza, Ludovico; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Piccinini, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Tools for high-throughput high-content image analysis can simplify and expedite different stages of biological experiments, by processing and combining different information taken at different time and in different areas of the culture. Among the most important in this field, image mosaicing methods provide the researcher with a global view of the biological sample in a unique image. Current approaches rely on known motorized x-y stage offsets and work in batch mode, thus jeopardizing the interaction between the microscopic system and the researcher during the investigation of the cell culture. In this work we present an approach for mosaicing of optical microscope imagery, based on local image registration and exploiting visual information only. To our knowledge, this is the first approach suitable to work on-line with non-motorized microscopes. To assess our method, the quality of resulting mosaics is quantitatively evaluated through on-purpose image metrics. Experimental results show the importance of model selection issues and confirm the soundness of our approach. PMID:22255746

  17. Sonograph mosaic of U. S. west coast Exclusive Economic Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, H.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-07-01

    The Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA) side-scanning sonar system was used to obtain data that were compiled as an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor from the edge of the continental shelf to 200 nmi offshore within the US Exclusive Economic Zone off California, Oregon, and Washington. The mosaic clearly displays the large-scale geomorphic and sedimentologic features of the sea floor, including spreading centers, seamounts, fracture zones, sediment fans, continental-slope canyons, and abyssal-plain channels. Hundreds of seamounts (some previously uncharted) dot the deep sea floor, and many have large summit craters and attendant volcanic flows. The major Nitinat, Astoria, Delgada, and Monterey sediment fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes that extend from morphologically diverse canyons on the adjacent continental slope. Areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the complexes. Some channels on the abyssal plain are straight whereas others are highly sinuous, suggesting that various channel-forming processes occur on the sea floor. The contrast between the transform tectonic regime south of Cape Mendocino and the convergent tectonic regime to the north is particularly apparent on the mosaic. The linear basement ridges that were generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers and were later moved apart by sea-floor spreading are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones that accommodate horizontal slip between adjacent lithospheric plates.

  18. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  19. The geographic mosaic of sex and the Red Queen.

    PubMed

    King, Kayla C; Delph, Lynda F; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-09-15

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in natural populations is a pressing question for evolutionary biologists. Under the "Red Queen" hypothesis, coevolving parasites reduce the reproductive advantage of asexual reproduction by adapting to infect clonal genotypes after they become locally common. In addition, the "geographic mosaic" theory of coevolution proposes that structured populations of interacting species can produce selection mosaics manifested as coevolutionary "hot spots" and "cold spots". Here, we tested whether a steep, habitat-specific cline in the frequency of sexual reproduction in a freshwater snail could be explained by the existence of hot spots and cold spots for coevolving parasites. We found that the shallow-water margins of lakes, where sexual reproduction is most common, are coevolutionary hot spots, and that deeper habitats are cold spots. These results are consistent with the geographic mosaic theory, in that the intensity of selection resulting from biological interactions can vary sharply in space. The results also support the Red Queen hypothesis, in that sex is associated with coevolutionary hot spots for virulent parasites. PMID:19631541

  20. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  1. Model Development and Testing for THEMIS Controlled Mars Mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Sides, S.; Weller, L.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.; Kirk, R. L.; Soderblom, L. A.; Duxbury, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    As part of our work [1] to develop techniques and procedures to create regional and eventually global THEMIS mosaics of Mars, we are developing algorithms and software to photogrammetrically control THEMIS IR line scanner camera images. We have found from comparison of a limited number of images to MOLA digital image models (DIMs) [2] that the a priori geometry information (i.e. SPICE [3]) for THEMIS images generally allows their relative positions to be specified at the several pixel level (e.g. approx.5 to 13 pixels). However a need for controlled solutions to improve this geometry to the sub-pixel level still exists. Only with such solutions can seamless mosaics be obtained and likely distortion from spacecraft motion during image collection removed at such levels. Past experience has shown clearly that such mosaics are in heavy demand by users for operational and scientific use, and that they are needed over large areas or globally (as opposed to being available only on a limited basis via labor intensive custom mapping projects). Uses include spacecraft navigation, landing site planning and mapping, registration of multiple data types and image sets, registration of multispectral images, registration of images with topographic information, recovery of thermal properties, change detection searches, etc.

  2. Genetic analysis of mosaicism in 53 women with Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L; Bryman, I; Barrenäs, M L; Janson, P O; Wahlström, J; Albertsson-Wikland, K; Hanson, C

    2001-01-01

    Mosaicism involving the sex chromosomes is a common finding in women with Turner syndrome (TS). It is especially important to detect Y-chromosomal material, since this is a risk factor for the development of gonadoblastoma. Recent studies have also indicated that the frequency of 45,X cells may be used to predict prognosis. As part of an ongoing multi-disciplinary study, we have examined the extent of Y-chromosomal material and sex chromosomal mosaicism and its tissue specificity in 53 women with TS. The results of lymphocyte karyotyping were compared with the use of interphase X/Y fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of lymphocytes and buccal mucosal cells. As could be expected, an extended FISH analysis detected more Y-chromosomal material than karyotyping (in 15% vs. 11% of the women, respectively) and also detected more X-chromosomal mosaicism among the TS women (in 70% vs. 45 % of the women, respectively). In half of the women, tissue-specific differences between lymphocytes and buccal mucosal cells were found. Based on these results, we suggest the use of X/Y interphase FISH as a complement to karyotyping in order to obtain a more complete knowledge of the chromosome constitution of each individual with TS. PMID:11732852

  3. Strip mosaicing confocal microscopy for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2012-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in fresh tissue, without the processing that is required for conventional pathology. Previously, basal cell carcinoma margins were detected by mosaicing of confocal images of 12 x 12 mm2 of excised tissue from Mohs surgery. This mosaicing took 9 minutes. Recently we reported the initial feasibility of a faster approach called "strip mosaicing" on 10 x 10 mm2 of tissue that was demonstrated in 3 minutes. In this paper we report further advances in instrumentation and software. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Thus, strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to pathology for imaging tumor margins to guide surgery.

  4. Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Grati, Francesca Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS) of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i) The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM); (ii) The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii) The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv) The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-)direct preparation or long term culture; and (v) The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS). PMID:26237479

  5. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  6. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays.

    PubMed

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and γ rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays. PMID:23742535

  7. Multiplex PCR for the detection of African cassava mosaic virus and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus in cassava.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2008-12-01

    A multiplex PCR was developed for simultaneous detection of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) in cassava affected with cassava mosaic disease (CMD). One set of three primers consisting of an upstream primer common for both viruses and two down stream virus-specific primers were designed for simultaneous amplification of 368 base pair (bp) and 650 bp DNA fragments specific to the replicase gene of ACMV and EACMCV, respectively. Similarly, a second set of three primers were designed for simultaneous amplification of 540 bp and 655 bp fragments specific to the coat protein gene of EACMCV and ACMV, respectively. Primers that can amplify a 171 bp fragment of the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase L were included as an internal control in these assays to determine the reliability of multiplex PCR. A simplified, cost-effective and rapid sample preparation method was adapted in place of the conventional plant DNA extraction procedure for multiplex PCR detection of ACMV and EACMCV. The method was validated using CMD-infected cassava samples obtained from farmers' fields in Nigeria. The multiplex PCR is useful for reliable assessment of the prevalence of CMBs in epidemiological studies and for crop improvement and phytosanitary programs in African countries. PMID:18789974

  8. Detection and Quantification of Mosaic Mutations in Disease Genes by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Xia; Yu, Hui; Truong, Cavatina; Mitchell, John J; Wierenga, Klaas J; Craigen, William J; Zhang, Victor Wei; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2016-05-01

    The identification of mosaicism is important in establishing a disease diagnosis, assessing recurrence risk, and genetic counseling. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) with deep sequence coverage enhances sensitivity and allows for accurate quantification of the level of mosaicism. NGS identifies low-level mosaicism that would be undetectable by conventional Sanger sequencing. A customized DNA probe library was used for capturing targeted genes, followed by deep NGS analysis. The mean coverage depth per base was approximately 800×. The NGS sequence data were analyzed for single-nucleotide variants and copy number variations. Mosaic mutations in 10 cases/families were detected and confirmed by NGS analysis. Mosaicism was identified for autosomal dominant (JAG1, COL3A1), autosomal recessive (PYGM), and X-linked (PHKA2, PDHA1, OTC, and SLC6A8) disorders. The mosaicism was identified either in one or more tissues from the probands or in a parent of an affected child. When analyzing data from patients with unusual testing results or inheritance patterns, it is important to further evaluate the possibility of mosaicism. Deep NGS analysis not only provides insights into the spectrum of mosaic mutations but also underlines the importance of the detection of mosaicism as an integral part of clinical molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:26944031

  9. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  10. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  11. Invariant feature extraction for color image mosaic by graph card processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Lin; Li, Deren

    2009-10-01

    Image mosaic can be widely used in remote measuring, scout in battlefield and Panasonic image demonstration. In this project, we find a general method for video (or sequence images) mosaic by techniques, such as extracting invariant features, gpu processing, multi-color feature selection, ransac algorithm for homograph matching. In order to match the image sequence automatically without influence of rotation, scale and contrast transform, local invariant feature descriptor have been extracted by graph card unit. The gpu mosaic algorithm performs very well that can be compare to slow CPU version of mosaic program with little cost time.

  12. Antiviral RNA silencing is restricted to the marginal region of the dark green tissue in the mosaic leaves of tomato mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kubota, Kenji; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2008-04-01

    Mosaic is a common disease symptom caused by virus infection in plants. Mosaic leaves of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected tobacco plants consist of yellow-green and dark green tissues that contain large and small numbers of virions, respectively. Although the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development has been suggested, its role in the process that results in an uneven distribution of the virus is unknown. Here, we investigated whether and where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was established in tobacco mosaic leaves. When transgenic tobaccos defective in RNA silencing were infected with ToMV, little or no dark green tissue appeared, implying the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development. ToMV-related small interfering RNAs were rarely detected in the dark green areas of the first mosaic leaves, and their interior portions were susceptible to infection. Thus, ToMV-directed RNA silencing was not effective there. By visualizing the cells where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was active, it was found that the effective silencing occurs only in the marginal regions of the dark green tissue ( approximately 0.5 mm in width) and along the major veins. Further, the cells in the margins were resistant against recombinant potato virus X carrying a ToMV-derived sequence. These findings demonstrate that RNA silencing against ToMV is established in the cells located at the margins of the dark green areas, restricting the expansion of yellow-green areas, and consequently defines the mosaic pattern. The mechanism of mosaic symptom development is discussed in relation to the systemic spread of the virus and RNA silencing. PMID:18216118

  13. Antiviral RNA Silencing Is Restricted to the Marginal Region of the Dark Green Tissue in the Mosaic Leaves of Tomato Mosaic Virus-Infected Tobacco Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kubota, Kenji; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Mosaic is a common disease symptom caused by virus infection in plants. Mosaic leaves of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)-infected tobacco plants consist of yellow-green and dark green tissues that contain large and small numbers of virions, respectively. Although the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development has been suggested, its role in the process that results in an uneven distribution of the virus is unknown. Here, we investigated whether and where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was established in tobacco mosaic leaves. When transgenic tobaccos defective in RNA silencing were infected with ToMV, little or no dark green tissue appeared, implying the involvement of RNA silencing in mosaic development. ToMV-related small interfering RNAs were rarely detected in the dark green areas of the first mosaic leaves, and their interior portions were susceptible to infection. Thus, ToMV-directed RNA silencing was not effective there. By visualizing the cells where ToMV-directed RNA silencing was active, it was found that the effective silencing occurs only in the marginal regions of the dark green tissue (∼0.5 mm in width) and along the major veins. Further, the cells in the margins were resistant against recombinant potato virus X carrying a ToMV-derived sequence. These findings demonstrate that RNA silencing against ToMV is established in the cells located at the margins of the dark green areas, restricting the expansion of yellow-green areas, and consequently defines the mosaic pattern. The mechanism of mosaic symptom development is discussed in relation to the systemic spread of the virus and RNA silencing. PMID:18216118

  14. 'True' Color Mosaic of Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Pseudo-true color mosaic of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other. Galileo observes Jupiter's atmosphere in violet and near-infrared light because these wavelengths give information about composition and altitude. While these wavelengths do not allow a true-color image to be constructed (one would need red, green and blue), a pseudo-true color image can be made. Violet light (415 nanometers) is displayed in blue and near-infrared light (757 nanometers) is displayed in red. A combination of violet and near-infrared light is displayed in green. There is unique information in color images because they simultaneously show how regions of the atmosphere interact with several different wavelengths of light. Clouds that appear white reflect light equally at the different wavelengths. Concentrations of certain chemicals or types of cloud particles give a reddish tint to other areas.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  15. E4 True and false color hot spot mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial 'hotspot' on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  16. Regional Mosaic of Chaos and Gray Band on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of part of Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows a region that is characterized by mottled (dark and splotchy) terrain. The images in this mosaic were obtained by Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image, and the sun illuminates the scene from the right. Prior to obtaining these pictures, the age and origin of mottled terrain were not known. As seen here, the mottled appearance results from areas of the bright, icy crust that have been broken apart (known as 'chaos' terrain), exposing a darker underlying material. This terrain is typified by the area in the upper right-hand part of the image. The mottled terrain represents some of the most recent geologic activity on Europa. Also shown in this image is a smooth, gray band (lower part of image) representing a zone where the Europan crust has been fractured, separated, and filled in with material derived from the interior. The chaos terrain and the gray band show that this satellite has been subjected to intense geological deformation.

    The mosaic, centered at 2.9 degrees south latitude and 234.1 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 365 kilometers by 335 kilometers (225 miles by 210 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 460 meters (1500 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 21,700 kilometers (13,237 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. PMID:26219535

  18. Mosaic Activating Mutations in FGFR1 Cause Encephalocraniocutaneous Lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Tan, Tiong Yang; Alcantara, Diana; Tétrault, Martine; Timms, Andrew E; Jensen, Dana; Collins, Sarah; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Christensen, Katherine M; Braddock, Stephen R; Brandling-Bennett, Heather; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Chung, Brian; Lehman, Anna; Su, John; Ng, SuYuen; Amor, David J; Majewski, Jacek; Biesecker, Les G; Boycott, Kym M; Dobyns, William B; O'Driscoll, Mark; Moog, Ute; McDonell, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) is a sporadic condition characterized by ocular, cutaneous, and central nervous system anomalies. Key clinical features include a well-demarcated hairless fatty nevus on the scalp, benign ocular tumors, and central nervous system lipomas. Seizures, spasticity, and intellectual disability can be present, although affected individuals without seizures and with normal intellect have also been reported. Given the patchy and asymmetric nature of the malformations, ECCL has been hypothesized to be due to a post-zygotic, mosaic mutation. Despite phenotypic overlap with several other disorders associated with mutations in the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathways, the molecular etiology of ECCL remains unknown. Using exome sequencing of DNA from multiple affected tissues from five unrelated individuals with ECCL, we identified two mosaic mutations, c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) and c.1966A>G (p.Lys656Glu) within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR1, in two affected individuals each. These two residues are the most commonly mutated residues in FGFR1 in human cancers and are associated primarily with CNS tumors. Targeted resequencing of FGFR1 in multiple tissues from an independent cohort of individuals with ECCL identified one additional individual with a c.1638C>A (p.Asn546Lys) mutation in FGFR1. Functional studies of ECCL fibroblast cell lines show increased levels of phosphorylated FGFRs and phosphorylated FRS2, a direct substrate of FGFR1, as well as constitutive activation of RAS-MAPK signaling. In addition to identifying the molecular etiology of ECCL, our results support the emerging overlap between mosaic developmental disorders and tumorigenesis. PMID:26942290

  19. The complete genome sequence of New World jatropha mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Polston, J E; Londoño, M A; Capobianco, H

    2014-11-01

    Full-length sequences of a bipartite begomovirus were obtained from a plant of Jatropha multifida in Florida showing symptoms of foliar mosaic, distortion and necrosis. Sequences of four clones each of a DNA-A and DNA-B were obtained, which showed very low sequence diversity among themselves. The clones were infectious when biolistically inoculated to J. multifida, Phaseolus vulgaris and Nicotiana tabacum, but not to J. curcas. The DNA-A sequences had less than 89 % pairwise identity scores with the DNA-A of other begomoviruses. The DNA-A appeared to be a recombinant in that 18 % of the DNA-A (470 nt) had a pairwise identity score of 91.98 % with RhRGMV, indicating that this portion most likely originated from a virus closely related to RhRGMV. The remaining 82 % of the DNA-A had lower identity scores with TbMoLCV (87.84 %) and RhRGMV (87.46 %), which suggests that this part of the component originated from an undescribed virus. There was no evidence for recombination in the DNA-B. Equivalent sequences of the DNA-A had the highest identity score (94.18 %) with a 533-nt sequence obtained from J. multifida from Puerto Rico in 2001 (GenBank accession no. AF058025). Pairwise comparison, recombination and phylogenetic analysis, and biology suggest that these clones are those of jatropha mosaic virus first reported from Puerto Rico. This is the first report of the complete genome sequence of jatropha mosaic virus. PMID:25091738

  20. AFGL ten micron mosaic array spectrometer: Recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Paul D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements were made with a novel mosaic array prism spectrometer on long period variable stars of carbon and oxygen-rich atmospheres. These stars have generally large IR excesses and show strong SiC and silicate emission features, respectively. A comparison is provided by published spectra obtained with the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer. Emission feature equivalent widths are independent of the absolute photometric level of the spectra and provide information on the relative variation of the feature and continuum fluxes between the epochs of the space and groundbased observations.

  1. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:25252813

  2. Beijerinck's work on tobacco mosaic virus: historical context and legacy.

    PubMed Central

    Bos, L

    1999-01-01

    Beijerinck's entirely new concept, launched in 1898, of a filterable contagium vivum fluidum which multiplied in close association with the host's metabolism and was distributed in phloem vessels together with plant nutrients, did not match the then prevailing bacteriological germ theory. At the time, tools and concepts to handle such a new kind of agent (the viruses) were non-existent. Beijerinck's novel idea, therefore, did not revolutionize biological science or immediately alter human understanding of contagious diseases. That is how bacteriological dogma persisted, as voiced by Loeffler and Frosch when showing the filterability of an animal virus (1898), and especially by Ivanovsky who had already in 1892 detected filterability of the agent of tobacco mosaic but kept looking for a microbe and finally (1903) claimed its multiplication in an artificial medium. The dogma was also strongly advocated by Roux in 1903 when writing the first review on viruses, which he named 'so-called "invisible" microbes', unwittingly including the agent of bovine pleuropneumonia, only much later proved to be caused by a mycoplasma. In 1904, Baur was the first to advocate strongly the chemical view of viruses. But uncertainty about the true nature of viruses, with their similarities to enzymes and genes, continued until the 1930s when at long last tobacco mosaic virus particles were isolated as an enzyme-like protein (1935), soon to be better characterized as a nucleoprotein (1937). Physicochemical virus studies were a key element in triggering molecular biology which was to provide further means to reveal the true nature of viruses 'at the threshold of life'. Beijerinck's 1898 vision was not appreciated or verified during his lifetime. But Beijerinck already had a clear notion of the mechanism behind the phenomena he observed. Developments in virology and molecular biology since 1935 indicate how close Beijerinck (and even Mayer, Beijerinck's predecessor in research on tobacco

  3. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

  4. Characterizations of the mirror attenuator mosaic - Solar diffuser plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Avis, Lee M.; Gibson, M. A.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The mirror attenuator mosaic (MAM), a solar diffuser plate, was used for the flight calibration of the broadband shortwave (0.2-5-microns) and total (0.2 to greater than 200-microns) Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanning thermistor bolometer radiometers. The MAM solar-reflecting surface consisted of a tightly packed array of vacuum-deposited aluminum, concave spherical mirrors, while its solar-absorbing surface consisted of black chrome. The effective reflectance of the MAM was constant to within +/- 2 percent after almost 2 years in orbit, a marked improvement over earlier solar diffusers.

  5. In-Situ Mosaic Production at JPL/MIPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) at JPL is responsible for (among other things) the ground-based operational image processing of all the recent in-situ Mars missions: (1) Mars Pathfinder (2) Mars Polar Lander (3) Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) (4) Phoenix (5) Mars Science Lab (MSL) Mosaics are probably the most visible products from MIPL (1) Generated for virtually every rover position at which a panorama is taken (2) Provide better environmental context than single images (3) Valuable to operations and science personnel (4) Arguably the signature products for public engagement

  6. Application of COLD-PCR for improved detection of NF2 mosaic mutations.

    PubMed

    Paganini, Irene; Mancini, Irene; Baroncelli, Marta; Arena, Guido; Gensini, Francesca; Papi, Laura; Sestini, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    Somatic mosaicism represents the coexistence of two or more cell populations with different genotypes in one person, and it is involved in >30 monogenic disorders. Somatic mosaicism characterizes approximately 25% to 33% of patients with de novo neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). The identification of mosaicism is crucial to patients and their families because the clinical course of the disease and its transmission risk is influenced by the degree and distribution of mutated cells. Moreover, in NF2, the capability of discriminating patients with mosaicism is especially important to make differential diagnosis with schwannomatosis. However, the identification of mosaic variants is considerably difficult, and the development of specific molecular techniques to detect low levels of unknown molecular alterations is required. Co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature (COLD)-PCR has been described as a powerful method to selectively amplify minority alleles from mixtures of wild-type and mutation-containing sequences. Here, we applied COLD-PCR to molecular analysis of patients with NF2 mosaicism. With the use of COLD-PCR, followed by direct sequencing, we were able to detect NF2 mutations in blood DNA of three patients with NF2 mosaicism. Our study has shown the capability of COLD-PCR in enriching low-represented mutated allele in blood DNA sample, making it usable for molecular diagnosis of patients with mosaicism. PMID:24815379

  7. First Report of Soybean Yellow Mottle Mosaic Virus in Soybean in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) is a soybean-infecting virus recently described in Korea that initially induces bright yellow mosaic on leaves followed by stunting and reduced growth of older leaves. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic RNA of the Korean isolate of SYMMV suggested tha...

  8. Pigmentary mosaicism of the hyperpigmented type in two half-brothers.

    PubMed

    Horn, Denise; Happle, Rudolf; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Kunze, Jürgen

    2002-09-15

    Pigmentary mosaicism is a heterogeneous cutaneous phenotype that is often associated with extracutaneous anomalies. It is widely accepted that these phenotypes arise de novo as a result of a postzygotic mutation, leading to a mosaic status of the embryo. In the vast majority of cases, the occurrence of pigmentary mosaicism is sporadic. We report two paternal half-brothers affected with pigmentary mosaicism of the hyperpigmented type. The hyperpigmentation in both patients is distributed along the lines of Blaschko. In addition, mental retardation, facial asymmetry, short stature, scoliosis, and short fingers with clinodactyly of the 5th digit were noted in one of them. Chromosome analysis in this 15-year-old patient demonstrated a mosaic 46,XY,dup(3)(p21.3;pter)/46,XY with 12% aberrant cells in lymphocytes and 2% in skin fibroblasts derived from a hyperpigmented area. His nine-year-old half-brother had similar systematized hyperpigmented skin lesions, macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, and clinodactyly of the 5th digit. Chromosome analysis of peripheral lymphocytes showed a normal karyotype 46,XY. A skin biopsy could not be obtained. So far, some familial cases of hypopigmentation along the lines of Blaschko have been reported, but familial occurrence of the hyperpigmented type of pigmentary mosaicism appears to be extremely unusual. It is difficult to establish a causal relationship with the chromosomal mosaicism as observed in patient 1. Paradominant transmission seems unlikely because this would likewise imply that the chromosomal mosaicism is an incidental finding. PMID:12239723

  9. Modeling the Developmental Patterning of Finiteness Marking in English, Dutch, German, and Spanish Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Aguado-Orea, Javier; Gobet, Fernand

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we apply MOSAIC (model of syntax acquisition in children) to the simulation of the developmental patterning of children's optional infinitive (OI) errors in 4 languages: English, Dutch, German, and Spanish. MOSAIC, which has already simulated this phenomenon in Dutch and English, now implements a learning mechanism that better…

  10. Ultra deep sequencing detects a low rate of mosaic mutations in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Kozlowski, Piotr; Taillon, Bruce E.; Bouffard, Pascal; Holmes, Alison J.; Janne, Pasi; Camposano, Susana; Thiele, Elizabeth; Franz, David; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 and TSC2. However, 10 to 15% TSC patients have no mutation identified with conventional molecular diagnostic studies. We used the ultra-deep pyrosequencing technique of 454 Sequencing to search for mosaicism in 38 TSC patients who had no TSC1 or TSC2 mutation identified by conventional methods. Two TSC2 mutations were identified, each at 5.3% read frequency in different patients, consistent with mosaicism. Both mosaic mutations were confirmed by several methods. Five of 38 samples were found to have heterozygous non-mosaic mutations, which had been missed in earlier analyses. Several other possible low frequency mosaic mutations were identified by deep sequencing, but were discarded as artifacts by secondary studies. The low frequency of detection of mosaic mutations, 2 (6%) of 33, suggests that the majority of TSC patients who have no mutation identified are not due to mosaicism, but rather other causes, which remain to be determined. These findings indicate the ability of deep sequencing, coupled with secondary confirmatory analyses, to detect low frequency mosaic mutations. PMID:20165957

  11. Mosaic on Public-Access PCs: Letting the World-Wide Web into the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes installation and configuration of Mosaic and a World Wide Web (WWW) site at Grainger Library. Challenges include choosing a WINSOCK; customizing Mosaic for public-access computers; reducing security risks; maximizing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME); designing a home page; producing Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents.…

  12. Rare case of live born with confirmed mosaic trisomy 17 and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Baltensperger, Austin; Haischer, Gayle; Rohena, Luis

    2016-04-01

    This article describes both previously reported as well as new phenotypic features in a trisomy 17 mosaic patient. The gold standard for postnatal diagnosis remains fibroblast analysis, though the level of mosaicism does not correlate with prognosis. A normal ultrasound in the setting of positive amniocentesis appears a reassuring indicator. PMID:27099743

  13. Application of SFM and laser scanning technology to the description of mosaics piece by piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Mosaic floors of surviving buildings in Ostia have been mainly recorded in photographs. From 2008, Japanese research group carries out a project of 3d measuring of the whole structure of ancient Roman city Ostia using laser scanners, including its landscape, city blocks, streets, buildings, wall paintings and mosaics. The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for recording mosaics. We can record the data of mosaics, which are described piece by piece. However it is hard to acquire enough high dense point cloud and the internal camera of the laser scanner produce low quality images. We introduce a possible technology of 3D recording of mosaics with high-quality colour information; SFM. The use of this technique permits us to create 3D models from images provided from a CCD camera without heavy and large laser scanners. We applied SFM system to different three types of the mosaics laid down on the floors of "the House of the Dioscuroi", "the Insula of the Muse" and "the House of Jove and Ganymede", and created high resolution orthographic images. Then we examined to compare these orthographic images with that are created from the point cloud data. As a result, we confirmed that SFM system has sufficient practical utility for the mosaic research. And we present how much of density of point cloud or ground resolution are required for the documentation of mosaics accurately.

  14. Parental Somatic Mosaicism Is Underrecognized and Influences Recurrence Risk of Genomic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ian M.; Yuan, Bo; Robberecht, Caroline; Pfundt, Rolph; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; McEntagart, Meriel E.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Erez, Ayelet; Bartnik, Magdalena; Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Plunkett, Katie S.; Pursley, Amber N.; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Bi, Weimin; Lalani, Seema R.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Vast, Mala; Marks, Karen; Patton, Michael; Olofsson, Peter; Patel, Ankita; Veltman, Joris A.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Shaw, Chad A.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; Vermeesch, Joris R.; Lupski, James R.; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    New human mutations are thought to originate in germ cells, thus making a recurrence of the same mutation in a sibling exceedingly rare. However, increasing sensitivity of genomic technologies has anecdotally revealed mosaicism for mutations in somatic tissues of apparently healthy parents. Such somatically mosaic parents might also have germline mosaicism that can potentially cause unexpected intergenerational recurrences. Here, we show that somatic mosaicism for transmitted mutations among parents of children with simplex genetic disease is more common than currently appreciated. Using the sensitivity of individual-specific breakpoint PCR, we prospectively screened 100 families with children affected by genomic disorders due to rare deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) determined to be de novo by clinical analysis of parental DNA. Surprisingly, we identified four cases of low-level somatic mosaicism for the transmitted CNV in DNA isolated from parental blood. Integrated probabilistic modeling of gametogenesis developed in response to our observations predicts that mutations in parental blood increase recurrence risk substantially more than parental mutations confined to the germline. Moreover, despite the fact that maternally transmitted mutations are the minority of alleles, our model suggests that sexual dimorphisms in gametogenesis result in a greater proportion of somatically mosaic transmitting mothers who are thus at increased risk of recurrence. Therefore, somatic mosaicism together with sexual differences in gametogenesis might explain a considerable fraction of unexpected recurrences of X-linked recessive disease. Overall, our results underscore an important role for somatic mosaicism and mitotic replicative mutational mechanisms in transmission genetics. PMID:25087610

  15. Blueberry mosaic associated virus – A putative, new member of Ophioviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry mosaic initially was reported more than 50 years ago and is now known from different parts of the world. A new virus, closely associated with the disease has been identified recently. The virus tentatively named as Blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), is a putative member of the gen...

  16. Error Estimation Techniques to Refine Overlapping Aerial Image Mosaic Processes via Detected Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, William Glenn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I propose to demonstrate a means of error estimation preprocessing in the assembly of overlapping aerial image mosaics. The mosaic program automatically assembles several hundred aerial images from a data set by aligning them, via image registration using a pattern search method, onto a GIS grid. The method presented first locates…

  17. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  18. Genetic Composition of Pepino mosaic virus Population in North American Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae. Pepino mosaic is an emerging disease in greenhouse tomato in Europe, North America and South America. Previous research in several laboratories suggests that PepMV consists of numerous sequence variants...

  19. Passive and active infrared thermography: An overview of applications for the inspection of mosaic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakeas, P.; Cheilakou, E.; Ftikou, E.; Koui, M.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared Thermography is a non destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique, which has been widely used for the investigation of cultural heritage and art objects. The main purpose of this study is to present the capabilities of both passive and active thermography for the inspection of mosaic structures, evaluating the performance of each testing approach through its application in representative mosaic structures. In situ passive thermography was applied on mosaic pavements in an attempt to acquire knowledge about their preservation state, while the active approach was used in order to study plastered mosaics and characterise the tesserae layer beneath the plaster. The results from this study revealed that passive approach can be efficiently applied as a moisture detection tool and a rapid monitoring technique of the mosaic condition, while the active thermographic investigation showed much more potentiality as quantitative information for the detected feature was further retrieved.

  20. Winter wheat cultivars with temperature sensitive resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus do not recover from early season infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus, all vectored by the wheat curl mite Aceria tosichella Keifer, frequently cause devastating losses to winter wheat production throughout the central and western Great Plains. Resistant 'Mace' and 'RonL' are commercially ...

  1. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  2. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  3. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  4. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  5. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1276 - Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus (TMGMV); temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1276 Tobacco mild green mosaic... requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of tobacco mild green mosaic tobamovirus in or on...

  11. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  12. Invertebrate community response to a shifting mosaic of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Roper, A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Grazing management has focused largely on promoting vegetation homogeneity through uniform distribution of grazing to minimize area in a pasture that is either heavily disturbed or undisturbed. An alternative management model that couples grazing and fire (i.e., patch burning) to promote heterogeneity argues that grazing and fire interact through a series of positive and negative feedbacks to cause a shifting mosaic of vegetation composition and structure across the landscape. We compared patch burning with traditional homogeneity-based management in tallgrass prairie to determine the influence of the two treatments on the aboveground invertebrate community. Patch burning resulted in a temporal flush of invertebrate biomass in patches transitional between unburned and patches burned in the current year. Total invertebrate mass was about 50% greater in these transitional patches within patch-burned pastures as compared to pastures under traditional, homogeneity-based management. Moreover, the mosaic of patches in patch-burned pastures contained a wider range of invertebrate biomass and greater abundance of some invertebrate orders than did the traditionally managed pastures. Patch burning provides habitat that meets requirements for a broad range of invertebrate species, suggesting the potential for patch burning to benefit other native animal assemblages in the food chain.

  13. Calibrated Landsat ETM+ nonthermal-band image mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970s by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production and characteristics of the fundamental satellite image databases produced for these assessments, which are calibrated image mosaics of all six Landsat nonthermal (reflected) bands.

  14. A Yukon River Basin Landsat Mosaic for Assessing Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, M. A.; Dwyer, J. L.; Granneman, B.

    2009-12-01

    Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produced from 66 Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images collected from 1999-2002. Two products were created: (1) a geographically referenced database containing all seven of the spectral bands for the individual scenes and (2) a 3-band (shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and green - 7,4,2) radiometrically normalized shaded relief image map using the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset and Canadian Digital Elevation Data from Natural Resources Canada. The science data product will facilitate studies to map the extent of snow, ice and surface water at a basin-wide scale. Focused studies on snow/ice transitions for selected glaciers will be conducted in order to establish accumulation ratios for use in future monitoring. The mosaic also shows the complex patterns of wildfires in the interior forests and the diversity of ecosystems throughout the basin. The shaded relief product image mosaic is a reference map for reconnaissance studies as well as a geographic framework within which to spatially integrate project-wide data and information.

  15. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed Central

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region. PMID:3671088

  16. Morpho-kinematic of distant galaxies with JWST and MOSAIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Flores, H.

    2015-12-01

    The combination of high spatial resolution from space imagery and 3D spectroscopy from ground is a remarkable tool to dissect distant galaxies and their internal motions. Using HST and VLT observations, we have captured the strong evolution of disk galaxies over the past 8 billion years (z˜1), which suggests disk (re)formation after gas rich mergers. At higher lookback time, the morpho-kinmatics of galaxies is strongly limited by the lower signal-to-noise and coarse spatial resolution of the observations. In the next decade, the synergy between JWST/NIRCAM and MOSAIC the futur MOS at the E-ELT will allow us to capture the morpho-kinematics up to the first galaxies and unveil the physical processes dominating their formation. The lesson learned at intermediate redshift will allow us to optimize the specification for MOSAIC to achieve the morpho-kinematics follow-up of galaxies from z˜4 to z=0.

  17. Landsat ETM+ False-Color Image Mosaics of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey to perform assessments of the natural resources within Afghanistan. The assessments concentrate on the resources that are related to the economic development of that country. Therefore, assessments were initiated in oil and gas, coal, mineral resources, water resources, and earthquake hazards. All of these assessments require geologic, structural, and topographic information throughout the country at a finer scale and better accuracy than that provided by the existing maps, which were published in the 1970's by the Russians and Germans. The very rugged terrain in Afghanistan, the large scale of these assessments, and the terrorist threat in Afghanistan indicated that the best approach to provide the preliminary assessments was to use remotely sensed, satellite image data, although this may also apply to subsequent phases of the assessments. Therefore, the first step in the assessment process was to produce satellite image mosaics of Afghanistan that would be useful for these assessments. This report discusses the production of the Landsat false-color image database produced for these assessments, which was produced from the calibrated Landsat ETM+ image mosaics described by Davis (2006).

  18. Retinal image mosaicing using the radial distortion correction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangyeol; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2008-03-01

    Fundus camera imaging can be used to examine the retina to detect disorders. Similar to looking through a small keyhole into a large room, imaging the fundus with an ophthalmologic camera allows only a limited view at a time. Thus, the generation of a retinal montage using multiple images has the potential to increase diagnostic accuracy by providing larger field of view. A method of mosaicing multiple retinal images using the radial distortion correction (RADIC) model is proposed in this paper. Our method determines the inter-image connectivity by detecting feature correspondences. The connectivity information is converted to a tree structure that describes the spatial relationships between the reference and target images for pairwise registration. The montage is generated by cascading pairwise registration scheme starting from the anchor image downward through the connectivity tree hierarchy. The RADIC model corrects the radial distortion that is due to the spherical-to-planar projection during retinal imaging. Therefore, after radial distortion correction, individual images can be properly mapped onto a montage space by a linear geometric transformation, e.g. affine transform. Compared to the most existing montaging methods, our method is unique in that only a single registration per image is required because of the distortion correction property of RADIC model. As a final step, distance-weighted intensity blending is employed to correct the inter-image differences in illumination encountered when forming the montage. Visual inspection of the experimental results using three mosaicing cases shows our method can produce satisfactory montages.

  19. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Violet Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the violet (404 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 75 second interval beginning at universal time 4 hours, 18 minutes, 8 seconds on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.76 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (727 nm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through a 'Methane' filter (727 nm) of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 76 second interval beginning at universal time 14 hours, 31 minutes, 52 seconds on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.46 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (in the near infrared)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the near-infrared (756 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over an 80 second interval beginning at universal time 4 hours, 19 minutes, 40 seconds, on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Methane Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the methane (886 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 76 second interval beginning at universal time 14 hours, 33 minutes, 22 seconds, on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.46 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA s Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  3. Aneuploidy and Confined Chromosomal Mosaicism in the Developing Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liehr, Thomas; Kolotii, Alexei D.; Kutsev, Sergei I.; Pellestor, Franck; Beresheva, Alfia K.; Demidova, Irina A.; Kravets, Viktor S.; Monakhov, Viktor V.; Soloviev, Ilia V.

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms underlying generation of neuronal variability and complexity remains the central challenge for neuroscience. Structural variation in the neuronal genome is likely to be one important mechanism for neuronal diversity and brain diseases. Large-scale genomic variations due to loss or gain of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy) have been described in cells of the normal and diseased human brain, which are generated from neural stem cells during intrauterine period of life. However, the incidence of aneuploidy in the developing human brain and its impact on the brain development and function are obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings To address genomic variation during development we surveyed aneuploidy/polyploidy in the human fetal tissues by advanced molecular-cytogenetic techniques at the single-cell level. Here we show that the human developing brain has mosaic nature, being composed of euploid and aneuploid neural cells. Studying over 600,000 neural cells, we have determined the average aneuploidy frequency as 1.25–1.45% per chromosome, with the overall percentage of aneuploidy tending to approach 30–35%. Furthermore, we found that mosaic aneuploidy can be exclusively confined to the brain. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicates aneuploidization to be an additional pathological mechanism for neuronal genome diversification. These findings highlight the involvement of aneuploidy in the human brain development and suggest an unexpected link between developmental chromosomal instability, intercellural/intertissular genome diversity and human brain diseases. PMID:17593959

  4. Catharanthus mosaic virus: A potyvirus from a gymnosperm, Welwitschia mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Shu Hui; Li, Hua; Admiraal, Ryan; Jones, Michael G K; Wylie, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    A virus from a symptomatic plant of the gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis Hook. growing as an ornamental plant in a domestic garden in Western Australia was inoculated to a plant of Nicotiana benthamiana where it established a systemic infection. The complete genome sequence of 9636 nucleotides was determined using high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. The genome sequence shared greatest identity (83% nucleotides and 91% amino acids) with available partial sequences of catharanthus mosaic virus, indicating that the new isolate belonged to that taxon. Analysis of the phylogeny of the complete virus sequence placed it in a monotypic group in the genus Potyvirus. This is the first record of a virus from W. mirabilis, the first complete genome sequence of catharanthus mosaic virus determined, and the first record from Australia. This finding illustrates the risk to natural and managed systems posed by the international trade in live plants and propagules, which enables viruses to establish in new regions and infect new hosts. PMID:25804761

  5. Investigation of RNA structure in satellite panicum mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Makino, D.L. E-mail: dmakino@berkeley.edu; Day, J. E-mail: jsday@uci.edu; Larson, S.B. E-mail: slarson@uci.edu; McPherson, A. E-mail: amcphers@uci.edu

    2006-08-01

    Three new crystal forms of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) were grown and their structures solved from X-ray diffraction data using molecular replacement techniques. The crystals were grown under conditions of pH and ionic strength that were appreciably different then those used for the original structure determination. In rhombohedral crystals grown at pH 8.5 and low ionic strength PEG 3350 solutions, Fourier syntheses revealed segments, ten amino acid residues long, of amino-terminal polypeptides not previously seen, as well as masses of electron density within concavities on the interior of the capsid, which appeared in the neighborhoods of icosahedral five- and threefold axes. The densities were compatible with secondary structural domains of RNA, and they included a segment of double helical RNA of about four to five base pairs oriented, at least approximately, along the fivefold axes. The distribution of RNA observed for SPMV appears to be distinctly different than the encapsidated nucleic acid conformation previously suggested for another satellite virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus. This study further shows that analysis of viruses in crystals grown under different chemical conditions may reveal additional information regarding the structure of encapsidated RNA.

  6. Parallel hardware architecture for CCD-mosaic digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott T.; Kim, Hyunkeun; Swarnakar, Vivek; Jeong, Myoungki; Wobschall, Darold C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of an efficient parallel hardware architecture suitable for CCD-mosaic digital mammography has been accomplished. This paper presents this architecture including both the analog and digital portions of the imaging hardware. A two dimensional array of CCD sensors are used to capture the mammographic image synchronously and simultaneously. Each CCD's analog signal is converted to a 12 bits/pixel digital value through an array of high speed analog-to-digital converters. A parallel array of mesh connected TMS320C40 DSP processors then takes in the digital image data simultaneously. The DSP's are used to precisely register the mosaic of individual images to form the final large format digital mammogram. Also, they are used to control CCD characteristics and parallel data transport to the viewing workstation. One master DSP is located on the workstation's PCI bus which controls the parallel DSP array and collects compressed image data through a 60MB/s port. Since all computations are performed in parallel using local memory on each DSP, the overall acquisition, image registration, and transmission to display of the final mammogram is performed in less than 30 seconds. This allows the physician to perform a preliminary observation of the patient's mammogram.

  7. Sequence of figwort mosaic virus DNA (caulimovirus group).

    PubMed

    Richins, R D; Scholthof, H B; Shepherd, R J

    1987-10-26

    The nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of figwort mosaic virus (FMV) was determined using the dideoxynucleotide chain termination method. The double-stranded DNA genome (7743 base pairs) contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), seven of which corresponded approximately in size and location to the ORFs found in the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and carnation etched ring virus (CERV). ORFs I and V of FMV demonstrated the highest degrees of nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the equivalent coding regions of CaMV and CERV. Regions II, III and IV showed somewhat less homology with the analogous regions of CaMV and CERV, and ORF VI showed homology with the corresponding gene of CaMV and CERV in only a short segment near the middle of the putative gene product. A 16 nucleotide sequence, complementary to the 3' terminus of methionine initiator tRNA (tRNAimet) and presumed to be the primer binding site for initiation of reverse transcription to produce minus strand DNA, was found in the FMV genome near the discontinuity in the minus strand. Sequences near the three interruptions in the plus strand of FMV DNA bear strong resemblance to similarly located sequences of 3 other caulimoviruses and are inferred to be initiation sites for second strand DNA synthesis. Additional conserved sequences in the small and large intergenic regions are pointed out including a highly conserved 35 bp sequence that occurs in the latter region. PMID:3671088

  8. Analysis of figwort mosaic virus (plant pararetrovirus) polyadenylation signal.

    PubMed

    Sanfaçon, H

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal has revealed several striking differences to poly(A) signals from animal genes such as the absence of activating sequences downstream from the cleavage site. Instead, upstream sequences were shown to induce recognition of an AAUAAA sequence. To test whether these features are representative of other plant pararetrovirus poly(A) signals, a characterization of the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) poly(A) signal is presented here. The FMV RNAs were isolated from infected plants and mapped, and the different elements composing the FMV poly(A) signal were identified. Multiple upstream sequences were found to be essential for efficient processing at the FMV poly(A) site and could be replaced by the CaMV upstream elements. The FMV upstream sequences showed homologies to other characterized upstream sequences from CaMV, from animal viruses, and from plant poly(A) signals. Surprisingly, neither the FMV nor the CaMV upstream elements could induce recognition of an AAUAAA sequence present in the FMV poly(A) signal, instead a UAUAAA sequence 55 nucleotides further downstream was utilized. It is proposed that additional features may be required for appropriate cleavage such as the context of the AAUAAA-like sequence or perhaps the cleavage site itself. PMID:8259677

  9. Evolutionary liberties of the Abutilon mosaic virus cluster.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alexander; Strohmeier, Stephan; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2015-02-01

    Two new strains of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV; Geminiviridae) from Germany (Stuttgart) and France (Paris) have been characterized by circomics, direct pyrosequencing of rolling circle amplification (RCA) products, as well as conventional cloning and Sanger sequencing. RCA combined with an analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms confirmed the completeness of the sequence determination and a close relationship of both isolates for DNA A with 99 % nucleotide sequence identity. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction supported their clustering with other AbMV strains in a clade with Middle American begomoviruses, whereas South American begomoviruses that infect Abutilon or Sida micrantha are less closely related. Comparing the coat protein (CP) genes of the AbMV cluster, with those of related Middle and South American begomoviruses revealed a remarkable overrepresentation for non-synonymous nucleotide exchanges for certain amino acid positions in the AbMV cluster. Projection of these positions to a structural model of the African cassava mosaic virus CP yielded a non-random distribution at the periphery and, most importantly, highlighted those amino acids that had been identified in whitefly-transmission experiments before. These results establish the basis for an analysis of the evolutionary liberty of certain amino acid positions of the CP, and their impact on the deciphering of insect transmission determinants is discussed. PMID:25315632

  10. Avian demography in mosaic landscapes: modeling paradigm and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, D.L.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    We pursued a mechanistic explanation for the local extinction of some avian species from small and/or isolated patches in a habitat mosaic. A model was developed to simulate demographic processes of natality, dispersal, and mortality as these might occur in a mosaic of discrete habitat patches. These processes were adjusted to reflect life-history attributes that seem to confer sensitivity to habitat fragmentation. We used the model to explore the effects of restricted vagility and reduced natality resulting from biotic interactions for a hypothetical bird species. Restricted vagility resulted in local extinctions in small, isolated patches, but this effect was buffered by an available pool of surplus nonbreeders. Lower natality reduced this suplus so as to increase the frequency of local extinction, and allowed restricted vagility to play a more important role in affecting species distribution. Moderate levels of restricted vagility and reduced natality were synergistic in effect. In general, small patches in isolation tended to lose their populations permanently, large patches rarely suffered extinctions, but small and intermediate patches adjacent to other patches suffered extinctions and were recolonized repeatedly. The basic modeling approach can be expanded to include greater mechanistic detail, but implementation has been limited by a lack of appropriate data. Our preliminary results suggest which data are necessary to pursue a mechanistic, patch-scale understanding of species demography at the landscape scale. 17 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Mosaic hoxb4a Neuronal Pleiotropism in Zebrafish Caudal Hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Leung-Hang; Punnamoottil, Beena; Rinkwitz, Silke; Baker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how individual genes and experience influence behavior, the role of a single homeotic unit, hoxb4a, was comprehensively analyzed in vivo by clonal and retrograde fluorescent labeling of caudal hindbrain neurons in a zebrafish enhancer-trap YFP line. A quantitative spatiotemporal neuronal atlas showed hoxb4a activity to be highly variable and mosaic in rhombomere 7–8 reticular, motoneuronal and precerebellar nuclei with expression decreasing differentially in all subgroups through juvenile stages. The extensive Hox mosaicism and widespread pleiotropism demonstrate that the same transcriptional protein plays a role in the development of circuits that drive behaviors from autonomic through motor function including cerebellar regulation. We propose that the continuous presence of hoxb4a positive neurons may provide a developmental plasticity for behavior-specific circuits to accommodate experience- and growth-related changes. Hence, the ubiquitous hoxb4a pleitropism and modularity likely offer an adaptable transcriptional element for circuit modification during both growth and evolution. PMID:19536294

  12. Structural Lability of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Pavel I.; Abashkin, Dmitry A.; Kalinina, Natalya O.; Arutyunyan, Alexsandr M.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Dobrov, Eugeny N.

    2013-01-01

    Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP) were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed. PMID:23613760

  13. Stochastic spineless expression creates the retinal mosaic for colour vision.

    PubMed

    Wernet, Mathias F; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Celik, Arzu; Duncan, Dianne M; Duncan, Ian; Desplan, Claude

    2006-03-01

    Drosophila colour vision is achieved by R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells present in every ommatidium. The fly retina contains two types of ommatidia, called 'pale' and 'yellow', defined by different rhodopsin pairs expressed in R7 and R8 cells. Similar to the human cone photoreceptors, these ommatidial subtypes are distributed stochastically in the retina. The choice between pale versus yellow ommatidia is made in R7 cells, which then impose their fate onto R8. Here we report that the Drosophila dioxin receptor Spineless is both necessary and sufficient for the formation of the ommatidial mosaic. A short burst of spineless expression at mid-pupation in a large subset of R7 cells precedes rhodopsin expression. In spineless mutants, all R7 and most R8 cells adopt the pale fate, whereas overexpression of spineless is sufficient to induce the yellow R7 fate. Therefore, this study suggests that the entire retinal mosaic required for colour vision is defined by the stochastic expression of a single transcription factor, Spineless. PMID:16525464

  14. A Physics MOSAIC: Scientific Skills and Explorations for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Clements, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Rogers, A.

    2010-12-01

    A 21st century education needs to teach students how to manage information in an ever more digital age. High school students (like all of us) are inundated with information, and informed citizenship increasingly depends on the ability to be a critical consumer of data. In the scientific community, experimental data from remote, high quality systems are becoming increasingly available in real time. The same networks providing data also allow scientists to use the ubiquity of internet access to enlist citizen scientists to help with research. As a means of addressing and leveraging these trends, we describe a classroom unit developed as part of the NSF Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory in the summer of 2010. The unit uses accessible, real-time science data to teach high school physics students about the nature and process of scientific research, with the goal of teaching how to be an informed citizen, regardless of eventual vocation. The opportunity to study the atmosphere provides increased engagement in the classroom, and students have an authentic experience of asking and answering scientific questions when the answer cannot simply be found on the Web. MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a relatively inexpensive tool for measuring mesospheric ozone by taking advantage of the sensitivity of commercially produced satellite TV dishes to the 11.072545 GHz rotational transition of ozone. Because the signal from ozone in the lower atmosphere is pressure-broadened, the system is able to isolate the signal from the 1% of Earth’s ozone that comes from the mesosphere. Our teaching unit takes advantage of measurements collected since 2008 from six East Coast observing sites at high schools and colleges. Data are available online within a day of their collection, and an easy to use web interface allows students to track mesospheric ozone in frequency, time of day, or day of year. The

  15. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers. PMID:27400992

  16. Recombination analysis of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup of potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Gell, Gyöngyvér; Sebestyén, Endre; Balázs, Ervin

    2015-02-01

    Recombination among RNA viruses is a natural phenomenon that appears to have played a significant role in the species development and the evolution of many strains. It also has particular significance for the risk assessment of plants which have been genetically modified for disease resistance by incorporating viral sequences into their genomes. However, the exact recombination events taking place in viral genomes are not investigated in detail for many virus groups. In this analysis, different single-stranded positive-sense RNA potyviruses were compared using various in silico recombination detection methods and new recombination events in the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) subgroup were detected. For an extended in silico recombination analysis, two of the analyzed Maize dwarf mosaic virus full-length genomes were sequenced additionally during this work. These results strengthen the evidence that recombination is a major driving force in virus evolution, and the emergence of new virus variants in the SCMV subgroup, paired with mutations, could generate viruses with altered biological properties. The intra- and interspecific homolog recombinations seem to be a general trait in this virus group, causing little or no changes to the amino acid of the progenies. However, we found a few breakpoints between the members of SCMV subgroup and the weed-infecting distant relatives, but only a few methods of the RDP3 package predicted these events with low significance level. PMID:25392089

  17. Trisomy 3 mosaicism in a 5-year-old boy with multiple anomalies: A very rare case.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jia; Yao, Xu; Guo, Jihong; Zhao, Liu; Tu, Ming; Qiou, Jun; Zhao, Rui; Luo, Yongqi; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2016-06-01

    Trisomy 3 mosaicism in live birth is exceedingly rare. In this study, we report a 5-year-old boy with trisomy 3 mosaicism who exhibits skeletal anomalies, atypical form of ectodermal dysplasias, refractory diarrhea, and normal intelligence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite marker analyses confirmed the existence of trisomy 3 mosaicism and suggested that the parental origin of the additional chromosome 3 in the trisomic cells was maternal. This report further delineated the trisomy 3 mosaicism in live births. The authors propose that both common phenotypes and phenotypic diversity exist on cases with trisomy 3 mosaicism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004455

  18. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly: A rare cytogenetic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Meck, J.M.; Kozma, C.; Stratakis, C.

    1994-09-01

    The term {open_quotes}mosaic variegated aneuploidy with microcephaly{close_quotes} describes the finding of a variety of chromosomal aneuploidies within the same individual. This mutation affecting mitotic segregation has been reported previously in only 7 persons. We report here on male and female siblings with this condition. Proband 1 died at 57 days of age; proband 2 is 7 months old. Amniocentesis performed on the first sibling only revealed multiple aneuploidies (+2, +6, +X, tetrasomy 2, double trisomy X and 11, and deletion Xq); the majority of cells were normal and the abnormal cells did not constitute true mosaicism. Postnatally, blood on proband 1 had 20/50 cells (40%) with +18, single cells with +10 and +20, and 28/50 normal cells (56%). This was initially interpreted as trisomy 18 mosaicism not detected in amniocytes. Blood from proband 2 showed the following; after 48 hrs in culture, 4/50 trisomic cells (+3, +6, +18, XXY); after 72 hrs 3/50 trisomic cells (+5, +6, +18); after 96 hrs, 7/50 aneuploid cells (+2, +8, +9, +10, +18, double trisomy 11 and 18, tetrasomy 2 with +18). Skin biopsy on proband 2 revealed trisomy 2 in 5/140 cells (4%), one cell each +18 and +19, on cell tetrasomy 2, one cell XXY and +5; 131 cells (94%) were normal. Paternal skin fibroblasts had trisomy 6 in 2/100 cells and 1 cell trisomy 5; the remainder were normal. One trisomic cell (+18) in 100 was found in maternal skin fibroblasts. Trisomy 18 was the most common aneuploidy in the probands` blood. Aneuploidy for chromosomes 2 and X were more common in amniocytes and skin. No trisomies of chromosomes 1, 4, 12-17, 22 or Y were observed; acrocentrics rarely malsegregated. These findings are consistent with those of the other 7 reported patients, and constitute a distinct syndrome of multiple chromosomal aneuploidies associated with microcephaly. Although rare, cytogeneticists and clinical geneticists should be aware of this mitotic mutant.

  19. Rapid Generation of Image Mosaics and Maps for the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney-Spano, Ellyne K.; DellaGiustina, Daniella; Tanquary, Hannah E.; Rizk, Bashar; Golish, Dathon R.; Ko, Wenjeng

    2014-11-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission will rely on image mosaics and maps of asteroid Bennu to support critical mission operations such as sample site selection and long-term science investigations. These mosaics and maps provide a convenient method for visualizing the surface of Bennu and serve as the foundation for the geology maps required to carry out the science investigation for the mission. During proximity operations at Bennu, rapid turnaround of calibrated images into image mosaics and maps will be required to support mission planning and sample site selection. Updated operational and publication quality science maps will be needed as improved spacecraft information, photometric models, and shape models of Bennu become available. Quick turnaround image mosaics and map products will also support the public engagement activities of the mission.Semi-automated image mosaic and map generation software is being developed based on the ISIS software package from the USGS. This software suite will consist of scripts, workflows and data quality checks that support automated control network development and image mosaic generation. Reprocessing capabilities will be incorporated in the software suite to support quick turnaround generation of updated image mosaics and maps resulting from new instrument calibration files, spacecraft trajectory and pointing kernels, photometric correction models and shape model information. Images from the NEAR-Shoemaker rendezvous mission to asteroid Eros provide a test dataset for verification and validation of the software. We present the results of our initial implementation of the system using MSI images of asteroid Eros.

  20. Increased low-level chromosome 21 mosaicism in older individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E C; Schupf, N; Genovese, M; Ye, L L; Kapell, D; Canto, B; Harris, M; Devenny, D; Lee, J H; Brown, W T

    1997-01-20

    During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD), we observed an increase in mosaicism for disomy 21 in older individuals with DS. In a total of 213 DS subjects who were studied cytogenetically, only 1 of 121 (0.8%) under age 45 exhibited mosaicism, while 14 of 92 (15.2%) who were age 45 or older had mosaicism. Mosaicism in this report connotes "low-level" mosaicism, where all 15 individuals exhibited a modal chromosome number of 47 (i.e., trisomy 21), and at least two cells lacked one of the three chromosomes 21. The occurrence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 15, 17, and X increased with age, and an inverse correlation between chromosome loss and size was also observed. Because older individuals had not been karyotyped at birth, it was not possible to determine whether our observations were due to either increased survival of mosaic individuals or accumulation of disomy 21 cells via increased chromosome loss with aging of the trisomy 21 individual. Using a modeling approach involving life table methods, we obtained results that suggested acquired mosaicism as the predominant mechanism to explain our findings. These results support the hypothesis that as individuals with DS age, there is an increased loss of chromosome 21. PMID:9028448

  1. Mosaicism for dominant collagen VI mutations as a cause for intra-familial phenotypic variability

    PubMed Central

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Hu, Ying; Stojkovic, Tanya; Voermans, Nicol; Foley, A. Reghan; Leach, Meganne E; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Bolduc, Veronique; Cullup, Thomas; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Yang, Lin; Su, Hai; Meilleur, Katherine; Schindler, Alice B.; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Richard, Pascale; Butterfield, Russell; Winder, Thomas L.; Crawford, Thomas; Weiss, Robert B.; Muntoni, Francesco; Allamand, Valérie; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen VI-related dystrophies and myopathies (COL6-RD) are a group of disorders that form a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), intermediate phenotypes, to the milder Bethlem myopathy (BM). Both inter- and intra-familial variable expressivity are commonly observed. We present clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic data on four COL6-RD families with marked inter-generational phenotypic heterogeneity. This variable expression seemingly masquerades as anticipation is due to parental mosaicism for a dominant mutation, with subsequent full inheritance and penetrance of the mutation in the heterozygous offspring. We also present an additional 5th simplex patient identified as a mosaic carrier. Parental mosaicism was confirmed in the four families through quantitative analysis of the ratio of mutant versus wild-type allele (COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3) in genomic DNA (gDNA) from various tissues; including blood, saliva, and dermal fibroblasts. Consistent with somatic mosaicism, parental samples had lower ratios of mutant versus wild-type allele compared to the fully heterozygote offspring. However, there was notable variability of the mutant allele levels between tissues tested, ranging from 16% (saliva) to 43% (fibroblasts) in one mosaic father. This is the first report demonstrating mosaicism as a cause of intra-familial/inter-generational variability of COL6-RD, and suggests that sporadic and parental mosaicism may be more common than previously suspected. PMID:25204870

  2. Mosaicism for dominant collagen 6 mutations as a cause for intrafamilial phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Hu, Ying; Stojkovic, Tanya; Voermans, Nicol C; Foley, A Reghan; Leach, Meganne E; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Bolduc, Véronique; Cullup, Thomas; de Becdelièvre, Alix; Yang, Lin; Su, Hai; Meilleur, Katherine; Schindler, Alice B; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Richard, Pascale; Butterfield, Russell J; Winder, Thomas L; Crawford, Thomas O; Weiss, Robert B; Muntoni, Francesco; Allamand, Valérie; Bönnemann, Carsten G

    2015-01-01

    Collagen 6-related dystrophies and myopathies (COL6-RD) are a group of disorders that form a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from severe Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, intermediate phenotypes, to the milder Bethlem myopathy. Both inter- and intrafamilial variable expressivity are commonly observed. We present clinical, immunohistochemical, and genetic data on four COL6-RD families with marked intergenerational phenotypic heterogeneity. This variable expression seemingly masquerades as anticipation is due to parental mosaicism for a dominant mutation, with subsequent full inheritance and penetrance of the mutation in the heterozygous offspring. We also present an additional fifth simplex patient identified as a mosaic carrier. Parental mosaicism was confirmed in the four families through quantitative analysis of the ratio of mutant versus wild-type allele (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) in genomic DNA from various tissues, including blood, dermal fibroblasts, and saliva. Consistent with somatic mosaicism, parental samples had lower ratios of mutant versus wild-type allele compared with the fully heterozygote offspring. However, there was notable variability of the mutant allele levels between tissues tested, ranging from 16% (saliva) to 43% (fibroblasts) in one mosaic father. This is the first report demonstrating mosaicism as a cause of intrafamilial/intergenerational variability of COL6-RD, and suggests that sporadic and parental mosaicism may be more common than previously suspected. PMID:25204870

  3. Increased low-level chromosome 21 mosaicism in older individuals with Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, E.C.; Genovese, M.; Ye, Ling Ling

    1997-01-20

    During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer disease (AD), we observed an increase in mosaicism for disomy 21 in older individuals with DS. In a total of 213 DS subjects who were studied cytogenetically, only 1 of 121 (0.8%) under age 45 exhibited mosaicism, while 14 of 92 (15.2%) who were age 45 or older had mosaicism. Mosaicism in this report connotes {open_quotes}low-level{close_quotes} mosaicism, where all 15 individuals exhibited a modal chromosome number of 47 (i.e., trisomy 21), and at least two cells lacked one of the three chromosomes 21. The occurrence of aneuploidy for chromosomes 15, 17, and X increased with age, and an inverse correlation between chromosome loss and size was also observed. Because older individuals had not been karyotyped at birth, it was not possible to determine whether our observations were due to either increased survival of mosaic individuals or accumulation of disomy 21 cells via increased chromosome loss with aging of the trisomy 21 individual. Using a modeling approach involving life table methods, we obtained results that suggested acquired mosaicism as the predominant mechanism to explain our findings. These results support the hypothesis that as individuals with DS age, there is an increased loss of chromosome 21. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Study on mosaic method for new mode satellite images with high spatial resolution covering urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qiong; Wang, Zhiyong; Wen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Gao, Lianru

    2014-11-01

    New imaging mode has been brought up for collecting multiple scenes in one pass, as is implemented on World View-II. This greatly helps for acquiring high spatial resolution images that cover urban areas, and is to be adopted in the coming Chinese satellites. This paper is to discuss the mosaic characteristic and propose a mosaic line generation method by integrating correlation and the road information. The mosaic line is formed by linking the unique mosaic point on each line restricted within the road. We position the starting point by connectivity analysis of the road lines, and then locate the adjacent point along the road with connectivity analysis. A weighed vector, combining correlation and distance to centre of the road, is used to pick the best point. The points are located on the road unless it is unavoidable, for example, the road ends or the line touches edge of the image. This method provides instant mosaic line generation for urban areas with road information available in most cases. By resorting to the road, the mosaic line is more applicable since many problems for mosaic of high spatial resolution images are solved, for example, tilting of the buildings, the shadows, motions of the vehicles etc. Experiments have been done with WV-II images and gained favorable results.

  5. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus. PMID:9842442

  6. The landsat image mosaic of the Antarctica Web Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusanowski, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    People believe what they can see. The Poles exist as a frozen dream to most people. The International Polar Year wants to break the ice (so to speak), open up the Poles to the general public, support current polar research, and encourage new research projects. The IPY officially begins in March, 2007. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), are developing three Landsat mosaics of Antarctica and an Antarctic Web Portal with a Community site and an online map viewer. When scientists are able to view the entire scope of polar research, they will be better able to collaborate and locate the resources they need. When the general public more readily sees what is happening in the polar environments, they will understand how changes to the polar areas affect everyone.

  7. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  8. Mosaic of CCDs to Survey for Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    Spacewatch searches for asteroids and comets ranging in location from near-Earth space to regions beyond the orbit of Neptune. We are studying Earth-approaching asteroids, main belt asteroids, comets, Centaurs, and TNOs, as well as the interrelationships of these classes and their bearing on the origin and evolution of the solar system. Spacewatch is described at http://www. lpl. arizona. edu/spacewatch/index.html. The Spacewatch Project has been discovering Earth-approaching asteroids (EAs) steadily and has used the results aggressively to estimate the statistical properties of the EA population. This grant funded Spacewatch to develop and implement a mosaic of CCD imaging detectors for the 0.9-m telescope, to increase that telescope's rate of coverage of sky area while preserving its limiting magnitude.

  9. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander . E-mail: amcphers@uci.edu

    2005-04-10

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses.

  10. Striping artifact reduction in lunar orbiter mosaic images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mlsna, P.A.; Becker, T.

    2006-01-01

    Photographic images of the moon from the 1960s Lunar Orbiter missions are being processed into maps for visual use. The analog nature of the images has produced numerous artifacts, the chief of which causes a vertical striping pattern in mosaic images formed from a series of filmstrips. Previous methods of stripe removal tended to introduce ringing and aliasing problems in the image data. This paper describes a recently developed alternative approach that succeeds at greatly reducing the striping artifacts while avoiding the creation of ringing and aliasing artifacts. The algorithm uses a one dimensional frequency domain step to deal with the periodic component of the striping artifact and a spatial domain step to handle the aperiodic residue. Several variations of the algorithm have been explored. Results, strengths, and remaining challenges are presented. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  11. Lunar multispectral mosaics from Galileo's second Earth-Moon flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.; Becker, T. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Klaasen, K. P.; Heffernan, C.; Sunshine, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Galileo's Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment acquired about 800 images of the Moon from the second Earth-Moon flyby (EM2) in December of 1992. Ten major sequences were acquired; each consists of mosaics of the entire or nearly entire visible and illuminated surface from each viewing geometry in at least six spectral filters (effective wavelengths for the Moon of 420, 564, 660, 756, 890, and 990 nm). The geometries of LUNMOS numbers 3, 4, 5, and 6 were designed to provide stereo data at the best possible resolutions. The purpose of this abstract is to describe the sequences, calibration, processing, and mosaicking, and to present a set of color products in a poster session.

  12. Multiple Bragg reflection by a thick mosaic crystal.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Joachim

    2014-09-01

    Symmetric Bragg-case reflections from a thick, ideally imperfect, crystal slab are studied mostly by analytical means. The scattering transfer function of a thin mosaic layer is derived and brought into a form that allows for analytical approximations or easy quadrature. The Darwin-Hamilton equations are generalized, lifting the restriction of wavevectors to a two-dimensional scattering plane. A multireflection expansion shows that wavevector diffusion can be studied independently of the real-space coordinate. Combining analytical arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, multiple Bragg reflections are found to result in a minor correction of the reflected intensity, a moderate broadening of the reflected azimuth angle distribution, a considerable modification of the polar angle distribution, and a noticeable shift and distortion of rocking curves. PMID:25176991

  13. Chern mosaic: Topology of chiral superconductivity on ferromagnetic adatom lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röntynen, Joel; Ojanen, Teemu

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we will explore the properties of superconducting surfaces decorated by two-dimensional ferromagnetic adatom lattices. As discovered recently [Röntynen and Ojanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 236803 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.236803], in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit coupling these systems may support topological superconductivity with complex phase diagrams and high Chern numbers. We show how the long-range hopping nature of the effective low-energy theory generically gives rise to a phase diagram covered by a Chern mosaic, a rich pattern of topological phases with large Chern numbers. We study different lattice geometries and the dependence of energy gaps and abundance of different phases as a function of system parameters. Our findings establish the studied system as one of the richest platforms for topological matter known to date.

  14. Genes for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic in tropical pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Pachner, Martin; Paris, Harry S; Lelley, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Four cultigens of Cucurbita moschata resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus were crossed with the susceptible 'Waltham Butternut' and with each other in order to clarify the mode of inheritance of resistance and relationships among the genes involved. Five loci were segregating, with genes for resistance Zym-0 and Zym-4 carried by 'Nigerian Local' and one of them also carried by 'Nicklow's Delight,' Zym-1 carried by 'Menina,' and zym-6 carried by 'Soler.' A recessive gene carried by 'Waltham Butternut,' zym-5, is complementary with the dominant Zym-4 of 'Nigerian Local,' that is, the resistance conferred by Zym-4 is only expressed in zym-5/zym-5 individuals. Gene zym-6 appears to be linked to either Zym-0 or Zym-4, and it is also possible that Zym-1 is linked to one of them as well. PMID:21493595

  15. Chern mosaic: topology of chiral superconductivity in ferromagnetic adatom lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontynen, Joel; Ojanen, Teemu

    Recent experiments have demonstrated signatures of Majorana bound states in ferromagnetic atomic chains. We show that similar systems, extended to two dimensional geometry, may support chiral topological superconductivity with large Chern numbers. Our observation is based on the fact that magnetic adatoms on an s-wave superconductor bind subgap Shiba states, which can hybridize and form subgap energy bands with nontrivial topology. Such a Shiba lattice supports long-range hopping, leading to a complex, mosaic-like phase diagram with large Chern numbers. We analyze the incidence of different Chern numbers phases and the size of their energy gaps for various lattice geometries. Our findings reveal the studied system as one of the riches platforms of topological matter known to date. The authors acknowledge the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Academy of Finland for support.

  16. The nucleotide sequence of cowpea mosaic virus B RNA

    PubMed Central

    Lomonossoff, G.P.; Shanks, M.

    1983-01-01

    The complete sequence of the bottom component RNA (B RNA) of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been determined. Restriction enzyme fragments of double-stranded cDNA were cloned in M13 and the sequence of the inserts was determined by a combination of enzymatic and chemical sequencing techniques. Additional sequence information was obtained by primed synthesis on first strand cDNA. The complete sequence deduced is 5889 nucleotides long excluding the 3' poly(A), and contains an open reading frame sufficient to code for a polypeptide of mol. wt. 207 760. The coding region is flanked by a 5' leader sequence of 206 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region of 82 residues which does not contain a polyadenylation signal. PMID:16453487

  17. Inclusive mosaic: promoting diversity in nursing through youth mentorship.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, F Beryl; Singh, Mina D; Prescod, Cheryl; Buettgen, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Inclusive Mosaic project, a community-university partnership in an outer-city community in a large Canadian metropolis aimed at promoting diversity in nursing. The project brought together nursing student mentors with middle school and high school youth from diverse backgrounds in a mentoring program aimed at increasing participants' interest in, and confidence in pursuing, higher education and a career in nursing or other health profession. The concepts of emancipatory education, self-efficacy, and possible selves provided the theoretical foundation. Project processes, activities, and outcomes are described, and a post-hoc evaluation encompassing the project's strengths, challenges, limitations, and successes is presented. Recommendations to inform future research and education are also provided. PMID:23759511

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  19. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  20. Analysis of small RNAs derived from Chinese wheat mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Zheng, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Li, Jing; Li, Jun-Min; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV), a member of the genus Furovirus, were characterised from wheat plants by deep sequencing. CWMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CWMV-infected wheat plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards A/U, suggesting that CWMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were predicted. PMID:24997977

  1. Redox-active ferrocene-modified Cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Butt, Julea N; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

    2010-08-28

    A naturally occurring nanoparticle, the plant virus Cowpea mosaic virus, can be decorated with ferrocene derivatives, of various linker lengths with amine and carboxylate groups, on the external surface using a range of conjugation strategies. The multiple, organometallic, redox-active ferrocene moieties on the outer surface of the virus are electrochemically independent with reduction potentials that span a potential window of 0.16 V that are dependent on the site of modification and the nature of the ferrocene derivative. The number of ferrocenes coupled to each virus ranges from about 100 to 240 depending upon the conjugation site and the linker length and these redox active units can provide multielectron reservoirs. PMID:20623052

  2. Mosaic VSGs and the Scale of Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James P. J.; Wang, Huanhuan; Barry, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct ‘mosaic’ VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection. PMID:23853603

  3. Segmentation of mosaicism in cervicographic images using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Jeronimo, Jose; Thoma, George R.

    2009-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM), in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is creating a large digital repository of cervicographic images for the study of uterine cervix cancer prevention. One of the research goals is to automatically detect diagnostic bio-markers in these images. Reliable bio-marker segmentation in large biomedical image collections is a challenging task due to the large variation in image appearance. Methods described in this paper focus on segmenting mosaicism, which is an important vascular feature used to visually assess the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The proposed approach uses support vector machines (SVM) trained on a ground truth dataset annotated by medical experts (which circumvents the need for vascular structure extraction). We have evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm and experimentally demonstrated its feasibility.

  4. Exclusion of mosaicism in Spanish haemophilia A families with inversion of intron 22.

    PubMed

    Tizzano, E F; Cornet, M; Domènech, M; Baiget, M

    2003-09-01

    Inversion of intron 22, the most frequent mutation event in haemophilia A (HA), was tested in our HA families to diagnose the females at risk of being carriers, to trace the origin of the mutation and to investigate the presence of germinal or somatic mosaicism. A total of 166 females belonging to 54 families with inversion, were analysed. All but one of the mothers tested were carriers and the inversion originated almost exclusively in male germ cells. Somatic or germline mosaicisms were excluded in 53 of these women and in 20 grandfathers, suggesting that such mosaicisms may be a rare event in families with inversion of intron 22. PMID:14511298

  5. Mosaic, Self-Similarity Logic, and Biological Attraction principles

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Barlow, Peter W; Guidolin, Diego

    2009-01-01

    From a structural standpoint, living organisms are organized like a nest of Russian matryoshka dolls, in which structures are buried within one another. From a temporal point of view, this type of organization is the result of a history comprised of a set of time backcloths which have accompanied the passage of living matter from its origins up to the present day. The aim of the present paper is to indicate a possible course of this ‘passage through time, and suggest how today’s complexity has been reached by living organisms. This investigation will employ three conceptual tools, namely the Mosaic, Self-Similarity Logic, and the Biological Attraction principles. Self-Similarity Logic indicates the self-consistency by which elements of a living system interact, irrespective of the spatiotemporal level under consideration. The term Mosaic indicates how, from the same set of elements assembled according to different patterns, it is possible to arrive at completely different constructions: hence, each system becomes endowed with different emergent properties. The Biological Attraction principle states that there is an inherent drive for association and merging of compatible elements at all levels of biological complexity. By analogy with the gravitation law in physics, biological attraction is based on the evidence that each living organism creates an attractive field around itself. This field acts as a sphere of influence that actively attracts similar fields of other biological systems, thereby modifying salient features of the interacting organisms. Three specific organizational levels of living matter, namely the molecular, cellular, and supracellular levels, have been considered in order to analyse and illustrate the interpretative as well as the predictive roles of each of these three explanatory principles. PMID:20195461

  6. Tangent linear analysis of the Mosaic land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Runhua; Cohn, Stephen E.; da Silva, Arlindo; Joiner, Joanna; Houser, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a tangent linear eigenanalysis is applied to the Mosaic land surface model (LSM) [, 1992] to examine the impacts of the model internal dynamics and physics on the land surface state variability. The tangent linear model (TLM) of the Mosaic LSM is derived numerically for two sets of basic states and two tile types of land condition, grass and bare soil. An additional TLM, for the soil moisture subsystem of this LSM, is derived analytically for the same cases to obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues. An eigenvalue of the TLM determines a characteristic timescale, and the corresponding eigenvector, or mode, describes a particular coupling among the perturbed states. The results show that (1) errors in initial conditions tend to decay with e-folding times given by the characteristic timescales; (2) the LSM exhibits a wide range of internal variability, modes mainly representing surface temperature and surface moisture perturbations exhibit short timescales, whereas modes mainly representing deep soil temperature perturbations and moisture transfer throughout the entire soil column exhibit much longer timescales; (3) the modes of soil moisture tend to be weakly coupled with other perturbed variables, and the mode representing the deep soil temperature perturbation has a consistent e-folding time across the experiments; (4) the key parameters include soil moisture, soil layer depth, and soil hydraulic parameters. The results agree qualitatively with previous findings. However, tangent linear eigenanalysis provides a new approach to the quantitative substantiation of those findings. Also, it reveals the evolution and the coupling of the perturbed land states that are useful for the development of land surface data assimilation schemes. One must be careful when generalizing the quantitative results since they are obtained with respect to two specific basic states and two simple land conditions. Also, the methodology employed here does not apply

  7. A method of fast mosaic for massive UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Ren; Sun, Min; Jiang, Cheng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of UAV technology, UAVs are used widely in multiple fields such as agriculture, forest protection, mineral exploration, natural disaster management and surveillances of public security events. In contrast of traditional manned aerial remote sensing platforms, UAVs are cheaper and more flexible to use. So users can obtain massive image data with UAVs, but this requires a lot of time to process the image data, for example, Pix4UAV need approximately 10 hours to process 1000 images in a high performance PC. But disaster management and many other fields require quick respond which is hard to realize with massive image data. Aiming at improving the disadvantage of high time consumption and manual interaction, in this article a solution of fast UAV image stitching is raised. GPS and POS data are used to pre-process the original images from UAV, belts and relation between belts and images are recognized automatically by the program, in the same time useless images are picked out. This can boost the progress of finding match points between images. Levenberg-Marquard algorithm is improved so that parallel computing can be applied to shorten the time of global optimization notably. Besides traditional mosaic result, it can also generate superoverlay result for Google Earth, which can provide a fast and easy way to show the result data. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a fast mosaic system of massive UAV images is developed, which is fully automated and no manual interaction is needed after original images and GPS data are provided. A test using 800 images of Kelan River in Xinjiang Province shows that this system can reduce 35%-50% time consumption in contrast of traditional methods, and increases respond speed of UAV image processing rapidly.

  8. Mosaic epigenetic dysregulation of ectodermal cells in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Berko, Esther R; Suzuki, Masako; Beren, Faygel; Lemetre, Christophe; Alaimo, Christine M; Calder, R Brent; Ballaban-Gil, Karen; Gounder, Batya; Kampf, Kaylee; Kirschen, Jill; Maqbool, Shahina B; Momin, Zeineen; Reynolds, David M; Russo, Natalie; Shulman, Lisa; Stasiek, Edyta; Tozour, Jessica; Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Wang, Shenglong; Abrahams, Brett S; Hargitai, Joseph; Inbar, Dov; Zhang, Zhengdong; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Molholm, Sophie; Foxe, John J; Marion, Robert W; Auton, Adam; Greally, John M

    2014-01-01

    DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD) controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement and interact

  9. Mosaic Epigenetic Dysregulation of Ectodermal Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berko, Esther R.; Suzuki, Masako; Beren, Faygel; Lemetre, Christophe; Alaimo, Christine M.; Calder, R. Brent; Ballaban-Gil, Karen; Gounder, Batya; Kampf, Kaylee; Kirschen, Jill; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Momin, Zeineen; Reynolds, David M.; Russo, Natalie; Shulman, Lisa; Stasiek, Edyta; Tozour, Jessica; Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Wang, Shenglong; Abrahams, Brett S.; Hargitai, Joseph; Inbar, Dov; Zhang, Zhengdong; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Molholm, Sophie; Foxe, John J.; Marion, Robert W.; Auton, Adam; Greally, John M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD) controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement and interact

  10. Correlating Photoreceptor Mosaic Structure to Clinical Findings in Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razeen, Moataz M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Langlo, Christopher S.; Goldberg, Mara R.; Wilk, Melissa A.; Han, Dennis P.; Connor, Thomas B.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Collison, Frederick T.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Stepien, Kimberly E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a method for correlating photoreceptor mosaic structure with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry findings in patients with Stargardt disease. Methods A total of 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Stargardt disease were imaged using confocal and split-detection adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy. Cone photoreceptors were identified manually in a band along the temporal meridian. Resulting values were compared to a normative database (n = 9) to generate cone density deviation (CDD) maps. Manual measurement of outer nuclear layer plus Henle fiber layer (ONL+HFL) thickness was performed, in addition to determination of the presence of ellipsoid zone (EZ) and interdigitation zone (IZ) bands on OCT. These results, along with microperimetry data, were overlaid with the CDD maps. Results Wide variation in foveal structure and CDD maps was seen within this small group. Disruption of ONL+HFL and/or IZ band was seen in all patients, with EZ band preservation in regions with low cone density in 38% of locations analyzed. Normality of retinal lamellar structure on OCT corresponded with cone density and visual function at 50/78 locations analyzed. Outer retinal tubulations containing photoreceptor-like structures were observed in 3 patients. Conclusions The use of CDD color-coded maps enables direct comparison of cone mosaic local density with other measures of retinal structure and function. Larger normative datasets and improved tools for automation of image alignment are needed. Translational Relevance The approach described facilitates comparison of complex multimodal data sets from patients with inherited retinal degeneration, and can be expanded to incorporate other structural imaging or functional testing. PMID:26981328

  11. [Stable morphologies and mosaicism in the macroevolution of birds (Neornithes)].

    PubMed

    Zelenkov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Modern orders of Neornithine birds are separated by distinct morphological gaps, hampering the development of particular models. of macroevolutionary transformations. However, recent decades have witnessed the discovery and extensive study of many fossil groups of birds, which shed light on the origin of modern higher taxa. These fossils further allow analyzing the whole process of the macroevolutionary change in this group of vertebrates during the Cenozoic. Here, a brief review is presented of the "transitional" taxa with special attention to representative of the clade Galloanseres. Almost all transitional groups of fossil birds do display mosaic morphology. It is noted that many stable morphologies (characters and character complexes) persist in different groups, occurring either as primitive states, or as advanced ones. The stable recurrence of these characters is caused by the persistence of stable ontogenetic pathways. On the other hand, independent evolution of various morphologies can be explained by the modular organization of the development. The modularity in the structure of the foot is used here as an example to show a possible way of the origin of the foot in extant perching birds (Passeriformes). The mosaic morphology of the transitional taxa is seen as the only possible way to overcome the evolutionary constraint of the parallel optimization of numerous organismal systems. It is noted that in course of macroevolutionary change, no complete filling of morphological gaps occur. Transitional forms are separated by additional gaps from their ancestors and descendants. Hence, stem groups are seen as the most probable ancestors of crown taxa. It is further noted that the evolutionary formation of some higher taxa of the living birds was initiated by the evolution of advanced morphology of the feeding apparatus and skull, while change in their. postcranial morphology was delayed. PMID:26353395

  12. Biological activities of hybrid RNAs generated by 3'-end exchanges between tobacco mosaic and brome mosaic viruses.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Kroner, P; Ahlquist, P; Meshi, T

    1991-07-01

    Sequences within the conserved, aminoacylatable 3' noncoding regions of brome mosaic virus (BMV) genomic RNAs 1, 2, and 3 direct initiation of negative-strand synthesis by BMV polymerase extracts and, like sequences at the structurally divergent but aminoacylatable 3' end of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA, are required in cis for RNA replication in vivo. A series of chimeric RNAs in which selected 3' segments were exchanged between the tyrosine-accepting BMV and histidine-accepting TMV RNAs were constructed and their amplification was examined in protoplasts inoculated with or without other BMV and TMV RNAs. TMV derivatives whose 3' noncoding region was replaced by sequences from BMV RNA3 were independently replication competent when the genes for the TMV 130,000-M(r) and 180,000-M(r) replication factors remained intact. TMV replicase can thus utilize the BMV-derived 3' end, though at lower efficiency than the wild-type (wt) TMV 3' end. Providing functional BMV RNA replicase by coinoculation with BMV genomic RNAs 1 and 2 did not improve the amplification of these hybrid genomic RNAs. By contrast, BMV RNA3 derivatives carrying the 3' noncoding region of TMV were not amplified when coinoculated with wt BMV RNA1 and RNA2, wt TMV RNA, or all three. Thus, BMV replicase appeared to be unable to utilize the TMV 3' end, and there was no evidence of intervirus complementation in the replication of any of the hybrid RNAs. In protoplasts coinoculated with BMV RNA1 and RNA2, the nonamplifiable RNA3 derivatives bearing TMV 3' sequences gave rise to diverse new rearranged or recombined RNA species that were amplifiable. PMID:2041076

  13. A role of stochastic phenotype switching in generating mosaic endothelial cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lei; Chan, Gary C; Beeler, David; Janes, Lauren; Spokes, Katherine C; Dharaneeswaran, Harita; Mojiri, Anahita; Adams, William J; Sciuto, Tracey; Garcia-Cardeña, Guillermo; Molema, Grietje; Kang, Peter M; Jahroudi, Nadia; Marsden, Philip A; Dvorak, Ann; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biological noise may drive dynamic phenotypic mosaicism in isogenic unicellular organisms. However, there is no evidence for a similar mechanism operating in metazoans. Here we show that the endothelial-restricted gene, von Willebrand factor (VWF), is expressed in a mosaic pattern in the capillaries of many vascular beds and in the aorta. In capillaries, the mosaicism is dynamically regulated, with VWF switching between ON and OFF states during the lifetime of the animal. Clonal analysis of cultured endothelial cells reveals that dynamic mosaic heterogeneity is controlled by a low-barrier, noise-sensitive bistable switch that involves random transitions in the DNA methylation status of the VWF promoter. Finally, the hearts of VWF-null mice demonstrate an abnormal endothelial phenotype as well as cardiac dysfunction. Together, these findings suggest a novel stochastic phenotype switching strategy for adaptive homoeostasis in the adult vasculature. PMID:26744078

  14. Identification of mosaicism in Prader-Willi syndrome using fluorescent in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U.; Hanchett, J.M.

    1996-12-30

    We report on our findings of 4 patients with mosaicism for a deletion of chromosome 15, most commonly associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We examined a series of typical and atypical PWS patients in order to identify cytogenetically undetected deletions, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In 4 of the patients analyzed we detected a deletion in 14-60% of peripheral blood leukocytes, using four commercially available probes. Our results indicate that mosaicism may play a role in the etiology of some PWS cases. These findings may be especially useful in patients who display discrepancies between clinical phenotype and established diagnostic criteria. Methylation and microsatellite polymorphism analyses of 2 patients with low-level mosaicism failed to identify the deletion. We propose that fluorescence in situ hybridization is the most effective method for detecting somatic mosaicism, since a large number of cells can be individually examined for the presence or absence of a specific deletion. 47 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  16. 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism and Possible Association With Hypothyroidism in Males.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Leila; Schweiger, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Mosaicism has a wide phenotypic spectrum but frequently manifests as the normal male phenotype. Its association with short stature has been well recognized and appears to respond effectively to growth hormone therapy. We present 2 phenotypically normal males who both initially presented with short stature and were found to have hypothyroidism. They were treated for hypothyroidism but their growth did not improve as expected. Further testing revealed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in both males. We propose that a potential link exists between 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and hypothyroidism, which has not been previously described in the literature. Furthermore, it may be beneficial to evaluate for other disorders such as 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in young males with short stature and hypothyroidism if their growth does not improve once they become euthyroid. PMID:26294759

  17. [Kidney bean "Pervomayskaya" as the indicator plant for tobacco mosaic virus].

    PubMed

    Kraiev, V H

    2005-01-01

    It was shown that garden beans of "Pervomayskaya" variety respond to mechanical inoculation of leaves with tobacco mosaic virus by formation of local lesions, and thus it may be the indicator plant for the virus. PMID:16250238

  18. Germline mosaicism in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis - recurrence in siblings.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, James J; Phelan, Ethna; Steenackers, Ellen; van Hul, Wim; Reardon, William

    2016-04-01

    We report recurrence of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) in two full siblings conceived by unaffected parents. Molecular confirmation of OSCS in both siblings was achieved by identification of a novel heterozygous mutation in the WTX gene. Neither parent had clinical features of OSCS nor was the pathogenic mutation demonstrable in DNA extracted from both peripheral blood leucocytes and buccal cells. This case demonstrates germline mosaicism in OSCS and represents the third report of mosaicism affecting the germline in families with OSCS. Previous reports were of parental gonadosomal mosaicism, with one showing recurrence in multiple children. Our observation adds to a body of evidence that suggests that germline mosaicism in OSCS may occur more frequently than believed previously and may have implications for counselling families with OSCS. PMID:26886897

  19. High resolution imaging of superficial mosaicity in single crystals using grazing incidence fast atom diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalmi, B.; Khemliche, H.; Momeni, A.; Soulisse, P.; Roncin, P.

    2012-11-01

    A new table top technique is used to simultaneously analyze the local morphology of crystalline surfaces as well as the misalignment of large scale domains at the topmost surface layer. The approach is based on fast atom diffraction at grazing incidence (GIFAD); the diffraction pattern yields the structural characteristics and the topology of the surface electronic density with atomic resolution. If superficial mosaicity is present, diffraction patterns arising from each mosaic domain can be distinguished, providing high sensitivity to the properties of each of the domains. Taking NaCl(001) as an example, we observe a discrete tilt angle distribution of the mosaic domains following an arithmetic progression with a 0.025° ± 0.005° difference; a twist mosaic angle of 0.09° ± 0.01° is also observed.

  20. Mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn; Beatrice H.

    2011-05-31

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  1. A fast and automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongshun; He, Hui; Xiao, Hongyu; Huang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fast and fully automatic mosaic method for high-resolution satellite images. First, the overlapped rectangle is computed according to geographical locations of the reference and mosaic images and feature points on both the reference and mosaic images are extracted by a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm only from the overlapped region. Then, the RANSAC method is used to match feature points of both images. Finally, the two images are fused into a seamlessly panoramic image by the simple linear weighted fusion method or other method. The proposed method is implemented in C++ language based on OpenCV and GDAL, and tested by Worldview-2 multispectral images with a spatial resolution of 2 meters. Results show that the proposed method can detect feature points efficiently and mosaic images automatically.

  2. Influence of crystal mosaicity on axial channeling effects and lattice site determination of impurities

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, B.; Vantomme, A.; Wahl, U.; Ruffenach, S.; Briot, O.

    2013-10-21

    Using the electron emission channeling and Rutherford backscattering/channeling techniques, the influence of the mosaicity of a thin film on the axial channeling of charged particles was investigated. It is found that crystal mosaicity leads to a broadening and a degradation of the experimental channeling effects. This phenomenon, which is shown to be of major importance when assessing the lattice site of impurities in a single crystal, can be modeled quantitatively by using the mosaic tilt and twist components derived from X-ray rocking curve scans. As a case study, we illustrate that our approach allows to accurately determine the lattice site of Er in AlN, despite the significant influence of mosaicity on the channeling measurements.

  3. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y. PMID:23100839

  4. PCR versus Southern blot detection of somatic mosaicism in fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, O.T.; Amar, M.J.A.; Gallardo, L.A.; Kousseff, B.G.

    1994-09-01

    The incidence of somatic mosaicism in males with fragile X syndrome has been reported to be as high as 17% of all clinically affected males. Mosaic cases usually do not show the cytogenetic fragile site at Xq27.3 and generally are fully affected according to the clinical criteria, although some subjects show somewhat milder symptoms. Detection of mosaicism relies on the identification of multiple distinct sizes of the CGG size anomaly in the 5{prime} untranslated exon of the FMR-1 gene. Some alleles identified are of a premutation size with trinucleotides numbering 50 to 80 X CGG. In addition, there is a greatly expanded allele with well over 200 copies of the CGG repeat detected. We screened 314 subjects for fragile X syndrome over a three year period. Cases were routinely screened by Southern blotting using the StB12.3 probe as well as by polymerase chain reaction. The PCR amplification products were electrophoresed in agarose, blotted and hybridized with a (CGG){sub 5} oligonucleotide followed by chemiluminescent detection. Seventeen males and 16 females were identified with a CGG expansion, including two males with premutations with repeat sizes of between 50 and 100 CGG trinucleotides and three cases exhibiting somatic mosaicism. The mosaic cases had both a premutation-sized allele and one or more expanded alleles of over 250 CGG copies. The mosaic cases were usually undetected with Southern blotting but easily identified with this PCR protocol. The relative proportion of the expanded allele as determined by scanning densitometry were 70%, 35%, and 5% in the three cases. All three cases were cytogenetically negative. The clinical severity of the mosaic cases was variable, with symptoms ranging from severe MR with most of the physical stigmata to mild learning disability. In our experience, Southern blotting allows more accurate sizing of the expanded allele; however, PCR is essential to identify cases that exhibit mosaicism.

  5. Computer analysis between nucleotide and amino acid sequences of bean golden mosaic virus and those of maize streak, wheat dwarf, chloris striate mosaic, and beet curly top viruses.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, M

    1989-01-01

    Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) DNA 1 and 2 have little sequence homology with maize streak virus (MSV), wheat dwarf virus (WDV), and chloris striate mosaic virus (CSMV) DNAs. BGMV DNA 1 and beet curly top virus (BCTV) DNA are closely related, whereas BGMV DNA 2 and BCTV DNA are not related. Direct amino acid homologies of predicted proteins between BGMV ORFs and MSV ORFs, WDV ORFs or CSMV ORFs were 40-50%. BGMV 1L1 and BCTV L1, and BGMV IL3 and BCTV L4 were highly conserved. The sequence TAATATTAC was detected in the loops of hairpin structures of 5 gemini-viruses. PMID:2615677

  6. Nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome confirms that pea mosaic virus is a strain of bean yellow mosaic potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X W; Frenkel, M J; Ward, C W; Shukla, D D

    1994-01-01

    The 1,035 nucleotides at the 3'end of the I strain of pea mosaic potyvirus (PMV-I) genomic RNA, encoding the coat protein, have been cloned and sequenced. A comparison of the derived coat protein sequence with those of the bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) strains, CS, S, D and GDD, indicates that PMV-I is a strain of BYMV. Sequence comparisons and hybridisation studies using the 3'-noncoding region support this classification. The nucleotide and protein sequence data also suggest that PMV-I and BYMV-CS form one subset of BYMV strains while the other three strains form another. PMID:8031241

  7. Confocal microscopy with strip mosaicing for rapid imaging over large areas of excised tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeytunge, Sanjee; Li, Yongbiao; Larson, Bjorg; Peterson, Gary; Seltzer, Emily; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-06-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy is a developing technology platform for imaging tumor margins directly in freshly excised tissue, without the processing required for conventional pathology. Previously, mosaicing on 12-×-12 mm2 of excised skin tissue from Mohs surgery and detection of basal cell carcinoma margins was demonstrated in 9 min. Last year, we reported the feasibility of a faster approach called "strip mosaicing," which was demonstrated on a 10-×-10 mm2 of tissue in 3 min. Here we describe further advances in instrumentation, software, and speed. A mechanism was also developed to flatten tissue in order to enable consistent and repeatable acquisition of images over large areas. We demonstrate mosaicing on 10-×-10 mm2 of skin tissue with 1-μm lateral resolution in 90 s. A 2.5-×-3.5 cm2 piece of breast tissue was scanned with 0.8-μm lateral resolution in 13 min. Rapid mosaicing of confocal images on large areas of fresh tissue potentially offers a means to perform pathology at the bedside. Imaging of tumor margins with strip mosaicing confocal microscopy may serve as an adjunct to conventional (frozen or fixed) pathology for guiding surgery.

  8. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a woman with normal intelligence, pigmentary dysplasia, and an 18 trisomic daughter

    SciTech Connect

    Ukita, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Masaaki; Nakahori, Takashi

    1997-01-20

    Survival beyond the age of 10 years is rare among 18-trisomic individuals. Most of these long-term survivors, when more than one tissue is studied, are normal/trisomy mosaics. They are usually mentally severely retarded with a variety of anomalies. There is another group of mosaic individuals: 7 women and a 13-year-old girl, with a low frequency of 18-trisomic cells, normal or mildly retarded intelligence, and minor anomalies. Two of them were diagnosed after delivering malformed stillborn infants. One of them was the mother of a trisomy 18 patient who was coincidentally found to have trisomy 18 mosaicism. Pigmentary dysplasia, previously called hypomelanosis of Ito, is a disorder with linear, swirly, or patchy, hypo- or hyperpigmented areas of skin, resulting from migration and interaction of melanoblasts of different pigmentary potential. The disorder is often accompanied by mosaic chromosomal abnormalities, including mosaic trisomy 18. Here we report a 26-year-old woman with low frequency trisomy 18 mosaicism, normal intelligence, and pigmentary dysplasia, who gave birth to an 18-trisomic girl. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  9. The research on the optimal threshold of canny edge detector for searching mosaic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Guiwen; Cao, Liying; Zhao, Dongfang; Wu, Haozheng

    2015-12-01

    The most distinct character of mosaic objects in digital images is that their boundaries are usually presented in grid or semi-grid shape. Therefore the first task for searching mosaic objects is to identifying these grids or semi-grid blocks in digital images. Canny edge detector is employed to improve performance in identifying edge points, which are thus used to search mosaic points by template matching. To ensure the efficiency of edge detection, the optimal threshold for pixels classification is studied in this paper. At first, the initial thresholds are obtained by an iterative method, then 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 of the initial lower one is used as lower threshold in searching mosaic points. Fifty images are selected as experimental subjects, and applied with different thresholds. The results show when lower threshold is set to 1/4 of the initial, mosaic points can be detected, but with a low hit rate; when set to 1/8 of the original, mosaic points can be identified with acceptable accuracy.

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing of Two Phenotypic Mosaic Eucalyptus Trees Reveals Large Scale Transcriptome Re-Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Padovan, Amanda; Patel, Hardip R.; Chuah, Aaron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Krause, Sandra T.; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J.; Külheim, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic mosaic trees offer an ideal system for studying differential gene expression. We have investigated two mosaic eucalypt trees from two closely related species (Eucalyptus melliodora and E. sideroxylon), which each support two types of leaves: one part of the canopy is resistant to insect herbivory and the remaining leaves are susceptible. Driving this ecological distinction are differences in plant secondary metabolites. We used these phenotypic mosaics to investigate genome wide patterns of foliar gene expression with the aim of identifying patterns of differential gene expression and the somatic mutation(s) that lead to this phenotypic mosaicism. We sequenced the mRNA pool from leaves of the resistant and susceptible ecotypes from both mosaic eucalypts using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We found large differences in pathway regulation and gene expression between the ecotypes of each mosaic. The expression of the genes in the MVA and MEP pathways is reflected by variation in leaf chemistry, however this is not the case for the terpene synthases. Apart from the terpene biosynthetic pathway, there are several other metabolic pathways that are differentially regulated between the two ecotypes, suggesting there is much more phenotypic diversity than has been described. Despite the close relationship between the two species, they show large differences in the global patterns of gene and pathway regulation. PMID:25978451

  11. Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Dan; Bar, Anna; Snaveley, Nicholas; Lee, Ken; Chen, Nathaniel; Swanson, Neil; Simpson, Eric; Jacques, Steve

    2012-06-01

    For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing invasive SCC, and five containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4× histology. Of the total 50 SCC and 25 normal sub-mosaics presented, two reviewers made two and three type-2 errors (false positives), respectively. Limitations to precisely mimic H&E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues.

  12. Tetraploid/Diploid Mosaicism in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblasts: Is It Causally Related to Penoscrotal Hypospadias?

    PubMed

    Giltay, Jacques C; Klijn, Aart J; de Jong, Tom P V M; Kats, Peter; van Breugel, Marjolijn; Lens, Susan; Vromans, Martijn; van der Veken, Lars T; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Tetraploid/diploid mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is infrequently reported in patients with severe developmental delay, growth retardation, and short life span. Here, we present a 6-year-old patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias and a coloboma of the left eye but with normal growth, normal psychomotor development, and without dysmorphisms. We considered a local, mosaic sex chromosomal aneuploidy as a possible cause of his genital anomaly and performed karyotyping in cultured fibroblasts from the genital skin, obtained during surgical correction. Tetraploid/diploid (92,XXYY/46,XY) mosaicism was found in 43/57 and 6/26 metaphases in 2 separate cultures, respectively. Buccal smear cells, blood lymphocytes, and cells from urine sediment all showed diploidy. We investigated whether this chromosomal abnormality could be found in other patients with severe hypospadias and karyotyped genital fibroblasts of 6 additional patients but found only low frequencies (<11%) of tetraploid cells, not statistically different from those found in control males with no hypospadias. This is the first time tetraploid mosaicism is found in such a high percentage in a patient without psychomotor retardation, dysmorphisms or growth delay. Although the relationship between this observed mosaicism in cultured cells and the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in penoscrotal hypospadias remains to be determined, our data clearly illustrate the power of cytogenetic techniques in detecting mosaicism compared to next-generation sequencing techniques, in which DNA pooled from multiple cells is used. PMID:27587991

  13. Construction of panoramic image mosaics based on affine transform and graph cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiying; Qin, Kaihuai

    2010-08-01

    Image-based rendering has been a popular technique to simulate a visually rich telepresence and virtual reality experience. The construction of panoramic image mosaics is an indispensable step in image-based rendering systems like QuickTime VR and Surround Video. The conventional methods for creating panoramic image mosaics with regular photographic or video images use geometrical feature points and optimization to the overlapped areas of the two consecutive images, and then align and mosaic the corresponding areas using the blending or stitching algorithm. This paper introduces a novel and efficient method to build panoramic image mosaics. The proposed method divides the overlapped areas of the consecutive images into several sub-areas. The feature point, whose gradient value of intensity is the maximum in the sub-area can be found easily. After selecting these feature points, we warp the images using an affine transformation based on point set matching. Then the graph cut algorithm is used to build the seamless image mosaic which makes the overlapped areas containing no visible ghosting or blurred details. It is shown by the experiments that the new method can obtain mosaics of high quality and reduce the computing time.

  14. Wide field imaging of solar system objects with an 8192 x 8192 CCD mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Donald N. B.

    1995-01-01

    As part of this program, we successfully completed the construction of the world's largest CCD camera, an 8192 x 8192 CCD mosaic. The system employs 8 2K x 4K 3-edge buttable CCDs arranged in a 2 x 4 chip mosaic. The focal plane has small gaps (less than 1 mm) between mosaic elements and measures over 120 mm x 120 mm. The initial set of frontside illuminated CCDs were developed with Loral-Fairchild in a custom foundry run. The initial lots yielded of order 20 to 25 functional devices, of which we selected the best eight for inclusion for the camera. We have designed a custom 3-edge-buttable package that ensures the CCD dies are mounted flat to plus or minus 10 microns over the entire area of the mosaic. The mosaic camera system consists of eight separate readout signal chains controlled by two independent DSP microcontrollers. These are in turn interfaced to a Sun Sparc-10 workstation through two high speed fiber optic interfaces. The system saw first-light on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea in March 1995. First-light on the University of Hawaii 2.2-M Telescope on Mauna Kea was in July 1995. Both runs were quite successful. A sample of some of the early science from the first light run is reported in the publication, 'Observations of Weak Lensing in Clusters with an 8192 x 8192 CCD Mosaic Camera'.

  15. Comparable low-level mosaicism in affected and non affected tissue of a complex CDH patient.

    PubMed

    Veenma, Danielle; Beurskens, Niels; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert; Noomen, Petra; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Grijseels, Els; Lequin, Maarten; de Krijger, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Van Opstal, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect) could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow-up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future. PMID:21203572

  16. Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Anna; Snaveley, Nicholas; Lee, Ken; Chen, Nathaniel; Swanson, Neil; Simpson, Eric; Jacques, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing invasive SCC, and five containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4× histology. Of the total 50 SCC and 25 normal sub-mosaics presented, two reviewers made two and three type-2 errors (false positives), respectively. Limitations to precisely mimic H&E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues. PMID:22734774

  17. Ganymede Uruk Sulcus High Resolution Mosaic Shown in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo high-resolution images of the Uruk Sulcus region of Jupiter's moon Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown within the context of an image of the region taken by Voyager 2 in 1979, which in turn is shown within the context of a full-disk image of Ganymede. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  18. Modeling energy fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes employing a mosaic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that uncertainties in regional and global climate and weather simulations are partly due to inadequate descriptions of the energy flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. One major shortcoming is the limitation of the grid-cell resolution, which is recommended to be about at least 3x3 km² in most models due to limitations in the model physics. To represent each individual grid cell most models select one dominant soil type and one dominant land use type. This resolution, however, is often too coarse in regions where the spatial diversity of soil and land use types are high, e.g. in Central Europe. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mosaic approach. This approach is part of the recently developed ecosystem model framework Expert-N 5.0. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of two managed fields, planted with winter wheat and potato, on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. The simulated energy fluxes were compared with eddy flux tower measurements between the respective fields at the research farm Scheyern, North-West of Munich, Germany. To perform these simulations, we coupled the ecosystem model Expert-N 5.0 to an analytical footprint model. The coupled model system has the ability to calculate the mixing ratio of the surface energy fluxes at a given point within one grid cell (in this case at the flux tower between the two fields). This approach accounts for the differences of the two soil types, of land use managements, and of canopy properties due to footprint size dynamics. Our preliminary simulation results show that a mosaic approach can improve modeling and analyzing energy fluxes when the land surface is heterogeneous. In this case our applied method is a promising approach to extend weather and climate models on the regional and on the global scale.

  19. Computing Global Mosaics of Titan With the VIMS Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Cornet, T.; Rodriguez, S.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini observes the surface of Titan in seven narrow atmospheric windows in the infrared at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.68-2.78, and 4.9-5.1 microns. We have produced a global hyperspectral mosaic of the complete VIMS data set of Titan between T0 (July 2004) and T112 flyby (July 2015), by merging all the data cubes sorted by increasing spatial resolution, with the high resolution images on top of the mosaic and the low resolution images used as background. We filtered out the observing geometry in order to remove the pixels acquired in too extreme illuminating and viewing conditions, which systematically produce atmospheric artifacts. We used thresholds of 80° both on the incidence and emission angles, 100° on the phase angle, and 7 on the airmass. These thresholds corresponds to a trade-off between surface coverage and data quality. The viewing geometry is normalized at first order using a surface photometric function derived from the observation at 5 μm, where the atmospheric scattering is almost negligible. We also use the wings of the atmospheric windows as a proxy to correct for the amount of additive scattering present in the center of these windows, where the surface is seen by VIMS. Various color composites can then be produced using combinations of different wavelengths to emphasize surface heterogeneities. Among these, a RGB composite with red controlled by the 5 μm image, the green by the 2 μm image and the blue by the 1.27 μm, reveals the extent of equatorial dune fields appearing in brownish tones. Bluish areas corresponds to regions possibly enriched in water ice or other organic compounds. Composite of band ratios such as 1.59/1.27 μm, 2.03/1.27 μm and 1.27/1.08 also prove to be more useful to better emphasize surface variations, even if they are also more sensitive to residual artefacts due to atmospheric and geometric effects or calibration residuals.

  20. Mosaic gene network modelling identified new regulatory mechanisms in HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Popik, Olga V; Petrovskiy, Evgeny D; Mishchenko, Elena L; Lavrik, Inna N; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2016-06-15

    Modelling of gene networks is widely used in systems biology to study the functioning of complex biological systems. Most of the existing mathematical modelling techniques are useful for analysis of well-studied biological processes, for which information on rates of reactions is available. However, complex biological processes such as those determining the phenotypic traits of organisms or pathological disease processes, including pathogen-host interactions, involve complicated cross-talk between interacting networks. Furthermore, the intrinsic details of the interactions between these networks are often missing. In this study, we developed an approach, which we call mosaic network modelling, that allows the combination of independent mathematical models of gene regulatory networks and, thereby, description of complex biological systems. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to generate the integrated model despite the fact that information on molecular interactions between parts of the model (so-called mosaic fragments) might be missing. To generate a mosaic mathematical model, we used control theory and mathematical models, written in the form of a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of this method in modelling the dynamics of more than 10,000 simulated mosaic regulatory networks consisting of two pieces. Analysis revealed that this approach was highly efficient, as the mean deviation of the dynamics of mosaic network elements from the behaviour of the initial parts of the model was less than 10%. It turned out that for construction of the control functional, data on perturbation of one or two vertices of the mosaic piece are sufficient. Further, we used the developed method to construct a mosaic gene regulatory network including hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the first piece and the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis and NF-κB induction pathways as the second piece. Thus

  1. Proton dependence of tobacco mosaic virus dissociation by pressure.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jose L R; Bispo, Jose A C; Landini, Gustavo F; Bonafe, Carlos F S

    2004-09-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an intensely studied model of viruses. This paper reports an investigation into the dissociation of TMV by pH and pressure up to 220 MPa. The viral solution (0.25 mg/ml) incubated at 277 K showed a significant decrease in light scattering with increasing pH, suggesting dissociation. This observation was confirmed by HPLC gel filtration and electron microscopy. The calculated volume change of dissociation (DeltaV) decreased (absolute value) from -49.7 ml/mol of subunit at pH 3.8 to -21.7 ml/mol of subunit at pH 9.0. The decrease from pH 9.0 to 3.8 caused a stabilization of 14.1 kJ/mol of TMV subunit. The estimated proton release calculated from pressure-induced dissociation curves was 0.584 mol H(+)/mol of TMV subunit. These results suggest that the degree of virus inactivation by pressure and the immunogenicity of the inactivated structures can be optimized by modulating the surrounding pH. PMID:15450375

  2. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  3. An improved probability mapping approach to assess genome mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Gogarten, J Peter

    2003-01-01

    Background Maximum likelihood and posterior probability mapping are useful visualization techniques that are used to ascertain the mosaic nature of prokaryotic genomes. However, posterior probabilities, especially when calculated for four-taxon cases, tend to overestimate the support for tree topologies. Furthermore, because of poor taxon sampling four-taxon analyses suffer from sensitivity to the long branch attraction artifact. Here we extend the probability mapping approach by improving taxon sampling of the analyzed datasets, and by using bootstrap support values, a more conservative tool to assess reliability. Results Quartets of orthologous proteins were complemented with homologs from selected reference genomes. The mapping of bootstrap support values from these extended datasets gives results similar to the original maximum likelihood and posterior probability mapping. The more conservative nature of the plotted support values allows to focus further analyses on those protein families that strongly disagree with the majority or plurality of genes present in the analyzed genomes. Conclusion Posterior probability is a non-conservative measure for support, and posterior probability mapping only provides a quick estimation of phylogenetic information content of four genomes. This approach can be utilized as a pre-screen to select genes that might have been horizontally transferred. Better taxon sampling combined with subtree analyses prevents the inconsistencies associated with four-taxon analyses, but retains the power of visual representation. Nevertheless, a case-by-case inspection of individual multi-taxon phylogenies remains necessary to differentiate unrecognized paralogy and shared phylogenetic reconstruction artifacts from horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:12974984

  4. Complete genome sequence of bean rugose mosaic virus, genus Comovirus.

    PubMed

    Picoli, M H S; Garcia, A; Barboza, A A L; de Souto, Eliezer Rodrigues; Almeida, A M R

    2016-06-01

    Since the first report in Costa Rica in 1971, bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) has been found in Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Brazil. In this study, the complete genome sequence of a soybean isolate of BRMV from Paraná State, Brazil, was determined. The BRMV genome consists of two polyadenylated RNAs. RNA1 is 5909 nucleotides long and encodes a single polypeptide of 1856 amino acids (aa), with an estimated molecular weight of 210 kDa. The RNA1 polyprotein contains the polypeptides for viral replication and proteolytic processing. RNA2 is 3644 nucleotides long and codes for a single polypeptide of 1097 aa, containing the movement and coat proteins. This is the first complete genome sequence of BRMV. When compared with available aa sequences of comoviruses, the highest identities of BRMV coat proteins and proteinase polymerase were 57.5 and 58 %, respectively. These were below the 75 and 80 % identity limits, respectively, established for species demarcation in the genus. This confirms that BRMV is a member of a distinct species in the genus Comovirus. PMID:26973227

  5. Seeing tobacco mosaic virus through direct electron detectors.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Simon A; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Jakobi, Arjen J; Hagen, Wim J H; Sachse, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    With the introduction of direct electron detectors (DED) to the field of electron cryo-microscopy, a wave of atomic-resolution structures has become available. As the new detectors still require comparative characterization, we have used tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a test specimen to study the quality of 3D image reconstructions from data recorded on the two direct electron detector cameras, K2 Summit and Falcon II. Using DED movie frames, we explored related image-processing aspects and compared the performance of micrograph-based and segment-based motion correction approaches. In addition, we investigated the effect of dose deposition on the atomic-resolution structure of TMV and show that radiation damage affects negative carboxyl chains first in a side-chain specific manner. Finally, using 450,000 asymmetric units and limiting the effects of radiation damage, we determined a high-resolution cryo-EM map at 3.35Å resolution. Here, we provide a comparative case study of highly ordered TMV recorded on different direct electron detectors to establish recording and processing conditions that enable structure determination up to 3.2Å in resolution using cryo-EM. PMID:25528571

  6. Characterizing the Human Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic via Dynamic Photopigment Densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Hofer, Heidi; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Densitometry is a powerful tool for the biophysical assessment of the retina. Until recently, this was restricted to bulk spatial scales in living humans. The application of adaptive optics (AO) to the conventional fundus camera and scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) has begun to translate these studies to cellular scales. Here, we employ an AOSLO to perform dynamic photopigment densitometry in order to characterize the optical properties and spectral types of the human cone photoreceptor mosaic. Cone-resolved estimates of optical density and photosensitivity agree well with bulk estimates, although show smaller variability than previously reported. Photopigment kinetics of individual cones derived from their selective bleaching allowed efficient mapping of cone sub-types in human retina. Estimated uncertainty in identifying a cone as long vs middle wavelength was less than 5%, and the total time taken per subject ranged from 3-9 hours. Short wavelength cones were delineated in every subject with high fidelity. The lack of a third cone-type was confirmed in a protanopic subject. In one color normal subject, cone assignments showed 91% correspondence against a previously reported cone-typing method from more than a decade ago. Combined with cone-targeted stimulation, this brings us closer in studying the visual percept arising from a specific cone type and its implication for color vision circuitry. PMID:26660894

  7. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Krause, David W; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R; Kirk, E Christopher; Schultz, Julia A; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R; Rossie, James B; O'Connor, Patrick M; Seiffert, Erik R; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Holloway, Waymon L; Rogers, Raymond R; Rahantarisoa, Lydia J; Kemp, Addison D; Andriamialison, Haingoson

    2014-11-27

    Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation. PMID:25383528

  8. Trastuzumab-binding peptide display by Tobacco mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Frolova, Olga Y.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Sheval, Eugene V.; Gleba, Yuri Y.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2010-11-10

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) is a target for the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab. Recently, trastuzumab-binding peptides (TBP) of HER2/neu that inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells were identified. We have now studied conditions of efficient assembly in vivo of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based particles displaying TBP on its surface. The system is based on an Agrobacterium-mediated co-delivery of binary vectors encoding TMV RNA and coat protein (CP) with TBP in its C-terminal extension into plant leaves. We show how the fusion of amino acid substituted TBP (sTBP) to CP via a flexible peptide linker can improve the manufacturability of recombinant TMV (rTMV). We also reveal that rTMV particles with exposed sTBP retained trastuzumab-binding capacity but lost an anti-HER2/neu immunogenic scaffold function. Mouse antibodies against rTMV did not recognize HER2/neu on surface of human SK-BR-3 cells.

  9. Gold nanostructures using tobacco mosaic viruses for optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mime; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Tomita, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    We have succeeded in aligning gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three-dimensions using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in order to realize new optical properties. TMV is a tube-shaped plant virus about 300 nm in length with an outer- and inner-diameter of 18 nm and 4 nm. We genetically fused material-binding peptides that can promote metal crystallization, namely a gold-binding peptide (GBP) and a titanium-binding peptide (TBP), to the outer-surface of TMV. By reducing potassium chloroaurate with sodium borohydride in the presence of the engineered viruses in 5% acetic acid solution, Au NPs were deposited on the outer-surface of the viruses. Using TBP-fused TMV, NPs of 5 nm were obtained, with a standard deviation smaller than those deposited on wild-type TMV. The diameter of the NPs on GBP-fused TMV was 10 nm. These results indicate that genetically-modified TMVs are promising templates for the construction of optical metamaterials.

  10. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development. PMID:26891174

  11. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  12. Seeing tobacco mosaic virus through direct electron detectors

    PubMed Central

    Fromm, Simon A.; Bharat, Tanmay A.M.; Jakobi, Arjen J.; Hagen, Wim J.H.; Sachse, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of direct electron detectors (DED) to the field of electron cryo-microscopy, a wave of atomic-resolution structures has become available. As the new detectors still require comparative characterization, we have used tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a test specimen to study the quality of 3D image reconstructions from data recorded on the two direct electron detector cameras, K2 Summit and Falcon II. Using DED movie frames, we explored related image-processing aspects and compared the performance of micrograph-based and segment-based motion correction approaches. In addition, we investigated the effect of dose deposition on the atomic-resolution structure of TMV and show that radiation damage affects negative carboxyl chains first in a side-chain specific manner. Finally, using 450,000 asymmetric units and limiting the effects of radiation damage, we determined a high-resolution cryo-EM map at 3.35 Å resolution. Here, we provide a comparative case study of highly ordered TMV recorded on different direct electron detectors to establish recording and processing conditions that enable structure determination up to 3.2 Å in resolution using cryo-EM. PMID:25528571

  13. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Holloway, Waymon L.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Rahantarisoa, Lydia J.; Kemp, Addison D.; Andriamialison, Haingoson

    2014-11-01

    Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation.

  14. Reactions of some cucurbitaceous species Tozucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV).

    PubMed

    Csorba, R; Kiss, E F; Molnár, L

    2004-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is a widespread serious pathogen of cucurbitaceous plants. ZYMV was first detected in Hungary in 1995. Since then it has become one of the most dangerous viruses of the Cucurbitaceae family causing serious epidemics. The virus has many hosts, which - particularly perennial ones - may play important role as virus reservoirs and infection sources in virus epidemiology. On the other hand wild weed species maybe sources of resistance to viruses. Our research was carried out on a total of 15 wild species from 8 genera (Cucumis, Cucurbita, Cyclanthera, Ecballium Momordica, Lagenaria, Zehneria, Bryonia). Test plants were mechanically inoculated with ZYMV. Local and systemic symptoms were determined and 5 weeks after inoculation DAS-ELISA tests were also carried out. Symptomless plants were reinoculated to Cucumis sativus cv. Accordia test plants. On the basis of the results we determined the percentages of infections and so we classified the test-plants into sensitive and resistance categories. On the basis of the results new host plants of ZYMV are the followings: Bryonia dioica, Cyclanthera pedata, Ecballium elaterium, Momordica balsamina, Momordica rostrata, and Zehneria scabra. Among them Momordica balsamina and Ecballium elaterium showed latent to ZYMV. Bryonia alba and Zehneria indica are especially remarkable, because they proved resistant to ZYMV on the basis of symptomatology and serology. Our results might have significant role in the field of research of host range, virus resistance and virus differentiation. PMID:15756830

  15. Combined immunodeficiency in a patient with mosaic monosomy 21.

    PubMed

    Rechavi, Erez; Levy-Mendelovich, Sarina; Stauber, Tali; Shamash, Jana; Reinstein, Shlomit; Vernitsky, Helly; Adam, Dganit; Simon, Amos J; Lev, Atar; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Somech, Raz

    2016-08-01

    Monosomy 21 is an extremely rare genetic disorder presenting with a wide array of symptoms. Recurrent infections, some life threatening, have been reported in several monosomy 21 patients and attributed to an, as of yet, undefined immunodeficiency. Here we report on a 3-year-old boy with mosaic monosomy 21 who presented with clinical and laboratory evidence of immunodeficiency. Despite suffering from infections highly suggestive of a cell-mediated immune defect, the patient's T cells displayed normal counts, subsets and proliferation capability. T cell receptor repertoire was diverse, and de novo T cell production was intact. Consistent with earlier case reports, our patient displayed mildly low B cell counts with hypogammaglobulinemia. B cell subsets demonstrated mainly naïve and marginal zone B cells that have not undergone class switch. Subsequently, IgG, IgA and IgE levels were near absent, whereas IgM level was normal. De novo B cell production and B cell receptor diversity were normal. Together, these results are indicative of a defect in immunoglobulin class switching as the principal cause of immunodeficiency in monosomy 21. A better understanding of the immunodeficiency in this syndrome will enable targeted treatment and prevention of infections in order to prevent morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:27216863

  16. Floodplain biogeochemical mosaics: A multidimensional view of alluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appling, Alison P.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Stanford, Jack A.

    2014-08-01

    The alluvial floodplains of large rivers are exceptionally productive and dynamic ecosystems, characterized by a complex mosaic of vegetation at different successional stages overlying soils sorted by historic floods. Natural floodplains are widely credited with efficiently removing nitrogen from surface waters and accumulating carbon in biomass, yet very little floodplain research has examined carbon and nitrogen cycling below surficial soils. We evaluated the extent to which vegetation cover could be used to predict subsurface carbon and nitrogen dynamics and to estimate whole-floodplain carbon storage and denitrification rates. We dug soil pits under three dominant vegetation communities on a gravel-bedded floodplain in northwest Montana to the depth of the permanent water table (1-3 m). We compared depth profiles of total and dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), denitrification potentials (DEAs), organic particulates, moisture, and pH across vegetation types. Near-surface soils (0-10 cm) of forests had larger C and N pools and DEAs than grasslands or gravel bars, but such vegetation effects dissipated within the upper ~50 cm of soil. At depth, spatial heterogeneity in carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes depended instead on soil texture, and relatively high rates of DEA and carbon storage were measured in zones of buried organic debris. Although C storage and denitrification potential are generally low in subsurface soils, these deep soils might nonetheless contribute substantially to whole-floodplain C storage and denitrification because of their large volume, high hydrologic connectivity, and heterogeneous biogeochemistry.

  17. Finding FMR1 mosaicism in Fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Thaís Fernandez; dos Santos, Jussara Mendonça; Gonçalves, Andressa Pereira; Tassone, Flora; Mendoza-Morales, Guadalupe; Ribeiro, Márcia Gonçalves; Kahn, Evelyn; Boy, Raquel; Pimentel, Márcia Mattos Gonçalves; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVE Almost all patients with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) exhibit a CGG repeat expansion (full mutation) in the Fragile Mental Retardation 1 gene (FMR1). Here, we report five unrelated males with FXS harboring a somatic full mutation/deletion mosaicism. METHODS Mutational profiles were only elucidated by using a combination of molecular approaches (CGG-based PCR, Sanger sequencing, MS-MLPA, Southern blot and mPCR). RESULT Four patients exhibited small deletions encompassing the CGG repeats tract and flanking regions, whereas the remaining had a larger deletion comprising at least exon 1 and part of intron 1 of FMR1 gene. The presence of a 2–3 base pairs microhomology in proximal and distal non-recurrent breakpoints without scars supports the involvement of microhomology mediated induced repair (MMBIR) mechanism in three small deletions. CONCLUSION Our data highlights the importance of using different research methods to elucidate atypical FXS mutational profiles, which are clinically undistinguishable and may have been underestimated. PMID:26716517

  18. Polyamine biosynthesis and the replication of turnip yellow mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Balint, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By seven days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly-emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. These protoplasts contain 1-2 x 10/sup 6/ virions per cell and continue to produce virus in culture for at least 48 hours. (/sup 14/C)-Spermidine (10 ..mu..M) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hours. However, the spermidine content of the cell was only marginally affected, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous (/sup 14/C)-spermidine was also readily incorporated into the nucleic acid-containing component of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. Thus, newly-formed virions contained predominantly newly-synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) led to incorporation of pre-existing spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly-formed virions. The latter results were tested and confirmed in a second cellular system, consisting of health protoplasts infected with TYMC in vitro.

  19. Foxtail Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Monocot Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xie, Ke; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Tianyuan; Li, Huangai; Wei, Xiang; Diao, Xianmin; Hong, Yiguo; Liu, Yule

    2016-07-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful technique to study gene function in plants. However, very few VIGS vectors are available for monocot plants. Here we report that Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) can be engineered as an effective VIGS system to induce efficient silencing of endogenous genes in monocot plants including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica). This is evidenced by FoMV-based silencing of phytoene desaturase (PDS) and magnesium chelatase in barley, of PDS and Cloroplastos alterados1 in foxtail millet and wheat, and of an additional gene IspH in foxtail millet. Silencing of these genes resulted in photobleached or chlorosis phenotypes in barley, wheat, and foxtail millet. Furthermore, our FoMV-based gene silencing is the first VIGS system reported for foxtail millet, an important C4 model plant. It may provide an efficient toolbox for high-throughput functional genomics in economically important monocot crops. PMID:27225900

  20. Robin sequence associated with karyotypic mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, C.F.; Jastrzab, J.M.; Centu, E.S.

    1994-09-01

    Robin sequence is characterized by cleft palate, hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis and respiratory difficulties. The Robin sequence may be observed as an isolated defect or as part of about 33 syndromes; however, to our knowledge, it has never been reported associated with chromosome 22 abnormalities. We examined a two-month-old black boy with a severe case of Robin sequence. Exam revealed a small child with hypoplastic mandible, glossoptosis, high palate and respiratory difficulty with continuous apnea episodes resulting in cyanotic lips and nails. In order to relieve the upper airway obstruction, his tongue was attached to the lower lip. Later a tracheostomy was performed. On follow-up exam, this patient was found to have developmental delay. Cytogenetic studies of both peripheral blood and fibroblast cells showed mosaicism involving chromosome 22 abnormalities which were designated as follows: 45,XY,-22/46,XY,-22,+r(22)/46,XY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies confirmed the identity of the r(22) and showed the presence of the DiGeorge locus (D22575) but the absence of the D22539 locus which maps to 22q13.3. Reported cases of r(22) show no association with Robin sequence. However, r(22) has been associated with flat bridge of the nose, bulbous tip of the nose, epicanthus and high palate, all characteristics that we also observed in this case. These unusual cytogenetic findings may be causally related to the dysmorphology found in the patient we report.

  1. Characterizing the Human Cone Photoreceptor Mosaic via Dynamic Photopigment Densitometry

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Hofer, Heidi; Roorda, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Densitometry is a powerful tool for the biophysical assessment of the retina. Until recently, this was restricted to bulk spatial scales in living humans. The application of adaptive optics (AO) to the conventional fundus camera and scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) has begun to translate these studies to cellular scales. Here, we employ an AOSLO to perform dynamic photopigment densitometry in order to characterize the optical properties and spectral types of the human cone photoreceptor mosaic. Cone-resolved estimates of optical density and photosensitivity agree well with bulk estimates, although show smaller variability than previously reported. Photopigment kinetics of individual cones derived from their selective bleaching allowed efficient mapping of cone sub-types in human retina. Estimated uncertainty in identifying a cone as long vs middle wavelength was less than 5%, and the total time taken per subject ranged from 3–9 hours. Short wavelength cones were delineated in every subject with high fidelity. The lack of a third cone-type was confirmed in a protanopic subject. In one color normal subject, cone assignments showed 91% correspondence against a previously reported cone-typing method from more than a decade ago. Combined with cone-targeted stimulation, this brings us closer in studying the visual percept arising from a specific cone type and its implication for color vision circuitry. PMID:26660894

  2. [Adjuvant treatment of colon cancer MOSAIC study's main results].

    PubMed

    André, Thierry; Tournigand, Christophe; Achille, Emmanuel; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole; Lledo, Gérard; Raoul, Yves; Carola, Elisabeth; Flesch, Michel; Muron, Thierry; Boutan-Laroze, Arnaud; Guérin Meyer, Véronique; Boaziz, Catherine; Maigre, Michel; Ganem, Gérard; Mousseau, Mireille; Mounedji-Boudiaf, Lamia; de Gramont, Aimery

    2006-02-01

    Oxaliplatin in combination with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (LV5FU) improves the response rate and survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The objective of the Mosaic study was to evaluate the efficacy of this association in the adjuvant treatment of stage II and III colon cancer. This international study, including 2,246 patients, compared the efficacy of standard treatment with LV5FU2 alone to that of oxaliplatin-LV5FU (Folfox4 regimen) following R0 resection of the primary tumour. Both treatments were administered every two weeks for six months. At 3-year follow-up, the risk of relapse was decreased by 23% in the Folfox4 group (p = 0.002). The protocol was well tolerated, with an identical overall mortality during treatment (0.5%) in both groups. The main specific complication, peripheral sensory neuropathy was reversible in the great majority of cases. A new analysis at 4-year follow-up (median 48.6 months) confirmed the superior efficacy of the Folfox4 regimen compared to the standard treatment, the reduction in relapse risk being 24% (p = 0.0008). On the strength of these results, oxaliplatin was granted a marketing authorization for the indication adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer. Based on the data currently available, physicians should consider adjuvant treatment for stage II patients, making each individual decision for treatment on a case-by-case basis. PMID:16483940

  3. First detection in the United States of Ligustrum necrotic ringspot virus in Mazus reptans with mild mosaic symptoms, in mixed infection with Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mazus reptans N.E. Br (creeping mazus) is a perennial flowering groundcover plant in the family Scrophulariaceae. A plant of M. reptans ‘Alba’ with mild mosaic symptoms was obtained from a Maryland nursery in 2010. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of slightly flexuous particles of 595-674...

  4. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  5. Real Time, On Line Crop Monitoring and Analysis with Near Global Landsat-class Mosaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlyguin, D.; Hulina, S.; Crutchfield, J.; Reynolds, C. A.; Frantz, R.

    2015-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of GDA technology for operational, automated generation of 10-30 meter near global mosaics of Landsat-class data for visualization, monitoring, and analysis. Current version of the mosaic combines Landsat 8 and Landsat 7. Sentinel-2A imagery will be added once it is operationally available. The mosaics are surface reflectance calibrated and are analysis ready. They offer full spatial resolution and all multi-spectral bands of the source imagery. Each mosaic covers all major agricultural regions of the world and 16 day time window. 2014-most current dates are supported. The mosaics are updated in real-time, as soon as GDA downloads Landsat imagery, calibrates it to the surface reflectances, and generates data gap masks (all typically under 10 minutes for a Landsat scene). The technology eliminates the complex, multi-step, hands-on process of data preparation and provides imagery ready for repetitive, field-to-country analysis of crop conditions, progress, acreages, yield, and production. The mosaics can be used for real-time, on-line interactive mapping and time series drilling via GeoSynergy webGIS platform. The imagery is of great value for improved, persistent monitoring of global croplands and for the operational in-season analysis and mapping of crops across the globe in USDA FAS purview as mandated by the US government. The presentation will overview operational processing of Landsat-class mosaics in support of USDA FAS efforts and will look into 2015 and beyond.

  6. Total Hemi-overgrowth in Pigmentary Mosaicism of the (Hypomelanosis of) Ito Type

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Vito; Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Corsello, Giovanni; Savasta, Salvatore; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Sessa, Giuseppe; BA, Martino Ruggieri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pigmentary mosaicism of the (hypomelanosis of) Ito type is an umbrella term, which includes phenotypes characterized by mosaic hypopigmentation in the form of streaks, whorls, patchy, or more bizarre skin configurations (running along the lines of Blaschko): these cutaneous patterns can manifest as an isolated skin disorder (pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type) or as a complex malformation syndrome in association with extracutaneous anomalies (most often of the musculoskeletal and/or nervous systems) (hypomelanosis of Ito). Affected individuals are anecdotally reported to have also partial or total body hemi-overgrowth (HOG), which often causes moderate to severe complications. We studied the occurrence and features of HOG in the 114 children and adults with mosaic pigmentary disorders of the Ito type diagnosed and followed up (from 2 to 22 years; average follow-up 16 years) at our Institutions. Eight patients (5 M, 3 F; aged 4 to 25 years; median age 16 years) out of the 114 analyzed (7%) fulfilled the criteria for unilateral HOG, with differences in diameter ranging from 0.4 to 4.0 cm (upper limbs) and 1.0 to 9.0 cm (lower limbs). Moreover, among these 8 patients, 5/8 filled in the 75th to 90th percentile for height; 6/8 had associated kyphoscoliosis; and 5/8 showed cognitive delays. No tumour complications were recorded. Overall, 6/8 HOG patients presented with additional (extracutaneous) syndromic manifestations, apart from the HOG (ie, with a clinical phenotype of hypomelanosis of Ito). The present study, which includes children and adults with the longest follow-up so far recorded, confirms the association between pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type and HOG lowering previous estimates (7% vs 16%) for HOG in the context of mosaic hypopigmentation. A careful examination, looking at subtle to moderate asymmetries and associated complications within the spectrum of these mosaic pigmentary disorders, is recommended. PMID:26962770

  7. A Method for the Efficient Fabrication of Multifunctional Mosaic Membranes by Inkjet Printing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Hunter, Aaron; Summe, Mark J; Phillip, William A

    2016-08-01

    Most conventional membrane systems are based on size-selective materials that permeate smaller molecules and retain larger ones. However, membranes that can permeate larger molecules more rapidly than smaller ones could find widespread utilization in multiple arenas of technology. Charge mosaic membranes are one example of such a system. Due to their unique nanostructure, which consists of discrete oppositely charged domains, charge mosaics are capable of permeating large dissolved salts more rapidly than smaller water molecules. Here, we present a combined inkjet printing and template synthesis technique to prepare charge mosaic membranes in a rapid and straightforward manner and demonstrate the unique transport properties that result from the mosaic membrane design. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based composite inks containing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) were used to pattern positively charged or negatively charged domains, respectively, on the surface of a polycarbonate track-etched membrane with 30 nm pores. The ability to control the net surface charge of the mosaic membranes through the rational deposition of oppositely charged materials was demonstrated and confirmed through nanostructural characterization, electrokinetic measurements, and piezodialysis experiments. Namely, mosaic membranes that possessed an overall neutral charge (i.e., membranes that had equal coverage of positively and negatively charged domains) were capable of enriching the concentration of potassium chloride in the solution that permeated through the membrane. These membranes can be deployed in the many established and emerging nanoscale technologies that rely on the selective transport and separation of ionic solutes from solution. Furthermore, because of the flexibility provided by the membrane fabrication platform, the efforts reported in this work can be extended to other mosaic designs with myriad other functional components. PMID:27409714

  8. Total Hemi-overgrowth in Pigmentary Mosaicism of the (Hypomelanosis of) Ito Type: Eight Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Vito; Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Corsello, Giovanni; Savasta, Salvatore; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Piero; Sessa, Giuseppe; Ruggieri, Martino; Ba, Martino Ruggieri

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentary mosaicism of the (hypomelanosis of) Ito type is an umbrella term, which includes phenotypes characterized by mosaic hypopigmentation in the form of streaks, whorls, patchy, or more bizarre skin configurations (running along the lines of Blaschko): these cutaneous patterns can manifest as an isolated skin disorder (pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type) or as a complex malformation syndrome in association with extracutaneous anomalies (most often of the musculoskeletal and/or nervous systems) (hypomelanosis of Ito). Affected individuals are anecdotally reported to have also partial or total body hemi-overgrowth (HOG), which often causes moderate to severe complications.We studied the occurrence and features of HOG in the 114 children and adults with mosaic pigmentary disorders of the Ito type diagnosed and followed up (from 2 to 22 years; average follow-up 16 years) at our Institutions.Eight patients (5 M, 3 F; aged 4 to 25 years; median age 16 years) out of the 114 analyzed (7%) fulfilled the criteria for unilateral HOG, with differences in diameter ranging from 0.4 to 4.0 cm (upper limbs) and 1.0 to 9.0 cm (lower limbs). Moreover, among these 8 patients, 5/8 filled in the 75th to 90th percentile for height; 6/8 had associated kyphoscoliosis; and 5/8 showed cognitive delays. No tumour complications were recorded. Overall, 6/8 HOG patients presented with additional (extracutaneous) syndromic manifestations, apart from the HOG (ie, with a clinical phenotype of hypomelanosis of Ito).The present study, which includes children and adults with the longest follow-up so far recorded, confirms the association between pigmentary mosaicism of the Ito type and HOG lowering previous estimates (7% vs 16%) for HOG in the context of mosaic hypopigmentation. A careful examination, looking at subtle to moderate asymmetries and associated complications within the spectrum of these mosaic pigmentary disorders, is recommended. PMID:26962770

  9. Deep sequencing of dsRNAs recovered from mosaic-diseased pigeonpea reveals the presence of a novel emaravirus: pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Uppala, Mangala; Sudini, Harikishan

    2015-08-01

    Deep-sequencing analysis of double-stranded RNA extracted from a mosaic-diseased pigeonpea plant (Cajanus cajan L., family Fabaceae) revealed the complete sequence of six emaravirus-like negative-sense RNA segments of 7009, 2229, 1335, 1491, 1833 and 1194 nucleotides in size. In the order from RNA1 to RNA6, these genomic RNAs contained ORFs coding for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, p1 of 266 kDa), the glycoprotein precursor (GP, p2 of 74.5 kDa), the nucleocapsid (NC, p3 of 34.9 kDa), and the putative movement protein (MP, p4 of 40.7 kDa), while p5 (55 kDa) and p6 (27 kDa) had unknown functions. All RNA segments showed distant relationships to viruses of the genus Emaravirus, and in particular to pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV), with which they shared nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 48.5 % (RNA3) to 62.5 % (RNA1). In phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequences of the proteins encoded by RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 (p1, p2 and p3), this new viral entity showed a consistent grouping with fig mosaic virus (FMV) and rose rosette virus (RRV), which formed a cluster of their own, clearly distinct from PPSMV-1. In experimental greenhouse trials, this novel virus was successfully transmitted to pigeonpea and French bean seedlings by the eriophyid mite Aceria cajani. Preliminary surveys conducted in the Hyderabad region (India) showed that the virus in question is widespread in pigeonpea plants affected by sterility mosaic disease (86.4 %) but is absent in symptomless plants. Based on molecular, biological and epidemiological features, this novel virus is the second emaravirus infecting pigeonpea, for which the provisional name pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2) is proposed. PMID:26060057

  10. Surface mineralization and characterization of tobacco mosaic virus biotemplated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Alexander S.

    The genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been utilized as a biotemplate in the formation of nanoparticles with the intent of furthering the understanding of the biotemplated nanoparticles formed in the absence of an external reducing agent. Specifically, the work aims to provide better knowledge of the final particle characteristics and how these properties could be altered to better fit the need of functional devices. Three achievements have been accomplished including a method for controlling final particle size, characterizing the resistivity of palladium coated TMV, and the application of TMV as an additive in nanometric calcium carbonate synthesis. Until the last 5 years, formation of metal nanoparticles on the surface of TMV has always occurred with the addition of an external reducing agent. The surface functionalities of genetically engineered TMV allow for the reduction of palladium in the absence of an external reducing agent. This process has been furthered to understand how palladium concentration affects the final coating uniformity and thickness. By confirming an ideal ratio of palladium and TMV concentrations, a uniform coat of palladium is formed around the viral nanorod. Altering the number of palladium coating cycles at these concentrations allows for a controllable average diameter of the final nanorods. The average particle diameter was determined by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis by comparing the experimental results to the model of scattering by an infinitely long cylinder. The SAXS results were confirmed through transmission electron microscopy images of individual Pd-TMV nanorods. Secondly, methodologies to determine the electrical resistivity of the genetically engineered TMV biotemplated palladium nanoparticles were created to provide valuable previously missing information. Two fairly common nanoelectronic characterization techniques were combined to create the novel approach to obtain the desired

  11. The lambda red proteins promote efficient recombination between diverged sequences: implications for bacteriophage genome mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Martinsohn, Jann T; Radman, Miroslav; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2008-05-01

    Genome mosaicism in temperate bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) is so great that it obscures their phylogeny at the genome level. However, the precise molecular processes underlying this mosaicism are unknown. Illegitimate recombination has been proposed, but homeologous recombination could also be at play. To test this, we have measured the efficiency of homeologous recombination between diverged oxa gene pairs inserted into lambda. High yields of recombinants between 22% diverged genes have been obtained when the virus Red Gam pathway was active, and 100 fold less when the host Escherichia coli RecABCD pathway was active. The recombination editing proteins, MutS and UvrD, showed only marginal effects on lambda recombination. Thus, escape from host editing contributes to the high proficiency of virus recombination. Moreover, our bioinformatics study suggests that homeologous recombination between similar lambdoid viruses has created part of their mosaicism. We therefore propose that the remarkable propensity of the lambda-encoded Red and Gam proteins to recombine diverged DNA is effectively contributing to mosaicism, and more generally, that a correlation may exist between virus genome mosaicism and the presence of Red/Gam-like systems. PMID:18451987

  12. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  13. Hierarchical multi-level image mosaicing for autonomous navigation of UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangho; Ghosh, Debabrata; Kaabouch, Naima; Fevig, Ronald A.; Semke, William

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm for hierarchical multi-level image mosaicing for autonomous navigation of UAV is proposed. The main contribution of the proposed system is the blocking of the error accumulation propagated along the frames, by incrementally building a long-duration mosaic on the fly which is hierarchically composed of short-duration mosaics. The proposed algorithm fulfills the real-time processing requirements in autonomous navigation as follows. 1) Causality: the current output of the mosaicing system depends only on the current and/or previous input frames, contrary to existing offline mosaic algorithms that depend on future input frames as well. 2) Learnability: the algorithm autonomously analyzes/learns the scene characteristics. 3) Adaptability: the system automatically adapts itself to the scene change and chooses the proper methods for feature selection (i.e., the fast but unreliable LKT vs. the slow but robust SIFT). The evaluation of our algorithm with the extensive field test data involving several thousand airborne images shows the significant improvement in processing time, robustness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Characterization of betasatellite associated with the yellow mosaic disease of grain legumes in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Satya, V K; Malathi, V G; Velazhahan, R; Rabindran, R; Jayamani, P; Alice, D

    2013-01-01

    Yellow mosaic disease caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus (the family Geminiviridae) is a major constraint in cultivation of grain legumes in India. The urdbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) samples affected with yellow mosaic disease exhibits yellow mosaic symptoms along with leaf puckering and leaf distortion in Tamil Nadu. Hence the study was performed to find out if there was any association and influence of betasatellite DNA on the symptom expression of MYMV. Full length viral clones of DNA A and DNA B were obtained through rolling circle amplification from YMD infected samples and identified as mungbean yellow mosaic virus. Interestingly, betasatellite was found to associate with MYMV, and its nucleotide sequence analysis showed its 95% identity with papaya leaf curl betasatellite (DQ118862) from cowpea. The present study represents the first report about the association of papaya leaf curl betasatellite with MYMV and represents a new member of the emerging group of bipartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite DNA. PMID:24294953

  15. THE PREPARATION AND USE OF TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS CONTAINING RADIOACTIVE PHOSPHORUS

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, W. M.

    1942-01-01

    Normal and tobacco mosaic-diseased Turkish tobacco plants were grown in sand for a period of several weeks, during which they were fed daily a complete nutrient solution to which had been added disodium phosphate containing radioactive phosphorus. Determinations were made of the distribution of radioactive phosphorus in different fractions such as the wash from the sand and roots, the press cake obtained on pressing the juice from the plants, the protein and protein-free portions of the supernatant liquids obtained on ultracentrifugation of the juices, and the purified tobacco mosaic virus isolated from the diseased plants. Chemical analyses as well as radiographs of the normal and diseased leaves indicated that they contained the same amount of phosphorus. Approximately 30 per cent of the radioactive phosphorus absorbed by the diseased plants was found to be combined with the purified tobacco mosaic virus that was isolated from these plants. Following the inoculation of purified tobacco mosaic virus possessing high radioactivity to normal Turkish tobacco plants, most of the radioactivity was found to be associated with non-virus components of which about 40 per cent was in the inoculated and 60 per cent in the uninoculated portions of the plants. Although a small amount of radioactive virus was isolated from the uninoculated portions of the plants, it was impossible, because of a number of complicating factors which have been discussed, to draw from the results any reliable conclusions regarding the mode of reproduction of tobacco mosaic virus. PMID:19873320

  16. Cone photoreceptor mosaic disruption associated with Cys203Arg mutation in the M-cone opsin

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Joseph; Baraas, Rigmor C.; Wagner-Schuman, Melissa; Rha, Jungtae; Siebe, Cory A.; Sloan, Christina; Tait, Diane M.; Thompson, Summer; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Neitz, Jay; Williams, David R.; Foster, David H.; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Missense mutations in the cone opsins have been identified as a relatively common cause of red/green color vision defects, with the most frequent mutation being the substitution of arginine for cysteine at position 203 (C203R). When the corresponding cysteine is mutated in rhodopsin, it disrupts proper folding of the pigment, causing severe, early onset retinitis pigmentosa. While the C203R mutation has been associated with loss of cone function in color vision deficiency, it is not known what happens to cones expressing this mutant opsin. Here, we used high-resolution retinal imaging to examine the cone mosaic in two individuals with genes encoding a middle-wavelength sensitive (M) pigment with the C203R mutation. We found a significant reduction in cone density compared to normal and color-deficient controls, accompanying disruption in the cone mosaic in both individuals, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer. The C203R mosaics were different from that produced by another mutation (LIAVA) previously shown to disrupt the cone mosaic. Comparison of these mosaics provides insight into the timing and degree of cone disruption and has implications for the prospects for restoration of vision loss associated with various cone opsin mutations. PMID:19934058

  17. Improving reliability of live/dead cell counting through automated image mosaicing.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Filippo; Tesei, Anna; Paganelli, Giulia; Zoli, Wainer; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Cell counting is one of the basic needs of most biological experiments. Numerous methods and systems have been studied to improve the reliability of counting. However, at present, manual cell counting performed with a hemocytometer still represents the gold standard, despite several problems limiting reproducibility and repeatability of the counts and, at the end, jeopardizing their reliability in general. We present our own approach based on image processing techniques to improve counting reliability. It works in two stages: first building a high-resolution image of the hemocytometer's grid, then counting the live and dead cells by tagging the image with flags of different colours. In particular, we introduce GridMos (http://sourceforge.net/p/gridmos), a fully-automated mosaicing method to obtain a mosaic representing the whole hemocytometer's grid. In addition to offering more significant statistics, the mosaic "freezes" the culture status, thus permitting analysis by more than one operator. Finally, the mosaic achieved can thus be tagged by using an image editor, thus markedly improving counting reliability. The experiments performed confirm the improvements brought about by the proposed counting approach in terms of both reproducibility and repeatability, also suggesting the use of a mosaic of an entire hemocytometer's grid, then labelled trough an image editor, as the best likely candidate for the new gold standard method in cell counting. PMID:25438936

  18. Pigmentary abnormalities and mosaicism for chromosomal aberration: association with clinical features similar to hypomelanosis of Ito.

    PubMed

    Sybert, V P; Pagon, R A; Donlan, M; Bradley, C M

    1990-04-01

    Thirteen patients with hypopigmentation of the skin characteristic of hypomelanosis of Ito, and with developmental disabilities or structural malformations, or both, were examined at our center. Eight were found to have abnormal karyotypes in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, or both. No single clinical feature was predictive of chromosome imbalance in this group of patients. Cytogenetic findings included a balanced de novo X-autosome translocation; ring 10; 45,X/46,X,+ring; mosaic del 13q11 (fibroblasts); mosaic triploidy (fibroblasts); mosaic tetrasomy 12p (fibroblasts); mosaic apparently balanced 15;22 translocation (peripheral blood); and mosaic trisomy 18 (peripheral blood). Hypomelanosis of Ito is characterized by swirly hypopigmentation or depigmentation of the skin with or without other malformations. Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked dominant inheritance have been suggested but not confirmed. Chromosomal aneuploidy has also been reported. We believe that hypomelanosis of Ito is an etiologically heterogeneous physical finding, and recommend karyotyping of multiple tissues of all patients with abnormal cutaneous pigmentation associated with developmental delay or structural malformations. PMID:2319405

  19. p+‑n‑‑n+-type power diode with crystalline/nanocrystalline Si mosaic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensheng, Wei; Chunxi, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Using p+-type crystalline Si with n+-type nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) and n+-type crystalline Si with p+-type nc-Si mosaic structures as electrodes, a type of power diode was prepared with epitaxial technique and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. Firstly, the basic p+‑n‑‑n+-type Si diode was fabricated by epitaxially growing p+- and n+-type layers on two sides of a lightly doped n‑-type Si wafer respectively. Secondly, heavily phosphorus-doped Si film was deposited with PECVD on the lithography mask etched p+-type Si side of the basic device to form a component with mosaic anode. Thirdly, heavily boron-doped Si film was deposited on the etched n+-type Si side of the second device to form a diode with mosaic anode and mosaic cathode. The images of high resolution transmission electronic microscope and patterns of X-ray diffraction reveal nanocrystallization in the phosphorus- and boron-deposited films. Electrical measurements such as capacitance–voltage relation, current-voltage feature and reverse recovery waveform were carried out to clarify the performance of prepared devices. The important roles of (n‑)Si/(p+)nc-Si and (n‑)Si/(n+)nc-Si junctions in the static and dynamic conduction processes in operating diodes were investigated. The performance of mosaic devices was compared to that of a basic one. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274006).

  20. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  1. Daphne mosaic virus (DapMV), a new potyvirus from Daphne mezereum in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Fránová, J; Petrzik, K; Lesemann, D-E; Navrátil, M

    2006-04-01

    Daphne shrubs with light green rings and mosaic on leaves contained flexuous filamentous virions (696 x 13 nm) and cylindrical inclusions typical of the subdivision III of Edwardson's classification for inclusions induced by members of the family Potyviridae. Decoration tests using antisera to 67 potyviruses revealed distant serological relations among chilli veinal mottle virus, Colombian datura virus, papaya ringspot virus, tobacco vein mottling virus and yam mosaic virus. The 3' terminal region of the virus genome was amplified by RT-PCR using primers specific for cloned and sequenced members of the family Potyviridae. The most similar sequences in the GenBank were those of isolates of wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV) and yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV), originating from Peru and Guadeloupe, respectively. The new sequence had 63.2% and 61.9% nucleotide identity to WPMV and YMMV in the coat protein gene. The results suggest that the Czech isolate from daphne should be regarded as a new member of the genus Potyvirus. The name daphne mosaic virus (DapMV) is suggested for this virus. PMID:16292598

  2. High-resolution x-ray characterization of mosaic crystals for hard x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Buffagni, Elisa; Marchini, Laura; Zappettini, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    GaAs, Cu, CdTe, and CdZnTe crystals have been studied as optical elements for lenses for hard x-ray astronomy. High-resolution x-ray diffraction at 8 keV in Bragg geometry and at synchrotron at energies up to 500 keV in Laue geometry has been used. A good agreement was found between the mosaicity evaluated in Bragg geometry at 8 keV with x-ray penetration of the order of few tens of micrometers and that derived at synchrotron in transmission Laue geometry at higher x-ray energies. Mosaicity values in a range between a few to 150 arcsec were found in all the samples but, due to the presence of crystal grains in the cm range, CdTe and CdZnTe crystals were found not suitable. Cu crystals exhibit a mosaicity of the order of several arcmin; they indeed were found to be severely affected by cutting damage which could only be removed with a very deep etching. The full width at half maximum of the diffraction peaks decreased at higher x-ray energies showing that the peak broadening is affected by crystallite size. GaAs crystals grown by Czochralski method showed a mosaic spread up to 30 arcsec and good diffraction efficiency up to energies of 500 keV. The use of thermal treatments as a possible method to increase the mosaic spread was also evaluated.

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity for Detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas in Mohs Excisions with Confocal Fluorescence Mosaicing Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gareau, Daniel S.; Karen, Julie K.; Dusza, Stephen W.; Tudisco, Marie; Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of confocal fluorescence mosaicing microscopy to rapidly detect basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) directly in thick and fresh Mohs surgical excisions. Mosaics of confocal images display large areas of tissue with high resolution and magnification equivalent to 2X, which is the standard magnification when examining pathology. Comparison of mosaics to Mohs frozen histopathology was shown to be excellent for all types of BCCs. However, the comparisons in the previous studies were visual and qualitative. In this paper, we report the results of a semi-quantitative preclinical study in which forty-five confocal mosaics were blindly evaluated for the presence (or absence) of BCC tumor. The evaluations were by two clinicians: a senior Mohs surgeon, with prior expertise in interpreting confocal images, and a novice Mohs fellow, with limited experience. The blinded evaluation was compared to the gold standard of frozen histopathology. BCCs were detected with an overall sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 89.2%, positive predictive value of 93.0% and negative predictive value of 94.7%. The results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of confocal mosaicing microscopy toward rapid surgical pathology-at-the-bedside to expedite and guide surgery. PMID:19566305

  4. A procedure of landscape services assessment based on mosaics of patches and boundaries.

    PubMed

    Martín de Agar, Pilar; Ortega, Marta; de Pablo, Carlos L

    2016-09-15

    We develop a procedure for assessing the environmental value of landscape mosaics that simultaneously considers the values of land use patches and the values of the boundaries between them. These boundaries indicate the ecological interactions between the patches. A landscape mosaic is defined as a set of patches and the boundaries between them and corresponds to a spatial pattern of ecological interactions. The procedure is performed in two steps: (i) an environmental assessment of land use patches by means of a function that integrates values based on the goods and services the patches provide, and (ii) an environmental valuation of mosaics using a function that integrates the environmental values of their patches and the types and frequencies of the boundaries between them. This procedure allows us to measure how changes in land uses or in their spatial arrangement cause variations in the environmental value of landscape mosaics and therefore in that of the whole landscape. The procedure was tested in the Sierra Norte of Madrid (central Spain). The results show that the environmental values of the landscape depend not only on the land use patches but also on the values associated with the pattern of the boundaries within the mosaics. The results also highlight the importance of the boundaries between land use patches as determinants of the goods and services provided by the landscape. PMID:27233047

  5. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette; Fischer, William; Wallstrom, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.

  6. Phenotypic spectrum of mosaic trisomy 18: two new patients, a literature review, and counseling issues.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Megan E; Garringer, Holly J; Weaver, David D

    2007-03-01

    Mosaic trisomy 18 occurs when two different cell lines exist in the same individual; one cell line has two copies of chromosome 18, while the other has three copies. Here we present two new patients with mosaic trisomy 18, summarize 31 reported cases from the literature, and discuss management and counseling themes. Our first patient is an 8(1/2)-year-old female with normal intelligence and no significant dysmorphic features other than short stature and cubitus valgus. The second patient is a 21-month-old male with developmental delay, several dysmorphic features, including a patent ductus arteriosus, and normal growth. In general, the phenotype of individuals with mosaic trisomy 18 varies greatly. Some individuals have the complete trisomy 18, Edwards syndrome phenotype with early death while others are phenotypically completely normal. The latter group is exemplified by four normal appearing adults with mosaic trisomy 18 who were identified only after giving birth to children with complete trisomy 18. Further, a wide range of anomalies have been reported, most at low frequencies, including microcephaly, delayed bone age, brachydactyly, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, short stature, and premature ovarian failure. Intellectual capabilities range from profound mental retardation to above average intelligence. There appears to be no correlation with the percentage of trisomic cells in either fibroblasts or leukocytes and the individual's phenotype or intellectual function. We also discuss a variety of counseling issues including long-term survival, reproductive capacity of individuals with mosaic trisomy 18, and recurrence risks. PMID:17266111

  7. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  8. Great Red Spot Mosaic - Near-infrared Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot (GRS) of Jupiter as seen through the near-infrared (757 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images taken over an 80 second interval during the first GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996. They have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The Red Spot, which is 20,000 km long, has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. Counterclockwise winds around its periphery reach 100 m/s. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, such as the three smaller vortices visible to the south. Other features of interest include a very bright cloud feature to the northwest and the dark collar surrounding the Great Red Spot.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    PubMed

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  10. The Mosaic of “Seronegative” Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Fabrizio; Capozzi, Antonella; Truglia, Simona; Lococo, Emanuela; Longo, Agostina; Misasi, Roberta; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In the clinical practice it is possible to find patients with clinical signs suggestive of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), who are persistently negative for the laboratory criteria of APS, that is, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-β2-GPI antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Therefore, it was proposed for these cases the term of seronegative APS (SN-APS). In order to detect autoantibodies with different methodological approaches, sera from 24 patients with SN-APS were analysed for anti-phospholipid antibodies using TLC immunostaining, for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for anti-annexin V and anti-prothrombin antibodies by ELISA and dot blot. Control groups of our study were 25 patients with APS, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 32 healthy controls. Results revealed that 13/24 (54.2%) SN-APS sera were positive for aCL (9 of whom were also positive for lysobisphosphatidic acid) by TLC immunostaining, 11/24 (45.8%) for anti-vimentin/cardiolipin antibodies, 3/24 (12.5%) for anti-prothrombin antibodies, and 1/24 (4.2%) for anti-annexin V antibodies. These findings suggest that in sera from patients with SN-APS, antibodies may be detected using “new” antigenic targets (mainly vimentin/cardiolipin) or methodological approaches different from traditional techniques (mainly TLC immunostaining). Thus, SN-APS represents a mosaic, in which antibodies against different antigenic targets may be detected. PMID:24741593

  11. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  12. Cauliflower mosaic virus Transcriptome Reveals a Complex Alternative Splicing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Clément; Geldreich, Angèle; Ramel, Laëtitia; Ryabova, Lyubov A.; Dimitrova, Maria; Keller, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The plant pararetrovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) uses alternative splic-ing to generate several isoforms from its polycistronic pregenomic 35S RNA. This pro-cess has been shown to be essential for infectivity. Previous works have identified four splice donor sites and a single splice acceptor site in the 35S RNA 5’ region and sug-gested that the main role of CaMV splicing is to downregulate expression of open read-ing frames (ORFs) I and II. In this study, we show that alternative splicing is a conserved process among CaMV isolates. In Cabb B-JI and Cabb-S isolates, splicing frequently leads to different fusion between ORFs, particularly between ORF I and II. The corresponding P1P2 fusion proteins expressed in E. coli interact with viral proteins P2 and P3 in vitro. However, they are detected neither during infection nor upon transient expression in planta, which suggests rapid degradation after synthesis and no important biological role in the CaMV infectious cycle. To gain a better understanding of the functional relevance of 35S RNA alternative splicing in CaMV infectivity, we inactivated the previously described splice sites. All the splicing mutants were as pathogenic as the corresponding wild-type isolate. Through RT-PCR-based analysis we demonstrate that CaMV 35S RNA exhibits a complex splicing pattern, as we identify new splice donor and acceptor sites whose selection leads to more than thirteen 35S RNA isoforms in infected turnip plants. Inactivating splice donor or acceptor sites is not lethal for the virus, since disrupted sites are systematically rescued by the activation of cryptic and/or seldom used splice sites. Taken together, our data depict a conserved, complex and flexible process, involving multiple sites, that ensures splicing of 35S RNA. PMID:26162084

  13. The soil water balance in a mosaic of clumped vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolla, Teresa; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2014-05-01

    The spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture influences the plant growth and the distribution of terrestrial vegetation. This effect is more evident in arid and semiarid ecosystems where the interaction between individuals and the water limited conditions play a fundamental role, providing environmental conditions which drive a variety of non-linear ecohydrological response functions (such as transpiration, photosynthesis, leakage). In this context, modeling vegetation patterns at multiple spatial aggregation scales is important to understand how different vegetation structures can modify the soil water distribution and the exchanged fluxes between soil and atmosphere. In the present paper, the effect of different spatial vegetation patterns, under different climatic scenarios, is investigated in a patchy vegetation mosaic generated by a random process of individual tree canopies and their accompanying root system. Vegetation pattern are generated using the mathematical framework proposed by Caylor et al. (2006) characterized by a three dimensional stochastic vegetation structure, based on the density, dispersion, size distribution, and allometry of individuals within a landscape. A Poisson distribution is applied to generate different distribution of individuals paying particular attention on the role of clumping on water distribution dynamics. The soil water balance is evaluated using the analytical expression proposed by Laio et al. (2001) to explore the influence of climate and vegetation patterns on soil water balance steady-state components (such as the average rates of evaporation, the root water uptake and leakage) and on the stress-weighted plant water uptake. Results of numerical simulations show that clumping may be beneficial for water use efficiency at the landscape scale. References Caylor, Kelly K., P. D'Odorico and I. Rodriguez Iturbe: On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscape. Water Resour. Res., 28, W07424, 2006

  14. Mosaic uniparental disomy in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Slatter, R E; Elliott, M; Welham, K; Carrera, M; Schofield, P N; Barton, D E; Maher, E R

    1994-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a congenital overgrowth syndrome with variable expression. The major features are anterior abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, and gigantism and less commonly neonatal hypoglycaemia, organomegaly, congenital renal anomalies, hemihypertrophy and embryonal tumours occur. BWS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder; most cases are sporadic but approximately 15% are familial and a small number of BWS patients have cytogenetic abnormalities involving chromosome 11p15. Genomic imprinting effects have been implicated in familial and non-familial BWS, and uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 11 has been reported in sporadic cases. We investigated the incidence, pathogenesis, and clinical associations of UPD in 49 patients with non-familial BWS and a normal karyotype. UPD for chromosome 11p15 was detected in nine of 32 (28%) informative patients. A further two patients appeared to be disomic at the WT1 locus in chromosome 11p13, but were uninformative at chromosome 11p15.5 loci tested. In all cases with UPD the affected person was mosaic for a paternal isodisomy and a normal cell line indicating that UPD had arisen as a postzygotic event. Compared to cases in which paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 11p15.5 had been excluded (n = 23), BWS patients with UPD was more likely to have hemihypertrophy (6/9 versus 1/23, p < 0.001) and less likely to have exomphalos (0/9 versus 13/23, p < 0.01), but there were no significant differences between disomic and non-disomic cases in the incidence of hypoglycaemia, nephromegaly, neoplasia, and developmental delay. The detection of UPD in BWS patients allows accurate genetic counselling to be provided and provides an insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BWS. Images PMID:7837249

  15. Chemical Reactivity of Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Running, W. E.; Ni, P.; Kao, C. C.; Reilly, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Viral particles are biological machines that have evolved to package, protect, and deliver the viral genome into the host via regulated conformational changes of virions. We have developed a procedure to modify lysine resides with S-methylthioacetimidate (SMTA) across the pH range from 5.5 to 8.5. Lysine residues that are not completely modified are involved in tertiary or quaternary structural interactions, and their extent of modification can be quantified as a function of pH. This procedure was applied to the pH-dependent structural transitions of Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV). As the reaction pH increases from 5.5 to 8.5, the average number of modified lysine residues in the BMV capsid protein increases from six to twelve, correlating well with the known pH dependent swelling behavior of BMV virions. The extent of reaction of each of the capsid protein’s lysine residues has been quantified at eight pH values using coupled liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Each lysine can be assigned to one of three structural classes identified by inspection of the BMV virion crystal structure. Several lysine residues display reactivity that indicates their involvement in dynamic interactions that are not obvious in the crystal structure. The influence of several capsid protein mutants on the pH-dependent structural transition of BMV has also been investigated. Mutant H75Q exhibits an altered swelling transition accompanying solution pH increases. The H75Q capsids show increased reactivity at lysine residues 64 and 130, residues distal from the dimer interface occupied by H75, across the entire pH range. PMID:22750573

  16. The Keeling Curve and The Coral Reef Mosaic Project - Introducing the Realities of Climate Change to Educators and Scholars using Mosaic Arts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueker, T.; Chinn, P. W. U.

    2014-12-01

    In May 2013, The, record of atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa, popularly known as "The Keeling Curve" reached 400 ppm for the first time in human history. Among the most sobering consequences of rising CO2 is Ocean Acidification, caused when the excess CO2 emitted from the burning of fossil fuels is absorbed by the surface oceans. The resulting reduction in pH harms stony corals (Scleractinia), and many other calcareous organisms. If civilization continues along the current trajectory of fossil fuel emissions, most coral reef ecosystems are expected to suffer extreme stress or mortality within the lifetime of the next generation. "If we do not reverse current trends in carbon dioxide emissions soon, we will cause the biggest and most rapid change in ocean chemistry since the extinction of the dinosaurs." (www.seaweb.org/getinvolved/oceanvoices/KenCaldeira.php). This looming tragedy is topical among marine scientists, but less appreciated or unknown to the general public, particularly among communities in the tropics where impacts to coral reef ecosystems will be severe. The Coral Reef Mosaic Project grew from my experiences leading education outreach in local schools. Making mosaics is an engaging way to enlighten educators and scholars on the pressing issues of climate change. When taking part in a mural project, students find mosaic art is a fun and rewarding experience that results in a beautiful depiction of a coral reef. Students explore the ecosystem diversity of coral reef inhabitants as they design the mural and piece together a representative environment. They work together as a team to learn the mosaic techniques and then build their own chosen creatures to inhabit the reef. The result is a beautiful and lasting mural for their school or community that provides an important message for the future. In a cooperative project with Dr. Pauline Chin at UH Manoa we traveled to Hawaii to train teachers on the Big Island in the art of mosaic and to convey the

  17. Interacting environmental mosaics drive geographic variation in mussel performance and predation vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Sanford, Eric; Rose, Jeremy M; Blanchette, Carol A; Chan, Francis; Chavez, Francisco P; Gaylord, Brian; Helmuth, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Hofmann, Gretchen E; McManus, Margaret A; Menge, Bruce A; Nielsen, Karina J; Raimondi, Peter T; Russell, Ann D; Washburn, Libe

    2016-07-01

    Although theory suggests geographic variation in species' performance is determined by multiple niche parameters, little consideration has been given to the spatial structure of interacting stressors that may shape local and regional vulnerability to global change. Here, we use spatially explicit mosaics of carbonate chemistry, food availability and temperature spanning 1280 km of coastline to test whether persistent, overlapping environmental mosaics mediate the growth and predation vulnerability of a critical foundation species, the mussel Mytilus californianus. We find growth was highest and predation vulnerability was lowest in dynamic environments with frequent exposure to low pH seawater and consistent food. In contrast, growth was lowest and predation vulnerability highest when exposure to low pH seawater was decoupled from high food availability, or in exceptionally warm locations. These results illustrate how interactions among multiple drivers can cause unexpected, yet persistent geographic mosaics of species performance, interactions and vulnerability to environmental change. PMID:27151381

  18. A female newborn having mosaicism with near-tetraploidy and trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuka; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Mizuguchi, Koichi; Nakamura, Tomoo; Ito, Yushi; Sago, Haruhiko; Kosaki, Rika

    2016-05-01

    Tetraploidy is characterized by the presence of four complete sets of chromosomes in an individual. Full tetraploidy is usually considered lethal. To date, only ten live-births with the condition have been reported. Trisomy 18 without neonatal intensive treatment is also known to be fatal. We report a female newborn who had mosaicism with near-tetraploidy and trisomy 18 (94,XXXX,+18,+18/47,XX,+18). She had features of conditions. The most plausible mechanism of the formation was a failure of cytoplasmic cleavage at the first division of the zygote. The longer survival of the patient compared with the 10 previously reported live-births with non-mosaic tetraploidy may be due to the dominance of the trisomy cells. We suggest that non-tetraploid cells, even when trisomic for chromosome 18, might contribute to longer survival in comparison to non-mosaic tetrapolid patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789424

  19. Trisomy 15 mosaicism and uniparental disomy (UPD) in a liveborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Milunsky, J.M.; Wyandt, H.E.; Milunsky, A.

    1996-01-22

    We describe a liveborn infant with uniparental disomy (UPD) with trisomy 15 mosaicism. Third trimester amniocentesis yielded a 46,XX/47,XX,+15 karyotype. Symmetrical growth retardation, distinct craniofacies, congenital heart disease, severe hypotonia and minor skeletal anomalies were noted. The infant died at 6 weeks of life. Peripheral lymphocyte chromosomes were {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} 46,XX in 100 cells. Parental lymphocyte chromosomes were normal. Skin biopsy showed 47,XX,+15 in 80% of fibroblasts and results were equivalent in fibroblasts from autopsy lung tissue. Molecular analysis revealed maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 15 in the 46,XX cell line. We describe an emerging phenotype of trisomy 15 mosaicism, confirm that more than one tissue should be studied in all cases of suspected mosaicism, and suggest that UPD be considered in all such cases. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Size dependent growth behaviour related to the mosaic spread in ammonium sulphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadhra, R. S. Ó.; Kramer, H. J. M.; van Rosmalen, G. M.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of small (1-120 μm) ammonium sulphate crystals, which were removed from a 970 L crystallizer via a fines classification line, were measured in a 2 L growth cell. An exponential size dependent growth (SDG) curve was used to model the data, revealing a size dependent growth rate up to a size of 220 μm. The same crystals were dried and sieved and the level of internal strain ("mosaic spread") measured using the high intensity synchrotron radiation source. The results showed that the average mosaic spread and also the spread in mosaic spreads reduced with increasing crystal length. These results are consistent with the SDG rate measured for the small particles in suspension and points to internal lattice strain as being the cause of the SDG.