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Sample records for moss hylocomium splendens

  1. Global fractionation of PCBs: Atmospheric deposition to Norwegian moss (Hylocomium splendens) 1977--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lead, W.A.; Jones, K.C.; Steinnes, E.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of Hylocomium splendens collected in 1977, 1985 and 1990 from the same sites in remote areas of Norway have been analyzed for a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. The {Sigma}PCB concentration (sum of the concentration of the 37 congeners screened) declined in all samples from all locations. It is suggested that this decline reflects the reduction in the global use and manufacture of these compounds. Since the samples had been air dried prior to storage, the possibility of contamination due to contact with laboratory air was investigated. It was concluded that, while some contamination may have occurred, heavier congeners ({ge} 7-Cl) were likely to have been unaffected. General trends in the moss IPCB composition therefore reflect ambient changes in the PCB concentration over time. While {Sigma}PCB concentrations have declined, temporal changes in the congener pattern in the samples collected from the same locations were noted. For example, in parts of northern Norway there was an increase in both the relative and absolute concentrations of some higher chlorinated congeners (e.g. IUPAC congeners 170, 180 and 194). This observation can be interpreted as evidence for differences in congener recycling through the environment according to volatility and supports the theory of global fractionation.

  2. Testate amoebae (Protista) communities in Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (Bryophyta): relationships with altitude, and moss elemental chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Edward A D; Bragazza, Luca; Gerdol, Renato

    2004-12-01

    We studied the testate amoebae in the moss Hylocomium splendens along an altitudinal gradient from 1000 to 2200 m asl. in the south-eastern Alps of Italy in relation to micro- and macro-nutrient content of moss plants. Three mountainous areas were chosen, two of them characterised by calcareous bedrock, the third by siliceous bedrock. A total of 25 testate amoebae taxa were recorded, with a mean species richness of 9.3 per sampling plot. In a canonical correspondence analysis, 63.1% of the variation in the amoebae data was explained by moss tissue chemistry, namely by C, P, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Na content and a binary site variable. We interpreted this result as an indirect effect of moss chemistry on testate amoebae through an influence on prey organisms. Although two species responded to altitude, there was no overall significant relationship between testate amoebae diversity or community structure and altitude, presumably because our sampling protocol aimed at minimizing the variability due to vegetation types and soil heterogeneity. This suggests that previous evidence of altitudinal or latitudinal effects on testate amoebae diversity may at least in part be due to a sampling bias, namely differences in soil type or moss species sampled. PMID:15648722

  3. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: understanding the origin of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Dołegowska, Sabina; Crock, James G; Lamothe, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. PMID:20638128

  4. Mercury in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska: Understanding the origin of pollution sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Dole, ogonekgowska S.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This report shows baseline concentrations of mercury in the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area and the remaining Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) region (south-central Poland), and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Like mosses from many European countries, Polish mosses were distinctly elevated in Hg, bearing a signature of cross-border atmospheric transport combined with local point sources. In contrast, Alaskan mosses showed lower Hg levels, reflecting mostly the underlying geology. Compared to HCM, Alaskan and Kielce mosses exhibited more uneven spatial distribution patterns of Hg. This variation is linked to topography and location of local point sources (Kielce) and underlying geology (Alaska). Both H. splendens and P. schreberi showed similar bioaccumulative capabilities of Hg in all four study areas. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stable sulphur isotope ratios in the moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from the Kielce area (south-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Dołegowska, Sabina; Hałas, Stanisław; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    Stable sulphur isotope determinations were performed on 18 moss samples collected at nine sites in forested areas of the city of Kielce. The delta(34)S of Hylocomium splendens varied from 4.4 to 7.1 per thousand, whereas the delta(34)S of Pleurozium schreberi was in the range of 3.7-9.1 per thousand. The Holy Cross Mountains mosses display a positive delta(34)S signature of airborne SO(2) and sulphates of anthropogenic origin, which is characteristic for this part of Europe. Some spatial variations in the delta(34)S of mosses are due to the interactions that occur between coal combustion emissions with diverse isotopic imprints, variations in wind direction and topographic features combined with biological fractionation. PMID:20582790

  6. PAH concentrations in the moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from the Kielce area (south-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Dołęgowska, Sabina; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M

    2011-09-01

    Forty eight samples of mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area (south-central Poland) were analyzed for seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The PAH concentrations varied from 558.00 μg/kg (ppb) to 4457.00 μg/kg in H. splendens and from 643.00 to 3086.00 μg/kg in P. schreberi. In both moss species phenanthrene (75.00-732.00 μg/kg), fluoranthene (101.00-577.00 μg/kg) and pyrene (68.00-568.00 μg/kg) predominated, but H. splendens accumulated more PAHs than P. schreberi at eighteen different sites. The highest PAH concentrations were noted at sites located close to the housing estates (sites 1-10) and potential emission sources (e.g. heat and power generating plant "Kielce S.A.") (sites 19-21). The moss samples displayed the diverse ring sequence, but the most prevalent was four>five>three>six. The diagnostic ratios (three+four ring/total PAHs, Flu/Py, Phen/Ant, Phen/Phen+Ant, Flu/Flu+Py, IndPy/IndPy+BghiPe and BaA/BaA+Chr) indicated that coal and petroleum combustion was a principal PAH source in the study area. PMID:21652075

  7. Distribution patterns of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from different forest communities: a case study, south-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2007-04-01

    Twenty samples of the moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were collected at 10 sites of the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) and analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 33 elements. The ring sequence of PAHs in the moss samples is: 4 (92-1040 ng x g(-1))>3 and 5 (21-272 ng x g(-1))>6 (<5-131 ng x g(-1)). H. splendens accumulates PAHs more effectively than P. schreberi, and therefore the former may be regarded as a better bioindicator of PAHs. No correlation was found between concentrations of PAHs and elements. However, both H. splendens and P. schreberi shows different bioaccumulative capabilities depending on the plant communities. The mosses growing in the dry pine forest Cladonio-Pinetum reveal higher levels of Fe, Na, Sr, Ti, Cr, Mo, Ni, V and higher mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs, whereas those from the continental coniferous forest Querco roboris-Pinetum are highlighted by elevated levels of B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb and Sb and lower mean concentrations of summation operator16 PAHs. These differences seem to be brought about by a higher biodiversity of the second forest type and its higher productivity that favors more effective cycling of elements. PMID:17141296

  8. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Environmental specimen bank samples of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens as indicators of the radiation environment at the surface.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, S; Taipale, T; Lappalainen, N M; Kubin, E; Lakkala, K; Kaurola, J

    2005-01-01

    Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp. samples from the Finnish Environmental Specimen Bank were used to study the UV-B-absorbing compounds as potential screens of the past radiation environment. The first series from southern and central Finland consisted of samples collected from 18 P. schreberi or H. splendens dominated sites in 1985 and 1995. The second series from four H. splendens dominated sites (two in southern and two in northern Finland) and two P. schreberi dominated sites (one southern and one northern) were from the years 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000. In the first series, the moss surface area of the analyzed specimens (5 +/- 0.2 mg DW) was smaller in 1995 (40% of both species collected in June) than in 1985 (40% of P. schreberi and 55% of H. splendens collected in September). The methanol-extractable UV-B-absorbing compounds of P. schreberi in 1985 and 1995 measured as absorbance at 10 nm intervals at 280-360 nm per mg DW revealed a negative correlation with reconstructed UV-radiation data. In the second series, the UV-B-absorbing compounds per specific surface area (surface area mm2 per DW) showed significant differences between the years. The highest values in both species were obtained in 1990. In H. splendens, a difference between the southern and northern samples was observed. The preliminary study encouraged the use of environmental specimen bank samples to indicate changes in surface radiation conditions. PMID:15519462

  10. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. as trace element bioindicators: statistical comparison of bioaccumulative properties.

    PubMed

    Dołegowska, Sabina; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Michalik, Artur

    2013-02-01

    The principal objective of this study was to compare bioaccumulative properties of two terrestrial moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area (south-central Poland), using various statistical techniques. Forty-six moss samples from 23 sampling sites located within the city limits were analyzed for 33 trace elements. The results indicated that 17 elements (Ba, Ce, Co, Cu, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sm, V, Y) dominated in H. splendens, whereas only three elements (Mn, Sr, Zn) occurred in excessive amounts in P. schreberi. No differences in the distribution pattern of Dy, Er, Ho, Sn, Tb, Th and Yb were observed. The element concentration ratio (PI/Hy) varied from 0.50 to 1.19. For 14 elements (Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hg, La, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Sm, Th, V), PI/Hy < 1; for 4 elements (Cd, Mn, Sr, Zn), PI/Hy > 1; for 7 elements (Ba, Dy, Er, Eu, Pr, Y, Yb), PI/Hy = equalled 1. Czekanowski's method showed similarities in rare earth element concentrations for both moss species. The cluster analysis exhibited three significant clusters at D(link)/D(max) x 100 < 50 for both moss species. Strong positive Spearman correlations between both moss species were recorded for the following pairs: Ba-Ba, Co-Co, Er-Er, Eu-Eu, Gd Gd, Mn-Mn, Ni-Ni, Pb-Pb, Pr-Pr, Sm-Sm, Th-Th, Y-Y, and Yb-Yb. Nonparametric tests (Sign test, Wilcoxon tests) showed statistically significant differences only for Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr. The scanning electron microscope study of H. splendens and P. schreberi revealed a different morphology of these species with no injuries. PMID:23596955

  11. Comparison of metal concentrations in three species of mosses and metal freights in bulk precipitations.

    PubMed

    Thöni, L; Schnyder, N; Krieg, F

    1996-03-01

    Concentration of 25 trace metals in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi and Hypnum cupressiforme) are compared with bulk deposition freights (Bergerhoff method) at 3 sites in Switzerland, one on the plateau, a second in the northern prealps and a third in the southern alps. The three moss species are interchangeable and the atmospheric background deposition can be estimated with sufficient accuracy for Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, La, Li, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Y, Zn. For Hg this study does not give definite results. No seasonal differences in moss concentrations from spring to autumn can be shown. PMID:15067476

  12. Inter- and intraspecific variations of the chemical properties of high-Arctic mosses along water-regime gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Takeshi; Osono, Takashi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    We examined and compared the contents of organic chemical components (lignin-like compounds, total carbohydrates and extractives), carbon and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium) among the mosses Calliergon giganteum, Hylocomium splendens, Racomitrium lanuginosum, and among three populations of H. splendens collected from habitats in contrasting water regimes in the Canadian high-arctic tundra. C:N:P ratios were analyzed among and within moss species. Mosses from hydric habitats had lower total carbohydrate and higher nutrients contents than did mosses from drier habitats; however, we found no intraspecific variations in nitrogen and calcium contents in the different populations of H. splendens along water-regime gradients. The contents in lignin-like compounds, extractives and carbon showed no clear trends along water-regime gradients. Mosses from hydric habitats had lower C:N, C:P and N:P ratios than mosses from drier habitats, although we found no intraspecific variations in C:N ratios in H. splendens along water-regime gradients. These results suggest that chemical properties of mosses, especially nutrient contents, are strongly correlated with water availability in high-Arctic tundra.

  13. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vergel, K. N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Povtoreyko, E. A.

    2007-11-26

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi ({approx}80%) and Hylocomium splendens ({approx}20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation.

  14. Air Pollution Studies in Tver Region of Russia using Moss-Biomonitoring with Nuclear Analytical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergel, K. N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Povtoreyko, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Results of the trace element atmospheric deposition in the Tver region based on moss analysis are presented. Moss samples were collected in the summer of 1999 and 2004 from 174 sites evenly distributed over the region. As bioaccumulators, two common mosses were used: Pleurozium schreberi (˜80%) and Hylocomium splendens (˜20%). The moss samples were subject to neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor JINR Dubna. The purpose of this study was to determine deposition patterns of potent sources of air pollution such as the largest Russian thermal power plant nearby the town of Konakovo and to reveal previously unknown pollution sources located in towns and settlements within the sampled territory. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the examined territory. Comparison of the results obtained with those from other surveys in Russia and Europe shows that Tver region could be considered as a background territory for the Russian Federation.

  15. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  16. Temporal and spatial trends in Hg deposition monitored by moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinnes, E; Berg, T; Sjøbakk, T E

    2003-03-20

    Results for Hg from a nation-wide survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway in 2000 are presented and compared to similar results from 1985, 1990 and 1995. The study is based on sampling of the naturally growing feather moss Hylocomium splendens at approximately 500 sites all over the country. Cold vapor AAS (1985, 1990) or atomic fluorescence spectrometry (1995, 2000) was used for Hg determinations after HNO(3) digestion of the moss samples. As different from the wet deposition of Hg and several other heavy metals in Norway the Hg concentration in moss shows no significant north-south gradient. This is explained by a considerable supply of Hg to the moss from dry deposition of Hg(0) in addition to the retention of Hg(2+) from wet deposition. Presumably the cool summer climate particularly in the middle and northern parts of the country explains that some of the Hg(0) retained in the moss is not lost by re-volatilisation. Whereas the level and geographic distribution of Hg in moss showed only small differences during 1985-1995 the 2000 data are approximately 30% lower. A satisfactory explanation of this difference remains to be found. PMID:12663185

  17. Changes in Species, Areal Cover, and Production of Moss across a Fire Chronosequence in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Munster, J.; Manies, K.L.; Mack, M.C.; Bubier, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the species and production rates of various upland mosses and their relationship to both site drainage and time since fire, annual net primary production of six common moss species was measured. Several stands located near Delta Junction, interior Alaska, were located. These stands ranged from one to 116 years since fire in well-drained (dry) and moderately to somewhat poorly drained (wet) black spruce (Picea mariana)-feathermoss systems. Moss species composition varied greatly during the fire cycle, with Ceratodon purpureus dominating the earliest years after a fire, Aulacomnium palustre dominating the transitional and older stages, and Hylocomium splendens dominating the oldest, mature sites. Polytrichum spp. was found at all sites. Average moss cover ranged from <10 percent in the youngest sites to almost 90 percent in the mature sites. Species from the genus Polytrichum were the most productive and contributed up to 30 g m2 of organic matter in one growing season. Least productive was Rhytidium rugosum, which contributed about 1.5 g m2 of organic matter in mature stands. Recovery of moss productivity after fire was not significantly different for wet and dry sites.

  18. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha-1 yr-1) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  19. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Feather Moss Associated Nitrogen Fixation in Coniferous and Deciduous Dominated Alaskan Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant canopy tree species have strong effects on the composition and function of understory species. In boreal forests, forest floor bryophytes and their associated microbes are a primary source of ecosystem nitrogen (N) inputs, and thus an important process regulating ecosystem productivity. Bryophyte composition and abundance varies with forest composition, yet how such changes can affect ecosystem processes such as N fixation is still poorly understood. Our goal is to investigate how cyanobacteria-based N fixation occurring in the two most common feather mosses in the Alaskan boreal forest (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) varies among coniferous and deciduous forest types, over the growing season, and across a nutrient availability gradient. Twelve patches of H. splendens and P. schreberi were identified in three pairs (blocks) of adjacent stands of paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) and black spruce (Picea mariana) near Fairbanks, interior Alaska. Sampling occurred in one block in June, July, August, and September 2014, and in the three blocks once in August 2014. Moss leaf area, moisture and weight, as well as environmental variables such as air temperature and canopy cover were recorded. Fixation rates were consistently higher for P. schreberi than for H. splendens. Overall, N fixation rates were lower in birch than in spruce stands and peaked in August, or July for P. schreberi in birch stands. Moreover, fixation rates varied along the nutrient availability gradient, with fixation rates higher where nutrient availability was lower. This difference was especially clear in spruce stands. Our preliminary results suggest that moss species, canopy type, and environmental factors all influence N fixation rates in Alaskan boreal forests. Our results will enhance the knowledge of the processes that drive N fixation in boreal forests, which is important for predicting ecosystem consequences of changing forest composition.

  1. Changes in the heavy metal and nutrient contents of dried feather mosses during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Karhu, Jouni; Seppänen, Reijo; Kubin, Eero

    2014-07-01

    This study measured heavy metal and nutrient concentrations of two feather mosses during the periods of dry storage. Samples (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi) were collected in the nationwide moss surveys carried out on the permanent sample plots of the 8th Finnish National Forest Inventory in 1985-86, 1990, 1995 and 2000. A small amount of each moss sample was analyzed soon after collection, and the remainder was dried and stored at the Paljakka environmental specimen bank (ESB). The 108 stored samples from 27 plots were reanalyzed in 2008. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, P) were determined and compared for each survey year. Overall, Fe, Pb and Cr concentrations decreased, and Cu concentrations increased significantly during storage. The greatest decrease was observed in samples from plots where their initial concentrations were the highest. Changes in the concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn were less pronounced. The loss of heavy metals is likely due to drying when cell membranes rupture and some of the surface material is lost. K, P and, to some extent, Mg concentrations increased during storage, whereas Ca did not change significantly. Nutrient increase is probably due to their movement from older to younger growths during the initial phase of drying. Ca is mostly bound to cell walls and is not easily released. Results emphasize the importance of establishing the intended use of a stored moss prior to sampling, in order to select and optimize an appropriate storage technique. PMID:24652377

  2. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  4. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    PubMed

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, p<0.01) and lipophilic properties (KOW, r=0.768, p<0.01), respectively. This annual study therefore showed that atmospheric PAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. PMID:25084064

  5. Moss as bio-indicator of long term pollution spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombert, S.; Leblond, S.; Losno, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, C.; Costes, S.; Colin, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    Bio indicators are very interesting to track atmospheric pollution on large time and space scale because of the very low cost of the sampling system. As a replicate of a similar campaign made in France during the year 1996, moss field sampling was carried out during the summer 2000 (July-September). Moss samples were collected on 528 sites, located in a 33x33 km grid, leading to a density of 1 site per 1000 square kilometer. Samples sites were located as far as possible from local contamination. Five moss species were collected: Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. (56% of all the samples collected), Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. (18%), Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. (18%), Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. (4.5%), and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. (3.5%). All the sampling and analytical procedures were carried out with ultra-trace measurement standards. Beside the geographical distribution of the elements, we will compare here the temporal evolution of measured moss concentration for more than 25 elements. This comparison is not evident because of many possible artifacts, and we will discuss here their relative importance. This includes: 1/ The analytical comparison between the two laboratories implicated in the year respectively 1996 and 2000. 2/ The behaviour of the elements between the different species. 3/ The behaviour of the elements between different parts of the moss (green apical or brown basal part) used for deposition monitoring. 4/ The residence time of the elements in the living moss. Concerning the last point, we have chosen a rural site where we continuously monitor atmospheric deposition by classical method. There we have sprayed diluted solution containing spikes of dissolved metals to provide a transient signal sharper and stronger than the atmospheric fluxes. We have followed the evolution of these metal concentrations during 6 months showing large differences between elements especially after a rain event. The usage of bio indicator

  6. Seasonal variation in nifH abundance and expression of cyanobacterial communities associated with boreal feather mosses

    PubMed Central

    Warshan, Denis; Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixation by cyanobacteria living in symbiosis with pleurocarpous feather mosses (for example, Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) represents the main pathway of biological N input into N-depleted boreal forests. Little is known about the role of the cyanobacterial community in contributing to the observed temporal variability of N2-fixation. Using specific nifH primers targeting four major cyanobacterial clusters and quantitative PCR, we investigated how community composition, abundance and nifH expression varied by moss species and over the growing seasons. We evaluated N2-fixation rates across nine forest sites in June and September and explored the abundance and nifH expression of individual cyanobacterial clusters when N2-fixation is highest. Our results showed temporal and host-dependent variations of cyanobacterial community composition, nifH gene abundance and expression. N2-fixation was higher in September than June for both moss species, explained by higher nifH gene expression of individual clusters rather than higher nifH gene abundance or differences in cyanobacterial community composition. In most cases, ‘Stigonema cluster' made up less than 29% of the total cyanobacterial community, but accounted for the majority of nifH gene expression (82–94% of total nifH expression), irrespective of sampling date or moss species. Stepwise multiple regressions showed temporal variations in N2-fixation being greatly explained by variations in nifH expression of the ‘Stigonema cluster'. These results suggest that Stigonema is potentially the most influential N2-fixer in symbiosis with boreal forest feather mosses. PMID:26918665

  7. Seasonal variation in nifH abundance and expression of cyanobacterial communities associated with boreal feather mosses.

    PubMed

    Warshan, Denis; Bay, Guillaume; Nahar, Nurun; Wardle, David A; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-09-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixation by cyanobacteria living in symbiosis with pleurocarpous feather mosses (for example, Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) represents the main pathway of biological N input into N-depleted boreal forests. Little is known about the role of the cyanobacterial community in contributing to the observed temporal variability of N2-fixation. Using specific nifH primers targeting four major cyanobacterial clusters and quantitative PCR, we investigated how community composition, abundance and nifH expression varied by moss species and over the growing seasons. We evaluated N2-fixation rates across nine forest sites in June and September and explored the abundance and nifH expression of individual cyanobacterial clusters when N2-fixation is highest. Our results showed temporal and host-dependent variations of cyanobacterial community composition, nifH gene abundance and expression. N2-fixation was higher in September than June for both moss species, explained by higher nifH gene expression of individual clusters rather than higher nifH gene abundance or differences in cyanobacterial community composition. In most cases, 'Stigonema cluster' made up less than 29% of the total cyanobacterial community, but accounted for the majority of nifH gene expression (82-94% of total nifH expression), irrespective of sampling date or moss species. Stepwise multiple regressions showed temporal variations in N2-fixation being greatly explained by variations in nifH expression of the 'Stigonema cluster'. These results suggest that Stigonema is potentially the most influential N2-fixer in symbiosis with boreal forest feather mosses. PMID:26918665

  8. Effects of Elsholtzia splendens and Cirsium japonicum on premenstrual syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome is a common chronic disorder in most women of reproductive age. The main symptoms are depression, anxiety, tension, feeling out of control, and mastalgia. In premenstrual syndrome, the effects of aromatic edible Elsholtzia splendens and Cirsium japonicum were investigated for over 3 months in 30 women participants in their twenties. In the Elsholtzia splendens capsule treated group, scores of depression and anxiety were significantly lower than those in the Cirsium japonicum capsule treated group. Moreover, instability of the premenstrual assessment form was significantly decreased in the Elsholtzia splendens capsule treated group. Our results suggest that Elsholtzia splendens could be an effective plant material in relieving symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:20827344

  9. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  10. Resurgence in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Stephanie P; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2014-03-01

    Resurgence of previously reinforced responding was investigated in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Swimming through a ring produced 15-s mirror presentations according to, with different fish, either a fixed-ratio 1 or a variable-interval 60-s schedule of reinforcement. When responding was stable, a differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior schedule was substituted for the mirror-presentation schedule. Following this, mirror presentations were discontinued (extinction). During this latter phase, there were transient increases in the ring-swim response relative to the frequency of such responding during the differential-reinforcement-of-other behavior schedule. Resurgence was similar for the fish exposed previously to the fixed-ratio or to the variable-interval schedule. These results extend to Siamese fighting fish a well-established behavioral phenomenon previously not observed in this species or with this response topography, and only rarely reported following the removal of a non-consumable reinforcer. PMID:24462710

  11. GIRAS TO MOSS INTERFACE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiNardo, Thomas P.; Jackson, R. Alan

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of land use change for an area in Boulder County, Colorado, was conducted using digital cartographic data. The authors selected data in the Geographic Information Retrieval and Analysis System (GIRAS) format which is digitized from the 1:250,000-scale land use and land cover map series. The Map Overlay and Statistical System (MOSS) was used as an analytical tool for the study. The authors describe the methodology used in converting the GIRAS file into a MOSS format and the activities associated with the conversion.

  12. How Betta splendens finds its way.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana C

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens performance in associating a stimulus with a specific cue when distractors are present. After trained to associate a specific color cue to a stimulus (conspecific) in a tank containing three colored distractors, the fish was challenged to locate the exact place where the stimulus fish was presented. With only color cues as guides, the Siamese fighting fish spent most of its time close to the color where the stimulus fish was previously presented, regardless of the distractors. However, fish trained to associate an empty place (no cues) to a stimulus fish, and then tested to localize the specific zone where the stimulus was shown, succeeded to locate the place even without any obvious cues/distractors for orientation. This study confirms that Siamese fighting fish show good conditioned learning and cannot be distracted by other stimuli. In addition, an unexpected good performance in the absence of cues may suggest the Betta's ability to orientate by using another sensorial modalities, as magnetic orientation. Collectively, the results of this study confirm Betta as a valid and reliable model for learning and memory tests, and suggest more studies should be developed for the better understanding of the fish's spatial orientation mechanisms. PMID:26655891

  13. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  14. Visual perception of texture in aggressive behavior of Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bando, T

    1991-07-01

    In order to elucidate the role of texture in fish vision, the agonistic behavior of male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) was tested in a response to models composed by means of image processing techniques. Using the models with the contour shape of a side view of Betta splendens in an aggressive state, the responses were vigorous when there was a fine distribution of brightness and naturalistic color, producing textures like a scale pattern. Reactions became weaker as the brightness and color distribution reverted to more homogeneous levels and the scale pattern disappeared. When the artificial models with the circular contour shape were used, models with the scale pattern evoked more aggressive behaviors than those without it, while the existence of spherical gradation affected the behavior slightly. These results suggest that texture plays an important role in fish visual perception. PMID:1941718

  15. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  16. Instrumental conditioning of choice behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Craft, Baine B.; Velkey, Andrew J.; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2003-07-31

    Despite the differences in the response of male Betta splendens toward various stimuli, no research has attempted to determine the preference for a live conspecific versus a mirror presentation. A submerged T-maze was used to present both stimuli to healthy male B. splendens (N=16). The results indicated that subjects' start box and swimway latencies decreased significantly over the 30 trials. Moreover, the analysis of choices demonstrated a modest, but statistically significant, preference for the live conspecific over the mirror presentation. The results are discussed in terms of the stimuli qualities that elicit an aggressive response in B. splendens and the implications for common experimental procedures. PMID:12829317

  17. IRIS observations of moss variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, P.; Robinson, C.; De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Hansteen, V. H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lemen, J. R.; Title, A. M.; Wuelser, J.

    2013-12-01

    The variability of emission of the "moss", i.e., the upper transition region (TR) layer of high pressure loops in active regions, provides stringent constraints on the characteristics of heating events. Recent moss observations with the Hi-C (High resolution coronal imager) sounding rocket in a EUV narrow band around 193A at high spatial (~0.3 arcsec) and temporal (~5.5s) resolution, have revealed in some moss regions variability on timescales down to ~15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss. The Hi-C and SDO observations of these events suggest that they are signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. The Hi-C rocket only produced few minutes of data, therefore preventing a detail study of the statistical properties of these events. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), launched in June 2013, provides imaging and spectral observations at high spatial (0.166 arcsec/pix), and temporal (down to ~1s) resolution at FUV and NUV wavelengths. We present here an analysis of the temporal variability properties of moss regions as observed by IRIS, focusing on high cadence (<5s) slit-jaw images (SJI) in the 1400A band, centered around Si IV transition region emission. We compare the results with simultaneous analysis of AIA data, and with previous findings.

  18. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow drainage and reduce its moisture content. (b) The...

  19. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow drainage and reduce its moisture content. (b) The...

  20. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow drainage and reduce its moisture content. (b) The...

  1. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat moss must be stockpiled under cover to allow drainage and reduce its moisture content. (b) The...

  2. Mosses new to New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bryophyte inventory was conducted in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP), New Mexico, from 2009 to 2011. Specimens representing 113 species of bryophytes were collected. Of those bryophytes, seven of the mosses were new to New Mexico: Atrichum tenellum (Rohling) Bruch & Schimper, Dicranum ...

  3. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:18683612

  4. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish. PMID:15518999

  5. Splendid coloration of the peacock spider Maratus splendens.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Otto, Jürgen C; Wilts, Bodo D

    2016-08-01

    Jumping spiders are well known for their acute vision and often bright colours. The male peacock spider Maratus splendens is richly coloured by scales that cover the body. The colours of the white, cream and red scales, which have an elaborate shape with numerous spines, are pigmentary. Blue scales are unpigmented and have a structural colour, created by an intricate photonic system consisting of two chitinous layers with ridges, separated by an air gap, with on the inner sides of the chitin layers an array of filaments. We have characterized the optical properties of the scales by microspectrophotometry, imaging scatterometry and light and scanning electron microscopy. Optical modelling revealed that the filament array constitutes a novel structural coloration system, which subtly fine tunes the scale reflectance to the observed blue coloration. PMID:27512139

  6. Copper phytoavailability and uptake by Elsholtzia splendens from contaminated soil as affected by soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Yang, Xiao-E; Jiang, Li-Ying; He, Zhen-Li

    2005-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to evaluate bioavailability of Cu in contaminated paddy soil (PS) and phytoremediation potential by Elsholtzia splendens as affected by soil amendments. The results from pot experiment showed that organic manure (M) applied to the PS not only remarkably raised the H2O exchangeable Cu, which were mainly due to the increased exchangeable and organic fractions of Cu in the PS by M, but also stimulated plant growth and Cu accumulation in E. splendens. At M application rate of 5.0%, shoot Cu concentration in the plant increased by four times grown on the PS, so as to the elevated shoot Cu accumulation by three times as compared to the control. In the field trial, soil amendments by M and furnace slag (F), and soil preparations like soil capping (S) and soil discing (D) were performed in the PS. Soil capping and discing considerably declined total Cu in the PS. Application of M solely or together with F enhanced plant growth and increased H2O exchangeable Cu levels in the soil. The increased extractability of Cu in the rhizosphere of E. splendens was noted, which may have mainly attributed to the rhizospheric acidification and chelation by dissolved organic matter (DOM), thus resulting in elevating Cu uptake and accumulation by E. splendens. Amendments with organic manure plus furnace slag (MF) to the PS caused the highest exactable Cu with saturated H2O in the rhizospheric soil of E. splendens after they were grown for 170 days in the PS, thus achieving 1.74 kg Cu ha(-1) removal from the contaminated soil by the whole plant of E. splendens at one season, which is higher than those of the other soil treatments. The results indicated that application of organic manure at a proper rate could enhance Cu bioavailability and increase effectiveness of Cu phytoextraction from the contaminated soil by the metal-tolerant and accumulating plant species (E. splendens). PMID:15792303

  7. MOSS2D V1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  8. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish. PMID:27097088

  9. MOSS, an evaluation of software engineering techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. R.; Pruitt, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation of the software engineering techniques used for the development of a Modular Operating System (MOSS) was described. MOSS is a general purpose real time operating system which was developed for the Concept Verification Test (CVT) program. Each of the software engineering techniques was described and evaluated based on the experience of the MOSS project. Recommendations for the use of these techniques on future software projects were also given.

  10. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies. PMID:27172056

  11. Immunocompetence, developmental stability and wingspot size in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens L.

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, M J; Koskimäki, J; Taskinen, J; Tynkkynen, K; Suhonen, J

    2000-01-01

    Calopteryx splendens males exhibit a remarkable variation in wing pigmentation both within and between populations. In this study, we examined whether the wingspots of male C. splendens are related to male quality. We measured the nylon implant encapsulation rate for 85 males and found that males with larger wingspots had a faster encapsulation rate, indicating a better immunocompetence. We also found that the encapsulation rate was positively correlated with the density of haemocytes in the haemolymph. Another measurement of male quality, fluctuating asymmetry of wingspots, correlated negatively with the size of the wingspots. Males with asymmetrical wingspots also had lower encapsulation rates than more symmetrical males. Our results suggest that the size of wingspot is an indicator of male quality in C. splendens. PMID:11133037

  12. Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts. PMID:23612845

  13. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of Salvia splendens Transcriptome Using the Illumina Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aiping; Liu, Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    Background As an important perennial herbaceous flower, Salvia splendens possesses high ornamental value. Understanding its branching processes may help scientists select the best plant type. Although Salvia splendens is a frequently-used horticultural flower, only limited transcriptomic or genomic research is available in public databases. In the present study, we, for the first time, constructed a comprehensive dataset for Salvia splendens through de novo high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing on two different branching type plants (Strain 35 and Cailinghong) using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. For Strain 35, a total of 16,488,829 reads were generated and assembled into 38,498 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 779 bp. For Cailinghong, 16,464,713 reads were generated and assembled into 34,302 unigenes, with a mean length of approximately 812 bp. Moreover, a total of 49,310 unigenes for Salvia splendens were identified, among them 33,925 (68.80%) were annotated in the non-redundant NCBI database, 25,371 (51.45%) were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database, while 24,888 (50.47%) and 9,896 (20.07%) unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database, we identified 134 differently expressed unigenes between Strain 35 and Cailinghong, and then these unigenes were mapped to 79 pathways. In addition, we detected 2,453 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Conclusions We obtained a comprehensive transcriptomic information from this work and provided a valuable resource of transcript sequences of Salvia splendens in public databases. Moreover, some candidate genes potentially involved in branching were identified. Furthermore, numerous obtained SSRs might contribute to marker-assisted selection. These data could be further utilized in functional genomics

  14. Susceptibility of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to malathion, naled and resmethrin.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Schreiber, E T; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1993-03-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to measure the response of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens to commonly used mosquito adulticides: malathion, naled and resmethrin. The concentrations of pesticide causing 50% mortality (LC50) after 24 h was 2.87, 69.1 and 623 ppb for resmethrin, malathion and naled, respectively. Naled was determined to be the least toxic of the 3 compounds tested for integrated use with Tx. splendens. The latter assessments were based on comparisons between laboratory-derived dose-response curves and maximum concentrations reached in standing water calculated using standard application rates. PMID:8096872

  15. Phytofiltration of copper from contaminated water: growth response, copper uptake and lignin content in Elsholtzia splendens and Elsholtzia argyi.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengke; Peng, Hongyun; Yang, Xiaoe; Lu, Lingli; Zhang, Ling

    2008-07-01

    Phytofiltration of Cu from water by Elsholtzia plants were investigated hydroponically. Both E. splendens and E. argyi could effectively clean up lower Cu contaminated water, probably attributed to their extremely high surface area of roots. The removal rate of Cu was concentration-dependent and showed a monotonic decline with time. At higher external Cu concentration, the growth of E. argyi has been considerably inhibited while E. splendens still grew normally. E. splendens has the greater capacity to absorb Cu to roots from water and translocate Cu from roots to shoots. Lignin in roots probably has no significant effect on immobilizing Cu. PMID:18421404

  16. 78 FR 41397 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 28, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC (Moss Bluff) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) pursuant to sections 284.123 and 284.224 of the Commission's regulations, (18 CFR 284.123 and 284.224). Moss...

  17. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W

    2014-03-01

    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf. PMID:24502248

  18. Risky Behaviors: Effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) Predator on the Behavior of Three Mosquito Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. “Thrashing” and “browsing” activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the “wall” position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  19. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  20. The lamina splendens of articular cartilage is an artefact of phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aspden, R M; Hukins, D W

    1979-11-30

    The so-called lamina splendens of articular cartilage is shown to be a characteristic of phase contrast microscopy; this technique provides no evidence for an anatomically distinct surface layer. Fresnel diffraction occurs at edges separating regions of different refractive indices. These diffraction effects, when viewed under phase contrast, lead to the appearance of a bright line along the edge. PMID:42065

  1. Sphagnum mosses on cutover peat: Moss layer structural controls on water exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jonathan; McCarter, Colin; Ketcheson, Scot

    2013-04-01

    The structure of Sphagnum moss communities strongly affect their ability to retain and redistribute water in a peatland ecosystem. This moss structure varies by species, and within species depending on certain abiotic factors (e.g. shade). On cutover bogs mosses that have regenerated, either spontaneously or through managed restoration, may develop a relatively loose structure that can vary significantly from those growing in undisturbed ecosystems. For example, the structure of a 15-20 cm layer of Sphagnum mosses regenerated over a ten-year period at the "restored" Bois-des-Bel peatland (Quebec, Canada) restricts its ability to sequester carbon and control site scale hydrological fluxes, including E and runoff. Further, the loose structure of the mosses also decreases their soil-water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, reducing their ability to draw water up from the water table (WT) and to sustain evaporation (E) and photosynthesis. Stark structural differences between moss communities and cutover peat in abandoned (or restored) peatlands strongly affects water exchanges between cutover peat and overlying moss. At relatively dry locations (e.g. WT > 20 cm below the interface of cutover peat) the moss is effectively decoupled from the influence of the WT in the cutover substrate, and must rely on the atmospheric or internally redistributed moisture to hydrate the upper (living) layer. Wetter locations where the moss structure is particularly loose may also exhibit limited connectivity.

  2. Oxylipins in moss development and defense.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Inés; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  3. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    PubMed Central

    de León, Inés Ponce; Hamberg, Mats; Castresana, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects, and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOXs) and α-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by LOXs and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, JA, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review, we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development and defense. PMID:26191067

  4. Lateralization of displays during aggressive and courtship behaviour in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Cantalupo, C; Bisazza, A; Vallortigara, G

    1996-07-01

    Evidence for right-left asymmetries in eye use at the individual level in the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, is reported. When faced with their mirror image (in two daily trials of 10 min each), adult male Betta splendens showed consistency in their right or left eye use during threat lateral displays. Moreover, if one side was preferred by an individual to exhibit the lateral displays, then the duration of the displays on that side was longer than the duration of the displays on the other side. Similar findings were obtained when a sample of animals was tested for eye use during courtship displays in the presence of a female. Furthermore, consistency in eye use was observed in fish tested first with the mirror and then, 2 months later, with the female. Results are discussed with respect to the issue of the evolution of brain lateralization. PMID:8804671

  5. Early development of Betta splendens under stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; do Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira; da Silva, Regiane Cristina; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2015-04-01

    Betta splendens is a very important ornamental species. The current paper describes the embryonic and larval development of B. splendens under stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Eggs and larvae from natural spawning were collected at different developmental stages at previously established intervals and analysed. The eggs of B. splendens are yellowish, clear, spherical, demersal, translucent and telolecithal with a large amount of yolk. Between 0-2 h post-initial collection (hpIC), the eggs were at the egg cell, first cleavage and morula stages. The blastula stage was identified at 2-3 hpIC and the early gastrula phase was observed at 3-4 hpIC with 20% epiboly, which was finalized after 13-18 hpIC. When the pre-larvae were ready to hatch, the appearance of somites and the free tail were observed, at 23-25 hpIC. At 29 hpIC, the majority of larvae had already hatched at an average temperature of 28.4 ± 0.2°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 2.47 ± 0.044 mm total length. The mouth opened at 23 h post-hatching (hPH) and the yolk sac was totally absorbed at 73 hPH. After 156 hPH, the heart was pumping blood throughout the entire larval body. The caudal fin, operculum and eyes were well developed at 264 hPH. When metamorphosis was complete at 768 hPH, the larvae became juveniles. The current study presents the first results about early development of B. splendens and provides relevant information for its reproduction, rearing and biology. PMID:24229611

  6. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  7. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia. PMID:24862057

  8. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and β-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of β-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes. PMID:20012186

  9. Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2007-01-01

    The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

  10. Translocation in the nonpolytrichaceous moss grimmia laevigata

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A superficially rhizomatous habit suggested that the moss Grimmia laevigata might function as a clonal, rhizomatous plant and translocate photoassimilates to below ground organs, even though the species is outside the order Polytrichales, which includes the only mosses known to posses sieve cells. Labelling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated that at least 10% of newly assimilated carbon was translocated out of leafy shoot portions within 26 hr. Of this carbon, approximately 75% was apparently moved into leafless, basal shoot portions and 25% into below ground stems. Infrared gas analysis of net CO{sup 2} flux was used to check that labelling gave a realistic measure of photosynthesis. Physiological integration and clonal spread may account for the unusual ability of this moss to colonize extremely xeric microsites.

  11. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-01

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  12. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  13. Thermal energy storage composition comprising peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Rueffel, P.G.

    1980-11-04

    Peat moss is used in a thermal energy storage composition to provide a network in which to trap an incongruently melting salt hydrate capable of storing thermal energy as latent heat of phase change. The peat moss network is effective in preventing the segregation of a dehydrated form of the salt between heating and cooling cycles. In a preferred embodiment that salt hydrate is the decahydrate of sodium sulphate. A nucleating agent such as sodium tetraborate decahydrate is included to prevent supercooling in the composition, and promote crystallization of the decahydrate of sodium sulphate.

  14. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  15. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  17. 77 FR 70431 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 15, 2012, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC, (Moss Bluff) filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC)...

  18. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  20. The Moss Techniques for Air Pollution Study in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, S.; Marinov, A.; Frontasyeva, M.; Strelkova, L.; Yurukova, L.; Steinnes, E.

    2010-01-21

    The paper presents new results on atmospheric deposition of 41 elements in four areas of Bulgaria during the European moss survey in 2005. The results have been obtained by the moss biomonitoring technique. Ninety seven moss samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

  1. The effect of body coloration and group size on social partner preferences in female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, C; McRobert, S P; Brown, A C; Clotfelter, E D

    2009-02-01

    Females of the fighting fish Betta splendens have been shown to associate with other B. splendens females in a manner reminiscent of shoaling behavior. Since body coloration varies dramatically in this species, and since body coloration has been shown to affect shoalmate choice in other species of fish, we examined the influence of body coloration on association preferences in female B. splendens. In dichotomous choice tests, B. splendens females spent more time swimming near groups of females (regardless of coloration) than swimming near an empty chamber, and chose to swim near fish of similar coloration to their own when choosing between two distinctly colored groups of females. When examining the interplay between body coloration and group size, focal fish spent more time swimming near larger groups (N=5) of similarly colored fish than swimming near an individual female of similar coloration. However, focal fish showed no preference when presented with an individual female of similar coloration and a larger group of females of dissimilar coloration. These results suggest that association choices in B. splendens females are strongly affected by both body coloration and by group size. PMID:19059314

  2. Effect of copper tolerant Elsholtzia splendens on bacterial community associated with Commelina communis on a copper mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruyi; Guo, Fuyu; Li, Jing; Su, Nannan; Shao, Zongyuan; Zan, Shuting

    2016-08-01

    Facilitation, or positive plant-plant interaction, has received increasing concern from ecologists over the last two decades. Facilitation may occur through direct mitigation of severe environments or indirect mediation by a third participant from the same or different trophic levels. The copper (Cu) tolerant species Elsholtzia splendens facilitates the establishment and growth of co-occurring Commelina communis through indirect enrichment of microbial activity. However, whether and how E. splendens impacts the microbial community that is associated with C. communis is less known. We characterized the soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere of C. communis in the absence and presence of E. splendens using PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing. The result showed that the richness of the bacterial community increased, but diversity and evenness remained similar, in the presence of E. splendens. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacteria. The relative abundance of dominant and minor bacterial groups showed distinctly different responses to E. splendens. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that variation of the bacterial community was determined by multiple factors and might be driven by the tested soil parameters collectively, or alternatively changed through plant root exudates or other microorganisms. Our results enhance the understanding of how the bacterial community associated with a beneficiary plant responds to a benefactor plant and suggests that the changes of bacterial community composition may have far-reaching influence on plant-soil feedback and the aboveground plant community in the long run. PMID:27521948

  3. 77 FR 14963 - Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; O'Leary Lake; Moss Point, MS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Lake, Moss Point, MS, on April 28- 29, 2012. This action is necessary for the safeguarding...

  4. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  5. Moss cell walls: structure and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Alison W.; Roberts, Eric M.; Haigler, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the moss Physcomitrella patens has stimulated new research examining the cell wall polysaccharides of mosses and the glycosyl transferases that synthesize them as a means to understand fundamental processes of cell wall biosynthesis and plant cell wall evolution. The cell walls of mosses and vascular plants are composed of the same classes of polysaccharides, but with differences in side chain composition and structure. Similarly, the genomes of P. patens and angiosperms encode the same families of cell wall glycosyl transferases, yet, in many cases these families have diversified independently in each lineage. Our understanding of land plant evolution could be enhanced by more complete knowledge of the relationships among glycosyl transferase functional diversification, cell wall structural and biochemical specialization, and the roles of cell walls in plant adaptation. As a foundation for these studies, we review the features of P. patens as an experimental system, analyses of cell wall composition in various moss species, recent studies that elucidate the structure and biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in P. patens, and phylogenetic analysis of P. patens genes potentially involved in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:22833752

  6. EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM MOSSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The li...

  7. Chemical Composition Analysis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity Screening of Moss Extracts (Moss Phytochemistry).

    PubMed

    Klavina, Laura; Springe, Gunta; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Martsinkevich, Illia; Nakurte, Ilva; Dzabijeva, Diana; Steinberga, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Mosses have been neglected as a study subject for a long time. Recent research shows that mosses contain remarkable and unique substances with high biological activity. The aim of this study, accordingly, was to analyze the composition of mosses and to screen their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The total concentration of polyphenols and carbohydrates, the amount of dry residue and the radical scavenging activity were determined for a preliminary evaluation of the chemical composition of moss extracts. In order to analyze and identify the substances present in mosses, two types of extrahents (chloroform, ethanol) and the GC/MS and LC-TOF-MS methods were used. The antimicrobial activity was tested on four bacteria strains, and the anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines. The obtained results show the presence of a high number of primary (fatty acids and amino acids), but mainly secondary metabolites in moss extracts-including, sterols, terpenoids, polyphenols and others-and a high activity with respect to the studied test organisms. PMID:26393559

  8. The antihyperglycemic effect of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Mahesh; Sasmal, D.; Mazumder, Papiya Mitra

    2010-01-01

    Salvia splendens (Labiatae) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the control of diabetes mellitus. In this study, the hypoglycemic effects produced by the acute and subacute administration of various extracts of S. splendens were investigated. Both the aqueous extract (SSAE) and the methanolic extract (SSME) from the aerial parts resulted in significant reductions of glycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats after oral administration at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. On oral administration, aqueous and methanolic extracts showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) effect by reducing the effect of glycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest the significant antihyperglycemic potential of the S. splendens extracts in ameliorating the diabetic conditions in diabetic rats. No significant effects were found in the normal rats. PMID:21808565

  9. The antihyperglycemic effect of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Mahesh; Sasmal, D; Mazumder, Papiya Mitra

    2010-05-01

    Salvia splendens (Labiatae) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the control of diabetes mellitus. In this study, the hypoglycemic effects produced by the acute and subacute administration of various extracts of S. splendens were investigated. Both the aqueous extract (SSAE) and the methanolic extract (SSME) from the aerial parts resulted in significant reductions of glycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats after oral administration at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. On oral administration, aqueous and methanolic extracts showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) effect by reducing the effect of glycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest the significant antihyperglycemic potential of the S. splendens extracts in ameliorating the diabetic conditions in diabetic rats. No significant effects were found in the normal rats. PMID:21808565

  10. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO 2 electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  11. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-­-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  12. Dynamic Moss Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy; Morton, Richard; Savage, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), flown on 11 July 2012, has revealed an unprecedented level of detail and substructure within the solar corona. Hi-C imaged a large active region (AR11520) with 0.2-0.3'' spatial resolution and 5.5s cadence over a 5 minute period. An additional dataset with a smaller FOV, the same resolution, but with a higher temporal cadence (1s) was also taken during the rocket flight. This dataset was centered on a large patch of 'moss' emission that initially seemed to show very little variability. Image processing revealed this region to be much more dynamic than first thought with numerous bright and dark features observed to appear, move and disappear over the 5 minute observation. Moss is thought to be emission from the upper transition region component of hot loops so studying its dynamics and the relation between the bright/dark features and underlying magnetic features is important to tie the interaction of the different atmospheric layers together. Hi-C allows us to study the coronal emission of the moss at the smallest scales while data from SDO/AIA and HMI is used to give information on these structures at different heights/temperatures. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of Hi-C the observed moss features were tracked and the distribution of displacements, speeds, and sizes were measured. This allows us to comment on both the physical processes occurring within the dynamic moss and the scales at which these changes are occurring.

  13. First Report of Stemonitis splendens Rostaf Causing Bark Decay of Oak Logs Used for Shiitake Cultivation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Da-Ran; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-09-01

    Severe bark decay disease was observed on oak logs at a shiitake cultivation farm in Geochang-gun, Gyeongnam province. The symptoms observed were fruiting bodies that had developed on the top and side surface of oak logs. As a result, the bark came off easily exposing the sapwood. Slime mold specimens collected from oak logs showed developing fruiting bodies comprising of stalks, hypothallus, capillitium, and columella, and the causal agent of bark decay disease was identified as Stemonitis splendens on the basis of morphological characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Stemonitis splendens causing bark decay of oak logs used for shiitake mushroom cultivation in Korea. PMID:25346606

  14. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside isolation from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Xu, Jin-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Elsholtzia splendens (Lamiaceae) is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in the south of China. Chromatographic separation of n-BuOH extracts from the flowering aerial biomass afforded apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside, using macroporous resin, Sephadex™ LH-20 gel, polyamide resin as well as preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) columns. Chemical structure was elucidated using HPLC/ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and (1)D- and (2)D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside could be the post-harvesting product from E. splendens biomass. PMID:27256678

  15. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside isolation from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens *

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-yun; Zhang, Xue-hong; Xu, Jin-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Elsholtzia splendens (Lamiaceae) is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in the south of China. Chromatographic separation of n-BuOH extracts from the flowering aerial biomass afforded apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside, using macroporous resin, Sephadex™ LH-20 gel, polyamide resin as well as preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) columns. Chemical structure was elucidated using HPLC/ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and 1D-and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside could be the post-harvesting product from E. splendens biomass. PMID:27256678

  16. Reproductive consequences of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Brown, Alexandria C; Montgomery, Tracy M; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2011-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that can act as endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. Biologically active levels of phytoestrogens have been found in aquatic habitats near wood pulp and paper mills, biofuel manufacturing plants, sewage-treatment plants, and agricultural fields. Phytoestrogens are known to cause hormonal and gonadal changes in male fish, but few studies have connected these effects to outcomes relevant to reproductive success. In one experiment, we exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant (1 μg L(-1)) and pharmacological concentrations (1000 μg L(-1)) of the phytoestrogen genistein as well as to a positive control of waterborne 17β-estradiol (E2; 1 μg L(-1)), and a negative control of untreated water. In a second experiment, we exposed male B. splendens to environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg L(-1)) of genistein and β-sitosterol singly and in combination as well as to the positive and negative controls. All exposures were 21 days in duration. We measured sex-steroid hormone levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm concentration and motility, and fertilization success in these fish. We found that exposure to genistein did not affect circulating levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone or the estrogen E2 relative to negative-control fish. We also found that neither of the compounds nor their mixture affected GSI, sperm concentration or motility, or fertilization success in exposed fish relative to negative-control fish. However, fish exposed to phytoestrogens showed some evidence of fewer but more motile sperm than fish exposed to the positive control E2. We conclude that sexually mature male B. splendens are relatively immune to reproductive impairments from short-term exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens. PMID:20589370

  17. Muscle metabolic changes during the first six hours of cohabitation in pairs of male Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Haller, J

    1991-06-01

    Muscle metabolic effects of aggression were investigated during the first 6 hours of dyadic contests in male Betta splendens. In the first 10 minutes the free amino acid content of the carcass was reduced. At the end of the fight (after 30 minutes) a significant reduction in glycogen content and an increase in free glucose were noticed while amino acids were still reduced. The reduction in glycogen was more intense, while the increase in free glucose was smaller in losers. These modifications disappeared after 360 minutes, but at this time a significant reduction of protein content (both in winners and losers) and an increase of amino acids in winners were noticed. PMID:1896515

  18. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  19. The meteorite Moss - a rare carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilet, M.; Roaldset, E.

    2014-07-01

    On July 14, 2006, at about 10:20 a.m. local daylight time (UTC+2), a bright fireball travelling SSE-NNV was witnessed from the Baltic Sea to SE Norway. On the east side of the Oslo fiord, around Moss, an explosion and a rumbling sound was heard, and pieces were observed falling. Rapid recovery of meteorite stones gave an opportunity for detailed petrological and geochemical investigations, including analyses of indigenous organic species, and short lived isotopes. The meteorite is a chondritic stone meteorite, with some carbon (0.21-0.25 wt% C). The cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age is 14 Ma, i.e. when Moss was ejected from its parent body. Gas retention ages are approximately 3.95x10^9 yr (U/Th/He) and 4.43x10^9 yr (K/Ar), respectively. The meteorite has the official name Moss, and is classified as carbonaceous chondrite type CO3.6. It was the first witnessed fall of a CO3 chondrite since Kainsaz in Russia in 1937.

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yuelong; Luo, Changxin; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS). We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO), using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including “oxidation reduction”, “transcription factor activity”, and “ion channel transporter”. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress. PMID:27023614

  1. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yuelong; Luo, Changxin; Xiang, Yun; An, Lizhe

    2016-01-01

    Achnatherum splendens is an important forage herb in Northwestern China. It has a high tolerance to salinity and is, thus, considered one of the most important constructive plants in saline and alkaline areas of land in Northwest China. However, the mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in A. splendens remain unknown. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can be used for global gene expression profiling. In this study, we examined sequence and transcript abundance data for the root/leaf transcriptome of A. splendens obtained using an Illumina HiSeq 2500. Over 35 million clean reads were obtained from the leaf and root libraries. All of the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads were assembled de novo into a total of 126,235 unigenes and 36,511 coding DNA sequences (CDS). We further identified 1663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the salt stress treatment and control. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO), using Arabidopsis and rice as references, revealed enrichment of salt stress-related GO categories, including "oxidation reduction", "transcription factor activity", and "ion channel transporter". Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of A. splendens has provided an important genetic resource for the study of salt tolerance in this halophyte. The identified sequences and their putative functional data will facilitate future investigations of the tolerance of Achnatherum species to various types of abiotic stress. PMID:27023614

  2. Chelators effect on soil Cu extractability and uptake by Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-ying; Yang, Xiao-e

    2004-04-01

    Phytoremediation is emerging as a potential cost-effective solution for remediation of contaminated soils, and bioavailability of metal in the soil for plant uptake is an important factor for successful phytoremediation. This study aimed at investigating the ability of EDTA and citric acid for enhancing soil bioavailability of Cu and phytoremediation by Elsholtzia splendens in two types of soils contaminated with heavy metals [i.e. mined soil from copper mining area (MS), and paddy soil (PS) polluted by copper refining]. The results showed that addition of 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA significantly increased the H(2)O extractable Cu concentration from 1.20 to 15.78 mg/kg in MS and from 0.26 to 15.72 mg/kg in PS, and that shoot Cu concentration increased 4-fold and 8-fold as compared to the control. There was no significant difference between the treatment with 5.0 mmol/kg EDTA and that with 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA, probably because that 2.5 mmol/kg EDTA was enough for elevating Cu bioavailability to the maximum level. As compared with the control, citric acid had no marked effect on both soil extractable Cu and shoot Cu concentration or accumulation. The results indicated that EDTA addition can increase the potential and efficiency of Cu phytoextraction by E. splendens in polluted soils. PMID:14994436

  3. A Grand Challenge: Unbiased Phenotypic Function of Metabolites from Jaspis splendens against Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongdong; Feng, Yunjiang; Murtaza, Mariyam; Wood, Stephen; Mellick, George; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2016-02-26

    A grand challenge in natural product chemistry is to determine the biological effects of all natural products. A phenotypic approach is frequently used for determining the activity of a compound and its potential impact on a disease state. Chemical investigation of a specimen of Jaspis splendens collected from the Great Barrier Reef resulted in the isolation of a new pterin derivative, jaspterin (1), a new bisindole alkaloid, splendamide (2), and a new imidazole alkaloid, jaspnin A (3) TFA salt. Jaspamycin (8) and 6-bromo-1H-indole-3-carboximidamide (16) are reported for the first time as naturally occurring metabolites. Known nucleosides (4-7, 9, 10), aglycones (11-13), indole alkaloids (14, 15, 17), and jaspamide peptides (18-22) were also isolated. The structures of the three new compounds 1-3 were unambiguously elucidated based on NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Jaspnin A (3) contained a rare thiomethylated imidazolinium unit. Coupling an unbiased phenotypic assay using a human olfactory neurosphere-derived cell model of Parkinson's disease to all of the natural products from the species J. splendens allowed the phenotypic profiles of the metabolites to be investigated. PMID:26883470

  4. Fluoxetine exposure impacts boldness in female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Kane, Jessica L; Campbell, Brennah A; Lavin, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, on the behavior of female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, in three different boldness assays (Empty Tank, Novel Environment, Social Tendency). When females were unexposed to fluoxetine, boldness was consistent within a context and correlated across assays. Fluoxetine exposure affected behavior within and among individuals on multiple levels. Exposure reduced overall boldness levels, made females behave in a less consistent manner, and significantly reduced correlations over time and across contexts. Fluoxetine exerted its effects on female Betta splendens behavior in a dose-dependent fashion and these effects persisted even after females were housed in clean water. If fluoxetine exposure impacts behaviors such as exploration that are necessary to an individual’s success, this may yield evolutionary consequences. In conclusion, the results show that fluoxetine exposure alters behavior beyond the level of overall response and highlights the importance of studying the behavioral effects of inadvertent pharmaceutical exposure in multiple contexts and with different dosing regimes. PMID:26462842

  5. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  6. 78 FR 21930 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 29, 2013, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to modify Sections 3.4.4,...

  7. Moss on a Roof, and What Lives in It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbet, Sarah; Lan, Oey Biauw

    1974-01-01

    Based on the assumption that even city dwellers have access to clumps of moss growing on buildings and on pavements, information concerning some of the inhabitants of these mosses and some aspects of the environment in which they live is presented. (PEB)

  8. 76 FR 10581 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 11, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC filed to revise its Statement of General Terms and Standard Operating Conditions...

  9. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  10. Structures in material transference and vitelline envelope formation in Betta splendens follicles.

    PubMed

    Genta, H D

    1996-01-01

    Structures were found by transmission electron microscopy, they were located within follicular cells and the oocyte, and in the interspace between them in follicles of the teleost fish Betta splendens. Some structures with features characteristic or lamellar bodies were found in small follicles. The possible role of these structures in the formation of the vitelline envelope as well as in the material transference is discussed. Vacuoles, vesticles and particles intensely stained were found in the microvilli and the cortical cytoplasm of the oocyte at the onset of vitellogenesis. These results suggest that different substances present in the cellular components of the follicle might be transferred from cell to cell through the extracellular space and through the prolongations that cross the extracellular space. PMID:9369035

  11. Using visual reinforcement to establish stimulus control of responding of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Wirth, Oliver; Lattal, Kennon A; Hopko, Sandra

    2003-03-01

    Stimulus control of ring swimming was studied with male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) using 2-component multiple schedules in which the components were correlated with the presence or absence of air bubbles in the water. In Experiment 1, either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction was juxtaposed with immediate response-dependent mirror presentations. Rates of ring swimming generally were higher with immediate reinforcement than with either response-independent mirror presentations or extinction. In Experiment 2, different durations of response-dependent mirror presentations were juxtaposed. Generally, higher rates of ring swimming occurred with 15-s than with 0-, 1-, or 3-s durations. Results demonstrate that stimulus control of responding can be established with these fish under several conditions of differential reinforcement. PMID:12735371

  12. Fighting fish (Betta splendens) bubble nests do not inhibit microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2012-12-01

    Some organisms produce antimicrobial substances in nesting foam to favorably manipulate the environment to which their developing offspring are exposed. We tested if fighting fish Betta splendens foamy nest material, which is comprised of bubbles produced in the oral cavity of nesting males, has antimicrobial properties against a pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda), a nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli), or a pathogenic oomycete (Saprolegnia parasitica). We also tested if exposure to nest material increases larval survival by performing in vitro fertilizations and individually incubating eggs in bubble nest extract or tank water (control). Our results show no evidence of antimicrobial properties of bubble nests. On the contrary, bubble nests provided favorable microenvironments for the growth of Saprolegnia parasitica. Our results confirm earlier work citing the importance of male nest attendance, and suggest that the mechanism responsible for decreased survival in the absence of attending males is pathogenic microbes. PMID:22753365

  13. Response acquisition by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) with delayed visual reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Lattal, K A; Metzger, B

    1994-01-01

    Male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, swam through a ring in an aquarium, breaking a photocell beam and initiating an unsignaled, resetting delay interval. Following delays of 0 s, 10 s, or 25 s, a 15-s mirror presentation released an aggressive display by the fish. Swimming through the ring increased in the absence of either a period of acclimatization to the reinforcer (analogous to magazine training when appetitive reinforcers are used) or explicit training of the response by the experimenters. Response rates were a decreasing function of delay duration. Other fish exposed to a schedule of response-independent mirror presentations failed to acquire and maintain the response. The results demonstrate the robustness and generality of the phenomenon of response acquisition with delayed reinforcement. They further qualify earlier observations about behavioral mechanisms involved in the phenomenon. PMID:16812724

  14. Behavioral effects of fluoxetine on aggression and associative learning in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Benjamin R; Szalda-Petree, Allen

    2015-12-01

    Past research has implicated serotonin as an important neurotransmitter in the facilitation of aggressive behavior. In Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), the SSRI fluoxetine has been demonstrated to reduce both frequency and duration of aggressive displays across a variety of concentration exposure procedures. While this multi-method approach has provided strong evidence for fluoxetine's impact on aggression, no study has sought to examine the behavioral mechanism by which fluoxetine exerts its anti-aggressive effect. To address this question, a Go-No Go discrimination task utilizing mirror presentations as a reinforcer was designed. Consistent with previous reports, the results indicated that fluoxetine may exert a sedative effect upon aggressive behavior via decreased arousal to external stimuli. PMID:26478253

  15. Condition and Phenotype-Dependent Dispersal in a Damselfly, Calopteryx splendens

    PubMed Central

    Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Grégoire, Arnaud; Baguette, Michel; Pagano, Alain; Secondi, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Individual dispersal decisions may be affected by the internal state of the individual and the external information of its current environment. Here we estimated the influence of dispersal on survival and investigated if individual phenotype (sex and wing length) and environmental condition (conspecific density and sex-ratio) affected dispersal decisions in the banded damselfly, Calopteryx splendens. As suspected from the literature, we showed that the proportion of dispersing individuals was higher in females than in males. We also found negative-density dependent dispersal in both sexes and influence of sex-ratio on dispersal. Individuals moved less when sex-ratio was male biased. These results are consistent with a lek mating system where males aggregate in a place and hold mating territories. Contrary to our expectations, neither dispersal nor survival was affected by wing length. Nevertheless, mean adult survival was about 8% lower in dispersing individuals than in residents. This might reflect a mortality cost due to dispersal. PMID:20502694

  16. Branch length mediates flower production and inflorescence architecture of Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of individual branches to store water and fix carbon can have profound effects on inflorescence size and architecture, thus on floral display, pollination, and fecundity. Mixed regression was used to investigate the relation between branch length, a proxy for plant resources, and floral display of Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo), a woody, candelabraform shrub of wide distribution in arid North America. Long branches produced three times as many flowers as short branches, regardless of overall plant size. Long branches also had more complex panicles with more cymes and cyme types than short branches; thus, branch length also influenced inflorescence architecture. Within panicles, increasing the number of cymes by one unit added about two flowers, whereas increasing the number of cyme types by one unit added about 21 flowers. Because flower production is mediated by branch length, and because most plants have branches of various lengths, the floral display of individual plants necessarily encompasses a wide range of inflorescence size and structure. ?? Springer 2006.

  17. Evolutionary significance of isopreneemission from mosses.

    PubMed

    Hanson, D T; Swanson, S; Graham, L E; Sharkey, T D

    1999-05-01

    Isoprene emission has been documented and characterized from species in all major groups of vascular plants. We report in our survey that isoprene emission is much more common in mosses and ferns than later divergent land plants but is absent in liverworts and hornworts. The light and temperature responses of isoprene emission from Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw. are similar to those of other land plants. Isoprene increases thermotolerance of S. capillifolium to the same extent seen in higher plants as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Sphagnum species in a northern Wisconsin bog experienced large temperature fluctuations similar to those reported in tree canopies. Since isoprene has been shown to help plants cope with large, rapid temperature fluctuations, we hypothesize the thermal and correlated dessication stress experienced by early land plants provided the selective pressure for the evolution of light-dependent isoprene emission in the ancestors of modern mosses. As plants radiated into different habitats, this capacity was lost multiple times in favor of other thermal protective mechanisms. PMID:10330065

  18. Effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on Betta splendens aggressive display.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Bruno de Matos; Cavalcante, Caio Neno Silva; dos Santos, Bruno Rodrigues; Gouveia Júnior, Amauri

    2012-03-01

    Mercury chloride (HgCl2) is a toxic mercury salt and a major pollutant, that can be found in soil, water and air, with influences on behavior, physiology and adaptation to the environment. In this study two experiments were designed to examine interactions and effects of HgCl2 on some behavioral patterns of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). In the first experiment we tested the effect of a progressive dose (five 0.04 mg) on aggressive display with exposure to a mirror, whereas in the second experiment we tested the effect of an acute dose (0.2 mg) on the aggressive display with exposure to a mirror. The experiments were performed on 5 consecutive sessions at intervals of 18 hours between sessions. Differences of performance were shown by subjects in the acute and progressive treatments when compared with a control treatment in the majority of behaviors evaluated, namely Floating, Slow Swimming, Wavy Swimming, Emerging, Bend, Square Move and Motor Display Components. Acute treatment was different from control only on Show Body, while the progressive group differed on Resting, Horizontal Display and Appropriate Display Components. Differences between Correlate Display Components and Total were also shown. Both the acute and progressive contamination with HgCl2 decrease the motor activity in the aggressive display, mirror-image test of Betta splendens, mainly on the progressive dose. This implies an impairment on feeding behavior, predator avoidance, reproductive behavior, mate choice and territoriality. These results suggest that in this fish species, the progressive dose has a greater effect on behavior in general and that both the acute and progressive contamination with mercury chloride affect many other aspects of behavior. PMID:22379732

  19. Phytoestrogens β-Sitosterol and Genistein Have Limited Effects on Reproductive Endpoints in a Female Fish, Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. C.; Stevenson, L. M.; Leonard, H. M.; Nieves-Puigdoller, K.; Clotfelter, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish. PMID:24707495

  20. Phytoestrogens β -sitosterol and genistein have limited effects on reproductive endpoints in a female fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Brown, A C; Stevenson, L M; Leonard, H M; Nieves-Puigdoller, K; Clotfelter, E D

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are produced by plants and may cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. The present study hypothesizes that phytoestrogen exposure of female Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) may disrupt endogenous steroid levels, change agonistic behavior expression, and potentially also disrupt oocyte development. However, only the pharmacologic dose of β-sitosterol had a significant effect on opercular flaring behavior, while we did not find significant effects of β-sitosterol or genistein on steroids or gonads. These findings are in direct contrast with previous studies on the effects of phytoestrogens in female fish. Results of the current study support previous work showing that the effects of phytoestrogen exposure may be less acute in mature female B. splendens than in other fish. PMID:24707495

  1. Seasonal variations of water uptake by Achnatherum splendens in Lake Qinghai watershed, based on δD and δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huawu, W.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability is a key ecological factor for plant growth and distribution in arid and semi-arid region. To reveal the characteristics of water uptake patterns by Achnatherum splendens and how it response to changes of water conditions in Lake Qinghai watershed, we analyzed isotopic concentrations (δD and δ18O) of plant stem water and soil water, groundwater and precipitation under the natural and drought treatment habitats. Water uptake by A.splendens was analyzed by direct comparison and multi-source mixing model calculating the plant-use proportions from diverse soil depths. The results showed that large fluctuations were found in the soil moisture and the isotopic contents of soil water in the surface soil layers, directly influenced by precipitation and evaporation. The slope and intercept of evaporative soil water line was evidently smaller than local meteoric water line indicating that the isotopic contents from soil water experienced stronger evaporation fractionation processes; The isotopic concentrations of stem were scattered along the evaporative soil water line exhibiting that the possible water sources extracted from soil water. Water uptake by A.splendens mainly absorbed surface soil water ( 45.1% from 0-10cm in June) at the early growth stage. Large precipitation events significantly impacted the whole soil water content and isotopic contents and resulted in the differences of plant-use proportions by A.splendens were minimal during August and September, which revealed that the roots of A.splendens extracted various depth of soil water when soil availability water was high. Under the drought treatment conditions, A.splendens largely used the surface soil water (0-30cm) in the early July. The absorbed depth transmitted to deep soil layers while the surface soil moisture decreased. However, the acquired depth by A.splendens again shifted from deep to surface soil layers when surface soil moisture sharply increased after the irrigation.

  2. Isolation and Analysis of Cell Wall Proteome in Elsholtzia splendens Roots Using ITRAQ with LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Huang, Canke; Shen, Chaofeng; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-06-01

    Cell wall proteins (CWPs) are a prime site for signal perception and defense responses to environmental stresses. To gain further insights into CWPs and their molecular function, traditional techniques (e.g., two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) may be ineffective for special proteins. Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species that grow on copper deposits. In this study, a fourplex isobaric tag was used for relative and absolute quantitation with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyze the root CWPs of E. splendens. A total of 479 unique proteins were identified, including 121 novel proteins. Approximately 80.79 % of the proteins were extracted in the CaCl2 fraction, 16.08 % were detected in the NaCl fraction, and 3.13 % were identified in both fractions. The identified proteins have been involved in various processes, including cell wall remodeling, signal transduction, defense, and carbohydrate metabolism, thereby indicating a complex regulatory network in the apoplast of E. splendens roots. This study presents the first large-scale analysis of CWPs in metal-tolerant plants, which may be of paramount importance to understand the molecular functions and metabolic pathways in the root cell wall of copper-tolerant plants. PMID:25926012

  3. Interactive Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Copper Stress on Flowering Phenology and Reproduction of Elsholtzia splendens

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zexin; Li, Junmin; Li, Yueling

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to heavy metal contamination may depend on the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Elsholtzia splendens is an indicator species for the presence of copper (Cu) mines because both its flowering phenology and reproduction are tolerant to heavy metals. To test whether effects of Cu on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens depend on the presence of AMF, we conducted a factorial experiment with two Cu treatments (with or without Cu addition) crossed with two AMF treatments (with or without AMF inoculation). Without AMF, Cu addition significantly delayed the onset dates, ending dates and peak dates of flowering and decreased flowering duration. However, AMF inoculation reversed the effects of Cu stress, with recovered flowering onset and ending dates and increased the flowering duration. Cu addition significantly decreased inflorescence width and number, inflorescence biomass, vegetative biomass and total seed number, but significantly increased 1000-seed weight. AMF inoculation significantly increased vegetative biomass. Two-way ANOVA results showed that the interactive effects between Cu addition and AMF inoculation were significant on the inflorescence number, vegetative biomass and total seed number. These results indicate that AMF can alleviate the Cu stress on the flowering phenology and reproduction of E. splendens. PMID:26709921

  4. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  5. [CO2-gas exchange of mosses following water vapour uptake].

    PubMed

    Lange, O L

    1969-03-01

    The CO2-gas exchange of dry mosses which were exposed to air of high water vapour content has been followed. Some moss species behave as do lichens and aerophilic green algae: they are able to take up enough water vapour to make a rather high photosynthetic activity possible. Other species lack this ability. They need liquid water for reactivation of photosynthesis, as do poikilohydric ferns and phanerogams. In this respect too the mosses are located between the real thallophytes and the cormophytes. From this point of view they are useful objects for studying the relationships between water vapour reactivation, morphological organisation and ecological capability. PMID:24504355

  6. New moss species with gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, O. V.

    Gravitropism of 30 moss species was analysed at different stages of development: germination of spores, protonemata, gametophore and sporophyte formation. Spores were sowed in sterile conditions from the closed capsules on 1 % bactoagar with 0,2 % glucose and cultivated in the dark in vertically oriented petri dishes. In the same conditions fragments of protonemata and gametophores were grown being transferred aseptically from sterile cultures of spores germinated in controled light conditions. To assess gravity sensitivity the dishes were kept upright for 7 10 days in darkness and then 90o turned. After 20 h gravistimulation the angles of apical cell gravity bending were determined. The amount of amyloplasts and their distribution during growth and spatial reorientation of sporophytes selected from nature samples on different stages of species-specific capsule formation were analyzed after JK2J staining. The gravitropic sensing was established in 7 new moss species only. The general traits of all such species were the ark-like cygneous seta bending and inclined, to pendulous, capsules. JK2J staining of young isolated sporophytes has shown, that twisting and bending of seta as well as the spatial capsule reorientation result from the changes of distribution of amyloplasts in the direction of gravitropic growth or caused by their lateral sedimentation. In the dark protonemata of investigated mosses grew upwards on agar surface giving rise to bundles of negatively gravitropic stolons in 7-10 days. During germination at first negatively gravitropic primary chloronema and then positively gravitropic primary rizoid appeared. In 3 days, however, the growth of all primary filaments was negatively gravitropic. In Dicranella cerviculata majority of primary filaments were negatively gravitropic from the very beginning. After 20 h gravistimulation of protonemata of different moss species the following mean values of gravity bending (degrees) were established: Leptobryum

  7. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-20

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes. PMID:27055368

  8. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  9. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  10. Moss tested to remove manganese from mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Work at Pennsylvania State University on the treatment of acid mine drainage for the removal of Mn and Fe is reported. The project involves the use of sphagnum moss in settling ponds: this has been shown to be particularly effective in Mn removal. It is suggested that the method may be particularly helpful to small US mine operators who are finding the cost of chemical treatment to comply with Mn discharge limits prohibitive. Field trials of the moss treatment are planned.

  11. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials. PMID:26011014

  12. Freeze avoidance: a dehydrating moss gathers no ice.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Thomas; Bryant, Gary; Hocart, Charles H; Huang, Cheng X; Ball, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    Using cryo-SEM with EDX fundamental structural and mechanical properties of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. were studied in relation to tolerance of freezing temperatures. In contrast to more complex plants, no ice accumulated within the moss during the freezing event. External ice induced desiccation with the response being a function of cell type; water-filled hydroid cells cavitated and were embolized at -4 °C while parenchyma cells of the inner cortex exhibited cytorrhysis, decreasing to ∼ 20% of their original volume at a nadir temperature of -20 °C. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed that these winter acclimated mosses displayed no evidence of damage after thawing from -20 °C while GCMS showed that sugar concentrations were not sufficient to confer this level of freezing tolerance. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry showed internal ice nucleation occurred in hydrated moss at ∼-12 °C while desiccated moss showed no evidence of freezing with lowering of nadir temperature to -20 °C. Therefore the rapid dehydration of the moss provides an elegantly simple solution to the problem of freezing; remove that which freezes. PMID:20525002

  13. Differentiation and Tropisms in Space-Grown Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.; Kern, Volker

    1999-01-01

    This grant supported a Space Shuttle experiment on the effects of microgravity on moss cells. Moss provides a rich system for gravitational and spaceflight research. The early phase of the moss life cycle consists of chains of cells that only grow only at their tips. In the moss Ceratodon purpureus these filaments (protonemata) grow away from gravity in the dark, in a process called gravitropism. The tipmost cells, the apical cells, contain heavy starch-filled bodies called amyloplasts that probably function in g-sensing and that sediment within the apical cell. The SPM-A (Space Moss aka SPAM) experiment flew in November - December, 1997 on STS-87 as part of the Collaborative US Ukrainian Experiment (CLTE). The experiment was accommodated in hardware purpose-built by NASA KSC and Bionetics and included Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU) and BRIC-LEDs. Together, this hardware allowed for the culture of the moss on agar in commercial petri dishes, for unilateral illumination with red light of varying intensity, and for chemical fixation in situ. The key findings of the spaceflight were quite unexpected. Neither the orientation of tip-growth nor the distribution of amyloplasts was random in microgravity.

  14. The Complete Moss Mitochondrial Genome in the Angiosperm Amborella Is a Chimera Derived from Two Moss Whole-Genome Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Z. Nathan; Rice, Danny W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the 4-Mb mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Amborella trichopoda has shown that it contains unprecedented amounts of foreign mitochondrial DNA, including four blocks of sequences that together correspond almost perfectly to one entire moss mitochondrial genome. This implies whole-genome transfer from a single moss donor but conflicts with phylogenetic results from an earlier, PCR-based study that suggested three different moss donors to Amborella. To resolve this conflict, we conducted an expanded set of phylogenetic analyses with respect to both moss lineages and mitochondrial loci. The moss DNA in Amborella was consistently placed in either of two positions, depending on the locus analyzed, as sister to the Ptychomniales or within the Hookeriales. This agrees with two of the three previously suggested donors, whereas the third is no longer supported. These results, combined with synteny analyses and other considerations, lead us to favor a model involving two successive moss-to-Amborella whole-genome transfers, followed by recombination that produced a single intact and chimeric moss mitochondrial genome integrated in the Amborella mitochondrial genome. Eight subsequent recombination events account for the state of fragmentation, rearrangement, duplication, and deletion of this chimeric moss mitochondrial genome as it currently exists in Amborella. Five of these events are associated with short-to-intermediate sized repeats. Two of the five probably occurred by reciprocal homologous recombination, whereas the other three probably occurred in a non-reciprocal manner via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR). These findings reinforce and extend recent evidence for an important role of MMBIR in plant mitochondrial DNA evolution. PMID:26618775

  15. Effect of various discriminative stimuli on choice behavior in male siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Craft, B B; Szalda-Petree, A D; Brinegar, J L; Haddad, N F

    2007-04-01

    The current experiment was an exploratory study empirically comparing three discrimination methodologies proposed for use in choice preparations with food rewards. Subjects were thirty-five, healthy, adult male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three discrimination groups: a Direction group (using left or right as discriminative stimuli), a Color group (using red or green as discriminative stimuli), and a Bubble group (using the presence or absence of air bubbles as discriminative stimuli). For all three discrimination groups, subjects chose between one or three food pellets in a submerged T-maze. The results from the experiment indicated a statistically significant preference for the three pellets of food over one pellet of food only for the Bubble group. Of particular note is the effect size and observed power obtained for the Bubble group, which was the only group which supported a reasonably powerful test for discrimination, given a sample size of 12 subjects and 0.94 effect size. PMID:17566447

  16. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. PMID:23225381

  17. Parameters of rewards on choice behavior in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Martin S; Jensen, Ashley L

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted with Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) to investigate how choices in a T-maze were affected by parameters of a social reward (aggression display to another male): presence or absence, amount, delay and distance traveled. Bettas showed a preference for the side associated with the presence of another male rather than the side associated with nothing (Exp 1), a greater length of time of the reward (Exp 2) and shorter delay (Exp 3). The animals were indifferent when one side offered a longer delay to a longer reward time compared with a shorter delay to a shorter reward time (Exp 4). What was most surprising, however, was that fish preferred to choose the side that was associated with swimming a greater distance to reach an opponent male (Exp 5). These experiments demonstrate that, while some parameters of a visual reward affect behavior in predictable ways (greater amount, shorter delay), the complex motivations underlying inter-male aggression can produce what appear to be paradoxical results. PMID:19615613

  18. Decreased aggressive and locomotor behaviors in Betta splendens after exposure to fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Kohlert, Jess G; Mangan, Brian P; Kodra, Christine; Drako, Linsay; Long, Emily; Simpson, Holly

    2012-02-01

    The failure of sewage treatment plants to remove pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine from waste water has become a concern given that these products are being detected in the surface waters of many countries of the world. The effects of fluoxetine in sub-lethal doses on the neural systems and behaviors of aquatic life are worthy of investigation. This study investigated the effects of sub-lethal amounts fluoxetine dissolved in water on the aggressive and locomotor behaviors of 44 male Betta splendens. Fish treated with 705 microg/l of fluoxetine and 350 microg/l of fluoxetine generally demonstrated significant decreases in locomotion and number of aggressive attacks compared to 0 microg/l of fluoxetine (controls) on Days 11 and 19 of drug exposure and persisted for at least 13 days after removal of fluoxetine. Consistent with decreases in the number of aggressive attacks, there was a significant increase in aggression-response time to a perceived intruder for treated males on Days 11 and 19 and persisted for 6 days following removal of fluoxetine. However, the differences in aggressive and locomotor behaviors seen in the fluoxetine-treated groups were indistinguishable from controls three weeks following drug removal. PMID:22489377

  19. Social partner preferences of male and female fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Snekser, J L; McRobert, S P; Clotfelter, E D

    2006-03-01

    While the social interactions of Betta splendens have been studied in the contexts of dominance hierarchies, mate choice and communication networks, the social partner preferences of Betta have been largely overlooked. In this study, we presented male and female Betta with a single male, a single female, and a group of three females in dichotomous choice tests in order to better understand basic social interactions in this largely nonsocial species. The highly territorial Betta preferred associating with conspecifics in nearly every configuration we tested, with exceptions noted when single females were given the choice between a lone male and an empty chamber, and when males were presented with a single female and an empty chamber. Also, in most tests, the fish chose to spend more time with the larger group of females. The motivation for this preference certainly varied from reproductive to anti-predator. While such behavior might not suggest true shoaling behavior, it does demonstrate a subtle degree of sociality. PMID:16406374

  20. Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex.

    PubMed

    Schall, V T; de Vasconcellos, M C; Villaça-Coelho, A L; Ferreira-Lopes, F E; da Silva, I P

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscacidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring), 1.02 ppm (fall), 1.09 ppm (winter), and 1.07 ppm (summer) that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador), demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscacidal effect. The molluscacidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate) and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura) and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12 degrees C (lyophilized product). A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:1342068

  1. Predation selects for increased immune function in male damselflies, Calopteryx splendens

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J.; Honkavaara, Johanna; Dunn, Derek W.; Suhonen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Predation selects for numerous traits in many animal species, with sick or parasitized prey often being at high risk. When challenged by parasites and pathogens, prey with poor immune functions are thus likely to be at a selective disadvantage. We tested the hypothesis that predation by birds selects for increased immune function in a wild population of male damselflies Calopteryx splendens, while controlling for a trait known to be under selection by bird predation, dark wing-spots. We found that selection on both immune function and wing-spot size was significantly positive, and that selection on either trait was independent of selection on the other. We found no evidence of nonlinear quadratic or correlational selection. In contrast to previous studies, we found no phenotypic correlation between immune function and wing-spot size. There was also no difference in immune response between territorial and non-territorial males. Our study suggests that predation may be an important agent of selection on the immune systems of prey, and because the selection we detected was directional, has the potential to cause phenotypic change in populations. PMID:20943692

  2. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment. PMID:16473353

  3. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis. PMID:25783787

  4. Detoxification of Dissolved SO2 (Bisulfite) by Terricolous Mosses

    PubMed Central

    BHARALI, BHAGAWAN; BATES, JEFFREY W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The widespread calcifuge moss Pleurozium schreberi is moderately tolerant of SO2, whereas Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus is limited to calcareous soils in regions of the UK that were strongly affected by SO2 pollution in the 20th century. The proposition that tolerance of SO2 by these terricolous mosses depends on metabolic detoxification of dissolved bisulfite was investigated. • Methods The capacities of the two mosses to accelerate loss of bisulfite from aqueous solutions of NaHSO3 were studied using DTNB [5, 5-dithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] to assay bisulfite, and HPLC to assay sulfate in the incubation solutions. Incubations were performed for different durations, in the presence and absence of light, at a range of solution pH values, in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and with altered moss apoplastic Ca2+ and Fe3+ levels. • Key Results Bisulfite disappearance was markedly stimulated in the light and twice as great for R. triquetrus as for P. schreberi. DCMU, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron chain transport, significantly reduced bisufite loss. • Conclusions Bisulfite (SO2) tolerance in these terricolous mosses involves extracellular oxidation using metabolic (photo-oxidative) energy, passive oxidation by adsorbed Fe3+ (only available to the calcifuge) and probably also internal metabolic detoxification. PMID:16319108

  5. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cloning and characterization of micro-RNAs from moss.

    PubMed

    Arazi, Tzahi; Talmor-Neiman, Mali; Stav, Ran; Riese, Maike; Huijser, Peter; Baulcombe, David C

    2005-09-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous tiny RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development and responses to external stimuli. To date, miRNAs have been cloned from higher plants such as Arabidopsis, rice and pumpkin, and there is limited information on their identity in lower plants including Bryophytes. Bryophytes are among the oldest groups of land plants among the earth's flora, and are important for our understanding of the transition to life on land. To identify miRNAs that might have played a role early in land plant evolution, we constructed a library of small RNAs from the juvenile gametophyte (protonema) of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Sequence analysis revealed five higher plant miRNA homologues, including three members of the miR319 family, previously shown to be involved in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis, and miR156, which has been suggested to regulate several members of the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family in Arabidopsis. We have cloned PpSBP3, a moss SPL homologue that contains an miR156 complementary site, and demonstrated that its mRNA is cleaved within that site suggesting that it is an miR156 target in moss. Six additional candidate moss miRNAs were identified and shown to be expressed in the gametophyte, some of which were developmentally regulated or upregulated by auxin. Our observations suggest that miRNAs play important regulatory roles in mosses. PMID:16146523

  7. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. PMID:26803787

  8. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  9. UV-filter benzophenone-3 inhibits agonistic behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Wu, Yea-Ting; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is a widely used organic UV-filter compound. Despite the frequent occurrence of BP-3 in aquatic environments, little is known about its effect on fish behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of BP-3 in male fighting fish (Betta splendens) with a focus on agonistic behavior. Male fighting fish were exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BP-3, as well as a solvent control (0.1% ethanol) and a positive control (100 ng/L 17α-ethynylestradiol, EE2), for 28 days. At the beginning and the end of exposure, standard length and body mass of the fish were measured for calculating the condition factor (CF). In addition, spontaneous swimming activity (total distance moved) and agonistic behavior (maximum velocity and duration of opercular display in front of a mirror) were also quantified. At the end of exposure, the fish gonads were sampled for gonadosomatic index (GSI) measurement and histology. After the exposure, CF was significantly decreased in the 1000 μg/L BP-3 groups. Spontaneous swimming activity was not affected. However, maximum velocity was significantly reduced in the EE2 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments; duration of opercular display was significantly decreased in the EE2 and 10 and 1000 μg/L BP-3 treatments. GSI was not significantly different between groups. There was a slight but statistically significant decrease of relative proportion of mature spermatozoa in testicular tissue in the 100 μg/L BP-3 treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrate that BP-3 can disrupt agonistic behavior of male fighting fish, indicating the endocrine disrupting activity of this compound. PMID:26589946

  10. Effect on growth and reproduction of hormone immersed and masculinized fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Kirankumar, Santhakumar; Pandian, Thavamani Jegajothivel

    2002-11-01

    To produce all-male progenies in the fighting fish, Betta splendens, six groups of fry were subjected to discrete immersion treatment at different 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) doses (viz. 100, 200, 500, 700, 900, and 1,000 microg/l) for a constant duration (3 hr/day) and frequency (second, fifth, and eighth day after hatching). The treatment at 900 microg/l led to 98% masculinization and 71% survival at sexual maturity. Treated groups, which showed significant deviation from the 1:1 sex ratio, were classified into two different series: S1 and S2. The groups that showed nearly cent-percent masculinization were classified as S1, and the other groups were classified as S2. The S1 males showed remarkably slower growth and attained 3.5 cm total length compared to 6.0 cm attained by a normal male. The S2 males attained 5.4 cm total length. Apart from these morphological defects, both S1 and S2 males suffered functional (decreased sperm count and sperm motility) and behavioral defects (incomplete embracing during mating) in their reproductive ability, leading to approximately 50% and 30% reduction in fecundity per mating, respectively. The cumulative fecundity loss suffered by the S1 male during its active reproductive phase is discussed. When normal and sex-reversed males were presented, a female preferred the former. Progeny testing of the sex-reversed males showed the occurrence of 12.75% males, indicating the possible role of autosomal genes in the sex determination mechanism of this species. Discrete immersion treatment at optimal/super-optimal doses ensured not only a higher percentage of masculinization, but also a higher frequency of homogametic males (XX). PMID:12410610

  11. The nature of moss and lower atmospheric seismology.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; Erdélyi, R

    2006-02-15

    The discovery of so-called solar 'moss', i.e. dynamic and bright upper transition region emission at chromospheric heights above active region plage, provides a novel diagnostic to probe the structure, dynamics, energetics and coupling of the magnetized solar chromosphere and transition region. We briefly review observations of the morphology and connectivity in the low solar atmosphere, with a particular focus on the propagation of oscillations and waves in the moss. We also present recent work that combines moss observations and numerical modelling, and which sheds light on the (quasi-periodic) formation of dynamic jets (spicules), and the propagation of normally evanescent oscillations into the corona. We also briefly explore how coronal oscillations could be exploited to determine the connectivity between photosphere and corona, i.e. perform seismology of the lower solar atmosphere. PMID:16414885

  12. Effect of heavy-metal-resistant bacteria on enhanced metal uptake and translocation of the Cu-tolerant plant, Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Xincai; Duan, Dechao; Peng, Cheng; Le, Thu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-01

    A hydroponics trial was employed to study the effects of Pseudomonas putida CZ1 (CZ1), a heavy-metal-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens (E. splendens), on the uptake and translocation of copper (Cu) in E. splendens. Significant promotion of plant growth coupled with the obvious plant-growth-promoting (PGP) characters of the bacteria suggested that CZ1 would be a plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) to E. splendens under Cu stress condition. The results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that CZ1 increased the concentration of Cu in the shoots (up to 211.6% compared to non-inoculation treatment) and translocation factor (TF) (from 0.56 to 1.83%) of those exposed to Cu. The distribution of Cu in root cross section measured by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SRXRF) indicated that CZ1 promoted the transport of Cu from cortex to xylem in roots, which contributed to the accumulation of Cu in shoots. Furthermore, CZ1 improved the uptake of nutrient elements by plants to oppose to the toxicity of Cu. In summary, P. putida CZ1 acted as a PGPR in resistance to Cu and promoted the accumulation and translocation of Cu from root to shoot by element redistribution in plant root; hence, CZ1 is a promising assistance to phytoremediation. PMID:25510610

  13. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  14. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p < 0.001, r=0.625. Summer moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive

  15. 76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Escatawpa River, Moss Point, MS... of the Mississippi Export Railroad Company swing bridge across the Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss... operating schedule for the swing span bridge across Escatawpa River, mile 3.0, at Moss Point, Jackson...

  16. 75 FR 3219 - Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Richard Moss; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation January 12, 2010. On January 31, 2008, Richard Moss, licensee for the Cinnamon Ranch Hydroelectric Project..., notice is hereby given that an annual license for Project No. 6885 is issued to Richard Moss for a...

  17. Different aggressive behaviours are exaggerated by facing vs. broadside subliminal stimuli shown to socially isolated Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Halperin, J R; Giri, T; Dunham, D W

    1997-04-01

    We report and analyse some features of a new phenomenon: socially isolated Betta splendens become extremely hyper-aggressive after seeing brief glimpses of fish models or mirrors. These brief glimpses are below the threshold for releasing aggressive display, so they are considered subliminal aggressive stimuli. The hyper-aggressiveness was observed to last for weeks. To confirm that hyper-aggressiveness was dependent upon the aggressive significance of the subliminal stimuli, we presented socially isolated Betta splendens with subliminal models in either a `facing' posture (used mainly in aggressive contexts), or a `broadside' posture (used in many social contexts). The fish shown the aggressive `facing' subliminal stimuli became more aggressive, while those shown `broadside' stimuli performed more generalized advertisement behaviours. The display posture of the model, which may incorporate specific features relevant to aggression, therefore determined how the subliminal aggressive stimuli altered subsequent aggressiveness. This difference was also persistent. Subliminal stimuli may thus be implicated in the hyper-aggressiveness so often reported after social isolation. PMID:24897608

  18. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  19. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  20. Reversible Photoinhibition in Antarctic Moss during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, C. E.; Jackson, A. E.; Melick, D. R.; Seppelt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Tolerance of antarctic moss to freezing and thawing stress was investigated using chlorophyll a fluorescence. Freezing in darkness caused reductions in Fv/Fm (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence) and Fo (initial fluorescence) that were reversible upon thawing. Reductions in Fv/Fm and Fo during freezing in darkness indicate a reduction in the potential efficiency of photosystem II that may be due to conformational changes in pigment-protein complexes due to desiccation associated with freezing. The absorption of light during freezing further reduced Fv/Fm and Fo but was also reversible. Using dithiothreitol (DTT), which inhibits the formation of the carotenoid zeaxanthin, we found reduced flurorescence quenching during freezing and reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin after freezing in DTT-treated moss. Reduced concentrations of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in DTT-treated moss were partially associated with reductions in nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. The reversible photoinhibition observed in antarctic moss during freezing indicates the existence of processes that protect from photoinhibitory damage in environments where freezing temperatures occur in conjunction with high solar radiation levels. These processes may limit the need for repair cycles that require temperatures favorable for enzyme activity. PMID:12228644

  1. Cesium-137 monitoring using mosses from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsikritzis, Lazaros; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos

    2009-06-01

    (137)Cs activities in mosses and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece were measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous studies was also used for comparison and diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in the epilithic mosses in comparison to the epiphytic ones. The (137)Cs content in the bark of the two broad-leaved species (oak and fagus) was higher than that of the conifer (pinus). Bark specimens of about 50 cm height were in general more contaminated than those of 200 cm. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in moss thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in mosses 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of radionuclide fallout pattern. PMID:19299067

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the epiphytic moss Orthotrichum speciosum.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Jakub; Szczecińska, Monika; Kulik, Tomasz; Gomolińska, Angelika Maria; Plášek, Vitezslav

    2016-05-01

    The mitogenome of the Orthotrichum speciousum (GenBank accession number KM288416) has a total length of 104,747 bp and consist of 40 protein-coding genes, 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and 24 transfer RNA. The gene order is identical to other known moss mitogenomes. PMID:25259451

  3. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei. PMID:21880403

  4. REPLACEMENT HISTONES: A ROLE IN DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN MOSS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library from the desiccation-tolerant moss, Tortula ruralis, identified a clone, RNP49, with strong sequence similarity to genes encoding histone, H3, a component of the core nucleosome in all eukaryotes. The RNP49 cDNA clone was produced using mRNA ...

  5. Moss Phylogeny Reconstruction Using Nucleotide Pangenome of Complete Mitogenome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Goryunov, D V; Nagaev, B E; Nikolaev, M Yu; Alexeevski, A V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    Stability of composition and sequence of genes was shown earlier in 13 mitochondrial genomes of mosses (Rensing, S. A., et al. (2008) Science, 319, 64-69). It is of interest to study the evolution of mitochondrial genomes not only at the gene level, but also on the level of nucleotide sequences. To do this, we have constructed a "nucleotide pangenome" for mitochondrial genomes of 24 moss species. The nucleotide pangenome is a set of aligned nucleotide sequences of orthologous genome fragments covering the totality of all genomes. The nucleotide pangenome was constructed using specially developed new software, NPG-explorer (NPGe). The stable part of the mitochondrial genome (232 stable blocks) is shown to be, on average, 45% of its length. In the joint alignment of stable blocks, 82% of positions are conserved. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the NPGe program is in good correlation with other phylogenetic reconstructions. With the NPGe program, 30 blocks have been identified with repeats no shorter than 50 bp. The maximal length of a block with repeats is 140 bp. Duplications in the mitochondrial genomes of mosses are rare. On average, the genome contains about 500 bp in large duplications. The total length of insertions and deletions was determined in each genome. The losses and gains of DNA regions are rather active in mitochondrial genomes of mosses, and such rearrangements presumably can be used as additional markers in the reconstruction of phylogeny. PMID:26615445

  6. Chemical and structural characterization of copper adsorbed on mosses (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    González, Aridane G; Jimenez-Villacorta, Felix; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Adamo, Paola; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2016-05-01

    The adsorption of copper on passive biomonitors (devitalized mosses Hypnum sp., Sphagnum denticulatum, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Brachythecium rutabulum) was studied under different experimental conditions such as a function of pH and Cu concentration in solution. Cu assimilation by living Physcomitrella patents was also investigated. Molecular structure of surface adsorbed and incorporated Cu was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Devitalized mosses exhibited the universal adsorption pattern of Cu as a function of pH, with a total binding sites number 0.05-0.06 mmolg(dry)(-1) and a maximal adsorption capacity of 0.93-1.25 mmolg(dry)(-1) for these devitalized species. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) fit of the first neighbor demonstrated that for all studied mosses there are ∼4.5 O/N atoms around Cu at ∼1.95 Å likely in a pseudo-square geometry. The X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis demonstrated that Cu(II)-cellulose (representing carboxylate groups) and Cu(II)-phosphate are the main moss surface binding moieties, and the percentage of these sites varies as a function of solution pH. P. patens exposed during one month to Cu(2+) yielded ∼20% of Cu(I) in the form of Cu-S(CN) complexes, suggesting metabolically-controlled reduction of adsorbed and assimilated Cu(2+). PMID:26852210

  7. Entropic interpretation of the Hawking-Moss bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the Hawking-Moss transition rate. Using the static coordinates, we show that the Euclidean action is entirely determined by the contribution of the entropy of de Sitter space that is proportional to the surface area of the horizon. This holographic feature is common to any static spacetime with a horizon on which the shift vector vanishes.

  8. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  9. Are Alcohol Expectancies Associations? Comment on Moss and Albery (2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers, Reinout W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2010-01-01

    Moss and Albery (2009) presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that…

  10. The cyanobacterial role in the resistance of feather mosses to decomposition--toward a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Deluca, Thomas H; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N₂ and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N₂ fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N₂ fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria-moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  11. The Cyanobacterial Role in the Resistance of Feather Mosses to Decomposition—Toward a New Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Rousk, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria-plant symbioses play an important role in many ecosystems due to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by the cyanobacterial symbiont. The ubiquitous feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. is colonized by cyanobacteria in boreal systems with low N deposition. Here, cyanobacteria fix substantial amounts of N2 and represent a potential N source. The feather moss appears to be resistant to decomposition, which could be partly a result of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. To assess how cyanobacteria modulated the toxicity of moss, we measured inhibition of bacterial growth. Moss with varying numbers of cyanobacteria was added to soil bacteria to test the inhibition of their growth using the thymidine incorporation technique. Moss could universally inhibit bacterial growth, but moss toxicity did not increase with N2 fixation rates (numbers of cyanobacteria). Instead, we see evidence for a negative relationship between moss toxicity to bacteria and N2 fixation, which could be related to the ecological mechanisms that govern the cyanobacteria – moss relationship. We conclude that cyanobacteria associated with moss do not contribute to the resistance to decomposition of moss, and from our results emerges the question as to what type of relationship the moss and cyanobacteria share. PMID:23614013

  12. Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens: Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. Methods Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined. Results Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte

  13. [Photosynthetic characteristics of two plagiomnium mosses in summer and winter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Chen, J; Zhang, L; Cao, T

    2001-02-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic characteristics of Plagiomnium acuium(Lindb.) T. Kop. and P. maximoviozii(Lindb.) T. Kp., two overwintering host mosses for Chinese gall aphid(Schlechtendalia chinensis), was conducted by using CI-301PS in Summer and Winter. The results showed that the photosynthetic capacity of these two mosses species was 125.67 and 94.63 mumol CO2.kg-1DW.s-1 in Summer, and 58.1 and 62.1 mumol CO2.kg-1DW.s-1 in Winter, respectively. The dark respiration rates of these two species in Summer significantly exceeded those in Winter. The light complementary point of these two mosses species was in the range from 20 to 40 mumol.m-2.s-1, and light saturated point was from 200 to 400 mumol.m-2.s-1, with higher value in Summer and lower value in Winter. Their apparent quantum yields were 1.535 and 1.559 in Summer, but only 0.456 and 0.459 in Winter. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis of these two mosses species was 20 to 35 degrees C, also higher in Summer and lower in Winter. No matter which species and growing season, the temperature coefficients(Q10) measured in the range of 0-20 degrees C were similar, ranging from 1.15 to 1.23. These two moss species could maintain a certain net photosynthesis for 10-30 minutes under temperature stress from -15 to -10 degrees C and from 40 to 45 degrees C. PMID:11813430

  14. Limited accumulation of copper in heavy metal adapted mosses.

    PubMed

    Antreich, Sebastian; Sassmann, Stefan; Lang, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient but has toxic effects at high concentrations. Bryophytes are remarkably tolerant to elevated levels of copper but we wondered if this tolerance might be species dependent. Therefore, in three moss species, Physcomitrella patens, Mielichhoferia elongata and Pohlia drummondii, the accumulation of copper was compared with semiquantitative SEM-EDX analyses after six weeks of cultivation on copper containing media. We investigated the role of the copper-linked anion and applied copper as CuCl2, CuSO4 and CuEDTA, respectively. Line scans along the growth axis of moss gametophores allowed for a detailed analysis of copper detection from the base towards the tip. Mosses originating from metal-containing habitats (i.e. M. elongata and P. drummondii) revealed a lower accumulation of copper when compared to the non-adapted P. patens. CuEDTA had a shielding effect in all three species and copper levels differed greatly from CuCl2 or CuSO4. The detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 and O2(-), was further used to indicate stress levels in the gametophore stems. ROS staining was increased along the whole stem and the tip in the non-adapted species P. patens whereas the tolerant species M. elongata and P. drummondii generally showed less staining located mainly at the base of the stem. We discuss the relation between metal accumulation and ROS production using indicator dyes in the three moss species. As moss gametophores are very delicate structures, ROS staining provide an excellent alternative to spectrophotometric analyses to estimate stress levels. PMID:26878481

  15. Atmospheric Deposition and Critical Loads for Nitrogen and Metals in Arctic Alaska: Review and Current Status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, Greg L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Neitlich, Peter; Little, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To protect important resources under their bureau’s purview, the United States National Park Service’s (NPS) Arctic Network (ARCN) has developed a series of “vital signs” that are to be periodically monitored. One of these vital signs focuses on wet and dry deposition of atmospheric chemicals and further, the establishment of critical load (CL) values (thresholds for ecological effects based on cumulative depositional loadings) for nitrogen (N), sulfur, and metals. As part of the ARCN terrestrial monitoring programs, samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens are being col- lected and analyzed as a cost-effective means to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in this region. Ultimately, moss data combined with refined CL values might be used to help guide future regulation of atmospheric contaminant sources potentially impacting Arctic Alaska. But first, additional long-term studies are needed to determine patterns of contaminant deposition as measured by moss biomonitors and to quantify ecosystem responses at particular loadings/ ranges of contaminants within Arctic Alaska. Herein we briefly summarize 1) current regulatory guidance related to CL values 2) derivation of CL models for N and metals, 3) use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition and loadings, 4) preliminary analysis of vulnerabilities and risks associated with CL estimates for N, 5) preliminary analysis of existing data for characterization of CL values for N for interior Alaska and 6) implications for managers and future research needs.

  16. Exposure to Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Genistein during Activation Does Not Affect Sperm Motility in the Fighting Fish Betta splendens

    PubMed Central

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Gendelman, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μM) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μM) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  17. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems. PMID:17992970

  18. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of genistein during activation does not affect sperm motility in the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Gendelman, Hannah K

    2014-01-01

    Sperm collected from male fighting fish Betta splendens were activated in control water, water containing the ion-channel blocker gadolinium (a putative positive control), or water containing the isoflavone phytoestrogen genistein to determine the effects of acute genistein exposure on male reproductive function. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to quantify the proportion of sperm that were motile and the swimming velocity of those sperm. The highest concentration of gadolinium (100 μ M) tested was effective at reducing sperm motility and velocity, but neither concentration of genistein tested (3.7 nM or 3.7 μ M) significantly affected these sperm parameters. Our findings suggest that acute exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens during activation does not reduce the motility of fish sperm. PMID:24516856

  19. Sex-Related Effects in the Superhydrophobic Properties of Damselfly Wings in Young and Old Calopteryx splendens

    PubMed Central

    Kuitunen, Katja; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous sex-related morphological adaptations are connected to reproductive behavior in animals. For example, females of some insect species can submerge during oviposition, which may lead to sex-related adaptations in the hydrophobicity (water-repellency) due to specialization of certain morphological structures. On the other hand, ageing can cause changes in hydrophobicity of the surface, because the morphological structures can wear with age. Here, we investigated sex-and age-related differences in wing hydrophobicity and in morphology (spine density, wax cover characteristics, size of females' pseudopterostigma) potentially related to hydrophobicity of Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Hydrophobicity was measured with two methods, by measuring the contact angle (CA) between a wing and water droplet, and by dipping a wing into water and measuring forces needed to submerge, withdraw, and pull-out a wing from water. We found that C. splendens wings are superhydrophobic, having mean CAs of 161°. The only sex and age related difference in the hydrophobicity measurements was that young females had stronger amplitude of force fluctuations during withdrawal of wings from water than young males. This suggests that young females may form less uniform air pockets on their wings while submerged. From the morphological structures measured here, the only sex related finding was that old females had denser spine cover than young females in their wing veins. The difference may be explained by better survival of females with denser spine cover. The most important morphological character that predicted superhydrophobicity was the prevalence of long wax rods on wing veins. In addition, female pseudopterostigma area (a trait present only in females) was negatively related to pull-out force, suggesting that large pseudopterostigmas might help females to emerge from water following oviposition. The subtle sex-related differences in hydrophobicity could be explained by the fact

  20. Exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol decreases motility and ATP in sperm of male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Tracy M; Brown, Alexandria C; Gendelman, Hannah K; Ota, Mizuho; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2014-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into aquatic environments from sewage treatment facilities. We tested the effects of two environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne EE2, 10 and 100 ng L(-1) , on reproductive endpoints in the teleost fish Betta splendens. In the first experiment, testes were removed from males and sperm were exposed to EE2 directly through the activation water. Direct exposure to EE2 had no effect on any measure of sperm swimming performance. In the second experiment, we exposed sexually mature male B. splendens to EE2 using a semi-static exposure protocol for 4 weeks. There were no significant treatment effects in the 10 ng L(-1) treatment group, but at the 100 ng L(-1) dose we found that fish had smaller gonads and reduced sperm swimming velocity. When allowed to interact freely with female conspecifics, males exposed to 100 ng L(-1) EE2 built smaller nests and showed a nonsignificant decrease in fertilization success. To investigate further the potential mechanism underlying the decrease in sperm quality, we repeated the chronic exposure experiment and analyzed the ATP content of sperm from fish in each treatment group. We found that males exposed to 100 ng L(-1) of EE2 had fewer moles of ATP per sperm than did fish in the other two treatment groups, suggesting that a decrease in intracellular ATP caused a reduction in sperm swimming velocity. The current study adds to the growing body of literature that indicates the risks to aquatic organisms of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of EE2. PMID:22223459

  1. Effect of copper-tolerant rhizosphere bacteria on mobility of copper in soil and copper accumulation by Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying Xu; Wang, Yuan Peng; Lin, Qi; Luo, Yong Ming

    2005-08-01

    The role of rhizosphere bacteria in facilitating the solubility of copper (Cu) in contaminated soil and Cu accumulation in plant were studied. The bacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of Elsholtzia splendens, a Cu accumulator growing on Tonglu Mountain copper mines. After the sandy soils containing 237 mg kg(-1) were incubated with the bacteria strains, it was indicated that rhizosphere microbes played an important role in influencing the availability of water-soluble Cu in soils. Soils had greater concentrations of water-extractable Cu compared with axenic soils inoculated with different bacterial strains. Further evidence for bacterial facilitation of increased solubility of Cu in the soil was obtained using the antibiotic ampicillin (0.1 mg g(-1)). There were 36% decreases in Cu concentration in the presence of bacterial strain MS12 and ampicillin together compared with bacterial inoculation alone. Different bacterial strains had different abilities on soil water-soluble Cu. To achieve the highest rates of plant Cu accumulation, it was necessary for bacteria to be present in the rhizosphere of E. splendens. Inoculated plants supplied with 20 micromol L(-1) CuSO4 had significantly greater concentrations of Cu in shoots and roots than uninoculated plants and bacterial strain MS2 was the most effective strain in promoting plant Cu uptake. There were 2.2-fold and 2.5-fold increases in Cu accumulation in the shoots and roots of plants inoculated with strain MS2 compared to axenic controls. Furthermore, when ampicillin and the bacterial strains were added together to the nutrient solution, the Cu concentrations in roots and shoots of ampicillin-treated plants were lower than those in inoculated plants. When ampicillin was added to the nutrient solution, Cu accumulation was inhibited by about 24-44% in shoots and 20-44% in roots. The above results provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soil. PMID:16005516

  2. Active biomonitoring with the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum: Comparison between different types of transplants and bulk deposition.

    PubMed

    Ares, A; Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2015-10-01

    Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses can be used to complement traditional air pollution monitoring techniques. Several studies have been carried out to compare the uptake capacity of different types of moss transplants. However, until now the relationship between the uptake of elements in devitalized moss bags and in irrigated transplants has not been explored. In this study, the final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were determined in irrigated and devitalized moss transplants in the surroundings of a steelworks. The concentrations were also compared with those of the same elements in the bulk deposition to determine which type of moss transplant yields the closest correlations. Devitalized moss retained higher concentrations of all of the elements (except Hg) than the irrigated moss. Both irrigated and devitalized moss transplants appear to detect the same type of contamination (i.e. particulate matter and dissolved metals rather than gaseous forms) as significant correlations were found for Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, whereas, neither type of the moss transplant was sensitive enough to detect changes in the soluble fraction load of bulk deposition. Further studies will be needed to a better understanding of the correlation between the concentrations of elements in moss transplants with the particulate fraction of the bulk deposition. This will enable the establishment of a more robust and accurate biomonitoring tool. PMID:26036418

  3. Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Yifu; Wang Yi E-mail: wangyi@itp.ac.cn

    2008-01-15

    The quantum behavior of non-commutative eternal inflation is quite different from the usual scenario. Unlike the usual eternal inflation, non-commutative eternal inflation has quantum fluctuation suppressed by the Hubble parameter. Because of this, we need to reconsider many conceptions of eternal inflation. In this paper we study the Hawking-Moss tunneling in non-commutative eternal inflation using the stochastic approach. We obtain a brand new form of tunneling probability for this process and find that the Hawking-Moss tunneling is more unlikely to take place in the non-commutative case than in the usual one. We also conclude that the lifetime of a metastable de Sitter vacuum in the non-commutative spacetime is longer than that in the commutative case.

  4. The Moss Flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akdağ Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  5. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  6. Caulonemal gravitropism and amyloplast sedimentation in the moss Funaria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kim, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Caulonemata of the moss Funaria were examined to determine whether they are gravitropic. Funaria and Physcomitrella were also evaluated to compare amyloplast sedimentation with that of Ceratodon. Protonemata were either chemically fixed in place or examined alive using infrared timelapse videomicroscopy. Funaria caulonemata were found to be negatively gravitropic, i.e., they grew upwards in the dark. Upward curvature reversed temporarily before cytokinesis in Funaria, a phenomenon already known for Ceratodon and Physcomitrella. Most horizontal and upward-curving Funaria tip cells contained a broad subapical zone where plastid sedimentation occurred. In dark-grown Physcomitrella caulonemata, sedimentation was detected by the presence of a thin, amyloplast-free strip of cytoplasm at the top of the cell. These results suggest that gravitropism and subapical amyloplast sedimentation may be relatively common in moss caulonemata.

  7. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  8. Co-production of biochar, bio-oil and syngas from halophyte grass (Achnatherum splendens L.) under three different pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Chen, Qun; Yue, Yan; Pang, Renzhong; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hao

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, pyrolysis of Achnatherum splendens L. was performed under three different pyrolysis temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) to investigate the characteristics of biochar, bio-oil, and syngas. Biochar yield decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas syngas yield increased from 34% to 54% when pyrolysis temperature was increased from 300 to 700°C. Maximum bio-oil yield (27%) was obtained at 500°C. The biochar were characterized for elemental composition, surface, and adsorption properties. The results showed that obtained biochar could be used as a potential soil amendment. The bio-oil and syngas co-products will be evaluated in the future as bioenergy sources. Overall, our results suggests that A. splendens L. could be utilized as a potential feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production through pyrolytic route. PMID:27035478

  9. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  10. BOREAS HYD-8 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1994 and at Joey Lake, Manitoba, to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. The data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from June to September 1994. A nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-08 1994 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  11. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  12. Exposure to Asulox Inhibits the Growth of Mosses

    PubMed Central

    ROWNTREE, J. K.; LAWTON, K. F.; RUMSEY, F. J.; SHEFFIELD, E.

    2003-01-01

    Asulox is a herbicide used to control bracken. Its effects on mosses were investigated to ascertain whether exposure proved as detrimental as found in parallel studies on pteridophytes. Mature gametophytes of 18 mosses were exposed to a range of concentrations of Asulox under standard conditions and the effects on growth monitored. Plants were cut to a standard length, exposed to Asulox solution for 24 h, grown for 3 weeks and total elongation (main stem and branches) measured. EC50 values were calculated and species ranked according to sensitivity. The effects of exposure on total elongation were compared with those on main stem elongation alone. Under the conditions tested, the total elongation of all species was inhibited after exposure to Asulox. The amount of elongation observed after exposure was different for different species and inhibition of elongation occurred at different exposure concentrations. A single regression equation was not adequate to describe the dose response curves of all species tested. An ability to produce secondary branches may confer increased tolerance to Asulox exposure. It is concluded that mosses suffer detrimental effects after exposure to Asulox at concentrations similar to those that affect fern gametophytes such as bracken. PMID:12933364

  13. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  14. Development of Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensors (MOSS) for space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    The cost of space plasma sensors is high for several reasons: (1) Most are one-of-a-kind and state-of-the-art, (2) the cost of launch to orbit is high, (3) ruggedness and reliability requirements lead to costly development and test programs, and (4) overhead is added by overly elaborate or generalized spacecraft interface requirements. Possible approaches to reducing costs include development of small 'sensors' (defined as including all necessary optics, detectors, and related electronics) that will ultimately lead to cheaper missions by reducing (2), improving (3), and, through work with spacecraft designers, reducing (4). Despite this logical approach, there is no guarantee that smaller sensors are necessarily either better or cheaper. We have previously advocated applying analytical 'quality factors' to plasma sensors (and spacecraft) and have begun to develop miniaturized particle optical systems by applying quantitative optimization criteria. We are currently designing a Miniaturized Optimized Smart Sensor (MOSS) in which miniaturized electronics (e.g., employing new power supply topology and extensive us of gate arrays and hybrid circuits) are fully integrated with newly developed particle optics to give significant savings in volume and mass. The goal of the SwRI MOSS program is development of a fully self-contained and functional plasma sensor weighing 1 lb and requiring 1 W. MOSS will require only a typical spacecraft DC power source (e.g., 30 V) and command/data interfaces in order to be fully functional, and will provide measurement capabilities comparable in most ways to current sensors.

  15. BOREAS HYD-8 1996 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the southern study area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1996 to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from July to August 1996. To collect these data, a nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 1996 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. Copper and cobalt in aquatic mosses and stream sediments from the Idaho Cobalt Belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Modreski, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of stream sediments and aquatic mosses were collected from nine sites across several mineralized zones at the southeasternmost extension of the Idaho Cobalt Belt. Because the steepness of the terrain and the attendant high flow rate of the streams made it difficult to obtain adequate sediment samples, mosses were considered as an alternative sampling medium. The results not only showed that the Cu and Co content of the mosses correlated almost perfectly with that of the sediments, but that the contrast between samples taken from mineralized and background areas was greater in mosses, especially for Co. Maximum concentrations of 35,000 ??g/g Cu and 2000 ??g/g Co were observed in the ash of mosses, compared to maximum concentrations of 1700 ??g/g and 320 ??g/g, respectively, in the associated sediments. Species identification was considered unimportant, which should dispel some reluctance to use mosses in mineral exploration. ?? 1984.

  17. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. PMID:21620544

  18. Pitfalls and new mechanisms in moss isotope biomonitoring of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki

    2012-11-20

    Moss N isotope (δ(15)N(bulk)) has been used to monitor N deposition, but it remains questionable whether inhibition of nitrate reductase activity (NRA) by reduced dissolved N (RDN) engenders overestimation of RDN in deposition when using moss δ(15)N(bulk). We tested this question by investigation of δ(15)N(bulk) and δ(15)NO(3)(-) in mosses under the dominance of RDN in N depositions of Guiyang, SW China. The δ(15)N(bulk) of mosses on bare rock (-7.9‰) was unable to integrate total dissolved N (TDN) (δ(15)N = -6.3‰), but it reflected δ(15)N-RDN (-7.5‰) exactly. Moreover, δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) in mosses (-1.7‰) resembled that of wet deposition (-1.9‰). These isotopic approximations, together with low isotopic enrichment with moss [NO(3)(-)] variations, suggest the inhibition of moss NRA by RDN. Moreover, isotopic mixing modeling indicated a negligible contribution from NO(3)(-) to moss δ(15)N(bulk) when the RDN/NO(3)(-) reaches 3.8, at which maximum overestimation (21%) of RDN in N deposition can be generated using moss δ(15)N(bulk) as δ(15)N-TDN. Moss δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) can indicate atmospheric NO(3)(-) under distinctly high RDN/NO(3)(-) in deposition, although moss δ(15)N(bulk) can reflect only the RDN therein. These results reveal pitfalls and new mechanisms associated with moss isotope monitoring of N deposition and underscore the importance of biotic N dynamics in biomonitoring studies. PMID:23050838

  19. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  20. Soil hydraulic properties of sphagnum moss and peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Tobias K. D.; Iden, Sascha C.; Scharnagl, Benedikt; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The moisture state of the vadose zone (acrotelm) of ombrotrophic peatlands decisively determines whether carbon is contained in soil organic matter or released to the atmosphere. As the pore space is variably saturated with water throughout the year, oxygen diffusion, heat, and solute transport and thus the redox state are a function of water content over time. For prediction purposes, the hydrological processes must be epitomised in computer models which establish a link between the terrestrial water cycle and the carbon cycle. This requires a proper representation of effective soil hydraulic properties which are a mandatory input to the Richards equation, the standard model for variably-saturated flow processes in porous media. By applying the Richards equation to peatlands, one assumes that the acrotelm can be conceptualised as a rigid porous material. To test this approximation and select the most adequate set of soil hydraulic property functions, we conducted a series of specifically designed laboratory evaporation experiments on sphagnum moss and decomposed sphagnum peat. Sampling was carried out in five centimeter depth increments of an ombrotrophic bog profile in the Harz mountains. We selected sphagnum moss as it is a predominant plant species colonising bogs of the Boreal. Inverse modelling was used to test the adequacy of different parameterizations of soil hydraulic property functions. We used pressure head data measured by two tensiometers in the objective function to identify soil hydraulic properties. The Richards equation was used as process model. We critically assess the applicability of the van Genuchten/Mualem model, which finds frequent application in peatland hydrology, and discuss alternatives which account for (1) multimodal pore size distributions, (2) physical plausibility towards the dry end, (3) capillary and non-capillary storage and flow, and (4) isothermal flow of water vapour. Finally, our results indicate that applying the Richards

  1. Estimating the Chromospheric Absorption of Transition Region Moss Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo H.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2009-09-01

    Many models for coronal loops have difficulty explaining the observed EUV brightness of the transition region, which is often significantly less than theoretical models predict. This discrepancy has been addressed by a variety of approaches including filling factors and time-dependent heating, with varying degrees of success. Here, we focus on an effect that has been ignored so far: the absorption of EUV light with wavelengths below 912 Å by the resonance continua of neutral hydrogen and helium. Such absorption is expected to occur in the low-lying transition region of hot, active region loops that is colocated with cool chromospheric features and called "moss" as a result of the reticulated appearance resulting from the absorption. We use cotemporal and cospatial spectroheliograms obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SUMER and Hinode/EIS of Fe XII 1242 Å, 195 Å, and 186.88 Å, and compare the density determination from the 186/195 Å line ratio to that resulting from the 195/1242 Å line ratio. We find that while coronal loops have compatible density values from these two line pairs, upper transition region moss has conflicting density determinations. This discrepancy can be resolved by taking into account significant absorption of 195 Å emission caused by the chromospheric inclusions in the moss. We find that the amount of absorption is generally of the order of a factor of 2. We compare to numerical models and show that the observed effect is well reproduced by three-dimensional radiative MHD models of the transition region and corona. We use STEREO A/B data of the same active region and find that increased angles between line of sight and local vertical cause additional absorption. Our determination of the amount of chromospheric absorption of TR emission can be used to better constrain coronal heating models.

  2. ESTIMATING THE CHROMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION OF TRANSITION REGION MOSS EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo H.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Patsourakos, Spiros

    2009-09-10

    Many models for coronal loops have difficulty explaining the observed EUV brightness of the transition region, which is often significantly less than theoretical models predict. This discrepancy has been addressed by a variety of approaches including filling factors and time-dependent heating, with varying degrees of success. Here, we focus on an effect that has been ignored so far: the absorption of EUV light with wavelengths below 912 A by the resonance continua of neutral hydrogen and helium. Such absorption is expected to occur in the low-lying transition region of hot, active region loops that is colocated with cool chromospheric features and called 'moss' as a result of the reticulated appearance resulting from the absorption. We use cotemporal and cospatial spectroheliograms obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SUMER and Hinode/EIS of Fe XII 1242 A, 195 A, and 186.88 A, and compare the density determination from the 186/195 A line ratio to that resulting from the 195/1242 A line ratio. We find that while coronal loops have compatible density values from these two line pairs, upper transition region moss has conflicting density determinations. This discrepancy can be resolved by taking into account significant absorption of 195 A emission caused by the chromospheric inclusions in the moss. We find that the amount of absorption is generally of the order of a factor of 2. We compare to numerical models and show that the observed effect is well reproduced by three-dimensional radiative MHD models of the transition region and corona. We use STEREO A/B data of the same active region and find that increased angles between line of sight and local vertical cause additional absorption. Our determination of the amount of chromospheric absorption of TR emission can be used to better constrain coronal heating models.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  4. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  5. Cytokinin Biosynthesis in Mutants of the Moss Physcomitrella patens1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Trevor L.; Beutelmann, Peter; Cove, David J.

    1981-01-01

    Three cytokinin-over-producing mutants of the moss, Physcomitrella patens, have been shown to convert [8-14C]adenine to N6-[14C](Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine, the presence of which was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and recrystallization to constant specific radioactivity. The labeled cytokinin was detected in the culture medium within 6 hours and the tissue itself appears to contain both labeled N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine monophosphate. Images PMID:16661991

  6. Purification and identification of a cytokinin from moss callus cells.

    PubMed

    Beutelmann, P; Bauer, L

    1977-01-01

    A cytokinin was isolated from the culture medium of callus cells of the moss hybridFunaria hygrometrica (L.) Sibth xPhyscomitrium piriforme Brid. The purification procedure included ethyl-acetate extraction, silver-salt precipitation, crystallization as picrate, and ion exchange chromatography. The structure of the cytokinin was confirmed as N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl)adenine by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The concentration of the compound in the culture medium was determined at ca. 10(-6) M. PMID:24425252

  7. Hawking-Moss Bounces and Vacuum Decay Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Erick J.

    2007-06-22

    The conventional interpretation of the Hawking-Moss (HM) solution implies a transition rate between vacua that depends only on the values of the potential in the initial vacuum and at the top of a potential barrier, leading to the implausible conclusion that transitions to distant vacua can be as likely as those to a nearby one. I analyze this issue using a nongravitational example with analogous properties. I show that such HM bounces do not give reliable rate calculations, but are instead related to the probability of finding a quasistable configuration at a local potential maximum.

  8. The EV-1 airborne microwave observatory of subcanopy and subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AirMOSS is one of the five Earth Venture-1 investigations selected in May 2010, with the goal of improving the estimates of the North American net ecosystem exchange (NEE) through high-resolution observations of root zone soil moisture (RZSM). The 5-year AirMOSS investigation is deigned to overlap w...

  9. GENERATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE TO DESICCATION STRESS IN THE DESERT MOSS TORTULA INERMIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actively growing postembryonic sporophytes of desert mosses are restricted to the cooler, wetter months. However, most desert mosses have perennial gametophytes. We hypothesized that these life history patterns are due in part to a reduced desiccation tolerance for sporophytes relative to gametophyt...

  10. Atmospheric deposition of organic micropollutants in Norway studied by means of moss and lichen analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, G.E.; Ofstad, E.B.; Drangsholt, H.; Steinnes, E.

    1983-01-01

    Moss and lichen samples from eleven remote sites from all parts of Norway were analyzed for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. The highest and lowest concentration levels were found in the most southwesterly and northerly locations, respectively. Moss and lichen samples from one site were also analyzed for other organic micropollutants. They were found to contain alkanes, mostly of biogenic origin, PAH and phthalates.

  11. Antarctic moss stress assessment based on chlorophyll content and leaf density retrieved from imaging spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Malenovský, Zbyněk; Turnbull, Johanna D; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-10-01

    The health of several East Antarctic moss-beds is declining as liquid water availability is reduced due to recent environmental changes. Consequently, a noninvasive and spatially explicit method is needed to assess the vigour of mosses spread throughout rocky Antarctic landscapes. Here, we explore the possibility of using near-distance imaging spectroscopy for spatial assessment of moss-bed health. Turf chlorophyll a and b, water content and leaf density were selected as quantitative stress indicators. Reflectance of three dominant Antarctic mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Ceratodon purpureus and Schistidium antarctici was measured during a drought-stress and recovery laboratory experiment and also with an imaging spectrometer outdoors on water-deficient (stressed) and well-watered (unstressed) moss test sites. The stress-indicating moss traits were derived from visible and near infrared turf reflectance using a nonlinear support vector regression. Laboratory estimates of chlorophyll content and leaf density were achieved with the lowest systematic/unsystematic root mean square errors of 38.0/235.2 nmol g(-1) DW and 0.8/1.6 leaves mm(-1) , respectively. Subsequent combination of these indicators retrieved from field hyperspectral images produced small-scale maps indicating relative moss vigour. Once applied and validated on remotely sensed airborne spectral images, this methodology could provide quantitative maps suitable for long-term monitoring of Antarctic moss-bed health. PMID:26083501

  12. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Turetsky, M R; Bond-Lamberty, B; Euskirchen, E; Talbot, J; Frolking, S; McGuire, A D; Tuittila, E-S

    2012-10-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries - permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography - and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes. PMID:22924403

  13. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170 Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a)...

  14. 75 FR 33799 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a baseline filing of its Statement of General...

  15. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  16. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Talbot, J. J.; Frolking, S.; McGuire, A.D.; Tuittila, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosses in northern ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, and strongly influence nutrient, carbon and water cycling. We use literature review, synthesis and model simulations to explore the role of mosses in ecological stability and resilience. Moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories. Simulations from two process-based models suggest that northern ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. But simulations with two other models suggest that loss of moss will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. It seems clear that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species. We highlight several issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, and parameter vs conceptual uncertainty in models. Mosses play an important role in several ecosystem processes that play out over centuries – permafrost formation and thaw, peat accumulation, development of microtopography – and there is a need for studies that increase our understanding of slow, long-term dynamical processes.

  17. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  18. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between the moss and soil concentrations for any of the six heavy metal elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn), indicating that the soil substrate had little effect on the heavy metal concentrations in the moss materials. The metal enrichment capacity of the moss material, characterized by the concentration ratio between the moss and soil samples for each heavy metal, was topped by Cd and then followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were found among the six elements in mosses, suggesting potential anthropogenic inputs of these heavy metal pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region. PMID:27207630

  19. 76 FR 53426 - Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moss Bluff Hub, LLC; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on August 17, 2011, Moss Bluff Hub, LLC submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions, that governs...

  20. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  1. 33 CFR 207.170 - Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Dam, Oklawaha River, Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. 207.170 Section 207.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., Moss Bluff, Fla.; pool level. (a) The level of the pool shall normally be maintained at elevation...

  2. Determining baselines and variability of elements in plants and soils near the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, J.G.; Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to reliably map the geochemistry of the area, due to large local variability. For example, producing reliable element maps of feather moss using a 50 km cell (at 95% probability) would require sampling densities of from 4 samples per cell for Al, Co, Fe, La, Li, and V, to more than 15 samples per cell for Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn.Recent investigations on the Kenai Peninsula had two major objectives: (1) to establish elemental baseline concentrations ranges for native vegetation and soils; and, (2) to determine the sampling density required for preparing stable regional geochemical maps for various elements in native plants and soils. These objectives were accomplished using an unbalanced, nested analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) barbell sampling design. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) BSG (feather moss, whole plant), Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce, twigs and needles), and soil horizons (02 and C) were collected and analyzed for major and trace total element concentrations. Using geometric means and geometric deviations, expected baseline ranges for elements were calculated. Results of the ANOVA show that intensive soil or plant sampling is needed to

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE MOSS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR 32-BIT COMPUTER SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.J.; Oleson, Lyndon R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss the current status and plans regarding the 32-bit implementation of the Map Overly and Statistical System (MOSS) geographic information system. Increasing interest in this system is promoting significant expansion of its capabilities, but any such enhancements will require careful analysis and planning to ensure that the resulting system is functionally complete and efficient yet flexible enough to adapt to a variety of user requirements and systems. All enhancements must be coordinated among centers of development in order to ensure the continued viability of a single MOSS. A baseline software configuration must be defined, and procedures must be developed to ensure coordination of any modifications to the baseline. Finally, there is significant interest in maintaining the public-domain aspects of MOSS to promote its shared use in the Department of the Interior. For these reasons, coordination efforts such as those initiated by the IDCCC and the MOSS Users Workshop should be strongly supported by the MOSS user community.

  4. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals. PMID:24287679

  5. A method for eliminating bacterial contamination from in vitro moss cultures1

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Sarah B.; Payton, Adam C.; McDaniel, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Bacterial contamination is a major problem in plant tissue culture, resulting in loss of experimental strains or preventing use of field-collected isolates. Here we evaluated an agar embedding method for eliminating bacteria from experimental cultures of the mosses Ceratodon purpureus and Physcomitrella patens. • Methods and Results: We blended moss protonema that had been inoculated with bacteria and embedded the cell fragments in antibiotic-containing, low-concentration agar. The plants were placed in a growth chamber and allowed to grow until the moss grew out of the media. The plants were then transferred to new plates and observed for contamination. The embedding method consistently outperformed standard procedures. • Conclusions: The embedding method places moss in direct contact with antibiotics, arresting bacterial replication and allowing moss to outgrow contamination. We anticipate this method will prove valuable for other plants capable of clonal propagation by blending. PMID:25606353

  6. Influence of the physicochemical characteristics of pollutants on their uptake in moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Z.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.; Aboal, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    Bryophytes are commonly used as biomonitors to estimate the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the tissue concentrations of these elements in moss do not always accurately reflect atmospheric levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether element uptake in moss is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the elements. Factor analysis was used to identify any patterns of covariance in the accumulation of elements in samples of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum collected from the surroundings of different factories and from control sites. The variation in the concentrations of elements was similar in moss from both types of sites and was related to the binding properties of the elements. This suggests that the physicochemical characteristics of the elements determine the uptake of metals and metalloids from the atmosphere. Therefore, in studies that use multiple correlations among elements as indicators of a common origin of contaminants, erroneous conclusions may be reached by overlooking the adsorption properties of the moss.

  7. Lateral bias of agonistic responses to mirror images and morphological asymmetry in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Myint, Omar; Kohda, Masanori

    2010-03-17

    Behavioural laterality (e.g., during social interactions) is often observed at the individual level in lower vertebrates such as fish, whereas population-level laterality is observed in many higher vertebrates. Population-level laterality can be explained mainly by internal factors (e.g., cerebral lateralization), whereas little is known about the behavioural mechanisms underlying individual-level laterality. Recently, it was revealed that many fish have asymmetrical body morphology, but the relationship between asymmetric morphology and social behaviours has been rarely examined. Here we report the relationship between lateralized eye use during aggressive displays (e.g., body posture) of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, toward their own mirror image and morphological asymmetry. Of 25 males, five exhibited significantly more leftward eye use during left displays, and eight males exhibited predominantly rightward eye use during right displays. Morphological measurement results for the craniovertebral angle and opercular area showed that the craniovertebral angle and opercular area displayed antisymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, respectively. We found that lateralized eye use during agonistic responses by each fish was associated with the craniovertebral angle, but not with operculum size; lefties (left-curved body) showed mainly left eye use (during left-side displays), and righties (right-curved body) demonstrated the opposite. We suggest that antisymmetric morphologies, such as head incline, are potentially useful for studying the association between cerebral lateralization and individual laterality of behavioural responses. Further, we propose that in fish, morphological asymmetry is related to laterality in various behaviours. PMID:19922744

  8. Timing of presentation of an audience: aggressive priming and audience effects in male displays of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Matos, Ricardo J.; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2003-05-28

    Studies of animal communication often underestimate the presence of individuals other than the signaller-receiver dyad. Signalling interactions often occur in the presence of non-participating individuals (audiences); the effect of these individuals upon the dynamics of interactions has been called the audience effect. Recent studies of fighting fish Betta splendens have shown that the presence of a male audience can increase aggression during interactions. However, in many of these studies males were allowed to see the audience prior to the interaction, thus such pre-exposure may have facilitated aggressive behaviour (aggressive priming). Here we present results of two experiments designed to examine the relative importance of priming and audience effects on the dynamics of aggressive interactions. Males that were pre-exposed showed higher levels of aggression during subsequent interactions regardless of the presence or absence of an audience. When only one of the interactants had been pre-exposed to the audience, the non-exposed male showed similar increases in aggressive behaviour, i.e. matching the level of aggression showed by his opponent. Taken together these results suggest that aggressive priming may have resulted in an over-estimation of the audience effect in previous studies. The results still highlight the importance of social environment in determining the dynamics and outcomes of aggressive contests. PMID:12763268

  9. Fish on Prozac: a simple, noninvasive physiology laboratory investigating the mechanisms of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Sharon E; Egar, Joseph M; Walker, Brian G; Sperry, Todd S; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2007-12-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin is an important regulator of aggressive behavior in vertebrates. Experimentally increasing synaptic levels of serotonin with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to reliably decrease the expression of aggressive behavior. Here, we describe a method by which fluoxetine can be noninvasively administered to male Betta splendens (an attractive model for the study of aggressive behavior) and describe a simple laboratory exercise that allows students to experimentally investigate the physiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that relatively short-term exposure (3 h) of male bettas to as little as 3 microg/ml of fluoxetine-treated aquarium water is sufficient to reduce the expression of specific aggressive behaviors. We emphasize the physiological concepts that can be addressed with this exercise, including the role of the serotonergic system in regulating aggression, and the interplay of environmental contaminants and physiology in regulating the expression of behavior. We also highlight important aspects of experimental design. This exercise can be flexibly altered to accommodate one or several laboratory periods. It is also low cost, is low impact to the animals, and requires minimal preparation time for instructors. PMID:18057410

  10. The role of vitellogenin during gestation of Girardinichthys viviparus and Ameca splendens; two goodeid fish with matrotrophic viviparity.

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Armando; Ortiz-Ordóñez, Esperanza; Uría-Galicia, Esther; Mendoza-Santana, E Laura; Hernández-Cornejo, Rubí; Atondo-Mexia, Roxana; García-Gasca, Alejandra; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia

    2007-07-01

    Goodeid fish have matrotrophic viviparity, and unlike lecitotrophic fish, yolk loss forces the female to provide the nutritional requirements for embryonic development. Vitellogenin (VTG) is the yolk precursor protein synthesized in the maternal liver, but there is only circumstantial evidence regarding VTG supply during the ontogenesis of bony fish with matrotrophic viviparity. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to identify and quantify VTG during gestation of the black fin goodeid Girardinichthys viviparus and the butterfly split-fin goodeid Ameca splendens. Females at different gonadic developmental stages were selected in order to evaluate VTG mRNA expression in the maternal liver using RT-PCR; VTG quantification in maternal muscle and liver, as well as in the embryos, was done using ELISA, and immunohistochemical detection of VTG was done in the black fin goodeid. The results suggest that VTG supplies nutrients during embryonic development of both species, which have different life histories. It is possible that the transition from lecitotrophy to matrotrophic viviparity in bony fish with intraluminal gestation involved adaptive transition strategies that included changes in the relationship between oocytes and follicular cells, as well as a gradual loss of VTG synthesis during embryonic development. PMID:17215155

  11. Absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci among highly ESBL-positive crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Badrul; Järhult, Josef D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as a growing problem in hospitals; however, domesticated animals, poultry, and wild birds are acting as potential reservoirs. There is a knowledge gap in the Epidemiology of VRE from Bangladesh. Methods To study the prevalence of VRE and the mechanisms of resistance implicated among wild birds, 238 fecal samples were collected in 2010 from house crows (Corvus splendens) foraging on hospital waste in Bangladesh. Fecal samples were screened by analyzing color change in broth and screening for vanA and vanB resistant genes by PCR. Results Neither vanA nor vanB genes were detected from the fecal samples. The house crow does not seem to constitute a reservoir for VRE. Conclusion The zero prevalence is an indication that foraging on hospital waste does not constitute a major risk of VRE carriage in house crows and this is the first study to focus on the prevalence of VRE from wild birds in Bangladesh. PMID:26679560

  12. First Europe-wide correlation analysis identifying factors best explaining the total nitrogen concentration in mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Winfried; Holy, Marcel; Pesch, Roland; Harmens, Harry; Fagerli, Hilde; Alber, Renate; Coşkun, Mahmut; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Frolova, Marina; González-Miqueo, Laura; Jeran, Zvonka; Kubin, Eero; Leblond, Sébastien; Liiv, Siiri; Maňkovská, Blanka; Piispanen, Juha; Santamaría, Jesús M.; Simonèiè, Primož; Suchara, Ivan; Yurukova, Lilyana; Thöni, Lotti; Zechmeister, Harald G.

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the indicative value of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen (N) depositions and air concentrations on the one hand and site-specific and regional factors which explain best the total N concentration in mosses on the other hand were investigated for the first time at a European scale using correlation analyses. The analyses included data from mosses collected from 2781 sites across Europe within the framework of the European moss survey 2005/6, which was coordinated by the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation). Modelled atmospheric N deposition and air concentration data were calculated using the Unified EMEP Model of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The modelled deposition and concentration data encompass various N compounds. In order to assess the correlations between moss tissue total N concentrations and the chosen predictors, Spearman rank correlation analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were applied. The Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the total N concentration in mosses and modelled N depositions and air concentrations are significantly correlated (0.53 ≤ r s ≤ 0.68, p < 0.001). Correlations with other predictors were lower than 0.55. The CART analysis indicated that the variation in the total N concentration in mosses was best explained by the variation in NH 4+ concentrations in air, followed by NO 2 concentrations in air, sampled moss species and total dry N deposition. The total N concentrations in mosses mirror land use-related atmospheric concentrations and depositions of N across Europe. In addition to already proven associations to measured N deposition on a local scale the study at hand gives a scientific prove on the association of N concentration in mosses and modelled deposition at the European scale.

  13. The resilience and functional role of moss in boreal and arctic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, Merritt; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Talbot, Julie; Frolking, Steve; McGuire, A. David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2012-08-24

    Mosses in boreal and arctic ecosystems are ubiquitous components of plant communities, represent an important component of plant diversity, and strongly influence the cycling of water, nutrients, energy and carbon. Here we use a literature review and synthesis as well as model simulations to explore the role of moss in ecological stability and resilience. Our literature review of moss community responses to disturbance showed all possible responses (increases, decreases, no change) within most disturbance categories in boreal and arctic regions. Our modeling simulations suggest that loss of moss within northern plant communities will reduce soil carbon accumulation primarily by influencing decomposition rates and soil nitrogen availability. While two models (HPM and STM-TEM) showed a significant effect of moss removal, results from the Biome-BGC and DVM-TEM models suggest that northern, moss-rich ecosystems would need to experience extreme perturbation before mosses were eliminated. We highlight a number of issues that have not been adequately explored in moss communities, such as functional redundancy and singularity, relationships between response and effect traits, phenotypical plasticity in traits, and whether the effects of moss on ecosystem processes scale with local abundance. We also suggest that as more models explore issues related to ecological resilience, issues related to both parameter and conceptual uncertainty should be addressed: are the models more limited by uncertainty in the parameterization of the processes included or by what is not represented in the model at all? It seems clear from our review that mosses need to be incorporated into models as one or more plant functional types, but more empirical work is needed to determine how to best aggregate species.

  14. Filial mistletoes: the functional morphology of moss sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2013-01-01

    Background A moss sporophyte inherits a haploid set of genes from the maternal gametophyte to which it is attached and another haploid set of genes from a paternal gametophyte. Evolutionary conflict is expected between genes of maternal and paternal origin that will be expressed as adaptations of sporophytes to extract additional resources from maternal gametophytes and adaptations of maternal gametophytes to restrain sporophytic demands. Interpretation The seta and stomata of peristomate mosses are interpreted as sporophytic devices for increasing nutrient transfer. The seta connects the foot, where nutrients are absorbed, to the developing capsule, where nutrients are needed for sporogenesis. Its elongation lifts stomata of the apophysis above the boundary layer, into the zone of turbulent air, thereby increasing the transpirational pull that draws nutrients across the haustorial foot. The calyptra is interpreted as a gametophytic device to reduce sporophytic demands. The calyptra fits tightly over the intercalary meristem of the sporophytic apex and prevents lateral expansion of the meristem. While intact, the calyptra delays the onset of transpiration. Predictions Nutrient transfer across the foot, stomatal number and stomatal aperture are predicted to be particular arenas of conflict between sporophytes and maternal gametophytes, and between maternal and paternal genomes of sporophytes. PMID:23277472

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  16. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations in boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousk, Kathrin

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits the productivity in boreal forests. A major source of 'new' N for these forests is the fixation of atmospheric N2 preformed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses and lichens. Mosses are a dominant feature in boreal forests, accounting for 60-90% of the groundcover in pristine boreal forests and have been found to be colonized by several N2-fixing cyanobacteria. Given the ubiquitous nature of mosses in these forests, their association with N2-fixing cyanobacteria could characterize the N cycle in these ecosystems. For instance, the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi with its associated cyanobacteria fixes 1-2 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which equals the amount that enters northern boreal forests via atmospheric N deposition. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is affected by numerous abiotic factors that could modulate the N input to the system via the moss-cyanobacteria pathway. For instance, high N availability and dry conditions inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations while phosphorus availability and moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Further, N2fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is resilient, and can recover from increased N inputs (12 - 15 kg N ha-1 yr-1) as well as from drought stress (moss < 9% field moisture) upon removal of these stressors. Nevertheless, the question as to how important the N2 fixing capability of moss-cyanobacteria associations is as a source of 'new' N for the N cycle in boreal forests remains. For instance, mosses can retain acquired N over long periods of time (> 1 year) and the transfer of N from moss to soil in the short-term has so far only been shown to occur after disturbances (e.g. drying rewetting events, fires). I will present results from laboratory as well as field experiments aimed to elucidate the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play for the N cycle in boreal forests and how abiotic factors control the fixation of atmospheric N2.

  17. Microphotometry of underwater shadowing by a moss from a Niagara Escarpment waterfall.

    PubMed

    Swatland, Howard J

    2011-02-01

    Microscope and fiber-optic spectrophotometry of transmittance and backscattering both showed moss leaves to be capable of casting strong shadows, with a single leaf blocking approximately 90% of incident light from a point source. In leaves with only one layer of cells, the transmittance through the cytoplasm of single cells was similar to that for whole leaves. Analysis of cell wall birefringence by polarized-light interferometry indicated that cell walls might normally scatter rather than transmit light. Spectra transmitted through, or backscattered from, the upper green layers of moss were dominated by selective absorbance from chlorophyll, but there was also evidence of wavelength-dependent scattering, as detected in the lower layers of brown, dead moss. Specular reflectance from moss leaves was detected by polarimetry and may have contributed to the relatively high macroscopic transmittance of stationary moss in water. Shadowing by moss leaves was confirmed by dynamic measurements of mosses in turbulent water without bubbles. Flicker patterns from leaves were superimposed on the underwater flicker pattern created at the air-water interface, thus flecks of light were reduced in intensity, increased in frequency, and decreased in duration. This was detected with both point source and diffuse illumination of samples. PMID:21087549

  18. Life at the boundary: photosynthesis at the soil-fluid interface. A synthesis focusing on mosses.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-03-01

    Mosses are among the earliest branching embryophytes and probably originated not later than the early Ordovician when atmospheric CO2 was higher and O2 was lower than today. The C3 biochemistry and physiology of their photosynthesis suggests, by analogy with tracheophytes, that growth of extant bryophytes in high CO2 approximating Ordovician values would increase the growth rate. This occurs for many mosses, including Physcomitrella patens in suspension culture, although recently published transcriptomic data on this species at high CO2 and present-day CO2 show down-regulation of the transcription of several genes related to photosynthesis. It would be useful if transcriptomic (and proteomic) data comparing growth conditions are linked to measurements of growth and physiology on the same, or parallel, cultures. Mosses (like later-originating embryophytes) have been subject to changes in bulk atmospheric CO2 and O2 throughout their existence, with evidence, albeit limited, for positive selection of moss Rubisco. Extant mosses are subject to a large range of CO2 and O2 concentrations in their immediate environments, especially aquatic mosses, and mosses are particularly influenced by CO2 generated by, and O2 consumed by, soil chemoorganotrophy from organic C produced by tracheophytes (if present) and bryophytes. PMID:26842980

  19. Comparison of the pebbles of the Shinarump and Moss Back members of the Chinle formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albee, Howard Franklin

    1956-01-01

    Lithology, color, size, sphericity, and roundness of pebbles from the Shinarurnp and Moss Back members of the Chinle formation were analyzed and compared. The difference in the quartz:quartzite:chert ratios of the pebbles, the presence of limestone and siltstone pebbles, and to a lesser degree,the difference in color of pebbles serve to distinguish the Moss Back from the Shinarump. In areas where both the Moss Back and Shinarump are present, the average ratios of quartz, quartzite, a.nd chert are respectively about 12:37:51 and 82:16:2. Limestone and siltstone pebbles are commonly found in the Moss Back, whereas they are rarely found in the Shinarump. The colors of the Moss Back pebbles are generally darker than those of the Shinarump pebbles. The Moss Back contains more gray to black pebbles and fewer light-colored pebbles, such as red, orange, and white, than the Shinarump. Size, sphericity, and roundness of pebbles do not show a significant difference between the two units. Fossiliferous pebbles in the Moss Back and Shinarump were derived chiefly from sediments of Carboniferous and Permian ages and could have had common sources.

  20. Moss-cyanobacteria associations as biogenic sources of nitrogen in boreal forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey L.; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) is a major pathway for available N entering ecosystems. In N-limited boreal forests, a significant amount of N2 is fixed by cyanobacteria living in association with mosses, contributing up to 50% to the total N input. In this review, we synthesize reports on the drivers of N2 fixation in feather moss-cyanobacteria associations to gain a deeper understanding of their role for ecosystem-N-cycling. Nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is inhibited by N inputs and therefore, significant fixation occurs only in low N-deposition areas. While it has been shown that artificial N additions in the laboratory as well as in the field inhibit N2 fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations, the type, as well as the amounts of N that enters the system, affect N2 fixation differently. Another major driver of N2 fixation is the moisture status of the cyanobacteria-hosting moss, wherein moist conditions promote N2 fixation. Mosses experience large fluctuations in their hydrological status, undergoing significant natural drying and rewetting cycles over the course of only a few hours, especially in summer, which likely compromises the N input to the system via N2 fixation. Perhaps the most central question, however, that remains unanswered is the fate of the fixed N2 in mosses. The cyanobacteria are likely to leak N, but whether this N is transferred to the soil and if so, at which rates and timescales, is unknown. Despite our increasing understanding of the drivers of N2 fixation, the role moss-cyanobacteria associations play in ecosystem-N-cycling remains unresolved. Further, the relationship mosses and cyanobacteria share is unknown to date and warrants further investigation. PMID:23785359

  1. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  2. Sensitivity of the xerophytic moss Syntrichia caninervis to chronic simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts, complex of cyanobacteira, fungi, lichens and mosses, are common in dryland area and act as important elements of these ecosystems. Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant species in moss crusts in many desert ecosystems. Increasing N deposition has lead to great changes in community structure and function in the desert ecosystem worldwide. However, it is unclear how moss crusts respond to increased atmospheric N deposition, especially in term of growth and physiological parameters. The population and individual growth, and physiological responses of S. caninervis to six different doses of simulated N deposition (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g N m-2 a-1) over three years were studied. Simulated N deposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert affected growth and physiological indices of the xerophytic moss S.caninervis. Low N addition increased individual plant length and leaf size. High N addition was detrimental to almost all growth characteristics monitored, although moss abundance was increased. The photosynthesis-related indices were moderately increased at low N addition rates and significantly decreased by high N addition. Changes in osmotic adjustment substance concentrations and activities of antioxidant enzymes facilitated protection of leaf cells from oxidative damage under N addition. Low rates of N additiondid not significantly affect, and may even stimulate growth and physiological activity of moss crusts. However, high rates of N addition decreased moss vitality and might affect the function of moss crusts. Moss crusts are sensitive to N addition and greater attention should be paid to protection of such kinds of biological complexes in desert ecosystems under increasing N deposition. Key words: antioxidant enzyme, chlorophyll, fluorescence, nitrogen deposition, osmotic substance, Syntrichia caninervis

  3. The nitrogen regime and biological fixation of nitrogen in moss communities (the Khibiny Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, V. I.

    2007-04-01

    In the vegetation belts of the Khibiny Mountains, the dynamics of the contents of mineral and easily hydrolyzable (according to Cornfield) nitrogen compounds in the litter and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of epiphytic cyanobacteria on dominant mosses were studied. The nitrogen regime of most moss species was shown to be self-supporting probably due to the intense assimilation of molecular nitrogen by epiphytic cyanobacteria (during the growing period, up to 28% of the total nitrogen content in plants) and the low organic matter production by mosses.

  4. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  5. Effects of sulphuric compounds on the ATP content of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1984-01-01

    Luminometric determination of ATP in the photosynthetic tissues of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum proved to be a suitable technique in studying the effects of bisulphite and sulphate on the metabolism of the mosses. The method has the advantage that it is rapid and easy to perform, and that the results are reliable and equal with those obtained by using other techniques. Bisulphite (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) caused marked reductions in the ATP contents at the 1 mM level, and the 5 mM level was clearly detrimental to the energy metabolism of the mosses. In contrast, sulphate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) increased the ATP contents markedly.

  6. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants. PMID:25848889

  7. Immunomodulating polysaccharides from aqueous extracts of Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss).

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K; Jurcic, K; Wagner, H

    1998-10-01

    Several polysaccharide fractions, isolated from a hot aqueous extract of Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. by ethanol fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography, exerted significant in vitro anti-complementary activity and pronounced enhancement of in vitro granulocytic phagocytosis. Prior to aqueous extraction, low molecular weight compounds were removed from the plant material by organic extraction. An aqueous extract, prepared by the traditional method of briefly boiling the lichen directly with water, also exhibited significant anti-complementary and enhanced phagocytic activity. When tested for reticuloendothelial phagocytic activity in the in vivo carbon clearance test, the extract gave rise to a significant increase in the rate of colloidal carbon elimination. Results show, that in addition to an immunostimulating alkali-soluble galactomannan previously isolated from Iceland moss, the plant also contains water soluble polysaccharides, extractable by traditional methods, which exert immunomodulating effects. PMID:23195981

  8. Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

    1968-01-01

    Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images PMID:16656847

  9. Stereological analysis of gravitropism in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Apical cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Cerotodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic. Previous light microscopy has shown that reorientation to the horizontal induces amyloplast sedimentation and redistribution of microtubules. To determine whether other components become redistributed laterally or axially, the apical 35 micrometers of both vertical and horizontal apical cells were compared stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. Reorientation to the horizontal changed the longitudinal distributions of tubular ER, Golgi stacks, and vesicles but not cisternal ER, mitochondria, and plastids. Only plastids showed a statistically significant lateral redistribution after horizontal placement. Qualitative examination of the sedimentation zone showed plastids sedimented close to peripherally located ER with vacuoles displaced above plastids. These results argue against a model where differential tip growth results from a redistribution of Golgi stacks or exocytic vesicles.

  10. Biological properties of the Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Gloria; Portaluppi, Mariana C; Salas, Francisco A; Díaz, María F

    2009-01-01

    An ethanol extract prepared from the gametophyte Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum was dried out, weighed and dissolved in distilled water. This extract was then assayed for its antibacterial activity against the G(-) bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and the G(+) bacteria Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, and Streptococcus type beta. The growth of the cultures of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and V. cholerae was inhibited at a concentration of 581 microg/ml of extract, while the cultures of E. coli, S. typhi and Streptococcus type beta were inhibited at a concentration of 1.16 microg/mL of extract. The concentration of phenolic compounds was 4.294 mg/mL; the presence of vanillic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, gallic, 3-4 hydrozybenzoic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids was identified using RP- High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. PMID:19746269

  11. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1990-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  12. Acute exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol disrupts audience effect on male-female interactions in Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Forette, Lindsay M; Mannion, Krystal L; Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can negatively impact the morphology and behavior of organisms inhabiting polluted waters. Male-typical behaviors are often reduced after exposure, suggesting that exposure may have population-level effects. One way in which exposure may exert population-level effects is by interfering with communication within a network of individuals. Acute exposure to the estrogen mimic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) disrupts the ability of male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, to modify their behavior during male-male interactions when an audience is present. However, it is unknown whether audience effects during male-female interactions may be similarly altered. To examine this, male-female pairs that were given an acute exposure to EE2 or remained unexposed interacted in the presence of a female, male, or no audience. Sex differences were found between unexposed males and females. More interactant-directed gill flaring was displayed by control males when a male audience was present while control females performed this behavior more in the presence of an audience, regardless of sex. Both males and females in the control group performed more interactant-directed tail beats in the presence of a female audience. EE2 exposure made all audience effects disappear as treated males and females did not differ in their responses between audience types. These results demonstrate that acute exposure to EE2 may disrupt behavioral adjustments to audience type within a social network. This disruption may, in turn, influence population dynamics in this species as both males and females use information obtained from observing interactions in later encounters with the observed individuals. PMID:25697944

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and alfonsino (Beryx splendens) from the Juan Fernandez seamounts area.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, L M; Quiñones, R A; Gonzalez-Saldía, R R; Niklitschek, E J

    2016-06-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity of two important commercial bathypelagic species living in the Juan Fernández seamounts was analyzed: alfonsino (Beryx splendens) and orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus). These seamounts are influenced by the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) located between 160 and 250 m depth. Both species have vertical segregation; alfonsino is able to stay in the OMZ, while orange roughy remains at greater depths. In this study, we compare the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of these species, measuring the activity of key metabolic enzymes in different body tissues (muscle, heart, brain and liver). Alfonsino has higher anaerobic potential in its white muscle due to greater lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (190.2 μmol NADH min(-1) g ww(-1)), which is related to its smaller body size, but it is also a feature shared with species that migrate through OMZs. This potential and the higher muscle citrate synthase and electron transport system activities indicate that alfonsino has greater swimming activity level than orange roughy. This species has also a high MDH/LDH ratio in its heart, brain and liver, revealing a potential capacity to conduct aerobic metabolism in these organs under prolonged periods of environmental low oxygen conditions, preventing lactic acid accumulation. With these metabolic characteristics, alfonsino may have increased swimming activity to migrate and also could stay for a period of time in the OMZ. The observed differences between alfonsino and orange roughy with respect to their aerobic and anaerobic enzymatic activity are consistent with their characteristic vertical distributions and feeding behaviors. PMID:26687132

  14. The Effect of Leaf Temperature and Photorespiratory Conditions on Export of Sugars during Steady-State Photosynthesis in Salvia splendens.

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, J.; Grodzinski, B.

    1996-01-01

    Export and photosynthesis in leaves of Salvia splendens were measured concurrently during steady-state 14CO2 labeling conditions. Under ambient CO2 and O2 conditions, photosynthesis and export rates were similar at 15 and 25[deg]C, but both declined as leaf temperature was raised from 25 to 40[deg]C. Suppressing photorespiration between 15 and 40[deg]C by manipulating CO2 and O2 levels resulted in higher rates of leaf photosynthesis, total sugar synthesis, and export. There was a linear relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and the rate of export between 15 and 35[deg]C. At these temperatures, 60 to 80% of the carbon fixed was readily exported with sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, which together constituted over 90% of phloem mobile assimilates. Above 35[deg]C, however, export during photosynthesis was inhibited both in photorespiratory conditions, which inhibited photosynthesis, and in nonphotorespiratory conditions, which did not inhibit photosynthesis. Sucrose and raffinose but not stachyose accumulated in the leaf at 40[deg]C. When leaves were preincubated at 40[deg]C and then cooled to 35[deg]C, export recovered more slowly than photosynthesis. These data are consistent with the view that impairment of export processes, rather than photosynthetic processes associated with light trapping, carbon reduction, and sucrose synthesis, accounted for the marked reduction in export between 35 and 40[deg]C. Taken together, the data indicated that temperature changes between 15 and 40[deg]C had two effects on photosynthesis and concurrent export. At all temperatures, suppressing photorespiration increased both photosynthesis and export, but above 35[deg]C, export processes were more directly inhibited independent of changes in photorespiration and photosynthesis. PMID:12226282

  15. [Spatial distribution patterns of soil organic carbon under Elacagnus angustifolia--Achnatherum splendens community in an arid area of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Chi, Ting; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song; Zhang, Ming-Juan; Yang, Xue-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the relationships of soil organic carbon (SOC) content with root biomass and soil moisture content as well as the accumulation mechanisms of SOC under the Elacagnus angustifolia-Achnatherum splenden community in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of Northwest China. The results showed that the SOC content decreased gradually with increasing soil depth, and changed gently in both horizontal and vertical directions. The correlations of the SOC content and its affecting factors varied with soil depth. In 0-30 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly negatively correlated with soil moisture content; in 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture content and root biomass. Partial regression analysis indicated that the root biomass density in 0-30 cm soil layer contributed significantly to the variance of SOC content. In 60-150 cm layer, the SOC content was mainly affected by root system and soil moisture content; in 30-60 cm layer, no significant correlations were observed between the SOC content and the root biomass and soil moisture content. There was an obvious difference in the accumulation mechanism of SOC in different soil layers and at different locations of E. angustifolia--A. splendens community. PMID:24483063

  16. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  17. Monitoring Airborne Heavy Metal Using Mosses in the City of Xuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Zhou, Peng; Fang, Yanming

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of six elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were measured in moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) samples collected from 55 urban sites in the summer of 2013. The objectives were to evaluate variations in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses across Xuzhou, and to develop maps of metal pollution for this region. Despite great variations in the concentrations of the six heavy metals in the mosses, significant correlations among certain heavy metals were identified, suggesting that these pollutants likely originated from identical sources. With the exception of Cr, there was no significant correlation in metal concentration between the moss tissues and adhering soils. The highest concentration of Cr occurred in the west. However, the spatial distribution for the other metals generally showed higher concentrations in the northeast, likely due to greater contamination by industrial activities and higher traffic volume. PMID:27010395

  18. Heavy metal contents of epiphytic acrocarpous mosses within inhabited sites in southwest Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of the metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Fe accumulated in acrocarpous mosses within inhabited parts of villages and towns in the southwest region of Nigeria were determined, and then used for a classification of the area into relative pollution zones. Ibadan City was found to be the most polluted in the study area. Other zones of low and medium polluted villages and towns were identified. The zonations based on metal levels in these mosses were to some extent similar to that already obtained in a separate study of the same area with epiphytic forest mosses. The enrichment factors show that the gradients between zones of different pollution levels were higher in mosses within the inhabited sites.

  19. Beryllium-7 and (210)Pb atmospheric deposition measured in moss and dependence on cumulative precipitation.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Mihailović, D T; Arsenić, I; Radnović, D; Pap, I

    2016-01-15

    This paper focuses on analysis of the time series of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity measured in moss, and the amount, as well as duration of precipitation, to gain a better understanding of the possible relationships between airborne radionuclide deposition and precipitation. Here we consider whether the amount of these airborne radionuclides in moss samples is a cumulative measure of radionuclide deposition and decay, and a new approach for analyses of the relationships between precipitation and moss activity concentrations is suggested. Through these analyses it was shown that comparison of cumulative activity measured at one location using moss, normalized by values of cumulative amount or duration of precipitation, showed different regimes of airborne radionuclide deposition. PMID:26461139

  20. Matrix solid phase dispersion method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in moss.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; De Nicola, Flavia; Aboal, Jesús R; Rey-Asensio, Ana Isabel; Giordano, Simonetta; Reski, Ralf; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-08-01

    In this work a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, followed by programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination is proposed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples. A devitalized, cultivated Sphagnum palustre L. moss clone obtained from the "Mossclone" EU-FP7 Project was used for the optimization and validation of the proposed method. Good trueness (84-116%), precision (intermediate precision lower than 11%) and sensitivity (quantitation limits lower than 1.7ngg(-1)) were obtained. The proposed method was compared with other procedures applied for this complex matrix, achieving a considerable reduction of sample amount, solvent volume and time consumption. The procedure was successfully tested for the analysis of PAHs in exposed moss clone samples for the monitoring of air pollution. Finally, the method was also tested for its suitability in the analysis of PAHs in other moss species as well as a lichen species. PMID:26105781

  1. Ammonium first: natural mosses prefer atmospheric ammonium but vary utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen depending on habitat and nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yoh, Muneoki; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    Mosses, among all types of terrestrial vegetation, are excellent scavengers of anthropogenic nitrogen (N), but their utilization of dissolved organic N (DON) and their reliance on atmospheric N remain uncharacterized in natural environments, which obscures their roles in N cycles. Natural (15) N abundance of N sources (nitrate (NO(3)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and DON in deposition and soil) for epilithic and terricolous mosses was analyzed at sites with different N depositions at Guiyang, China. Moss NO(3)(-) assimilation was inhibited substantially by the high supply of NH(4)(+) and DON. Therefore, contributions of NH(4)(+) and DON to moss N were partitioned using isotopic mass-balance methods. The N contributions averaged 56% and 46% from atmospheric NH(4)(+), and 44% and 17% from atmospheric DON in epilithic and terricolous mosses, respectively. In terricolous mosses, soil NH(4)(+) and soil DON accounted for 16% and 21% of bulk N, which are higher than current estimations obtained using (15) N-labeling methods. Moreover, anthropogenic NH(4)(+) deposition suppressed utilization of DON and soil N because of the preference of moss for NH(4)(+) under elevated NH(4)(+) deposition. These results underscore the dominance of, and preference for, atmospheric NH(4)(+) in moss N utilization, and highlight the importance of considering DON and soil N sources when estimating moss N sequestration and the impacts of N deposition on mosses. PMID:23692546

  2. Monitoring of Antarctic moss ecosystems using a high spatial resolution imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenovsky, Zbynek; Lucieer, Arko; Robinson, Sharon; Harwin, Stephen; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The most abundant photosynthetically active plants growing along the rocky Antarctic shore are mosses of three species: Schistidium antarctici, Ceratodon purpureus, and Bryum pseudotriquetrum. Even though mosses are well adapted to the extreme climate conditions, their existence in Antarctica depends strongly on availability of liquid water from snowmelt during the short summer season. Recent changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone are stimulating faster evaporation, which in turn influences moss growing rate, health state and abundance. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Very short growing season, lasting only about three months, requires a time efficient, easily deployable and spatially resolved method for monitoring the Antarctic moss beds. Ground and/or low-altitude airborne imaging spectroscopy (called also hyperspectral remote sensing) offers a fast and spatially explicit approach to investigate an actual spatial extent and physiological state of moss turfs. A dataset of ground-based spectral images was acquired with a mini-Hyperspec imaging spectrometer (Headwall Inc., the USA) during the Antarctic summer 2012 in the surroundings of the Australian Antarctic station Casey (Windmill Islands). The collection of high spatial resolution spectral images, with pixels about 2 cm in size containing from 162 up to 324 narrow spectral bands of wavelengths between 399 and 998 nm, was accompanied with point moss reflectance measurements recorded with the ASD HandHeld-2 spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc., the USA). The first spectral analysis indicates significant differences in red-edge and near-infrared reflectance of differently watered moss patches. Contrary to high plants, where the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) represents an estimate of green biomass, NDVI of mosses indicates mainly the actual water content. Similarly to high plants, reflectance of visible wavelengths is

  3. Metal and proton adsorption capacities of natural and cloned Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Aridane G; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Beike, Anna K; Reski, Ralf; Di Palma, Anna; Adamo, Paola; Giordano, Simonetta; Fernandez, J Angel

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial mosses are commonly used as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution. However, there is a lack of standardization of the biomonitoring preparation technique and the efficiency of metal adsorption by various moss species is poorly known. This is especially true for in vitro-cultivated moss clones, which are promising candidates for a standardized moss-bag technique. We studied the adsorption of copper and zinc on naturally grown Sphagnum peat moss in comparison with in vitro-cultivated Sphagnum palustre samples in order to provide their physico-chemical characterization and to test the possibility of using cloned peat mosses as bioindicators within the protocol of moss-bag technique. We demonstrate that in vitro-grown clones of S. palustre exhibit acid-base properties similar to those of naturally grown Sphagnum samples, whereas the zinc adsorption capacity of the clones is approx. twice higher than that of the samples from the field. At the same time, the field samples adsorbed 30-50% higher amount of Cu(2+) compared to that of the clones. This contrast may be related to fine differences in the bulk chemical composition, specific surface area, morphological features, type and abundance of binding sites at the cell surfaces and in the aqueous solution of natural and cloned Sphagnum. The clones exhibited much lower concentration of most metal pollutants in their tissues relative to the natural samples thus making the former better indicators of low metal loading. Overall, in vitro-produced clones of S. palustre can be considered as an adequate, environmentally benign substitution for protected natural Sphagnum sp. samples to be used in moss-bags for atmospheric monitoring. PMID:26407060

  4. Distribution of trace metals in moss biomonitors and assessment of contamination sources in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Figueira, R; Sérgio, C; Sousa, A J

    2002-01-01

    A biomonitoring survey using the moss species [Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and Scelopodium touretii (Brid.) L. Kock] was performed in the whole territory of Portugal, in order to evaluate the atmospheric deposition of the following elements: Cd. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The concentrations of the same elements were also obtained in two types of soil samples, collected under the moss and in nearby plots without any plant coverage, and relationships between moss and soil concentrations was investigated using the multivariate statistical method of Co-inertia Analysis. Also, relationships between concentrations in moss and several anthropogenic, geologic, pedologic and environmental parameters were screened using the same method of Co-inertia Analysis. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were found in areas of higher population density, with higher gasoline consumption, while higher values of Fe and Cr occur in the driest region, with lower plant coverage, indicating strong contamination by resuspended soil particles. Results also show good agreement between moss and soil contents, even for elements with high contribution of anthropogenic sources. The spatial pattern in Portugal of element contents in mosses were also detected and discussed in relation to local contamination sources. PMID:11996378

  5. Spatial variation, mapping, and classification of moss families in semi-arid landscapes in NW Turkey.

    PubMed

    Abay, Gökhan; Gül, Ebru; Günlü, Alkan; Erşahin, Sabit; Ursavaş, Serhat

    2015-03-01

    Geostatistics and remote sensing techniques are frequently used in analyzing the spatial variability of terrestrial ecosystems. We analyzed spatial variation of moss families by geostatistics and Landsat imagery in a typical semi-arid landscape in North Central Anatolia, Turkey. We sampled 49 sites, chosen based on elevation, slope steepness, and slope aspect. Moss families were determined in a 10-m(2) representative area at each sampling site. The samples were transported to a laboratory and identified for moss families. In total, 10 families were found. Semivariogram analysis was performed to analyze the spatial structure of these families. The semivariogram analysis showed that the moss families were spatially dependent within 117 m in the study area. Thirteen thematic classes were categorized by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image in the study area. The classification resulted in an overall kappa statistic of 0.8535, producer accuracy of 74.29, and user accuracy of 86.67. The family with the lowest classification accuracy was Orthotrichaceae (kappa of 0.6379, producer accuracy of 64.52, and user accuracy of 66.67). The moss families and the other classes were identified with a 0.78 kappa statistic value and an 80.74 % accuracy level by using the Landsat TM. The classification showed that Brachytheciaceae, Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, and Grimmiaceae were the most abundant moss families in this semi-arid environment. PMID:25647788

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris (Hook. & Taylor) A.J.E. Sm. (Pottiaceae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Medina, Rafael; Cano, María Jesús; Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of mosses is characterized by a highly conserved structure and genic content. This is confirmed here through the assembly and annotation of the mt genome of the moss Oxystegus tenuirostris, family Pottiaceae, for which it is assembled. A phylogenetic tree is inferred from the whole genome of 16 species of mosses to validate the sequence of O. tenuirostris by confirming its shared ancestry with Syntrichia. The genome is 105 001 bp long, with a GC content of 39.2%, comprising 40 protein coding, 24 tRNA, and 3 rRNA genes. All introns reported from the mt genome of all but one peristomate moss are present, whereas no region of 50 bp or more is repeated within the genome. The genic content and order is identical to that of most mosses, highlighting that the mt genome is static not only across the phylogenetic depth but also breadth of the moss tree of life. PMID:26370465

  7. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  8. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  9. Ecophysiological analysis of moss-dominated biological soil crusts and their separate components from the Succulent Karoo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bettina; Graf, Tobias; Bass, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    Biological soil crusts, formed by an association of soil particles with cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and bacteria in varying proportions, live in or directly on top of the uppermost soil layer. To evaluate their role in the global carbon cycle, gas exchange measurements were conducted under controlled conditions. Moss-dominated soil crusts were first analyzed as moss tufts on soil, then the mosses were removed and the soil was analyzed separately to obtain the physiological response of both soil and individual moss stems. Net photosynthetic response of moss stems and complete crusts was decreased by insufficient and excess amounts of water, resulting in optimum curves with similar ranges of optimum water content. Light saturation of both sample types occurred at high irradiance, but moss stems reached light compensation and saturation points at lower values. Optimum temperatures of moss stems ranged between 22 and 27°C, whereas complete crusts reached similar net photosynthesis between 7 and 27°C. Under optimum conditions, moss stems reached higher net photosynthesis (4.0 vs. 2.8 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) and lower dark respiration rates (-0.9 vs. -2.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Respiration rates of soil without moss stems were high (up to -2.0 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) causing by far lower absolute values of NP/DR ratios of soil crusts as compared to moss stems. In carbon balances, it therefore has to be clearly distinguished between measurements of soil crust components versus complete crusts. High rates of soil respiration may be caused by leaching of mosses, creating high-nutrient microsites that favor microorganism growth. PMID:22278609

  10. Moss-associated methylobacteria as phytosymbionts: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschuh, M.; Grotha, R.; Kutschera, U.

    2006-10-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria inhabit the surface of plant organs, but the interaction between these microbes and their host cells is largely unknown. Protonemata (gametophytes) of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were cultivated in vitro under axenic conditions and the growth of the protonemal filaments recorded. In the presence of methylobacteria (different strains of Methylobacterium), average cell length and the number of cells per filament were both enhanced. We tested the hypothesis that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), secreted by the epiphytic bacteria and taken up by the plant cells, may in part be responsible for this promotion of protonema development. The antiauxin parachlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) was used as a tool to analyze the role of IAA and methylobacteria in the regulation of cell growth. In the presence of PCIB, cell elongation and protonema differentiation were both inhibited. This effect was compensated for by the addition of different Methylobacterium strains to the culture medium. Biosynthesis and secretion of IAA by methylobacteria maintained in liquid culture was documented via a colorimetric assay and thin layer chromatography. Our results support the hypothesis that the development of Funaria protonemata is promoted by beneficial phytohormone-producing methylobacteria, which can be classified as phytosymbionts.

  11. Lichens and Mosses Used as Biomonitors in Environmental Magnetic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, D.; Petrov, P.; Hoffmann, V.; Jordanova, N.; Tsacheva, T.

    2009-05-01

    Plants are widely used in classical biomonitoring studies, due to the ability of different vegetation species to accumulate dust and toxic elements in their tissues or to bound them to surface structures. The aim of the present investigation is to study magnetic signature of foliose and fruticose lichens and mosses, gathered from several polluted and clean sites in Bulgaria and to evaluate their suitability as enviromagnetic indicators. Plant material was sampled from rocks and tree branches. Various species demonstrate different preferences in grain size distribution of accumulated dust particles. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanence, anhysteretic remanence and hysteresis loops reveal that lichens preferentially accumulate coarser anthropogenic grains as compared to the magnetic fraction in clean localities. This suggests that conclusions related to grain size distribution of industrial emissions should be carefully considered in respect to bioindicator used in each particular study. The main ferromagnetic phase in accumulated dust from various vegetation species is magnetite-like with possible Al-, Si- and Mn-substitutions, related to the specific chemistry of source emissions. This phase has varying grain size distribution, deduced by dP parameter from fitted Gausian functions to IRM-acquisition curves and shows inverse relationship to the remanent coercivity of the soft IRM component. It is probably related to sorting effect with distance and the presence of single/multiple pollution sources.

  12. Hawking-Moss instanton in nonlinear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying-li; Saito, Ryo; Sasaki, Misao E-mail: rsaito@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-02-01

    As a first step toward understanding a lanscape of vacua in a theory of non-linear massive gravity, we consider a landscape of a single scalar field and study tunneling between a pair of adjacent vacua. We study the Hawking-Moss (HM) instanton that sits at a local maximum of the potential, and evaluate the dependence of the tunneling rate on the parameters of the theory. It is found that provided with the same physical HM Hubble parameter H{sub HM}, depending on the values of parameters α{sub 3} and α{sub 4} in the action (2.2), the corresponding tunneling rate can be either enhanced or suppressed when compared to the one in the context of General Relativity (GR). Furthermore, we find the constraint on the ratio of the physical Hubble parameter to the fiducial one, which constrains the form of potential. This result is in sharp contrast to GR where there is no bound on the minimum value of the potential.

  13. Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    Microfilaments were visualized in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon to assess their possible role in tip growth and gravitropism. The relative effectiveness of rhodamine phalloidin (with or without m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS)) and of immunofluorescence (using the C4 antibody) was evaluated for actin localization in the same cell type. Using immunofluorescence, microfilaments were primarily in an axial orientation within the apical cell. However, a more complex network of microfilaments was observed using rhodamine phalloidin after MBS pretreatment, especially when viewed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. This method revealed a rich three dimensional network of fine microfilaments throughout the apical cell, including the extreme apex. Although there were numerous internal microfilaments, peripheral microfilaments were more abundant. No major redistribution of microfilaments was detected after gravistimulation. The combination of MBS, rhodamine phalloidin, and confocal laser scanning microscopy preserves and reveals microfilaments remarkably well and documents perhaps the most extensive F-actin network visualized to date in any tip-growing cell.

  14. Microtubule distribution in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.; Hartmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    Tip cells of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are negatively gravitropic (grow upward). They possess a unique longitudinal zonation: (1) a tip group of amylochloroplasts in the apical dome, (2) a plastid-free zone, (3) a zone of significant plastid sedimentation, and (4) a zone of mostly non-sedimenting plastids. Immunofluorescence of vertical cells showed microtubules distributed throughout the cytoplasm in a mostly axial orientation extending through all zones. Optical sectioning revealed a close spatial association between microtubules and plastids. A majority (two thirds) of protonemata gravistimulated for > 20 min had a higher density of microtubules near the lower flank compared to the upper flank in the plastid-free zone. This apparent enrichment of microtubules occurred just proximal to sedimented plastids and near the part of the tip that presumably elongates more to produce curvature. Fewer than 5% of gravistimulated protonemata had an enrichment in microtubules near the upper flank, whereas 14% of vertical protonemata were enriched near one of the side walls. Oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM) disrupted microtubules, gravitropism, and normal tip growth and zonation, but did not prevent plastid sedimentation. We hypothesize that a microtubule redistribution plays a role in gravitropism in this protonema. This appears to be the first report of an effect of gravity on microtubule distribution in plants.

  15. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J.; Sack, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    Apical cells of protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus are unusual among plant cells with sedimentation in that only some amyloplasts sediment and these do not fall completely to the bottom of vertical cells. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin D (CD) on plastid position were quantified. APM treatments of 30-60 min increased the plastid sedimentation that is normally seen along the length of untreated or control cells. Longer APM treatments often resulted in more dramatic plastid sedimentation, and in some cases almost all plastids sedimented to the lowermost point in the cell. In contrast, the microfilament inhibitor CD did not affect longitudinal plastid sedimentation compared to untreated cells, although it did disturb or eliminate plastid zonation in the tip. These data suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell. This demonstrates the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity.

  16. Effect of substituting live feed with formulated feed on the reproductive performance and fry survival of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens (Regan, 1910).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sagar C; Kohli, Mahinder P S; Das, Pronob; Singh, Soibam K; Munilkumar, Sukham; Sarma, Kamal; Baruah, Kartik

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the effect of partial or complete replacement of live feed (LF) (Tubifex) with formulated feed (FF) on the reproductive performance of Betta splendens. Three hundred B. splendens fry (average weight 0.19 ± 0.01 g) were equally distributed into five different groups, each with three replicates. They were fed for 105 days with following different diets: control (C)-100% LF; T1-75% LF, 25% FF; T2-50% LF, 50% FF; T3-25% LF, 75% FF, and T4-100% FF. Results showed that the average number of hatched larvae (654 ± 101) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (428 ± 70), after completion of three spawning, were recorded highest in the control group, which was, however, not significantly different from the T1, T2, and T3 groups. At the end of the feeding trial, the highest hatching percentage (90.3%) was registered in the T2 group, which was not significantly different from the control and T1 groups. The T2 group also recorded highest fry survival (65.54%) after completion of three spawning, which was not significantly (P < 0.05) different from the T1 and T3 groups. Control diet contained higher saturated fatty acid (63.23%) than formulated diet (29.80%). In the whole-body tissue, highest level of EPA (0.42%) and DHA (3.13%) were found in the T4 group followed by T3 group. The DHA/EPA ration was recorded highest in the T2 group (10.96%), which did not differ significantly from the T1 and T3 groups. Significant positive correlation was observed between saturated fatty acid levels in fish whole-body tissue and number of hatched larvae (Y = 30.81 × -825.3, R(2) = 0.968) and fry survival after 2 weeks of rearing (Y = 21.38 × -580.9, R(2) = 0.967). Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the live feed Tubifex can be replaced up to 50% without any adverse effect on the reproductive performance and fry survival of B. splendens. PMID:21710171

  17. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  18. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with heavy metals in the vicinity of a ferronickel smelter plant.

    PubMed

    Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the atmospheric deposition of various elements in the Kavadarci region, Republic of Macedonia (known for its ferronickel mining and metallurgical activities) using moss biomonitoring, and to determine whether the deposition is anthropogenic or from geogenic influences. The sampling network includes 31 moss samples evenly distributed over a territory of about 600 km(2). A total of 46 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, Zr) were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS). Based on a distribution pattern of elements determined in moss, two anthropogenic geochemical associations (Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni and As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), were detected. The distribution of these elements shows an increased content (especially Ni, Co and Cr) in the moss samples from the surroundings of the smelter plant compared to the rest of the samples. Thus, the median value of Ni in moss samples from the whole region (40 mg kg(-1)) is much higher than the median for Macedonia (5.82 mg kg(-1)). Moreover, the median content of Ni in the moss samples from the polluted area (around the smelter) is 178 mg kg(-1) with an enrichment ratio in the moss samples of almost 5.5 times higher than the unpolluted areas (32 mg kg(-1)). This fact confirms the influence of the dust from the ferronickel plant to the air pollution in this region. PMID:22375548

  19. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  20. Stable sulphur and nitrogen isotopes of the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Elemental (S and N) and isotopic ( δ34S and δ15N) contents in the moss Haplocladium microphyllum at urban, rural and forested sites in acid rain area of South China have been analyzed for comparisons to show whether they are different and can be effectively used to identify S and N sources of atmospheric deposition. Average moss S content at rural sites (0.29 ± 0.06%) was found to be in between those at urban (0.35 ± 0.05%) and forested (0.25 ± 0.04%) sites, which are significantly different. Average N contents of urban (2.60 ± 0.56%) and rural mosses (2.84 ± 0.77%) are not significantly different, while both are significantly different to that of forested mosses at most areas, indicating that the atmosphere over rural sites has been polluted by N as seriously as that over urban sites. Nitrogen supply, relative to S supply, was in excess of the requirement for protein synthesis, especially at rural and forested sites. Moss stable isotope signatures have been proven to be effective tools for deciphering atmospheric S and N sources at these sites. Through moss δ34S signatures, we found that atmospheric S at urban and forested sites was mainly from local coal combustion and domestic biomass burning, respectively, whereas northerly air masses contributed more S to forested sites. The relatively negative moss δ15N values (-7.5 ± 3.0, -3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) demonstrated that the main form in the N deposition was NH x in these sites. More negative δ15N signatures in urban mosses (-7.5 ± 3.0‰) indicated the contribution of NH 3 released from untreated city sewage and wastes, while relatively less negative δ15N for rural and forested mosses (3.4 ± 2.1 and -0.8 ± 2.1‰) was largely derived from agricultural NH 3.

  1. Mosses Indicating Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Sources in the Yangtze River Drainage Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Characterizing the level and sources of atmospheric N deposition in a large-scale area is not easy when using physical monitoring. In this study, we attempted to use epilithic mosses (Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.)) as a bioindicator. A gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 13.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 47.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was estimated on the basis of moss tissue N concentrations and the linear equation between them. The estimated results are reliable because the highest atmospheric N deposition occurred in the middle parts of the Yangtze River, where the highest TN concentrations were also observed. Moss δ15N values in cities and forests were found in distinctly different ranges of approximately -10‰ to -6‰ and approximately -2‰ to 2‰, respectively, indicating that the main N sources in most of these cities were excretory wastes and those in forests were soil emissions. A negative correlation between moss δ15N values and the ratios of NH4-N/NO3-N in deposition (y = -1.53 x + 1.78) has been established when the ratio increased from 1.6 to 6.5. On the basis of the source information, the negative moss δ15N values in this study strongly indicate that NHy-N is the dominant N form in N deposition in the whole drainage basin. These findings are supported by the existing data of chemical composition of local N deposition.

  2. Moss and vascular plant indices in Ohio wetlands have similar environmental predictors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Adams, Jean V.; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Mosses and vascular plants have been shown to be reliable indicators of wetland habitat delineation and environmental quality. Knowledge of the best ecological predictors of the quality of wetland moss and vascular plant communities may determine if similar management practices would simultaneously enhance both populations. We used Akaike's Information Criterion to identify models predicting a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) and a vascular plant index of biological integrity based on floristic quality (VIBI-FQ) from 27 emergent and 13 forested wetlands in Ohio, USA. The set of predictors included the six metrics from a wetlands disturbance index (ORAM) and two landscape development intensity indices (LDIs). The best single predictor of MQAI and one of the predictors of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assesses habitat alteration and disturbance within the wetland, such as mowing, grazing, and agricultural practices. However, the best single predictor of VIBI-FQ was an ORAM metric that assessed wetland vascular plant communities, interspersion, and microtopography. LDIs better predicted MQAI than VIBI-FQ, suggesting that mosses may either respond more rapidly to, or recover more slowly from, anthropogenic disturbance in the surrounding landscape than vascular plants. These results supported previous predictive studies on amphibian indices and metrics and a separate vegetation index, indicating that similar wetland management practices may result in qualitatively the same ecological response for three vastly different wetland biological communities (amphibians, vascular plants, and mosses).

  3. Trade-Offs in Resource Allocation Among Moss Species Control Decomposition in Boreal Peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Turetsky, M. R.; Crow, S. E.; Evans, R. J.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    We separated the effects of plant species controls on decomposition rates from environmental controls in northern peatlands using a full factorial, reciprocal transplant experiment of eight dominant bryophytes in four distinct peatland types in boreal Alberta, Canada. Standard fractionation techniques as well as compound-specific pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry were used to identify a biochemical mechanism underlying any interspecific differences in decomposition rates. We found that over a 3-year field incubation, individual moss species and not micro-environmental conditions controlled early stages of decomposition. Across species, Sphagnum mosses exhibited a trade-off in resource partitioning into metabolic and structural carbohydrates, a pattern that served as a strong predictor of litter decomposition. Decomposition rates showed a negative co-variation between species and their microtopographic position, as species that live in hummocks decomposed slowly but hummock microhabitats themselves corresponded to rapid decomposition rates. By forming litter that degrades slowly, hummock mosses appear to promote the maintenance of macropore structure in surface peat hummocks that aid in water retention. Many northern regions are experiencing rapid climate warming that is expected to accelerate the decomposition of large soil carbon pools stored within peatlands. However, our results suggest that some common peatland moss species form tissue that resists decomposition across a range of peatland environments, suggesting that moss resource allocation could stabilize peatland carbon losses under a changing climate.

  4. Historical and current use of spanish moss as a monitor of atmospheric trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, M.L.; Mossler, M.A.; Kosalwat, P.; Newman, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Spanish moss (Tillandsia usnesoides) is an epiphytic member of the pineapple family, Historically, tissue levels in this plant have illustrated the elevated concentration of lead near well traveled roads, as well as nickel and tin in the vicinity of battery fabrication or smelting facilities, respectively. From a survey of Spanish moss plants growing throughout the Southeast, mercury at or slightly above the limit of detection was present in eight of 128 samples. Five of these samples were collected in Florida. As part of a biomonitoring project, Spanish moss was collected from 1991 to 1993 around a waste-to-energy facility in Lake County, Florida, After three years, the percentage of Spanish moss samples which contained detectable levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased over time. Lead was detected in all samples collected throughout the monitoring period, but the mean concentration decreased from 3.7 mg/kg on a dry weight basis (1991) to 1.4 mg/kg (1993). This trend in lead levels may indicate clearance that is occurring due to the discontinuation of leaded gasoline. The percentage of moss samples containing mercury above the limit of detection increased from 67% (1991) to 97% (1993); however, mean concentrations do not support a trend in increasing concentration of this element (0.30 mg/kg on a fresh weight basis in 1991 vs. 0.19 mg/kg in 1993). Apparently, atmospheric metal concentrations are not increasing in the vicinity of the facility at this time.

  5. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystem multifunctionality in drylands.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Maestre, Fernando T; Eldridge, David J; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Berdugo, Miguel; Val, James; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-03-01

    The increase in aridity predicted with climate change will have a negative impact on the multiple functions and services (multifunctionality) provided by dryland ecosystems worldwide. In these ecosystems, soil communities dominated by mosses, lichens and cyanobacteria (biocrusts) play a key role in supporting multifunctionality. However, whether biocrusts can buffer the negative impacts of aridity on important biogeochemical processes controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes remains largely unknown. Here, we conducted an empirical study, using samples from three continents (North America, Europe and Australia), to evaluate how the increase in aridity predicted by climate change will alter the capacity of biocrust-forming mosses to modulate multiple ecosystem processes related to C, N and P cycles. Compared with soil surfaces lacking biocrusts, biocrust-forming mosses enhanced multiple functions related to C, N and P cycling and storage in semiarid and arid, but not in humid and dry-subhumid, environments. Most importantly, we found that the relative positive effects of biocrust-forming mosses on multifunctionality compared with bare soil increased with increasing aridity. These results were mediated by plant cover and the positive effects exerted by biocrust-forming mosses on the abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Our findings provide strong evidence that the maintenance of biocrusts is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change on multifunctionality in global drylands. PMID:26452175

  6. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to <2% after only one growing season, whereas increased temperature had no effect. Laboratory measurements identified a physiological mechanism behind the mortality: small precipitation events caused a negative moss carbon balance, whereas larger events maintained net carbon uptake. Multiple metrics of nitrogen cycling were notably different with moss mortality and had significant implications for soil fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  7. Biosynthesis, characterization, and acute toxicity of Berberis tinctoria-fabricated silver nanoparticles against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the mosquito predators Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Aedes albopictus is an important arbovirus vector, including dengue. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap leaf extract of Berberis tinctoria as reducing and stabilizing agent and tested against Ae. albopictus and two mosquito natural enemies. AgNPs were characterized by using UV–vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In laboratory conditions, the toxicity of AgNPs was evaluated on larvae and pupae of Ae. albopictus. Suitability Index/Predator Safety Factor was assessed on Toxorhynchites splendens and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides. The leaf extract of B. tinctoria was toxic against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae of Ae. albopictus; LC50 was 182.72 ppm (I instar), 230.99 ppm (II), 269.65 ppm (III), 321.75 ppm (IV), and 359.71 ppm (pupa). B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs were highly effective, with LC50 of 4.97 ppm (I instar), 5.97 ppm (II), 7.60 ppm (III), 9.65 ppm (IV), and 14.87 ppm (pupa). Both the leaf extract and AgNPs showed reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens. Overall, this study firstly shed light on effectiveness of B. tinctoria-synthesized AgNPs as an eco-friendly nanopesticide, highlighting the concrete possibility to employ this newer and safer tool in arbovirus vector control programs. PMID:26499804

  8. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Is the sword moss (Bryoxiphium) a preglacial Tertiary relict?

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Goffinet, Bernard; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The disjunction of floras between East Asia, Southeast North America, West North America, and Southwest Eurasia has been interpreted in terms of the fragmentation of a once continuous mixed mesophytic forest that occurred throughout the Northern Hemisphere due to the climatic and geological changes during the late Tertiary. The sword moss, Bryoxiphium, exhibits a distribution that strikingly resembles that of the mesophytic forest elements such as Liriodendron and is considered as the only living member of an early Tertiary flora in Iceland. These hypotheses are tested here using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area estimations. The results suggest that the extant range of Bryoxiphium results from the fragmentation of a formerly wider range encompassing North America and Southeast Asia about 10 million years ago. The split of continental ancestral populations is too recent to match with a continental drift scenario but is spatially and temporally remarkably congruent with that observed in Tertiary angiosperm relict species. The timing of the colonization of Iceland from Macaronesian ancestors, about two million years ago, is, however, incompatible with the hypothesis that Bryoxiphium is the only living member of an early Tertiary flora of the island. Alaska was recurrently colonized from East Asia. The ability of Bryoxiphium to overcome large oceanic barriers is further evidenced by its occurrence on remote oceanic archipelagos. In particular, Madeira was colonized twice independently from American and East Asian ancestors, respectively. The striking range disjunction of Bryoxiphium is interpreted in terms of its mating system, as the taxon exhibits a very singular pattern of spatial segregation of the sexes. PMID:26708122

  10. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guiling; Pemberton, Robert; Li, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Tillandsia species have been recognized as efficient biomonitors of air pollution, but rarely exploited in bioindicating of strontium, an important nuclide. We exposed Tillandsia usneoides, colloquially known as Spanish moss due to its filamentous morphology but is an atypical angiosperm in the family Bromeliaceae, to the solutions with different Sr concentrations (0.1-100 mmol/L). The results showed that plants were able to endure Sr stress for a relatively long period, which suggests that T. usneoides is able to resist this toxic element. T. usneoides had the highest uptake ratio of Sr (82.21 ± 0.12%) when the plants were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L Sr solutions. Sr contents in T. usneoides increased significantly with the increase in applied metal solution concentrations. Low Sr stimulated the formation of chlorophyll, but high Sr decreased the contents of chlorophyll, and no significant effect on the total biomass was found in T. usneoides. In contrast, the permeability of plasma membrane based on the relative electronic conductivity in T. usneoides increased significantly under Sr stress, indicating that Sr probably caused oxidative stress. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the leaf relative conductivity was significantly positively correlated with Sr contents in the plants after Sr treatments. Therefore, T. usneoides has considerable potential for monitoring Sr polluted environments through measuring Sr contents in the plant directly or exploiting the leaf relative conductivity as an indirect biomarker. PMID:26630037

  11. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    PubMed

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  12. Distributions and impact factors of antimony in topsoils and moss in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Sun, Liguang; He, Xin; You, Kehua; Zhou, Xin; Long, Nanye

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of antimony (Sb) in topsoil and moss (Dicranum angustum) in disturbed and undisturbed areas, as well as coal and gangue, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic was examined. Results show that the weathering of coal bed could not contribute to the increase of Sb concentrations in topsoil and moss in the study area. The distribution of Sb is partially associated with traffic and historical mining activities. The occurrence of the maximum Sb concentration is due to the contribution of human activities. In addition, the decrease of Sb content in topsoil near the coastline may be caused by the washing of seawater. Compared with topsoils, moss could be a useful tool for monitoring Sb in both highly and lightly polluted areas. PMID:22885219

  13. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  14. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  15. Upgrading of biomass materials as energy sources: Liquefaction of mosses from Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Oezdemir, T.; Sahin, B.; Guellue, D.; Akdeniz, F.; Caglar, A.

    2000-06-01

    Air-dried and ground moss samples were subjected to supercritical and catalytic fluid extractions by using water, acetone, glycerol, or benzene as solvent at different temperatures in noncatalytic runs. Ground moss samples were suspended in water containing sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate catalysts at 575 K in a 0.1-liter autoclave. Yields of 71.7--79.8% were obtained by catalytic liquefaction of the samples. The proximate analysis data and the higher heating values (HHV) of the samples were determined. The HHV as MJ/kg of the moss samples as a function of fixed carbon (FC) were calculated from the following equation: HHV = 0.322(FC%) + 10.742. The correlation coefficient was 0.999. The calorific values calculated from the above equation showed a mean difference of {minus}0.78%.

  16. Representativity of mosses as biomonitor organisms for the accumulation of environmental chemicals in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.

    1986-06-01

    The suitability of mosses for air pollution monitoring of benzohexachloride isomers and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is shown by residue data of different samples from Europe. The interpretation of the results makes it obvious that next to regional pattern analysis, hypotheses for atmospheric transport and deposition processes of different environmental chemicals can also be formed. An evaluation of these kinds of bioindicator methods is presented by a quantitative comparison of air pollution data and accumulated residues in plants. The results indicate a high retention efficiency of mosses for pollutants dominantly adsorbed to particulate matter in the air, like polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The comparison of residue data of trace pollutants in mosses and other plants underlines the indicator functions of lower plants for air monitoring patterns with the exception of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are more effective enriched by coniferous plants which contain ingredients able to absorb and transport these groups of environmental pollutants in the organism.

  17. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower. PMID:25259407

  18. Moss inhabiting flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) with description of a new genus from Cangshan, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversity of moss cushion inhabiting and moss feeding flea beetles is documented and discussed. A new genus (Cangshanaltica) with a single new species (C. nigra) from Yunnan Province in China is described and illustrated. It is similar to Benedictus Scherer, Ivalia Jacoby, Minota Weise, Paraminota S...

  19. Using NLDAS-2 for initializing integrated watershed models: Model spin-up for the AirMOSS Campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) investigation has been developed for high-resolution in time and space root-zone soil moisture and carbon estimation. AirMOSS will build an ultra-high frequency (UHF) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has the capability to penetr...

  20. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  1. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  2. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  3. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  4. 33 CFR 207.169 - Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration, and navigation. 207.169 Section 207.169 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.169 Oklawaha River, navigation lock and dam at Moss Bluff, Fla.; use, administration,...

  5. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers. PMID:26520264

  6. [Seasonal dynamics of soil net nitrogen mineralization under moss crust in Shapotou region, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-ping; Pan, Yan-xia; Zhang, Ya-feng; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) pool and net N transformation rate in moss-covered soil and in the bare soil were comparatively observed by incubating intact soil columns with parafilm capping in the field in a natural vegetation area of Shapotou, southeastern fringe of the Tengger Desert. We found pronounced seasonal variations in soil available N content and net N transformation rate in both moss-covered soil and bare soil, with significant differences among different months. In non-growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate were significantly higher in March and October than in other months. Furthermore, immobilization was the dominant form of N mineralization, and no significant difference in net soil N mineralization rate was found between the two sampling soils. In growing season, soil available N content and net N transformation rate markedly increased and reached their peak values during June to August (17.18 mg x kg(-1) and 0.11 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively). Both soil net nitrification and N mineralization rates in moss-covered soil were significantly higher than in bare soil. Soil ammonium and nitrate N content in April and May were higher in moss-covered soil (2.66 and 3.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively) than in bare soil (1.02 and 2.37 mg x kg(-1), respectively); while the tendency was the converse in June and September, with 7.01 mg x kg(-1) for soil ammonium content and 7.40 mg x kg(-1) for nitrate N content in bare soil, and they were 6.39 and 6.36 mg x kg(-1) in moss-covered soil, respectively. Therefore, the existence and succession of moss crusts could be considered as one of the important biological factors affecting soil N cycling through regulating soil available N content and promoting soil N mineralization process. PMID:26259453

  7. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  8. Key Factors Influencing Rapid Development of Potentially Dune-Stabilizing Moss-Dominated Crusts

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Chongfeng; Zhang, Kankan; Zhang, Chunyun; Wu, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a widespread photosynthetic ground cover in arid and semiarid areas. They have many positive ecological functions, such as increasing soil stability, and reducing water and wind erosion. Using artificial technology to achieve the rapid development of BSCs is expected to become a low-cost and highly beneficial ecological restoration measure. In the present study, typical moss-dominated crusts in a region characterized by mobile dunes (Mu Us Sandland, China) were collected, and a 40-day cultivation experiment was performed to investigate key factors, including watering frequency, light intensity and a nutrient addition, which affect the rapid development of moss crusts and their optimal combination. The results demonstrated that watering frequency and illumination had a significant positive effect (P=0.049, three-factor ANOVA) and a highly significant, complicated effect (P=0.000, three-factor ANOVA), respectively, on the plant density of bryophytes, and a highly significant positive effect on the chlorophyll a and exopolysaccharide contents (P=0.000, P=0.000; P=0.000, P=0.000; one-way ANOVA). Knop nutrient solution did not have a significant positive but rather negative effect on the promotion of moss-dominated crust development (P=0.270, three-factor ANOVA). Moss-dominated crusts treated with the combination of moderate-intensity light (6,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) - Knop had the highest moss plant densities, while the treatment with high-intensity light (12,000 lx) + high watering frequency (1 watering/2 days) + Knop nutrient solution had higher chlorophyll a contents than that under other treatments. It is entirely feasible to achieve the rapid development of moss crusts under laboratory conditions by regulating key factors and creating the right environment. Future applications may seek to use cultured bryophytes to control erosion in vulnerable areas with urgent needs. PMID:26230324

  9. Invited review: climate change impacts in polar regions: lessons from Antarctic moss bank archives.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-03-01

    Mosses are the dominant plants in polar and boreal regions, areas which are experiencing rapid impacts of regional warming. Long-term monitoring programmes provide some records of the rate of recent climate change, but moss peat banks contain an unrivalled temporal record of past climate change on terrestrial plant Antarctic systems. We summarise the current understanding of climatic proxies and determinants of moss growth for contrasting continental and maritime Antarctic regions, as informed by 13C and 18O signals in organic material. Rates of moss accumulation are more than three times higher in the maritime Antarctic than continental Antarctica with growing season length being a critical determinant of growth rate, and high carbon isotope discrimination values reflecting optimal hydration conditions. Correlation plots of 13C and 18O values show that species (Chorisodontium aciphyllum / Polytrichum strictum) and growth form (hummock / bank) are the major determinants of measured isotope ratios. The interplay between moss growth form, photosynthetic physiology, water status and isotope composition are compared with developments of secondary proxies, such as chlorophyll fluorescence. These approaches provide a framework to consider the potential impact of climate change on terrestrial Antarctic habitats as well as having implications for future studies of temperate, boreal and Arctic peatlands. There are many urgent ecological and environmental problems in the Arctic related to mosses in a changing climate, but the geographical ranges of species and life-forms are difficult to track individually. Our goal was to translate what we have learned from the more simple systems in Antarctica, for application to Arctic habitats. PMID:25336089

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in soil, moss and tree-bark from North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Tarcau, Doina; Cucu-Man, Simona; Boruvkova, Jana; Klanova, Jana; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been determined in soil, mosses and tree bark samples collected from the same locations in North-Eastern Romania (region of Moldavia). PCBs and PBDEs were under the limit of quantification in all investigated samples. OCPs were the principal pollutants found in the analysed samples. In soil, moss and tree bark samples, DDT together with its metabolites, was the most abundant OCP ranging between 4.4-79, 5.8-95 and 11-440 ng g(-1) in the individual matrices, followed by HCH isomers with levels between 1.1-9.8, 8.9-130 and 12-130 ng g(-1) in soil, moss and bark respectively. To distinguish between the previous and current pollutant input and preferential biodegradation of DDT metabolites, the degradation ratios were calculated between the parent substances and their metabolites (DDT and HCH isomers). The investigation indicates no important pollution sources near sampling sites and reveals that OCPs originate mainly from long-range air transport processes and through atmospheric deposition of isomers volatilised from secondary sources. Discriminant function analysis was performed to determine whether OCPs uptake differ among the three matrices (soil, moss and tree bark). A good separation was observed between tree bark and the other two matrices. The most redundant variable appears to be p,p'-DDE (R(2)=0.336), while the most informative variable seems to be o,p'-DDT (R(2)=0.0361). Significant correlations were found between bark and moss concentrations for most α-HCH and p,p'-DDD (p<0.01). We have also investigated the enantiomeric signature of α-HCH. For bark and moss, EF values suggest preferential degradation of the (-)α-HCH enantiomer. PMID:23624005

  11. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  12. A new species of Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al., a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from Thailand (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Damaška, Albert; Konstantinov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Moss cushions represent an interesting, but poorly understood habitat, which hosts many species of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). However, the diversity of moss-inhabiting flea beetles is not well studied, and collecting in tropical and subtropical locations that were not sampled in the past led to the discovery of many new species (Konstantinov et al. 2013). Here, a new species of a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from the genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. 2013 is described and illustrated. This genus is one of the recently described moss-inhabiting flea beetle genera and before this study, only one species was known (Konstantinov et al., 2013). This publication raises the number of flea beetle species that are known to occur in moss cushions around the world to 30, distributed among 15 genera. PMID:27394809

  13. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals. PMID:27003805

  14. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  15. Live Cell Microscopy-Based RNAi Screening in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Miki, Tomohiro; Nakaoka, Yuki; Goshima, Gohta

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technique enabling the identification of the genes involved in a certain cellular process. Here, we discuss protocols for microscopy-based RNAi screening in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens, an emerging model system for plant cell biology. Our method is characterized by the use of conditional (inducible) RNAi vectors, transgenic moss lines in which the RNAi vector is integrated, and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. This method allows for effective and efficient screening of >100 genes involved in various cellular processes such as mitotic cell division, organelle distribution, or cell growth. PMID:27581297

  16. Precipitation-driven carbon balance controls survivorship of desert biocrust mosses.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation patterns including the magnitude, timing, and seasonality of rainfall are predicted to undergo substantial alterations in arid regions in the future, and desert organisms may be more responsive to such changes than to shifts in only mean annual rainfall. Soil biocrust communities (consisting of cyanobacteria, lichen, and mosses) are ubiquitous to desert ecosystems, play an array of ecological roles, and display a strong sensitivity to environmental changes. Crust mosses are particularly responsive to changes in precipitation and exhibit rapid declines in biomass and mortality following the addition of small rainfall events. Further, loss of the moss component in biocrusts leads to declines in crust structure and function. In this study, we sought to understand the physiological responses of the widespread and often dominant biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis to alterations in rainfall. Moss samples were collected during all four seasons and exposed to two rainfall event sizes and three desiccation period (DP) lengths. A carbon balance approach based on single precipitation events was used to define the carbon gain or loss during a particular hydration period. Rainfall event size was the strongest predictor of carbon balance, and the largest carbon gains were associated with the largest precipitation events. In contrast, small precipitation events resulted in carbon deficits for S. caninervis. Increasing the length of the DP prior to an event resulted in reductions in carbon balance, probably because of the increased energetic cost of hydration following more intense bouts of desiccation. The season of collection (i.e., physiological status of the moss) modulated these responses, and the effects of DP and rainfall on carbon balance were different in magnitude (and often in sign) for different seasons. In particular, S. caninervis displayed higher carbon balances in the winter than in the summer, even for events of identical size. Overall, our results

  17. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  18. Dynamics and Plasma Diagnostics of Transition Region ``Moss'' using SOHO/CDS, TRACE and SVST (La Palma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pontieu, B.; Berger, T. E.; Fletcher, L.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.

    1999-05-01

    Recent observations of solar active regions with the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE) have revealed finely textured, low-lying extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission, called the ``moss'', appearing as a bright dynamic pattern with dark inclusions. The moss has been interpreted as the upper transition region by Berger et al., (1999). In this poster we study the physical conditions in the moss plasma, as well as its dynamics and connections to photosphere and chromosphere. Using simultaneous SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and TRACE observations of Active Region (AR) 8227 on 30-May-1998 we determine the physical parameters of the moss material. We find T_e = 0.6-1.5 10(6) K and n_e = 2-5 10(9) cm(-3) at a temperature of 1.3 10(6) K. The pressure in the moss plasma is higher than that in coronal loops observed in the TRACE Fe IX/X 171 Angstroms passband, and moss emission is associated with high temperature loops, observed by SXT and by CDS in lines of T_max > 2.5 10(6) K. The volume filling factor of the moss plasma is of the order 0.1 and the path along which the emission originates is of the order 1,000 km long. We examine the dynamics of the moss plasma, by making comparisons of TRACE 171 Angstroms movies with SVST (La Palma) Ca II K-line, Hα , and G-band movies. Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) flowmapping techniques are used to establish the photospheric flowfield in plage regions with and without associated moss. The relation of moss emission to chromospheric spicules or fibrils is examined in detail using Hα movies and dopplergrams. In addition, several miniflare events occuring in plage regions are analyzed using TRACE and SVST movies. This research was supported by NASA contract NAS5-38099 (TRACE) and NASA SR&T grant NASW-98008.

  19. Evaluation of the use of moss transplants (Pseudoscleropodium purum) for biomonitoring different forms of air pollutant nitrogen compounds.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; García-Seoane, R; Arróniz-Crespo, M; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2016-06-01

    We investigated whether three different types of moss transplants (devitalized moss bags with and without cover and auto-irrigated moss transplants) are suitable for use as biomonitors of the deposition of oxidised and/or reduced forms of N. For this purpose, we determined whether the concentration of atmospheric NO2 was related to the % N, δ(15)N and the activity of the enzyme biomarkers phosphomonoesterase (PME) and nitrate reductase (NR) in the tissues of moss transplants. We exposed the transplants in 5 different environments of Galicia (NW Spain) and Cataluña (NE Spain): industrial environments, urban and periurban environments, the surroundings of a cattle farm and in a monitoring site included in the sampling network of the European Monitoring Programme. The results showed that the moss in the auto-irrigated transplants was able of incorporating the N in its tissues because it was metabolically active, whereas in devitalized moss bags transplants, moss simply intercepts physically the N compounds that reached it in particulate or gaseous form. In addition, this devitalization could limit the capacity of moss to capture gaseous compounds (i.e. reduced N) and to reduce the oxidised compounds that reach the specimens. These findings indicate that devitalized moss transplants cannot be used to monitor either oxidised or reduced N compounds, whereas transplants of metabolically active moss can be used for this purpose. Finally, the NR and PME biomarkers should be used with caution because of the high variability in their activities and the limits of quantification should be evaluated in each case. PMID:27038571

  20. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    PubMed

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  1. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  2. Gravitropic moss cells default to spiral growth on the clinostat and in microgravity during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Volker D.; Schwuchow, Jochen M.; Reed, David W.; Nadeau, Jeanette A.; Lucas, Jessica; Skripnikov, Alexander; Sack, Fred D.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to shoots and roots, the gravity (g)-vector orients the growth of specialized cells such as the apical cell of dark-grown moss protonemata. Each apical cell of the moss Ceratodon purpureus senses the g-vector and adjusts polar growth accordingly producing entire cultures of upright protonemata (negative gravitropism). The effect of withdrawing a constant gravity stimulus on moss growth was studied on two NASA Space Shuttle (STS) missions as well as during clinostat rotation on earth. Cultures grown in microgravity (spaceflight) on the STS-87 mission exhibited two successive phases of non-random growth and patterning, a radial outgrowth followed by the formation of net clockwise spiral growth. Also, cultures pre-aligned by unilateral light developed clockwise hooks during the subsequent dark period. The second spaceflight experiment flew on STS-107 which disintegrated during its descent on 1 February 2003. However, most of the moss experimental hardware was recovered on the ground, and most cultures, which had been chemically fixed during spaceflight, were retrieved. Almost all intact STS-107 cultures displayed strong spiral growth. Non-random culture growth including clockwise spiral growth was also observed after clinostat rotation. Together these data demonstrate the existence of default non-random growth patterns that develop at a population level in microgravity, a response that must normally be overridden and masked by a constant g-vector on earth.

  3. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-10

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s{sup –1} for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  4. Mosses share mitochondrial group II introns with flowering plants, not with liverworts.

    PubMed

    Pruchner, D; Nassal, B; Schindler, M; Knoop, V

    2001-12-01

    Extant bryophytes are regarded as the closest living relatives of the first land plants, but relationships among the bryophyte classes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) and between them and other embryophytes have remained unclear. We have recently found that plant mitochondrial genes with positionally stable introns are well suited for addressing questions of plant phylogeny at a deep level. To explore further data sets we have chosen to investigate the mitochondrial genes nad4 and nad7, which are particularly rich in intron sequences. Surprisingly, we find that in these genes mosses share three group II introns with flowering plants, but none with the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha or other liverworts investigated here. In mitochondria of Marchantia, nad7 is a pseudogene containing stop codons, but nad7 appears as a functional mitochondrial gene in mosses, including the isolated genus Takakia. We observe the necessity for strikingly frequent C-to-U RNA editing to reconstitute conserved codons in Takakia when compared to other mosses. The findings underline the great evolutionary distances among the bryophytes as the presumptive oldest division of land plants. A scenario involving differential intron gains from fungal sources in what are perhaps the two earliest diverging land plant lineages, liverworts and other embryophytes, is discussed. With their positionally stable introns, nad4 and nad7 represent novel marker genes that may permit a detailed phylogenetic resolution of early clades of land plants. PMID:11810232

  5. Historical trends in the lead isotopic composition of archival Sphagnum mosses from Scotland (1838-2000).

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Eades, Lorna J; Atkins, Hannah; Chamberlain, David F

    2002-01-15

    The analysis of almost 200 Scottish Sphagnum moss samples collected over the past 170 years has revealed trends in the isotopic composition of lead similar to those previously established for dated Scottish lake sediments and peat bogs, lending credibility to these proxy records of atmospheric lead contamination and deposition. The effect of temporal variations in contributions from sources such as smelting of indigenous lead ores (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.16-1.18), coal combustion (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.17-1.19), and the use of imported Australian lead (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.04) was clearly seen in the Scottish moss 206Pb/207Pb record. This showed some differences from the corresponding archival herbage record for the south of England, where the initial influence of Australian lead occurred earlier, at the end of the 19th century. A significant decline from a 206Pb/ 207Pb value of approximately 1.17 in the Scottish moss record began in the 1920s and continued until the 1980s (206Pb/207Pb approximately 1.12). The success of measures to reduce lead emissions to the atmosphere over the past 20 years in the U.K., in particular from petrol-engined vehicles using alkyl lead additives manufactured primarily from Australian lead, is evident in both the increasing 206Pb/207Pb ratio and falling lead concentration data for Scottish moss. PMID:11827048

  6. Trace element contamination in industrial regions of Poland studied by moss monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Frontasyeva, M; Szarek-Lukaszewska, G; Klich, M; Kucharska-Fabiś, A; Gundorina, S F; Ostrovnaya, T M

    2003-09-01

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale multi-element studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish between different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 33 elements (Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. moss samples from the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region and Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin and from the control (background) area in Northeast Poland were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region, only Cu and As concentrations were higher in mosses in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements emissions in these areas. PMID:12952355

  7. Does Spore Ultrastructure Mirror Different Dispersal Strategies in Mosses? A Study of Seven Iberian Orthotrichum Species

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Nagore G.; Estébanez, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Most mosses have xerochastic dispersal (i.e., they open their capsules when conditions are dry), which is thought to favor long-distance dispersal. However, there are several species that use a hygrochastic strategy: spores are dispersed when conditions are wet. The significance of this strategy in the Mediterranean region is unknown. In this study, we explored whether ultrastructural features related to differences in spore resistance may explain these different strategies of spore dispersal. To this end, we examined the ultrastructural features of the spores of seven closely related species in the moss genus Orthotrichum. These species all grow as epiphytes in sub-Mediterranean forests, and the group includes both xerochastic and hygrochastic members. First, we found that the spore wall layers exhibit several features previously undescribed in mosses. Second, we discovered that there are only subtle differences in spore ultrastructure with regards to spore wall thickness, the degree of plastid development, or the storage substances used. We suggest that the hygrochastic dispersal in mosses from Mediterranean environments might be related to a safe-site strategy, rather than to drought avoidance, and we underscore the necessity of conducting spore ultrastructural studies on a greater number of bryophyte species. PMID:25412450

  8. Putting Physcomitrella Patens on the Tree of Life: The Evolution and Ecology of Mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physcomitrella patens is an important model system for studies of genetics and physiology, and with its newly-sequenced genome, is perfectly placed phylogenetically to serve as a point of comparison for angiosperms. This chapter addresses three main questions. (1) How typical of a moss is P. patens...

  9. Doppler shift of hot coronal lines in a moss area of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashi, N.; Teriaca, L.; Tripathi, D.; Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    The moss is the area at the footpoint of the hot (3 to 5 MK) loops forming the core of the active region where emission is believed to result from the heat flux conducted down to the transition region from the hot loops. Studying the variation of Doppler shift as a function of line formation temperatures over the moss area can give clues on the heating mechanism in the hot loops in the core of the active regions. We investigate the absolute Doppler shift of lines formed at temperatures between 1 MK and 2 MK in a moss area within active region NOAA 11243 using a novel technique that allows determining the absolute Doppler shift of EUV lines by combining observations from the SUMER and EIS spectrometers. The inner (brighter and denser) part of the moss area shows roughly constant blue shift (upward motions) of 5 km s-1 in the temperature range of 1 MK to 1.6 MK. For hotter lines the blue shift decreases and reaches 1 km s-1 for Fe xv 284 Å (~2 MK). The measurements are discussed in relation to models of the heating of hot loops. The results for the hot coronal lines seem to support the quasi-steady heating models for nonsymmetric hot loops in the core of active regions.

  10. Lead isotope systematics in Polytrichum formosum: An example from a biomonitoring field study with mosses

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert, M.; Friese, K.; Weckert, V.; Markert, B.

    1999-10-15

    With the aid of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios were determined in 34 moss samples (Polytrichum formosum) taken from the Hoerner Bruch area near Osnabrueck (FRG) in the years 1987--1996. The goal was to distinguish different sources of atmospheric lead pollution by the investigation of lead isotope ratios. Reproducibility tests were carried out to ensure the reliability of analyzing Pb isotope ratios in moss samples by means of quadrupole ICP-MS. The reproducibility of the isotope ratios for one digested sample and the day-to-day reproducibility were determined. In all the moss samples analyzed, relative standard deviations of < 0.26% for five replicate measurements of one digested sample were achieved for the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratios. On the basis of the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio, it was possible to establish that the sources of man-made atmospheric inputs of lead have changed over the 10-year period investigated. In the moss samples analyzed, the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio was found to have risen significantly from 1.131 in 1987 to 1.154 in 1996. This increase in the {sup 206/207}Pb isotope ratio can be attributed to a reduction of atmospheric inputs of lead from petrol.

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Calamari, D.; Gaggi, C.; Fanelli, R.; Focardi, S.; Morosini, M.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of some chlorinated hydrocarbon residues (HCB, HCH isomers, p,p'DDT and DDE, PCB cogeners) in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula are reported and compared with available data from other parts of the world. The use of these materials as indicators of tropospheric contamination levels in Antarctica is discussed.

  12. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

  13. Moss bags as sentinels for human safety in mercury-polluted groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Buora, Clara; Lorenzonetto, Alberta; Pozzobon, Alessandro; Raris, Marina; Rosa, Maria; Salvadori, Michela

    2014-05-01

    An equation to estimate Hg concentrations of <4 μg/L in groundwaters of a polluted area in NE Italy was set out by using transplants of the aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides as trace element bioaccumulators. The equation is derived from a previous mathematical model which was implemented under laboratory conditions. The work aimed at (1) checking the compliance of the uptake kinetics with the model, (2) improving/adapting the model for groundwater monitoring, (3) comparing the performances of two populations of moss collected from different sites, and (4) assessing the environmental impact of Hg contamination on a small river. The main factors affecting Hg uptake in the field were-as expected-water concentration and time of exposure, even though the uptake kinetics in the field were slightly different from those which were previously observed in the lab, since the redox environmental conditions influence the solubility of cationic Fe, which is a negative competitor of Hg(2+). The equation was improved by including the variable 'dissolved oxygen concentration'. A numerical parameter depending on the moss collection site was also provided, since the differences in uptake efficiency were observed between the two populations tested. Predicted Hg concentrations well fitted the values measured in situ (approximately ±50%), while a notable underestimation was observed when the equation was used to predict Hg concentration in a neighbouring river (-96%), probably due to the organic pollution which hampers metal uptake by mosses. PMID:24554294

  14. Desiccation sensitivity and tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens: assessing limits and damage.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is becoming the model of choice for functional genomic studies at the cellular level. Studies report that P. patens survives moderate osmotic and salt stress, and that desiccation tolerance can be induced by exogenous ABA. Our goal was to quantify the extent of dehydr...

  15. Gravity regulation in tuber-bearing moss Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobachevska, Oksana

    Considerable number of moss species is propagated asexually, and asexual reproduction is the key factor of their life strategy and effective mechanism of rapid population and attaching plants to habitats with great environmental fluctuations (Velde et al., 2001; Frey, Kűrshner, 2010). It has been shown for the first time for gravisensitive species Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson that the development of propagules as organs of vegetative reproduction and accumulation of nutrient substances is gravidependent phenomenon. L. pyriforme differs from other moss species in higher growth and development rate. In darkness the greatest bundle of gravisensitive negatively gravitropic filaments (above 50 filaments) of both caulonemal and chloronemal type arised from 1 protonemal ball of moss. Perhaps, it is caused by high protonema gravisensitivity and morphogenetic effectiveness of gravitation force. It has been shown that propagules of L. pyriforme are formed much faster in darkness and their number is twice higher than on light. After five-day clinorotation of the L. pyriforme turfs the number of propagules is lower in darkness compared to gravistimulated turfs and higher than on the light. Thus, vegetative reproduction of L. pyriforme is the gravidependent process and gravitation force has stimulating influence on the formation of propagula. In L. pyriforme rhizoid tubers from round to oval (93-116 x ({) } ({х) } 120-148 muμm) are formed from 5-6 big cells (70 x ({) } ({х) } 80 muμm). Due to small capsules, L{it pyriforme }does not have a lot of big spores which are spread to insignificant distances, the mass formation of brood organs promotes moss survival and its preservation. The results of investigation prove the participation of rhizoids and rhizoid tubers as imperceptible but important phase of vital cycle of moss species - settlers in realization of vital tolerance strategy to extreme conditions of temporarily available habitats: due to rapid method of

  16. Sensitivity of Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Productivity to Seasonal Anomalies in Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. A process-oriented, daily time step model of a spruce/moss boreal ecosystem simulated 1994 and 1995 productivity for a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site near Thompson, Manitoba. Simulated black spruce net primary productivity (NPP) was 139 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 112 in 1995; feathermoss NPP was 13.0 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 9.7 in 1995; decomposition was 126 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 130 in 1995; net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was an uptake of 26.3 g C m(exp -2)in 1994 and 2.5 in 1995. A very dry period for the first half of the 1995 summer was the major cause of that year's lower productivity. Sensitivity simulations explored the impact of 2-month long warmer, cooler, wetter, and drier spells on ecosystem productivity. Warmer summers decreased spruce NPP, moss NPP, and NEP; cooler summers had the opposite effect. Earlier snowmelt (due to either warmer spring temperatures or reduced winter precipitation) increased moss and spruce NPP; later snowmelt had the opposite effect. The largest effect on decomposition was a 5% reduction due to a drier summer. One-month droughts (April through October) were also imposed on 1975 base year weather. Early summer droughts reduced moss annual NPP by -30-40%; summer droughts reduced spruce annual NPP by 10%; late summer droughts increased moss NPP by about 20% due to reduced respiration; May to September monthly droughts reduced heterotrophic respiration by about 10%. Variability in NEP was up to roughly +/- 35%. Finally, 1975 growing season precipitation was redistributed into frequent, small rainstorms and infrequent, large rainstorms. These changes had no effect on spruce NPP. Frequent rainstorms increased decomposition by a few percent, moss NPP by 50%, and NEP by 20%. Infrequent rainstorms decreased decomposition by 5%, moss NPP by 50% and NEP by 15%. The impact of anomalous weather patterns on productivity of this ecosystem depended on their timing during the year. Multiyear data sets are necessary to

  17. Photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather moss species in undrained, drained and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Laura; Maanavilja, Liisa; Hájek, Tomáš; Juurola, Eija; Chimner, Rodney A; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-01-01

    In restored peatlands, recovery of carbon assimilation by peat-forming plants is a prerequisite for the recovery of ecosystem functioning. Restoration by rewetting may affect moss photosynthesis and respiration directly and/or through species successional turnover. To quantify the importance of the direct effects and the effects mediated by species change in boreal spruce swamp forests, we used a dual approach: (i) we measured successional changes in moss communities at 36 sites (nine undrained, nine drained, 18 rewetted) and (ii) photosynthetic properties of the dominant Sphagnum and feather mosses at nine of these sites (three undrained, three drained, three rewetted). Drainage and rewetting affected moss carbon assimilation mainly through species successional turnover. The species differed along a light-adaptation gradient, which separated shade-adapted feather mosses from Sphagnum mosses and Sphagnum girgensohnii from other Sphagna, and a productivity and moisture gradient, which separated Sphagnum riparium and Sphagnum girgensohnii from the less productive S. angustifolium, S. magellanicum and S. russowii. Undrained and drained sites harbored conservative, low-production species: hummock-Sphagna and feather mosses, respectively. Ditch creation and rewetting produced niches for species with opportunistic strategies and high carbon assimilation. The direct effects also caused higher photosynthetic productivity in ditches and in rewetted sites than in undrained and drained main sites. PMID:24634723

  18. Characterizing the distribution of selected PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Na, Guangshui; Ma, Xindong; Ge, Linke; Lin, Zhongsheng; Yao, Ziwei

    2015-10-01

    Distribution of 12 selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was characterized in soil, moss and reindeer dung samples collected simultaneously at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. The average PBDE concentrations were 42 pg/g (dry weight) in soil, 122 pg/g in moss and 72 pg/g in reindeer dung. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the soil/moss quotients (QSM) and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of PBDEs (r(2)=0.80). Moreover, excellent log/log-linear relationships between QSM and the octanol/air partition coefficients as well as between the moss/dung quotient (QMD) and the octanol/water partition coefficients of PBDEs were also observed, indicating that the physicochemical properties of PBDEs are appropriate parameters for characterizing the distribution of PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund. Capsule abstract: Significant log-linear correlations were observed between physicochemical properties of PBDEs and their soil/moss (moss/dung) quotients. PMID:25965290

  19. Relevance of canopy drip for the accumulation of nitrogen in moss used as biomonitors for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michaela; Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Leblond, Sébastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Mohr, Karsten; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Thöni, Lotti; Beudert, Burkhard; Dieffenbach-Fries, Helga; Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2015-12-15

    High atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) impacts functions and structures of N limited ecosystems. Due to filtering and related canopy drip effects forests are particularly exposed to N deposition. Up to now, this was proved by many studies using technical deposition samplers but there are only some few studies analysing the canopy drip effect on the accumulation of N in moss and related small scale atmospheric deposition patterns. Therefore, we investigated N deposition and related accumulation of N in forests and in (neighbouring) open fields by use of moss sampled across seven European countries. Sampling and chemical analyses were conducted according to the experimental protocol of the European Moss Survey. The ratios between the measured N content in moss sampled inside and outside of forests were computed and used to calculate estimates for non-sampled sites. Potentially influencing environmental factors were integrated in order to detect their relationships to the N content in moss. The overall average N content measured in moss was 20.0mgg(-1) inside and 11.9mgg(-1) outside of forests with highest N values in Germany inside of forests. Explaining more than 70% of the variance, the multivariate analyses confirmed that the sampling site category (site with/without canopy drip) showed the strongest correlation with the N content in moss. Spatial variances due to enhanced dry deposition in vegetation stands should be considered in future monitoring and modelling of atmospheric N deposition. PMID:26318813

  20. Trace element concentrations in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme growing in a presumably unpolluted area.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Martínez-Abaigar, J; Tomás-Las-Heras, R; Núñez-Olivera, E

    2016-09-01

    In this study we determined the concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Ni and Pb in samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected during 5 different sampling surveys (2006-2014) in a presumably unpolluted area in northern Spain (25 sampling sites). We then applied factor analysis (FA) to the data to explore the factors underlying the spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations. The percentage of variance explained by the FA ranged between 34 and 98%, and was usually higher than 70%. The FA yielded 5 factors that explained the variance in the concentrations of Cd, As, Hg and Pb in all sampling surveys and also a single factor that explained the variance in Hg and Pb concentrations in 2006. Although the lack of obvious sources of pollution in the study region (at least for the elements considered) suggests that most elements (except perhaps Ni) probably originated from long-range atmospheric transport, this would not explain the results of the FA. We suggest that rather than being due to the origin of the pollutants (as frequently assumed), the spatio-temporal variability in the concentrations of these elements is probably determined by a series of other factors: the physicochemical characteristics of the pollutants and of the moss binding surfaces, physiological processes (e.g. moss growth), and the characteristics of the sampling sites (e.g. vegetation cover, elevation, slope, aspect). We therefore conclude that the assumption that variations in element concentrations in moss tissues are due to the origin of the pollutants is an oversimplification that leads to erroneous interpretation of the results of biomonitoring studies with terrestrial mosses. PMID:27269992

  1. Air pollution monitoring using emission inventories combined with the moss bag approach.

    PubMed

    Iodice, P; Adamo, P; Capozzi, F; Di Palma, A; Senatore, A; Spagnuolo, V; Giordano, S

    2016-01-15

    Inventory of emission sources and biomonitoring with moss transplants are two different methods to evaluate air pollution. In this study, for the first time, both these approaches were simultaneously applied in five municipalities in Campania (southern Italy), deserving attention for health-oriented interventions as part of a National Interest Priority Site. The pollutants covered by the inventory were CO, NOx, particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). The biomonitoring survey was based on the use of the devitalized moss Hypnum cupressiforme transplanted into bags, following a harmonized protocol. The exposure covered 40 agricultural and urban/residential sites, with half of them located in proximity to roads. The pollutants monitored were Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn, as well as total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) only in five sites. Using the emission inventory approach, high emission loads were detected for all the major air pollutants and the following heavy metals: Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, over the entire study area. Arsenic, Pb, and Zn were the elements most accumulated by moss. Total PAH postexposure contents were higher than the preexposure values (~20-50% of initial value). Moss uptakes did not differ substantially among municipalities or within exposure sites. In the five municipalities, a similar spatial pattern was evidenced for Pb by emission inventory and moss accumulation. Both approaches indicated the same most polluted municipality, suggesting their combined use as a valuable resource to reveal contaminants that are not routinely monitored. PMID:26479914

  2. Biogeomorphic relationships between slope processes and globular Grimmia mosses in Haleakala's Crater (Maui, Hawai’i)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Francisco L.

    2010-04-01

    Globular mosses were found in Haleakala's crater (Maui) at five locations between 2175 and 2725 m; the highest-altitude site, with abundant epilithic mosses growing on alkali-olivine basalt outcrops and a large mossball population, was studied. Mossballs form when moss cushions are dislodged from rocks but continue growing unattached to substrate; detachment agents include rainsplash, desiccation, wind, frost, and disturbance by birds (dark-rumped petrels) that burrow nests under outcrops, or by goats. When loosened, moss polsters are transported down steep (26-34°) slopes by different geomorphic processes, including frost—mainly needle ice—activity, runoff, and wind. Mossballs contained two species, Grimmia trichophylla Grev. and Grimmia torquata Drumm., growing separately or commingled. Weight, size, and various shape indices were determined for 260 specimens. Shape and size were correlated; larger mosses become less spheroidal because heavier specimens are less disturbed by needle ice, remaining immobile for increasingly longer time periods, thus becoming flattened. Distance of downslope transport from source rockwalls was measured for 330 specimens; 83% shifted ≤ 100 cm, but only ˜ 5% had moved > 200-839 cm. Heavier mossballs moved short distances, thus ˜ 88% of all biomass remained within 200 cm from outcrops. Substrate soils were compared with those within globoids; surface site soils were much coarser than mossball grains. Twelve substrate samples had, on average, 21.3% gravel (≥ 2 mm), 6.1% fines (≤ 0.063 mm) and 2.1% organic matter; in contrast, 12 mossballs contained < 0.1% gravel, 47.9% fines, and 34.1% organic matter. G. torquata polsters had slightly finer soil (53.2%) than G. trichophylla (43.5%). This significant fine-grain concentration results as mosses trap aeolian dust among stems and leaves; ˜ 91% of moss grains were ≤ 0.25 mm, but only ˜ 30% of substrate particles measured ≤ 0.25 mm. Such fine texture, along with abundant

  3. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers from Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens, Osphronemidae, Anabantoidei) and their transferability to related species, B. smaragdina and B. imbellis.

    PubMed

    Chailertrit, V; Swatdipong, A; Peyachoknagul, S; Salaenoi, J; Srikulnath, K

    2014-01-01

    Ten novel microsatellite markers were developed and characterized from Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Nine of ten markers were polymorphic, exhibiting an allelic number (NA) from 2 to 6 alleles per locus. The effective number of alleles (NE) ranged from 1.60 to 3.08 (average of 2.30). The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.13 to 0.67 (average of 0.39) and 0.29 to 0.63 (average of 0.50), respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was not significantly detected for any pair of loci, and only two loci (BettaMS23 and BettaMS28) showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Of these, six loci could be amplified in genomic DNA of the closely related species B. imbellis and three loci in B. smaragdina. These microsatellite markers could be used as a tool to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, as well as breeding programs in hatcheries. PMID:25222221

  4. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ∼17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (∼100 ka) and Kisaaka (∼50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ∼7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (∼4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  5. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  6. Bioweathering of a basalt from Etna (Sicily) by the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and mosses, as pioneer plants, firstly colonize rocky surfaces enhancing biogeophysical and biogeochemical degradation of their substrates. Indeed, the contact area between the lithological substrates and the cryptogams is considered a simplified environment for studying the mechanisms of bioweathering, which, in many cases, characterize the initial stages of pedogenesis. In this paper we report the results of a study conducted for the recognition and characterization of the bioweathering processes of a basaltic lava present on the slopes of Mt Etna (western Sicily) at an altitude of 1550 m above sea level, associated with the growth of the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. The Etnean rock, characterised by a porphiric structure, is mainly made by a microcrystalline groundmass in which are immersed abundant phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite and rare olivine crystals. The groundmass shows the same mineral assemblage. With the use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, we determined the chemical composition of the fresh rock, of the materials collected at the rock-moss interface and of the plant tissues. The X-ray diffraction has allowed to have detailed information on the mineralogy of the bioaltered rocky and interface materials. Scanning electron microscope observations and microanalytical investigations carried out on fragments of rock colonized by moss showed a significant disintegration of the rock and the presence of crystals with tabular habit, containing Cu and Fe, aligned tangentially to the surface of Grimmia pulvinata rhizoids. The weathered material covered by the moss cushion has the chemical and physical characteristics of low pedogenized soils. The high value of the C/N ratio has to be referred to the presence of plant residues with high resistance to mineralize. The significant amount of plant available phosphorus, as assessed by Olsen extraction, confirmed the possibility that the bryophytes constitute important reserves of phosphorus

  7. Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some "hotspots" remain in 2010.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Sharps, K; Mills, G; Alber, R; Aleksiayenak, Y; Blum, O; Cucu-Man, S-M; Dam, M; De Temmerman, L; Ene, A; Fernández, J A; Martinez-Abaigar, J; Frontasyeva, M; Godzik, B; Jeran, Z; Lazo, P; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Magnússon, S H; Maňkovská, B; Karlsson, G Pihl; Piispanen, J; Poikolainen, J; Santamaria, J M; Skudnik, M; Spiric, Z; Stafilov, T; Steinnes, E; Stihi, C; Suchara, I; Thöni, L; Todoran, R; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, naturally growing mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. In 2010, the lowest concentrations of metals and nitrogen in mosses were generally found in northern Europe, whereas the highest concentrations were observed in (south-)eastern Europe for metals and the central belt for nitrogen. Averaged across Europe, since 1990, the median concentration in mosses has declined the most for lead (77%), followed by vanadium (55%), cadmium (51%), chromium (43%), zinc (34%), nickel (33%), iron (27%), arsenic (21%, since 1995), mercury (14%, since 1995) and copper (11%). Between 2005 and 2010, the decline ranged from 6% for copper to 36% for lead; for nitrogen the decline was 5%. Despite the Europe-wide decline, no changes or increases have been observed between 2005 and 2010 in some (regions of) countries. PMID:25703579

  8. Content of long-lived radionuclides in the moss cover of the eastern-Ural radioactive trace region

    SciTech Connect

    Nifontova, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the extent of radioactive pollution of moss cover of forest communities of the Kamenskii district of the Sverdlovsk region. This area contains the periphery section of the Eastern-Ural Radioactive Trace, formed as a result of the Kyshtymskii accident. Mosses do not release radionuclides for a long time, making them a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution and making them useful for radioecological monitoring. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Short period wave generation in Moss Landing Harbor caused by offshore landslides induced by the Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner-Taggart, J.M.; Barminski, R.F. Jr. )

    1991-07-01

    Short period waves were observed in the Moss Landing Harbor approximately 2 minutes after the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Offshore submarine landslides in the region of wave generation was noted by scuba divers and recorded by side scanning sonographs, fathometer records and ROV video footage taken in the area after the quake. These waves are believed to have been generated by offshore submarine landslides along the canyon walls of the Monterey Canyon directly offshore of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories.

  10. Assessing the tolerance of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum to high levels of atmospheric heavy metals: a reciprocal transplant study.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M Teresa; Fernández, J Ángel; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R

    2013-09-01

    We measured the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in samples of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum reciprocally transplanted between an unpolluted and two polluted sampling sites. At the beginning of the experiment, the concentrations of all these elements differed significantly between mosses from the unpolluted site and mosses from the polluted sites. In general, the concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses from both polluted sites transplanted to the unpolluted site decreased until they reached the same levels as in autotransplants at this site (after 480-840 days). However, the concentrations of all heavy metals in mosses transplanted from the unpolluted site to both polluted sites increased to higher levels than in the autotransplants (except for Cu, Hg and Pb at one of the sampling sites). These results led us to conclude that mosses that have been continuously exposed to high atmospheric deposition of heavy metals undergo an adaptive response (probably genotypic) to such conditions. We therefore recommend active rather than passive biomonitoring of air quality in industrial environments because atmospheric deposition could be underestimated, and also recommend further investigation into the mechanisms involved in this response. PMID:23756214

  11. Mannose receptor-mediated delivery of moss-made α-galactosidase A efficiently corrects enzyme deficiency in Fabry mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jin-Song; Busch, Andreas; Day, Taniqua S; Meng, Xing-Li; Yu, Chun I; Dabrowska-Schlepp, Paulina; Fode, Benjamin; Niederkrüger, Holger; Forni, Sabrina; Chen, Shuyuan; Schiffmann, Raphael; Frischmuth, Thomas; Schaaf, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an effective treatment for several lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). Intravenously infused enzymes are taken up by tissues through either the mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) or the mannose receptor (MR). It is generally believed that M6PR-mediated endocytosis is a key mechanism for ERT in treating LSDs that affect the non-macrophage cells of visceral organs. However, the therapeutic efficacy of MR-mediated delivery of mannose-terminated enzymes in these diseases has not been fully evaluated. We tested the effectiveness of a non-phosphorylated α-galactosidase A produced from moss (referred to as moss-aGal) in vitro and in a mouse model of Fabry disease. Endocytosis of moss-aGal was MR-dependent. Compared to agalsidase alfa, a phosphorylated form of α-galactosidase A, moss-aGal was more preferentially targeted to the kidney. Cellular localization of moss-aGal and agalsidase alfa in the heart and kidney was essentially identical. A single injection of moss-aGal led to clearance of accumulated substrate in the heart and kidney to an extent comparable to that achieved by agalsidase alfa. This study suggested that mannose-terminated enzymes may be sufficiently effective for some LSDs in which non-macrophage cells are affected, and that M6P residues may not always be a prerequisite for ERT as previously considered. PMID:26310963

  12. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO2: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Kirsten K.; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2012-01-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO2, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO2-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35–40°C), mosses from the elevated CO2 environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO2-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry.

  13. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO₂: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-04-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO₂ Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO₂, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO₂-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO₂ exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35-40°C), mosses from the elevated CO₂ environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO₂-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry. PMID:22385156

  14. The omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: colon contents (meat, cereals, pollen, moss and whipworm) and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, J H; Oeggl, K; Holden, T G; Handley, L L; O'Connell, T C; Preston, T

    2000-01-01

    The contents of the colon of the Tyrolean Iceman who lived ca. 5300 years ago include muscle fibres, cereal remains, a diversity of pollen, and most notably that of the hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) retaining cellular contents, as well as a moss leaf (Neckera complanata) and eggs of the parasitic whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). Based almost solely on stable isotope analyses and ignoring the work on the colon contents, two recently published papers on the Iceman's diet draw ill-founded conclusions about vegetarianism and even veganism. Neither the pollen nor the moss is likely to have been deliberately consumed as food by the Iceman. All the available evidence concerning the Iceman's broad-based diet is reviewed and the significance of the colon contents for matters other than assessment of food intake is outlined. PMID:11205345

  15. Between a rock and a dry place: the water-stressed moss.

    PubMed

    Charron, Audra J; Quatrano, Ralph S

    2009-05-01

    The earliest land plants faced a suite of abiotic stresses largely unknown to their aquatic algal ancestors. The descendants of these plants evolved two general mechanisms for survival in the relatively arid aerial environment. While the vascular plants or 'tracheophytes' developed tissue specializations to transport and retain water, the other main lineages of land plants, the bryophytes, retained a simple, nonvascular morphology. The bryophytes--mosses, hornworts, and liverworts--continually undergo a co-equilibration of their water content with the surrounding environment and rely to a great extent on intrinsic cellular mechanisms to mitigate damage due to water stress. This short review will focus on the cellular and molecular responses to dehydration and rehydration in mosses, and offer insights into general plant responses to water stress. PMID:19825631

  16. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. PMID:24630445

  17. Assessment of the Altitudinal Atmospheric Metal(loid) Deposition in a Mountainous City by Mosses.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixia; Zhang, Guoping; Liu, Hong; Li, Ling; Fu, Zhiping; Ouyang, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jingjing; Hu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum) were collected at different elevations on a mountain and four representative sites in Guiyang City, and the concentrations of metal(loid)s were determined by ICP-MS. The altitudinal deposition of soil-originated metals differed from that of anthropogenic metal(loid)s. The concentrations of soil-related elements decreased with elevation, indicating that these elements tend to deposit at lower elevations and their impact on the higher elevations is less. The concentrations of anthropogenic elements varied only slightly with elevation, indicating that the atmospheric deposition of these elements did not vary largely with elevation. The results of this study showed that the mosses at different locations may serve to indicate a vertical gradient of atmospheric metal(loid) deposition. PMID:26055166

  18. Infraspecific variation within and across complete organellar genomes and nuclear ribosomal repeats in a moss.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lily R; Liu, Yang; Rozzi, Ricardo; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) are diverse and ecologically and evolutionarily significant yet genome scale data sets and analyses remain extremely sparse relative to other groups of plants, and are completely lacking at the infraspecific level. By sequencing the complete organellar genomes and nuclear ribosomal repeat from seven patches of a South American sub-Antarctic neo-endemic non-model moss, we present the first characterization of infraspecific polymorphism within and across the three genomic compartments for a bryophyte. Diversity within patches is accounted for by both intraindividual and interindividual variation for the nuclear ribosomal repeat and plastid genome, respectively. This represents the most extensive infraspecific genomic dataset generated for an early land plant lineage thus far and provides insight into relative rates of substitution between organellar genomes, including high rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions. PMID:26724407

  19. Conservation of the plastid sedimentation zone in all moss genera with known gravitropic protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, J. M.; Kern, V. D.; White, N. J.; Sack, F. D.

    2002-01-01

    Moss protonemata from several species are known to be gravitropic. The characterization of additional gravitropic species would be valuable to identify conserved traits that may relate to the mechanism of gravitropism. In this study, four new species were found to have gravitropic protonemata, Fissidens adianthoides, Fissidens cristatus, Physcomitrium pyriforme, and Barbula unguiculata. Comparison of upright and inverted apical cells of P. pyriforme and Fissidens species showed clear axial sedimentation. This sedimentation is highly regulated and not solely dependent on amyloplast size. Additionally, the protonemal tip cells of these species contained broad subapical zones that displayed lateral amyloplast sedimentation. The conservation of a zone of lateral sedimentation in a total of nine gravitropic moss species from five different orders supports the idea that this sedimentation serves a specialized and conserved function in gravitropism, probably in gravity sensing.

  20. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  1. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon. PMID:26181326

  2. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed. PMID:26336845

  3. Impacts of Environmental Heterogeneity on Moss Diversity and Distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Shanshan; Liu, Xuehua; Bai, Xueliang; Jiang, Yanbin; Zhang, Xianzhou; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Tibet makes up the majority of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, often referred to as the roof of the world. Its complex landforms, physiognomy, and climate create a special heterogeneous environment for mosses. Each moss species inhabits its own habitat and ecological niche. This, in combination with its sensitivity to environmental change, makes moss species distribution a useful indicator of vegetation alteration and climate change. This study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of Didymodon (Pottiaceae) in Tibet, and model the potential distribution of its species. A total of 221 sample plots, each with a size of 10 × 10 m and located at different altitudes, were investigated across all vegetation types. Of these, the 181 plots in which Didymodon species were found were used to conduct analyses and modeling. Three noteworthy results were obtained. First, a total of 22 species of Didymodon were identified. Among these, Didymodon rigidulus var. subulatus had not previously been recorded in China, and Didymodon constrictus var. constrictus was the dominant species. Second, analysis of the relationships between species distributions and environmental factors using canonical correspondence analysis revealed that vegetation cover and altitude were the main factors affecting the distribution of Didymodon in Tibet. Third, based on the environmental factors of bioclimate, topography and vegetation, the distribution of Didymodon was predicted throughout Tibet at a spatial resolution of 1 km, using the presence-only MaxEnt model. Climatic variables were the key factors in the model. We conclude that the environment plays a significant role in moss diversity and distribution. Based on our research findings, we recommend that future studies should focus on the impacts of climate change on the distribution and conservation of Didymodon. PMID:26181326

  4. Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella from mosses and lichens in Australia and New Zealand (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae).

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Tree, Desley J

    2015-01-01

    Species of Lissothrips and Williamsiella live in association with mosses and lichens. Their gut contents are commonly blue-green, suggesting that they possibly feed on blue-green algae. Three species of Lissothrips are known from New Zealand, of which two are here recorded from Australia together with six new species. Williamsiella is recorded from Australia for the first time, with one new species. PMID:25947697

  5. Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Defense Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Peter S.; Bowman, Collin E.; Villani, Philip J.; Dolan, Thomas E.; Hauck, Nathanael R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6–8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss – pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR

  6. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. PMID:27058127

  7. A critical review of protocols for moss biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition: sampling and sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J A; Boquete, M T; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the most important guideline for the application of the moss technique to monitor the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals is the "Heavy metals, nitrogen and POPs in European mosses: 2015 survey" published by the UNECE ICP Vegetation. Two main problems have been identified with this guideline: i) some of the recommendations regarding the methodological aspects involved in the application of the moss technique are not based on scientific criteria; and, ii) some recommendations in the manual are very vague and some aspects are even left out (e.g., elevation, distance to the coast). As a result there exists a high variability in the application of the protocol and many scientists adapt it to the specific conditions in the studied areas without evaluating how changes affect the results obtained. Therefore, in this article a total of 369 studies were reviewed including both methodological and application studies of the passive biomonitoring of the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals with terrestrial mosses. The results of this review have shown on the one hand, that none of the articles completely accomplished the ICP-Vegetation protocol suggestions, either because the information regarding some aspects was lacking or simply because the authors did not follow the manual suggestions. On the other hand, it was found that the results of methodological studies sometimes contradicted the ICP Vegetation manual recommendations. Thus, a new protocol in which each suggestion has been carefully and rigorously contrasted with the available literature has been proposed in this paper. In addition, practical and economic issues have also been considered and much more concise suggestions have been proposed which would facilitate its fulfilment in a more objective way. PMID:25725198

  8. The chemistry of soils, rocks and plant bioindicators in three ecosystems of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2005-11-01

    In June of 2000, biogeochemical study was carried out in three ecosystems of the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland). This paper presents element concentrations and stable sulfur (and in one site lead) isotope ratios in rocks, detailed soil profiles, and plant bioindicators including epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., mosses (Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. S. Str., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), common birch (Betula pendula Roth.), aspen (Populus tremula L.) and English oak (Quercus robur L.). Chemical analyses were performed with ICP-AES and AAS methods in the accredited laboratory (Central Chemical Laboratory of the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw). The principal objective of this study was to compare the chemical composition of rocks, soils and selected plant bioindicators between investigation sites using the same methods of sample collection, preparation and analyses. The results of this study have shown that there is a high variability in concentrations of elements in plant bioindicators from the same sites that can not be explained only by soil properties or anthropogenic influence. This conclusion indicates that for biomonitoring purposes (especially with vascular plants) we cannot neglect individual features of the species examined. PMID:16308778

  9. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M

    2015-10-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities. PMID:26062458

  10. Copper mediates auxin signalling to control cell differentiation in the copper moss Scopelophila cataractae

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Toshihisa; Itouga, Misao; Kojima, Mikiko; Kato, Yukari; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The copper (Cu) moss Scopelophila cataractae (Mitt.) Broth. is often found in Cu-enriched environments, but it cannot flourish under normal conditions in nature. Excess Cu is toxic to almost all plants, and therefore how this moss species thrives in regions with high Cu concentration remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cu on gemma germination and protonemal development in S. cataractae. A high concentration of Cu (up to 800 µM) did not affect gemma germination. In the protonemal stage, a low concentration of Cu promoted protonemal gemma formation, which is the main strategy adopted by S. cataractae to expand its habitat to new locations. Cu-rich conditions promoted auxin accumulation and induced differentiation of chloronema into caulonema cells, whereas it repressed protonemal gemma formation. Under low-Cu conditions, auxin treatment mimicked the effects of high-Cu conditions. Furthermore, Cu-induced caulonema differentiation was severely inhibited in the presence of the auxin antagonist α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid, or the auxin biosynthesis inhibitor l-kynurenine. These results suggest that S. cataractae flourishes in Cu-rich environments via auxin-regulated cell differentiation. The copper moss might have acquired this mechanism during the evolutionary process to benefit from its advantageous Cu-tolerance ability. PMID:25428998

  11. Profilin Is Essential for Tip Growth in the Moss Physcomitrella patens[W

    PubMed Central

    Vidali, Luis; Augustine, Robert C.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is critical for tip growth in plants. Profilin is the main monomer actin binding protein in plant cells. The moss Physcomitrella patens has three profilin genes, which are monophyletic, suggesting a single ancestor for plant profilins. Here, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to determine the loss-of-function phenotype of profilin. Reduction of profilin leads to a complete loss of tip growth and a partial inhibition of cell division, resulting in plants with small rounded cells and fewer cells. We silenced all profilins by targeting their 3′ untranslated region sequences, enabling complementation analyses by expression of profilin coding sequences. We show that any moss or a lily (Lilium longiflorum) profilin support tip growth. Profilin with a mutation in its actin binding site is unable to rescue profilin RNAi, while a mutation in the poly-l-proline binding site weakly rescues. We show that moss tip growing cells contain a prominent subapical cortical F-actin structure composed of parallel actin cables. Cells lacking profilin lose this structure; instead, their F-actin is disorganized and forms polarized cortical patches. Plants expressing the actin and poly-l-proline binding mutants exhibited similar F-actin disorganization. These results demonstrate that profilin and its binding to actin are essential for tip growth. Additionally, profilin is not needed for formation of F-actin, but profilin and its interactions with actin and poly-l-proline ligands are required to properly organize F-actin. PMID:17981997

  12. Active biomonitoring of palladium, platinum, and rhodium emissions from road traffic using transplanted moss.

    PubMed

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Meisel, Thomas; Perämäki, Paavo

    2016-08-01

    The use of transplanted moss (Pleurozium schreberi) in active biomonitoring of traffic-related emissions of Pd, Pt, and Rh was studied. Moss mats were transplanted to three locations along highway E75 (in Oulu, Finland) at three different distances from the highway. Five samples were collected from a background site after the same exposure period. Mass fractions of Pd, Pt, and Rh as well as mass fractions of 18 other elements were determined in these samples. The results indicated that P. schreberi is well suited for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Mass fractions above the background values were observed in the samples exposed to traffic-related emissions. When the results were compared with those of the other elements, high correlations of Pd, Pt, and Rh with commonly traffic-related elements (e.g., Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn, etc.) were found. It was also found that the amounts of Pd, Pt, and Rh in moss samples decreased when the distance to the highway increased. This trend gives evidence for the suitability of P. schreberi for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the mass fractions determined in this study provide valuable evidence about the current state of Pd, Pt, and Rh emissions in Oulu, Finland. PMID:27189454

  13. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of the sporophyte of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    O’Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Chater, Caspar; Wallace, Simon; Gray, Julie E.; Beerling, David J.; Fleming, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes, the most basal of the extant land plants, diverged at least 450 million years ago. A major feature of these plants is the biphasic alternation of generations between a dominant haploid gametophyte and a minor diploid sporophyte phase. These dramatic differences in form and function occur in a constant genetic background, raising the question of whether the switch from gametophyte-to-sporophyte development reflects major changes in the spectrum of genes being expressed or alternatively whether only limited changes in gene expression occur and the differences in plant form are due to differences in how the gene products are put together. This study performed replicated microarray analyses of RNA from several thousand dissected and developmentally staged sporophytes of the moss Physcomitrella patens, allowing analysis of the transcriptomes of the sporophyte and early gametophyte, as well as the early stages of moss sporophyte development. The data indicate that more significant changes in transcript profile occur during the switch from gametophyte to sporophyte than recently reported, with over 12% of the entire transcriptome of P. patens being altered during this major developmental transition. Analysis of the types of genes contributing to these differences supports the view of the early sporophyte being energetically and nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte, provides a profile of homologues to genes involved in angiosperm stomatal development and physiology which suggests a deeply conserved mechanism of stomatal control, and identifies a novel series of transcription factors associated with moss sporophyte development. PMID:23888066

  14. Efficient Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Mediated Transformation of the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Chun; Vidali, Luis

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient method to transform Physcomitrella pantens protoplasts is described. This method is adapted from protocols for Physocmitrella protonemal protoplast and Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast transformation1. Due to its capacity to undergo efficient mitotic homologous recombination, Physcomitrella patens has emerged as an important model system in recent years2. This capacity allows high frequencies of gene targeting3-9, which is not seen in other model plants such as Arabidopsis. To take full advantage of this system, we need an effective and easy method to deliver DNA into moss cells. The most common ways to transform this moss are particle bombardment10 and PEG-mediated DNA uptake11. Although particle bombardment can produce a high transformation efficiency12, gene guns are not readily available to many laboratories and the protocol is difficult to standardize. On the other hand, PEG mediated transformation does not require specialized equipments, and can be performed in any laboratory with a sterile hood. Here, we show a simple and highly efficient method for transformation of moss protoplasts. This method can generate more than 120 transient transformants per microgram of DNA, which is an improvement from the most efficient protocol previously reported13. Because of its simplicity, efficiency, and reproducibility, this method can be applied to projects requiring large number of transformants as well as for routine transformation. PMID:21540817

  15. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; Budziszek, Michael J.; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants. PMID:27014284

  16. Elastic properties of sand-peat moss mixtures from ultrasonic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trombino, C N

    1998-09-02

    Effective remediation of an environmental site requires extensive knowledge of the geologic setting, as well as the amount and distribution of contaminants. Seismic investigations provide a means to examine the subsurface with minimum disturbance, Laboratory measurements are needed to interpret field data. In this experiment, laboratory tests were performed to characterize manufactured soil samples in terms of their elastic properties. The soil samples consisted of small (mass) percentages (1 to 20 percent) of peat moss mixed with pure quartz sand. Sand was chosen as the major component because its elastic properties are well known except at the lowest pressures. The ultrasonic pulse transmission technique was used to collect elastic wave velocity data. These data were analyzed and mathematically processed to calculate the other elastic properties such as the modulus of elasticity. This experiment demonstrates that seismic data are affected by the amount~of peat moss added to pure sand samples. Elastic wave velocities, velocity gradients, and elastic moduli vary with pressure and peat moss amounts. In particular, ultrasonic response changes dramatically when pore space fills with peat. With some further investigation, the information gathered in this experiment could be applied to seismic field research.

  17. Plant-type N-glycans containing fucose and xylose in Bryophyta (mosses) and Tracheophyta (ferns).

    PubMed

    Mega, Tomohiro

    2007-12-01

    The presence of typical plant-type N-glycans (eg, M3FX, Gn2M3FX, and Le(a)2M3FX) in mosses, ferns, and other organisms was examined to determine which plant initially acquired glycosyltransferases to produce plant-type N-glycans during organic evolution. No M3FX-type N-glycan was detected in lichens (Cladonia humilis) or in any one of the three preland plants Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, and Chara braunii Gmelin. In Bryophyta, M3FX-type N-glycan was detected at trace amounts in Anthocerotopsida (hornworts) and at certain amounts in Bryopsida (mosses), but not in Hepaticopsida (liverworts). Le(a)2M3FX was detected in some Bryopsida of relatively high M3FX content. Most Tracheophyta (ferns and higher plants) contained the three typical M3FX-type glycans as the main N-glycans in different ratios. These results suggest that organisms acquired xylosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase during the development of mosses from liverworts, and that later all plants retained both enzymes. Bryopsida have also obtained galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase to synthesize the Le(a) antigen. PMID:18071243

  18. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural. PMID:23479119

  19. Vertical transmission explains the specific Burkholderia pattern in Sphagnum mosses at multi-geographic scale

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Anastasia; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia is known for its versatile interactions with its hosts that can range from beneficial to pathogenic. A plant-beneficial-environmental (PBE) Burkholderia cluster was recently separated from the pathogen cluster, yet still little is known about burkholderial diversity, distribution, colonization, and transmission patterns on plants. In our study, we applied a combination of high-throughput molecular and microscopic methods to examine the aforementioned factors for Burkholderia communities associated with Sphagnum mosses – model plants for long-term associations – in Austrian and Russian bogs. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons libraries revealed that most of the Burkholderia are part of the PBE group, but a minor fraction was closely related to B. glathei and B. andropogonis from the pathogen cluster. Notably, Burkholderia showed highly similar composition patterns for each moss species independent of the geographic region, and Burkholderia-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization of Sphagnum gametophytes exhibited similar colonization patterns in different Sphagnum species at multi-geographic scales. To explain these patterns, we compared the compositions of the surrounding water, gametophyte-, and sporophyte-associated microbiome at genus level and discovered that Burkholderia were present in the Sphagnum sporophyte and gametophyte, but were absent in the flark water. Therefore, Burkholderia is a part of the core microbiome transmitted from the moss sporophyte to the gametophyte. This suggests a vertical transmission of Burkholderia strains, and thus underlines their importance for the plants themselves. PMID:24391630

  20. Contributions to the moss flora of Giresun Region (Sebinkarahisar and Alucra district).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, T; Batan, N

    2008-08-15

    The aim of the study was to obtain knowledge on the moss flora of the Giresun Region-rather than to identify the entire range moss flora of the region. After the identification of 287 moss specimens collected from the research area between June and August in 2007 and 2008, total 85 taxa were defined. These taxa belong to 17 families and 37 genera of Bryopsida (Musci). Among them, 14 taxa -Hygroamblystegium irriguum Hedw., Rhynchostegium confertum (Dicks.) B. S. G., Rhynchostegium alpinum Huds. ex With., Bryum dichotomum Hedw., Bryum laevifilum Syed., Hygrohypnum smithii (Sw.) Broth., Grimmia decipiens (Schultz) Lindb., Grimmia tergestina Tomm. Ex Bruch and Schimp., Schistidium flaccidum (DeNot.) Ochyra., Schistidium platyphyllum (Mitt.) Kindb., Palustriella decipens (De Not.) Ochyra., Desmatodon latifolius (Hedw.) Brid., Phascum curvicolle Hedw., Syntrichia princeps (De Not.) Mitt. new for A4 grid square (40 degrees- 42' N, 38 degrees -42' E) which was adopted by Henderson. Thirty six taxa are new for Giresun Province. All taxa are new for study area. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented. PMID:19266904

  1. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution. PMID:18808007

  2. Plasma Membrane-Targeted PIN Proteins Drive Shoot Development in a Moss

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tom A.; Liu, Maureen M.; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Bierfreund, Nicole M.; Braun, Marion; Coudert, Yoan; Dennis, Ross J.; O’Connor, Devin; Wang, Xiao Y.; White, Chris D.; Decker, Eva L.; Reski, Ralf; Harrison, C. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Plant body plans arise by the activity of meristematic growing tips during development and radiated independently in the gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) stages of the life cycle during evolution. Although auxin and its intercellular transport by PIN family efflux carriers are primary regulators of sporophytic shoot development in flowering plants, the extent of conservation in PIN function within the land plants and the mechanisms regulating bryophyte gametophytic shoot development are largely unknown. Results We have found that treating gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens with exogenous auxins and auxin transport inhibitors disrupts apical function and leaf development. Two plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins are expressed in leafy shoots, and pin mutants resemble plants treated with auxins or auxin transport inhibitors. PIN-mediated auxin transport regulates apical cell function, leaf initiation, leaf shape, and shoot tropisms in moss gametophytes. pin mutant sporophytes are sometimes branched, reproducing a phenotype only previously seen in the fossil record and in rare natural moss variants. Conclusions Our results show that PIN-mediated auxin transport is an ancient, conserved regulator of shoot development. PMID:25448003

  3. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berry, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Mai L.; Dimos, Christos S.; Budziszek, Michael J.; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R.; Roberts, Alison W.

    2016-03-08

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into severalmore » different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants.« less

  4. Structure of Intergenic Spacer IGS1 of Ribosomal Operon from Schistidium Mosses.

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatova, E A; Ignatov, M S; Goryunov, D V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    The structure of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) of the ribosomal operon from 12 species of Schistidium mosses was studied. In the IGS1 sequences of these species, three conserved regions and two areas of GC- and A-enriched repeats were identified. All of the studied mosses have a conserved pyrimidine-enriched motif at the 5'-end of IGS1. Species-specific nucleotide substitutions and insertions were found in the conserved areas. The repeated units contain single nucleotide substitutions that make unique the majority of repeated units. The positions of such repeats in IGS1 are species-specific, but their number can vary within the species and among operons of the same specimen. The comparison of IGS1 sequences from the Schistidium species and from representatives of ten other moss genera revealed the presence of common conserved motifs with similar localization. Presumably, these motifs are elements of termination of the pre-rRNA transcription and processing of rRNA. PMID:26615440

  5. Moss Chloroplasts Are Surrounded by a Peptidoglycan Wall Containing D-Amino Acids[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takayuki; Tanidokoro, Koji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sato, Momo; Tadano, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hayato; Takio, Susumu; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that the plastids in green plants lost peptidoglycan (i.e., a bacterial cell wall-containing d-amino acids) during their evolution from an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium. Although wall-like structures could not be detected in the plastids of green plants, the moss Physcomitrella patens has the genes required to generate peptidoglycan (Mur genes), and knocking out these genes causes defects in chloroplast division. Here, we generated P. patens knockout lines (∆Pp-ddl) for a homolog of the bacterial peptidoglycan-synthetic gene encoding d-Ala:d-Ala ligase. ∆Pp-ddl had a macrochloroplast phenotype, similar to other Mur knockout lines. The addition of d-Ala-d-Ala (DA-DA) to the medium suppressed the appearance of giant chloroplasts in ∆Pp-ddl, but the addition of l-Ala-l-Ala (LA-LA), DA-LA, LA-DA, or d-Ala did not. Recently, a metabolic method for labeling bacterial peptidoglycan was established using ethynyl-DA-DA (EDA-DA) and click chemistry to attach an azide-modified fluorophore to the ethynyl group. The ∆Pp-ddl line complemented with EDA-DA showed that moss chloroplasts are completely surrounded by peptidoglycan. Our findings strongly suggest that the moss plastids have a peptidoglycan wall containing d-amino acids. By contrast, no plastid phenotypes were observed in the T-DNA tagged ddl mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:27325639

  6. Natural radionuclide uptake by mosses in eastern Serbia in 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Čučulović, Ana Č; Sabovljević, Marko; Čučulović, Rodoljub Č; Veselinović, Dragan

    2016-03-01

    The results of the study on natural radionuclide content in 102 samples of the moss species randomly collected in 2008- 2013 at 30 locations of eastern Serbia are presented in the paper. The activity concentration values of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 7Be determined by gamma spectrometry were within the intervals: 238U (1.1-50) Bq kg(-1), 226Ra (1.1-41) Bq kg(-1), 232Th (1.4-28) Bq kg(-1), 40K (64-484) Bq kg(-1) and 7Be (88-227) Bq kg(-1), not standing out of the average data reported for this region. The distribution of the obtained data for 226Ra, 232Th, and 238U activity concentration in the analysed mosses has shown values up to 10 Bq kg(-1) with frequencies 47.1 %, 54.9 % and 48.0 %, respectively. The obtained activity concentration values of primordial 40K and cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be were up to 500 Bq kg(-1) and about 90 % of all the results for 7Be uptake by mosses were in the 200-250 Bq kg(-1) concentration range. PMID:27092637

  7. Immuno and Affinity Cytochemical Analysis of Cell Wall Composition in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elizabeth A; Tran, Mai L; Dimos, Christos S; Budziszek, Michael J; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess R; Roberts, Alison W

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types. Advantages for genetic studies include methods for efficient targeted gene modification and extensive genomic resources. Immuno and affinity cytochemical labeling were used to examine the distribution of polysaccharides and proteins in regenerated protoplasts, protonemal filaments, rhizoids, and sectioned gametophores of P. patens. The cell wall composition of regenerated protoplasts was also characterized by flow cytometry. Crystalline cellulose was abundant in the cell walls of regenerating protoplasts and protonemal cells that developed on media of high osmolarity, whereas homogalactuonan was detected in the walls of protonemal cells that developed on low osmolarity media and not in regenerating protoplasts. Mannan was the major hemicellulose detected in all tissues tested. Arabinogalactan proteins were detected in different cell types by different probes, consistent with structural heterogneity. The results reveal developmental and cell type specific differences in cell wall composition and provide a basis for analyzing cell wall phenotypes in knockout mutants. PMID:27014284

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in isotopic composition of atmospheric lead in Norwegian moss

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, K.J.R.; Ly, C.; Steinnes, E.

    1998-09-01

    Earlier studies using moss as a biomonitor of pollution have shown that long-range transport is a major source of pollution in Norway. Until now, the origin of these pollutants has been inferred from concentration measurements of various elements in moss and the climatology at each sampling site. Lead isotopes provide an opportunity to identify the sources and to quantify the contribution of each. This preliminary study reports measurements of lead isotopes in moss from selected sites along the full extent of Norway that reveal significant spatial and temporal variations. There are significant north-south trends that differ at coastal and inland sites and differ between sampling periods (1974--1994). These variations reflect the changing contributions from the different source regions as the regulation of pollution from automobiles and industry takes effect. Identifiable sources are the U.K. and possibly France, which is noticeable at coastal sites; western Europe at the southern end; and eastern Europe and Russia influencing the inland and northernmost sites.

  9. Tip-growing cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus Are gravitropic in high-density media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwuchow, Jochen Michael; Kern, Volker Dieter; Sack, Fred David

    2002-01-01

    Gravity sensing in plants and algae is hypothesized to rely upon either the mass of the entire cell or that of sedimenting organelles (statoliths). Protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus show upward gravitropism and contain amyloplasts that sediment. If moss sensing were whole-cell based, then media denser than the cell should prevent gravitropism or reverse its direction. Cells that were inverted or reoriented to the horizontal displayed distinct negative gravitropism in solutions of iodixanol with densities of 1.052 to 1.320 as well as in bovine serum albumin solutions with densities of 1.037 to 1.184 g cm(-3). Studies using tagged molecules of different sizes and calculations of diffusion times suggest that both types of media penetrate through the apical cell wall. Estimates of the density of the apical cell range from 1.004 to 1.085. Because protonemata grow upward when the cells have a density that is lower than the surrounding medium, gravitropic sensing probably utilizes an intracellular mass in moss protonemata. These data provide additional support for the idea that sedimenting amyloplasts function as statoliths in gravitropism.

  10. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied. PMID:25301434

  11. Photoprotective and toxicological activities of extracts from the Antarctic moss Sanionia uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Andréia da Silva; Alencar, Alexandre Santos; Evangelista, Heitor; Mazzei, José Luiz; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Antarctic moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske has shown high ultraviolet (UV)-absorbers content after exposition to high levels of UV-B radiation and can be an important source of antioxidants. Objective: The aim was to investigate photoprotection and mutagenicity by the aqueous extract (AE) and hydroethanolic extract (HE) from the Antarctic moss S. uncinata. Materials and Methods: Photoprotective activities were determined through survival curves of Escherichia coli strains, after UV irradiation in an aqueous solution of thymine and in vitro sun protection factor (SPF). The Salmonella/microsome assays were applied to assess the mutagenicity. Results: Both extracts induced photoprotection against UV-C radiation. The AE showed a higher protection than the hydroethanolic one against UV-induced thymine dimerization. The SPFs were low in both extracts. In association to benzophenone-3 a significant increase in the SPF was detected for the AE, and a significant decrease was induced by the HE. No mutagenicity was found in the both extracts. Furthermore, it was observed absence of cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Water-extractable compounds seem to contribute on photoprotection of this Antarctic moss. PMID:25709208

  12. Trends of atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Pavlov, Sergey; Enimiteva, Vangelica

    2012-01-01

    In 2002 and 2005 the moss biomonitoring technique was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE-ICP Vegetation) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). In August 2005 samples of the terrestrial mosses Homolothecium lutescens and Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 72 sites evenly distributed over the territory of the country, in accordance with the sampling strategy of the European moss survey programme. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analysis was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources. Distributional maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to known sources of contamination. A few areas, as in 2002, are experiencing particular environmental stress: Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci-Negotino, whereas the agricultural regions in the south, south-west, and south-east show median European values for most elements of mainly pollution origin. A significant increase in the content of Ni is noticed in the 2005 moss survey compared with 2002, due to the increased production of the ferro-nickel smelter in Kavadarci. A higher content of Cd, Hg, and Pb in 2005 relative to 2002 can be explained by pollution from the lead-zinc smelter in Veles, as well as the pollution that comes from the open slag waste dump of this smelter. Protection activities on the dump of slag from the former ferrochromium smelter located near Tetovo resulted in a lower content of Cr in the 2005 moss

  13. Novel labeling technique illustrates transfer of 15N2 from Sphagnum moss to vascular plants via diazotrophic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.

    2013-12-01

    We used 15N2 gas to trace nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation to vascular plant uptake in an Alberta bog in order to determine if neighboring bog plants acquire recently fixed N from diazotrophs associating with Sphagnum mosses. Recent evidence indicates high rates of N2-fixation in Sphagnum mosses of Alberta bogs (Vile et al. 2013). Our previous work has shown that mosses can assimilate fixed N from associated diazotrophs as evidenced by the high N content of mosses despite minimal inputs from atmospheric deposition, retranslocation, and N mineralization. Therefore, the potential exists for vascular plants to obtain N from ';leaky' tissues of live mosses, however, this phenomenon has not been tested previously. Here we document the potential for relatively rapid transfer to vascular plants of N fixed by Sphagnum moss-associated diazotrophs. We utilized the novel approach of incubating mosses in 15N2 to allow the process of diazotrophic N2-fixation to mechanistically provide the 15N label, which is subsequently transferred to Sphagnum mosses. The potential for vascular bog natives to tap this N was assessed by planting the vascular plants in the labeled moss. Sphagnum mosses (upper 3 cm of live plants) were incubated in the presence of 98 atom % 15N2 gas for 48 hours. Two vascular plants common to Alberta bogs; Picea mariana and Vaccinium oxycoccus were then placed in the labeled mosses, where the mosses served as the substrate. Tissue samples from these plants were collected at three time points during the incubation; prior to 15N2 exposure (to determine natural abundance 15N), and at one and two months after 15N2 exposure. Roots and leaves were separated and run separately on a mass spectrometer to determine 15N concentrations. Sphagnum moss capitula obtained N from N2-fixation (δ15N of -2.43 × 0.40, 122.76 × 23.78, 224.92 × 68.37, 143.74 × 54.38 prior to, immediately after, and at 1 and 2 months after exposure to 15N2, respectively). Nitrogen was

  14. Isotopic composition of lead in moss and soil of the European Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, U.; Kienholz, B.; Reimann, C.; Schneider, J.; Stumpfl, E. F.

    2004-06-01

    Moss, O and C horizons of podzols, mainly forming complementary sample triplets, as well as filter residues of molten snow from northern Norway, northern Finland and NW Russia have been analyzed by TIMS for their Pb isotopic composition in order to study the impacts of local geogenic/anthropogenic sources and long range atmospheric transport on the Pb balance in the European Arctic. Samples were taken along two N-S transects covering an area of ˜188.000 km 2, including both pristine environments in the W and certain regions towards the E severely contaminated by heavy metal emissions originating from large nickel smelters and processing plants in NW Russia. The lead in moss and O horizon samples clearly reflects atmospheric deposition, as it displays overall uniform isotope ratios and is decoupled from the geogenic background, i.e. the underlying mineral soils in the C horizon. Moss and O horizon samples from the eastern N-S transect are isotopically indistinguishable from those taken along the western transect but their Pb concentrations tend to be ˜2 times higher. This points to considerable contamination originating from the nearby Russian industrial and urban centers. However, isotopic signals of emissions from individual industrial point sources cannot be unambiguously identified because they lack characteristic isotope signatures. Pb derived from gasoline additives is swamped by Pb from other sources and can also be excluded as a major contributor to the environmental Pb in the European Arctic. Overall, the Pb isotopic signatures of moss and O horizon overlap values recorded in atmospheric lead all over central and southern Europe, more than 2000 km south of the study area. This may be taken as indicating continent-wide mixing of Pb derived from similar sources in the atmosphere or as reflecting economic globalization, or both. O horizon samples, which accumulate lead over 20-30 yr, conform to a distinct Pb isotope reference line in 207Pb/ 206Pb vs. 208Pb

  15. The pharyngeal organ in the buccal cavity of the male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, supplies mucus for building bubble nests.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chao-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2010-11-01

    The male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, builds a bubble nest on the water surface to care for offspring during the reproductive period. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the composition of the bubble nest and to compare the pharyngeal organs of male and female Siamese fighting fish to determine the relationship between the pharyngeal organ and the ability to make bubble nests. Dot blots of the bubble nest probed with periodic acid-Schiff's (PAS) staining and Ponceau S solution revealed that the contents of the nest are glycoprotein rich. Dissection of the heads of Siamese fighting fish showed that the pharyngeal organ is located in the position through which inhaled air passes. The epithelial structure of the pharyngeal organ of the Siamese fighting fish, like that of other teleosts, has numerous wrinkles and papillae. Mucous goblet cells were observed on the epithelium of pharyngeal organs in male and female fish. The pharyngeal organ was found to be larger in male than in female fish. In addition, the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ in male fish has a greater number of mucous goblet cells than that in female fish. In Siamese fighting fish, this sexual dimorphism of the pharyngeal organ suggests that the male fish secretes more glycoprotein-rich mucus to build the bubble nest. Future work will focus on the type of mucous cells found in the epithelium of the pharyngeal organ that contributes to bubble formation and will determine the components of the mucus in the bubble nest. PMID:21039125

  16. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. PMID:23178457

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Sawada, Shin'ya; Watanabe, Kazufumi; Nagae, Shiro; Yamaguchi, Masa-Atsu; Nakayama, Toru; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2004-06-01

    Anthocyanin acyltransferases (AATs) catalyze a regiospecific acyl transfer from acyl-CoA to the glycosyl moiety of anthocyanins, thus playing an important role in flower coloration. The known AATs are subfamily members of an acyltransferase family, the BAHD family, which play important roles in secondary metabolism in plants. Here, we describe the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. The purified enzyme (hereafter referred to as Ss5MaT2) is a monomeric 46-kDa protein that catalyzes the transfer of the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the 4"'-hydroxyl group of the 5-glucosyl moiety of anthocyanins. Thus, it is a malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-glucoside 4"'-O-malonyltransferase. On the basis of the partial amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme, we isolated a cDNA that encodes an acyltransferase protein. The steady-state transcript level of the gene was the highest in recently opened, fully pigmented flowers and was also correlated with the trend observed for an AAT gene responsible for the first malonylation step during salvianin biosynthesis. Immunoprecipitation studies using antibodies against the recombinant acyltransferase protein corroborated the identity of this cDNA as that encoding Ss5MaT2. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ss5MaT2 showed a low similarity (22-24% identity) to those of AATs and lacked the AAT-specific signature sequence. A phylogenetic analysis suggested that Ss5MaT2 is more related to acetyl-CoA:benzylalcohol acetyltransferase (BEAT) rather than to AAT. This is another example in which enzymes with similar, although not identical, substrate evolved from different branches of the BAHD family. PMID:15165190

  18. Active moss biomonitoring of small-scale spatial distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the Belgrade urban area.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Goryainova, Zoya; Frontasyeva, Marina; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content. PMID:23430735

  19. A phylotranscriptomic analysis of gene family expansion and evolution in the largest order of pleurocarpous mosses (Hypnales, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew G; Malley, Claire; Goffinet, Bernard; Shaw, A Jonathan; Wickett, Norman J

    2016-05-01

    The pleurocarpous mosses (i.e., Hypnanae) are a species-rich group of land plants comprising about 6,000 species that share the development of female sex organs on short lateral branches, a derived trait within mosses. Many of the families within Hypnales, the largest order of pleurocarpous mosses, trace their origin to a rapid radiation less than 100 million years ago, just after the rise of the angiosperms. As a result, the phylogenetic resolution among families of Hypnales, necessary to test evolutionary hypotheses, has proven difficult using one or few loci. We present the first phylogenetic inference from high-throughput sequence data (transcriptome sequences) for pleurocarpous mosses. To test hypotheses of gene family evolution, we built a species tree of 21 pleurocarpous and six acrocarpous mosses using over one million sites from 659 orthologous genes. We used the species tree to investigate the genomic consequences of the shift to pleurocarpy and to identify whether patterns common to other plant radiations (gene family expansion, whole genome duplication, or changes in the molecular signatures of selection) could be observed. We found that roughly six percent of all gene families have expanded in the pleurocarpous mosses, relative to acrocarpous mosses. These gene families are enriched for several gene ontology (GO) terms, including interaction with other organisms. The increase in copy number coincident with the radiation of Hypnales suggests that a process such as whole genome duplication or a burst of small-scale duplications occurred during the diversification. In over 500 gene families we found evidence of a reduction in purifying selection. These gene families are enriched for several terms in the GO hierarchy related to "tRNA metabolic process." Our results reveal candidate genes and pathways that may be associated with the transition to pleurocarpy, illustrating the utility of phylotranscriptomics for the study of molecular evolution in non

  20. [Evaluation of the impact on Aedes aegypti infestation in cement tanks of the municipal district of Canindé, Ceará, Brazil after using the Betta splendens fish as an alternative biological control].

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti; Lima, José Wellington de Oliveira; Cunha, Jane Cris de Lima; Santana, Eddie William de Pinho

    2004-01-01

    Canindé has a population of 71,235 inhabitants. In April 2001, the city started using larvivorous fish in cement water tanks, as a means of biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae. During house-to-house visits by health agents, instead of treating the water tank with larvicide, a Betta splendens fish was introduced into each tank. The number of houses and the number of tanks was estimated by monthly surveys. Then, the number of tanks per house was determined. Taking into account this estimated number and the number of houses visited, the infestation level for each kind of deposit was analyzed. In January 2001, 70.4% of the water tanks presented mosquitoes. Following the intervention, in January 2002 only 7.4% were positive and by December 2002 the rate had dropped to 0.2%. The efficacy of Betta splendens as a biological control agent in cement water tanks was clearly demonstrated, by achieving a 320 times reduction in the infestation level. PMID:15361957

  1. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro

    2003-10-01

    The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns) against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella. PMID:14762529

  2. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M; Ford, J; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, E; Berryman, S; Wolk, B; Bohle, T

    2005-09-15

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mine-related activity areas. Spatial predictions were used to produce maps of concentration patterns, and to estimate the total area in 10 moss concentration categories. Heavy metal levels in moss were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil suggested that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss were not attributable to subsurface lithology at the sample points. Further, moss Pb concentrations throughout the northern half of the study area were high relative to concentrations previously reported from other Arctic Alaska sites. Collectively, these findings indicate the presence of mine-related heavy metal deposition throughout the northern portion of Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Geospatial analyses suggest that the Pb depositional area extends 25 km north of the haul road to the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills, and possibly beyond. More study is needed to determine whether higher moss heavy metal concentrations in the northernmost portion of the study area reflect deposition from mining-related activities, weathering from mineralized Pb/Zn outcrops in the broader region, or a combination of the two. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Heavy metal levels continue to diminish south of

  3. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora: a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence.

    PubMed

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2016-08-01

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for visualizing interactions with the pathogen over time using high-resolution microscopy. We tested four Phytophthora species for their ability to infect P. patens and showed that P. sojae and P. palmivora were only rarely capable to infect P. patens. In contrast, P. infestans and P. capsici frequently and successfully penetrated moss protonemal cells, showed intracellular hyphal growth and formed sporangia. Next to these successful invasions, many penetration attempts failed. Here the pathogen was blocked by a barrier of cell wall material deposited in papilla-like structures, a defence response that is common in higher plants. Another common response is the upregulation of defence-related genes upon infection and also in moss we observed this upregulation in tissues infected with Phytophthora. For more advanced analyses of the novel pathosystem we developed a special set-up that allowed live-cell imaging of subcellular defence processes by high-resolution microscopy. With this set-up, we revealed that Phytophthora infection of moss induces repositioning of the nucleus, accumulation of cytoplasm and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, but not of microtubules. PMID:27027911

  4. Green mosses date the Storegga tsunami to the chilliest decades of the 8.2 ka cold event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondevik, Stein; Stormo, Svein Kristian; Skjerdal, Gudrun

    2012-06-01

    Chlorophyll in dead plants ordinarily decomposes completely before permanent burial through exposure to light, water and oxygen. Here we describe 8000-year-old terrestrial mosses that retain several percent of its original chlorophyll. The mosses were ripped of the land surface, carried 50-100 m off the Norwegian coast of the time, and deposited in depressions on the sea floor by the Storegga tsunami. A little of the chlorophyll survived because, within hours after entraining it, the tsunami buried the mosses in shell-rich sediments. These sediments preserved the chlorophyll by keeping out light and oxygen, and by keeping the pH above 7—three factors known to favour chlorophyll's stability. Because the green mosses were buried alive, their radiocarbon clock started ticking within hours after the Storegga Slide had set off the tsunami. Radiocarbon measurement of the mosses therefore give slide ages of uncommon geological precision, and these, together with a sequence of ages above and below the boundary, date the Storegga Slide to the chilliest decades of the 8.2 ka cold event at 8120-8175 years before AD 1950. North Atlantic coastal- and fjord- climatic records claimed to show evidence of the 8.2 cold event should be carefully examined for possible contamination and disturbance from the Storegga tsunami.

  5. [Responses of net soil nitrogen mineralization rate in moss-covered soil to hydrothermic factors in Shapotou regions, northern China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rui; Wang, Xin-Ping; Pan, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Hao

    2014-02-01

    Undisturbed soil cores were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (-10, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 40 degrees C) and moistures (29%, 58%, 85% and 170% of field water content, FWC) to analyze the effect of moss crusts, which were sampled from the natural vegetation area of Shapotou, on soil nitrogen transformation and their responses to hydrothermic factors. Results showed that immobilization was the dominant form of nitrogen transformation at the lower temperatures (<15 degrees C), and when the temperature surpassed 25 degrees C, the nitrogen transformation rate significantly increased. The nitrogen transformation rate in the moss-covered soil was more sensitive to temperature variation than in the bare soil, and the highest temperature sensitivity was at 85% FWC. It indicated that the existence and succession of moss crusts facilitated nitrogen transformation. In addition, the nitrogen transformation rates of two microhabitats increased initially and then declined with the increasing moisture, and the maximum nitrogen transformation rate was observed at 85% FWC. Significant interactive effects were found between temperature and moisture in the moss-covered soil. While, the greater enhancement in nitrogen transformation rate appeared at higher temperatures (25-40 degrees C ) and moderate moisture levels (58% FWC and 85% FWC). It was concluded that the existence and succession of moss crusts would increase the ability of soil nitrogen supply, promote nitrogen cycling and even contribute to the restoration of soil ecosystem. PMID:24830238

  6. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  7. The phylogeny of mosses - addressing open issues with a new mitochondrial locus: group I intron cobi420.

    PubMed

    Wahrmund, Ute; Quandt, Dietmar; Knoop, Volker

    2010-02-01

    Mosses are an ancient clade of land plants, set apart from the two other monophyletic groups of bryophytes, the liverworts and the hornworts. Different molecular data sets seem to converge towards a consensus backbone phylogeny of mosses. Nevertheless, for some crucial nodes open questions remain, which obviously require additional phylogenetic information. We here report that a group I intron in the mitochondrial cob gene (cobi420) is universally conserved in the mosses, including basal genera such as Sphagnum and Takakia. Well resolved phylogenetic trees were obtained for 56 mosses of wide phylogenetic sampling, e.g. supporting a placement of Drummondia branching after the genera Timmiella and Catoscopium basal in the Dicranidae. Taxon gaps have been filled in the previously established data sets nad5i753, nad2i156, the nad5-nad4 intergenic region and chloroplast rbcL and rps4 genes. A concatenated 6-loci analysis suggests reconsideration of a Funariidae concept which includes Gigaspermaceae but leaves the isolated genus Timmia at the radiation of arthrodontous mosses unresolved. PMID:19853052

  8. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  9. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive. PMID:26213134

  10. Modelling Temporal Variability in the Carbon Balance of a Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolking, S.; Goulden, M. L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D. J.; Munger, J. W.; Bazzaz, A. M.; Daube, B. C.; Crill, P. M.; Aber, J. D.; Band, L. E.; Wang, X.; Savages, K.; Moore, T.; Harriss, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/feathermoss boreal forest ecosystem was developed and results compared to preliminary data from the 1994 BOREAS field campaign in northern Manitoba, Canada. The model, driven by daily weather conditions, simulated daily soil climate status (temperature and moisture profiles), spruce photosynthesis and respiration, moss photosynthesis and respiration, and litter decomposition. Model agreement with preliminary field data was good for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), capturing both the asymmetrical seasonality and short-term variability. During the growing season simulated daily NEE ranged from -4 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon uptake by ecosystem) to + 2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon flux to atmosphere), with fluctuations from day to day. In the early winter simulated NEE values were + 0.5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1), dropping to + 0.2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) in mid-winter. Simulated soil respiration during the growing season (+ 1 to + 5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was dominated by metabolic respiration of the live moss, with litter decomposition usually contributing less than 30% and live spruce root respiration less than 10% of the total. Both spruce and moss net primary productivity (NPP) rates were higher in early summer than late summer. Simulated annual NEE for 1994 was -51 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1), with 83% going into tree growth and 17% into the soil carbon accumulation. Moss NPP (58 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was considered to be litter (i.e. soil carbon input; no net increase in live moss biomass). Ecosystem respiration during the snow-covered season (84 g Cm(exp -2)) was 58% of the growing season net carbon uptake. A simulation of the same site for 1968-1989 showed about 10-20% year-to-year variability in heterotrophic respiration (mean of + 113 g C m-2 y@1). Moss NPP ranged from 19 to 114 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1); spruce NPP from 81 to 150 g C nt-2 y,@l; spruce growth (NPP minus litterfall) from 34 to 103 g C m

  11. ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-07-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  12. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  13. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  14. Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function strongly depends on the relative abundance of mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.

    2012-04-01

    The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from strongly positive to strongly negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and spatial patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and strong positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most

  15. Cytotoxic Cytochalasins and Other Metabolites from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a Fungal Endophyte of Spanish Moss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Bashyal, Bharat P; Liu, Mangping X; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-10-01

    Two new metabolites, 6-oxo-12-norcytochalasin D (1) and 4,5-di-isobutyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (2), together with seven known metabolites, cytochalasins D (3), Q (4), and N (5), 12-hydroxyzygosporin G (6), heptelidic acid chlorohydrin (7), (+)-heptelidic acid (8), and trichoderonic acid A (9), were isolated from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a fungal endophyte inhabiting Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides. Metabolite 1 is the first example of a 12-norcytochalasin. All metabolites, except 2 and 9, showed cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human tumor cell lines with IC50S of 0.2-5.0 μM. PMID:26669096

  16. Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) Earth Venture Suborbital Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Lou, Y.; Chapin, E.; Saatchi, S. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Crow, W. T.; Cuenca, R. H.; Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Hensley, S.; Hagimoto, Y.; Chen, R.; Milak, S.; Ali, A. A.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    AirMOSS was selected by NASA in 2010 as one of the first 5 Earth-Venture-Suborbital missions, with the goal of reducing the uncertainty of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in north America through provision of high-resolution surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture to land hydrology and ecosystem models. AirMOSS is accomplishing this goal by producing retrieved maps of so-called root zone soil moisture (RZSM) at approximately 100-m resolution for 9 biomes (10 sites) in north America, ranging from the boreal forests in Canada to the tropical rainforests in Costa Rica. RZSM has been hypothesized to account for 60% or more of the uncertainty in estimates of NEE. AirMOSS, currently in its final mission year, has acquired about 3 years of observations of RZSM at its study sites, with a total of 21 flight campaigns per year. Each flight campaign has included 2-3 flight dates. The RZSM maps have been retrieved from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and flyign aboard a Gulfstream-3 airplane, operated by NASA Johnson Space Center. The estimation algorithms for deriving the RZSM maps have been matured throughout the mission, and have been shown to produce estimates of RZSM that are accurate to within 0.02-0.12 m3/m3 compared to in-situ validation data. The mission has also produced higher level RZSM products at hourly intervals, using land hydrology models, whose parameters are optimized using the AirMOSS snapshots. The ultimate product of the mission are the NEE estimates, generated not only for the mission study sites, but also upscaled to the entire scale of north America. These results are all under production, with the final mission products expected in May 2016. This presentation will give an overview of the mission, its products, and the main scientific findings. Several other papers in this session provide more details on each of the various aspects of the mission.

  17. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-06-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%-4.69%) and the detected δ(15)N values (-15.2‰-1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture. PMID:24631972

  18. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques. PMID:25311770

  19. Reconstructing historical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition in a remote area of Spain using herbarium moss material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foan, L.; Sablayrolles, C.; Elustondo, D.; Lasheras, E.; González, L.; Ederra, A.; Simon, V.; Santamaría, J. M.

    2010-08-01

    Herbarium mosses from 1879-1881, 1973-1975 and 2006-2007 were used to investigate the historical changes of atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a remote site in Northern Spain. Natural abundance of nitrogen and carbon isotopes was also measured in order to assess the evolution of emissions from anthropogenic sources. Nitrogen and PAH concentrations as well as δ 13C and δ 15N ratios were significantly higher in 19th century samples compared to present century samples. Moreover, PAH distribution varied over the centuries, with the trend towards enrichment in light PAHs. The carbon, nitrogen and PAH concentrations measured in the mosses tally with the historical evolution of anthropogenic emissions in the area, mainly influenced by changes in economic activities, domestic heating and road traffic density. Mosses provided by herbaria seem to offer the possibility of studying long-term temporal evolution of atmospheric PAH deposition.

  20. [RPS4 and NAD5 sequences evidenced of polyphyly of ditrichaceae and parallelisms in the evolution of haplolepidous mosses].

    PubMed

    Fedosov, V E; Fedorova, A V; Ignatova, E A; Bobrova, V K; Troitsky, A V

    2015-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 66 representatives of haplolepidous mosses showed polyphylia of Ditrichaceae. According to the data obtained, the structure of the peristome, as well as features of the gametophyte on which a family traditionally allocated, arose independently in different groups of haplolepideous mosses. At least six genera (Distichium, Saelania, Eccremidium, Garckea, Rhamphidium, and Wilsoniella) should be excluded from the Ditrichaceae family, while Saelania and Distichium should be assigned even to another order. The loss of the peristome and forming of cleistocarpous capsules also occurs independently in at least two lineages of Ditrichaceae s. str., and in representatives of several lineages of Pottiaceae, a family derived from this group. Ditrichum, the type genus of Ditrichaceae, is also polyphyletic, species of this genus belong to two clades. It was concluded that parallel lines of the morphological variability in this group of mosses occur and its phylogeny need to be resolved based on molecular data. PMID:26710780

  1. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of biochemist William D. Moss, conducted November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview with William D. Moss by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Mr. Moss was selected for this interview because of his work at Los Alamos National Laboratory concerning analytical methods in the chemical determination of plutonium in biological materials. After a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Moss relates his understanding of how occupational exposure limits were determined for the Manhattan Project, how data from those workers who were exposed to plutonium was collected and analyzed, how the experiments were planned and data was gathered from plutonium or polonium injections in man, how problems with analytical procedures compounded health physics aspects of the project, and problems remaining in the interpretation of these data.

  2. The advantage of growing on moss: facilitative effects on photosynthetic performance and growth in the cyanobacterial lichen Peltigera rufescens.

    PubMed

    Colesie, Claudia; Scheu, Sarah; Green, T G Allan; Weber, Bettina; Wirth, Rainer; Büdel, Burkhard

    2012-07-01

    Facilitative effects and plant-plant interactions are well known for higher plants, but there is a lack of information about their relevance in cryptogams. Additional information about facilitative effects between bryophytes and lichens would be an important contribution to recent research on positive plant-plant interactions, as these can have striking influences not only on the organisation of early successional terrestrial communities but also on succession dynamics by kick-starting ecosystem development through the import of key nutrients. We investigated and quantified these mechanisms between Peltigera rufescens and its associated mosses. Moss-associated thalli had a different morphology that led to several benefits from the association. They had 66% higher net photosynthetic rate and, because the majority of the gas exchange of lichen thalli took place through the lower surface, there was a further increase as the CO(2) concentration was >25% higher beneath moss-associated thalli. Microclimatic measurements showed that mean light levels were substantially lower and temperature extremes slightly ameliorated for moss-associated thalli. As a consequence, desiccation was slower which is, together with an increase in thallus thickness and water storage, the reason for extended periods of optimal net photosynthesis for the moss-associated thalli. All these benefits combined to produce a growth rate of the moss-associated thalli which was significantly higher, twice that of non-associated thalli [0.75 ± 0.4 vs. 0.30 ± 0.1 mm/month (mean ± SD)]. This appears to be the first demonstration of a strong mechanistic basis for facilitative effects between lichens and bryophytes. PMID:22183705

  3. Bioacumulation and ultrastructural effects of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the moss Scorpiurum circinatum (Brid.) Fleisch. & Loeske.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Pisani, T; Paoli, L; Munzi, S; Loppi, S

    2012-07-01

    This paper tested if culturing the moss Scorpiurum circinatum (Brid.) Fleisch. & Loeske with metal solutions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) for 30 days causes metal bioaccumulation and ultrastructural changes. The results showed that despite the high heavy metal concentrations in treatment solutions, treated samples did not show severe ultrastructural changes and cells were still alive and generally well preserved. Bioaccumulation highlighted that moss cells survived to heavy metal toxicity by immobilizing most toxic ions extracellularly, likely in binding sites of the cell wall, which is the main site of metal detoxification. PMID:22516710

  4. Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Nakayama, T; Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Fukui, Y; Nakamura, N; Nakao, M; Tanaka, Y; Yamaguchi, M A; Kusumi, T; Nishino, T

    2001-12-28

    The orange to blue coloration of flowers in nature is, in most cases, provided by anthocyanins, a class of plant flavonoids, many of which are modified by malonyl group(s). However, the identity of the enzyme catalyzing the malonylation reaction remains to be established. Here, we describe for the first time the purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of an anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. The purified enzyme (termed Ss5MaT1) was a monomeric 50-kDa protein catalyzing the regiospecific transfer of the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the 6"'-hydroxyl group of the 5-glucosyl moiety of anthocyanins. Ss5MaT1 showed a k(cat) value of 7.8 s(-1) at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0 for the malonylation of bisdemalonylsalvianin (pelargonidin 3-(6"-O-caffeyl-beta-glucopyranoside)-5-beta-glucopyranoside) and K(m) values of 101 microm and 57 microm for bisdemalonylsalvianin and malonyl-CoA, respectively. p-Coumaric acid, which mimics an aromatic acyl group linked to the 3-glucosidic moiety of an anthocyanin substrate, was a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate. This strongly suggests that the presence of an aromatic acyl group at the 3-glucosidic moiety of anthocyanin is important for substrate recognition by the enzyme. On the basis of the partial amino acid sequences of the purified enzyme, we isolated a cDNA encoding Ss5MaT1. Ss5MaT1 consisted of 462 amino acids and shared motifs that are commonly found among members of a versatile plant acyltransferase family, which was recently shown to include numerous homologs of unknown biochemical functions. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcripts of Ss5MaT1 were detected in petals, sepals, bracts, and red stems, in accordance with the pigment accumulation patterns. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the aliphatic and aromatic acylations of anthocyanins are generally catalyzed by subfamily members of the plant acyltransferase family. PMID:11598135

  5. δ13C and δ15N of moss Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth. for indicating growing environment variation and canopy retention on atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Yan; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, You-Yi

    Mosses have been recognized as a useful tool for biomonitoring atmospheric deposition and assessing regional environment. This study was carried on whether the same moss growing in areas with identical regional atmospheric deposition while under different growing environments would have the same indicating signals. Similar variations in mean δ13C and δ15N signatures were found between mosses collected from five habitats, with an increasing sequence from mosses under canopies to epilithic mosses, indicating that habitats were potentially regulating δ13C and δ15N values of mosses. Dryer habitats (lower water availability) and input of more aerosol N were the main reasons for higher δ13C and δ15N values of mosses at open sites (especially for epilithic species), while more negative values of mosses under canopies were attributed to their wetter habitats and less uptake of aerosol N. Additionally, δ15N values not δ13C varied linearly with canopy thickness from -7.84‰ (1 m) to -4.71±0.7‰ (4 m), suggesting δ15N was more sensitive for indicating canopy retention. Consequently, isotopic data of mosses under different environments could not be compared for atmospheric deposition research with each other even collected at the same site. Moss δ13C and δ15N were affected not only by regional atmospheric N sources but also by their growing environments. δ15N of epilithic Haplocladium microphyllum at open sites can be taken as confident bio-indicator of atmospheric N deposition, which would deepen the application of stable nitrogen isotope of bryophytes in atmosphere-plant system study.

  6. Sampling optimization, at site scale, in contamination monitoring with moss, pine and oak.

    PubMed

    Aboal, J R; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A

    2001-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing protocols for sampling moss, pine and oak for biomonitoring of atmospheric contamination and also for inclusion in an Environmental Specimen Bank, 50 sampling units of each species were collected from the study area for individual analysis. Levels of Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, and Zn in the plants were determined and the distributions of the concentrations studied. In moss samples, the concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn, considered to be trace pollutants in this species, showed highly variable long-normal distributions; in pine and oak samples only Ni concentrations were log-normally distributed. In addition to analytical error, the two main source of error found to be associated with making a collective sample were: (1) not carrying out measurements on individual sampling units; and (2) the number of sampling units collected and the corresponding sources of variation (microspatial, age and interindividual). We recommend that a minimum of 30 sampling units are collected when contamination is suspected. PMID:11706804

  7. First national survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Hungary by the analysis of mosses.

    PubMed

    Otvös, E; Pázmándi, T; Tuba, Z

    2003-06-20

    The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in Hungary was investigated by using moss species as bioindicators. Our research was part of an international mapping project (Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe) [NORD 21 (1987) 1-44; NORD 9 (1994)] carried out in the most European countries in the 1990s to determine and to compare atmospheric heavy metal background pollution by standardized methods. Sampling was performed at 116 sites distributed over Hungary in the autumn of 1997. Moss species of Hypnum cupressiforme (72.4%) were preferred. But where it could not be collected, other species were taken. Unwashed, dried samples were digested with H(2)O(2)/HNO(3), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined by ICP-AES. The results reflect local emission points. Background mean levels of Cd, Fe and Ni were mildly elevated in comparison to European means [NORD 9 (1994)]. Probably, that was due not only to pollution, but to the use of Hypnum cupressiforme, which can accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to other species. The results are presented on colored contour maps obtained with the SURFER program (Golden Software Inc. Co). PMID:12798100

  8. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Hamberger, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as streamlining of large scale Agrobacterium infiltration and upregulation of the upstream pathways, transient in planta heterologous expression quickly reaches limitations when used for production of terpenoids. Stable integration of transgenes into the nuclear genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens has already been widely recognized as a viable alternative for industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals. For expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, and reconstruction of heterologous pathways, Physcomitrella has unique attributes that makes it a very promising biotechnological host. These features include a high native tolerance to terpenoids, a simple endogenous terpenoid profile, convenient genome editing using homologous recombination, and cultivation techniques that allow up-scaling from single cells in microtiter plates to industrial photo-bioreactors. Beyond its use for functional characterization of terpenoid biosynthetic genes, engineered Physcomitrella can be a green biotechnological platform for production of terpenoids. Here, we describe two complementary and simple procedures for stable nuclear transformation of Physcomitrella with terpenoid biosynthetic genes, selection and cultivation of transgenic lines, and metabolite analysis of terpenoids produced in transgenic moss lines. We also provide tools for metabolic engineering through genome editing using homologous recombination. PMID:24777804

  9. Buoyancy-driven flow in a peat moss layer as a mechanism for solute transport

    PubMed Central

    Rappoldt, Cornelis; Pieters, Gert-Jan J. M.; Adema, Erwin B.; Baaijens, Gerrit J.; Grootjans, Ab P.; van Duijn, Cornelis J.

    2003-01-01

    Transport of nutrients, CO2, methane, and oxygen plays an important ecological role at the surface of wetland ecosystems. A possibly important transport mechanism in a water-saturated peat moss layer (usually Sphagnum cuspidatum) is nocturnal buoyancy flow, the downward flow of relatively cold surface water, and the upward flow of warm water induced by nocturnal cooling. Mathematical stability analysis showed that buoyancy flow occurs in a cooling porous layer if the system's Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds 25. For a temperature difference of 10 K between day and night, a typical Ra value for a peat moss layer is 80, which leads to quickly developing buoyancy cells. Numerical simulation demonstrated that fluid flow leads to a considerable mixing of water. Temperature measurements in a cylindrical peat sample of 50-cm height and 35-cm diameter were in agreement with the theoretical results. The nocturnal flow and the associated mixing of the water represent a mechanism for solute transport in water-saturated parts of peat land and in other types of terrestrializing vegetation. This mechanism may be particularly important in continental wetlands, where Ra values in summer are often much larger than the threshold for fluid flow. PMID:14657381

  10. Reproductive biology and population structure in the rare copper moss, Scopelophila cataractae

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.; Davenport, C.L.; Bartow, S.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Scopelophila cataractae is one of about seven species of bryophytes that ar known as copper mosses because of their ecological association with copper or other metals. Like other copper mosses, S. cataractae is geographically widespread, occurring in North and South America, Europe and Asia, but is extremely rare throughout its range and is disjunct across tremendous distances. In North America, the species occurs at only a few localities in California, Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, and an absence of sporophytes indicates that sexual reproduction does not occur here. Plants from both metal-contaminated and uncontaminated soils exhibit tolerance of metals and there is no evidence of differentiation among populations in terms of substrate requirements or tolerances. All North American plants studied thus far are monomorphic at eight enzyme loci, except those from the Texas populations, which differ at one peroxidase locus. Plants from anthropogenic metal-contaminated sites in the eastern US are uniformly male (or sterile) whereas those from natural sites in the southern Appalachians (North Carolina), Cumberland Plateau (Tennessee), and Santa Rita Mountains (Arizona) are uniformly female (or sterile). All plants from California and Texas are completely sterile. Geographic disjunctions between male and female plants explains the absence of sexual reproduction, and suggests episodes of long distance dispersal.

  11. Magnetic biomonitoring by moss bags for industry-derived air pollution in SW Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salo, Hanna; Mäkinen, Joni

    2014-11-01

    We provide the first detailed case study using Sphagnum papillosum moss bags for active magnetic monitoring of airborne industrial pollution in order to evaluate the actual role of various emission sources and the competence of current environmental protection actions relative to the air quality. The origin and spatial spreading of particulate matter (PM) based on magnetic, chemical, and SEM-EDX analyses was studied around the Industrial Park in Harjavalta, SW Finland. The data was collected during two 6-month sampling periods along 8 km transects in 2010-2011. The results support our hypothesis that the main emission source of PM is not the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe as presumed in previous chemical monitorings. We argue that the hot spot area within the severe impact pollution zone is related to slag processing and/or other unidentified industrial activity. At short distances various dust-providing sources outweigh the fly-ash load from the Cu-Ni smelter's pipe. Active magnetic monitoring by moss bags will help in planning environmental actions as well as in improvement of health conditions for industrial staff and town residents living next to the Industrial Park.

  12. Moss δ(13) C: an accurate proxy for past water environments in polar regions.

    PubMed

    Bramley-Alves, Jessica; Wanek, Wolfgang; French, Kristine; Robinson, Sharon A

    2015-06-01

    Increased aridity is of global concern. Polar regions provide an opportunity to monitor changes in bioavailable water free of local anthropogenic influences. However, sophisticated proxy measures are needed. We explored the possibility of using stable carbon isotopes in segments of moss as a fine-scale proxy for past bioavailable water. Variation in δ(13) C with water availability was measured in three species across three peninsulas in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica and verified using controlled chamber experiments. The δ(13) C from Antarctic mosses accurately recorded long-term variations in water availability in the field, regardless of location, but significant disparities in δ(13) C between species indicated some make more sensitive proxies. δ(13) CSUGAR derived from living tissues can change significantly within the span of an Antarctic season (5 weeks) in chambers, but under field conditions, slow growth means that this technique likely represents multiple seasons. δ(13) CCELLULOSE provides a precise and direct proxy for bioavailable water, allowing reconstructions for coastal Antarctica and potentially other cold regions over past centuries. PMID:25545349

  13. Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Mitsuya, Shiro; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Knight, Celia D; Cuming, Andrew C; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded. Mutant chloronemal filaments contained large cellular structures which excluded all other cellular organelles. Expression of fluorescent reporter proteins revealed that the mutant strain had greatly enlarged peroxisomes up to 10 μm in diameter. Expression of a vacuolar membrane marker confirmed that the enlarged structures were not vacuoles, or peroxisomes sequestered within vacuoles as a result of pexophagy. Phypa_PEX11 targeted to peroxisome membranes could rescue the knock out phenotype and interacted with Fission1 on the peroxisome membrane. Moss PEX11 functions in peroxisome division similar to PEX11 in other organisms but the mutant phenotype is more extreme and environmentally determined, making P. patens a powerful system in which to address mechanisms of peroxisome proliferation and division. PMID:26542980

  14. Sphagnum mosses as archives of recent and past atmospheric lead deposition in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kramers, Jan D.; Gloor, Marlies

    Sphagnum mosses received from a herbarium and collected recently from a peat bog surface, were used to assess the isotopic character of past and recent atmospheric Pb deposition in Switzerland and to constrain possible Pb sources. Lead removed from the moss surface was isotopically similar to that measured in the corresponding solid plant, suggesting that neither preservative actions for the herbarium samples nor dust had affected the isotopic composition of the samples. The addition of HCl to aqueous extracts to remove surface particles from the plants released more Pb compared to H 2O alone. The changes in isotope ratios between Sphagnum collected during the past c. 130 yr were significantly greater than the small fluctuations between and among species collected at any one time. Three isotope ratio plots and emission inventories indicated that the most likely source of atmospheric Pb was coal-burning at the turn of the century, fly ash from waste incineration until approximately 1950, and gasoline combustion after that. The pollution record derived from the Sphagnum plants is in good agreement with other archives from Switzerland (peat, sediment, ice) and with other herbarium records in Europe.

  15. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Peralta, Denilson F.; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae. PMID:27244582

  16. Morphogenetic role of kinetin and abscisic acid in the moss Physcomitrium.

    PubMed

    Menon, M K; Lal, M

    1974-12-01

    In the presence of kinetin, a supposedly gametophytic bud inducing substance, the secondary protonema of the moss Physcomitrium pyriforme Brid., as well as producing leafy gametophytes, continued to exhibit its normal tendency of forming sporophytic buds (i.e. buds with apical cells having two cutting faces). Also remarkable was that callus derived from the secondary protonema, when cultured in a kinetin supplemented liquid medium, formed exclusively apogamous sporophytic buds with a virtual exclusion of gametophytes. In the presence of abscisic acid, the elongation of protonemal cells as well as their differentiation was markedly suppressed. This effect was manifest even when abscisic acid was used in conjunction with kinetin. It is suggested that rather than having a morphoregulatory role, kinetin may be responsible merely for enhancing cell proliferation. The determination of an apical cell with two cutting faces (sporophytic) or one with three cutting faces (gametophytic) is under the control of other factors both external, (e.g. sucrose) and internal. It is proposed that abscisic acid can suppress the usual differentiational capacity of the moss tissue, even in a favourable environment. PMID:24458926

  17. [Genetic transformation of the moss Ceratodon purpureus by novel polycationic carriers of DNA].

    PubMed

    Finiuk, N S; Chaplia, A Ie; Mitina, N Ie; Boĭko, N M; Lobachevs'ka, O V; M'iahkota, O S; Iemets', A I; Blium, Ia B; Zaichenko, O S; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    There is a big progress in application of genetic engineering for improving the biological properties of different organisms. Viral and non-viral carriers are used for delivery of genetic material into target cells. Nanoscale polymeric materials of natural and synthetic origin are the most promising gene delivery agents. These polymers have demonstrated high efficiency of DNA delivery into the mammalian cells, although they were not very effective in plant cells. Here, the procedure for genetic transformation of Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. moss protoplasts is described. Method is based on the application of novel surface-active polymeric carriers of the polyDMAEM structure and controlled length and charge. It allows obtaining more transient and stable moss transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA when compared with known protocol based on using polyethyleneglycol. It is easier, more convenient, and cheaper than the "gene gun" method. Perspectives for further improvement of structure and functional characteristics of novel polymeric carriers are considered for delivery of genetic material into plant cells. PMID:25536816

  18. Influence of roads and inhabited areas on metal concentrations in terrestrial mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, B.; Aboal, J. R.; Fernández, J. A.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A.

    2010-09-01

    The guidelines regarding sampling terrestrial mosses for biomonitoring the atmospheric contamination in a region specifically recommend that sampling close to focal points of contamination (i.e. roads, populated areas, etc.) should be avoided for satisfactory characterization of general patterns of contamination. However, these recommendations cannot always be followed in many parts of the world with dense, highly dispersed populations. The aim of the present study was to determine how the distances between sampling sites (SS) and contamination foci such as roads, isolated houses and urban nuclei affect regular, large-scale sampling networks. Metal concentrations obtained in biennial sampling surveys carried out between 2000 and 2006 in Galicia (NW Spain) were used, and the relative proportions of the concentrations corresponding to small-scale and large-scale processes were calculated. The possible relationship between the mean concentrations corresponding to small-scale processes in the different sampling surveys and the distances from SS to roads, buildings and urban nuclei was established by a GIS. Outliers in the data were identified at many of the SS and frequency statistics revealed the absence of any relationship between the distance to these foci and the concentrations of metals in the moss. The method also revealed many instances of the influence of one or more small-scale contamination foci such as airports and railways (often not considered in the sampling recommendations) on SS. Relocation of such SS would improve the representativeness of the sampling grid.

  19. The effect of arctic mosses on the simulation of permafrost by the JULES land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadburn, S.; Burke, E.; Cox, P.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thawing permafrost is a potential source of large quantities of carbon, which could lead to significant climate feedbacks in the future, so it is important to include this effect in climate models. JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) is the land surface model used in the Hadley Centre climate model, as well as a land model in its own right, which will soon be used to quantify the magnitude of carbon release from permafrost thaw. It is therefore imperative that JULES simulates permafrost realistically. It has been shown that the model currently overestimates the permafrost active layer thickness, suggesting that its summer soil temperatures in permafrost regions are too high. One possible reason for this is that the physical properties of organic soil content such as moss and peat are not currently included. This organic matter is abundant at high latitudes and provides thermal insulation to the soil. In this work we include a routine to represent moss cover on the land surface, and find that it significantly improves the modelled soil temperatures. We quantify the effect of this new process on the large-scale representation of permafrost in JULES, including the active layer thickness.

  20. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae. PMID:27244582

  1. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V.; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-01-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola. Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress. PMID:27268428

  2. Comparative Cuticle Development Reveals Taller Sporophytes Are Covered by Thicker Calyptra Cuticles in Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The calyptra is a maternal structure that protects the sporophyte offspring from dehydration, and positively impacts sporophyte survival and fitness in mosses. We explore the relationship between cuticle protection and sporophyte height as a proxy for dehydration stress in Funariaceae species with sporophytes across a range of sizes. Calyptrae and sporophytes from four species were collected from laboratory-grown populations at two developmental stages. Tissues were embedded, sectioned, and examined using transmission electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness was measured from three epidermal cells per organ for each individual and compared statistically. All four species have cuticles consisting of a cuticle proper and a cuticular layer on the calyptra and sporophyte at both developmental stages. Across species, shorter sporophytes are associated with smaller calyptra and thinner calyptra cuticles, whereas taller sporophytes are associated with larger calyptra and thicker calyptra cuticles. Independent of size, young sporophytes have a thin cuticle that thickens later during development, while calyptrae have a mature cuticle produced early during development that persists throughout development. This study adds to our knowledge of maternal effects influencing offspring survival in plants. Released from the pressures to invest in protection for their sporophyte offspring, maternal resources can be allocated to other processes that support sporophyte reproductive success. Using a comparative developmental framework enables us to broaden our understanding of cuticle development across species and provides structural evidence supporting the waterproofing role of the moss calyptra. PMID:27379125

  3. Comparative Cuticle Development Reveals Taller Sporophytes Are Covered by Thicker Calyptra Cuticles in Mosses.

    PubMed

    Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The calyptra is a maternal structure that protects the sporophyte offspring from dehydration, and positively impacts sporophyte survival and fitness in mosses. We explore the relationship between cuticle protection and sporophyte height as a proxy for dehydration stress in Funariaceae species with sporophytes across a range of sizes. Calyptrae and sporophytes from four species were collected from laboratory-grown populations at two developmental stages. Tissues were embedded, sectioned, and examined using transmission electron microscopy. Cuticle thickness was measured from three epidermal cells per organ for each individual and compared statistically. All four species have cuticles consisting of a cuticle proper and a cuticular layer on the calyptra and sporophyte at both developmental stages. Across species, shorter sporophytes are associated with smaller calyptra and thinner calyptra cuticles, whereas taller sporophytes are associated with larger calyptra and thicker calyptra cuticles. Independent of size, young sporophytes have a thin cuticle that thickens later during development, while calyptrae have a mature cuticle produced early during development that persists throughout development. This study adds to our knowledge of maternal effects influencing offspring survival in plants. Released from the pressures to invest in protection for their sporophyte offspring, maternal resources can be allocated to other processes that support sporophyte reproductive success. Using a comparative developmental framework enables us to broaden our understanding of cuticle development across species and provides structural evidence supporting the waterproofing role of the moss calyptra. PMID:27379125

  4. Heavy Metals Atmospheric Deposition Study in Poznan Using the Moss Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczak, Z.; Ciszewska, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Culicov, O. A.

    2005-09-01

    The paper reports preliminary results on the content of heavy metals in the atmospheric air in the city of Poznań. Measurements have been made by the method of active biomonitoring with the use of neutron activation analysis. This method based on the use of moss, is non-destructive and characterized by high sensitivity of 10-10 kg/kg. Standard samples of living moss distributed at different sites in the city were exposed to the atmospheric air at different altitudes for a few weeks, to accumulate heavy metals from the air. Analysis of the gamma radiation from unstable radioisotopes of different lifetimes formed on exposing the sample to a beam of neutrons from the reactor IBR-2, permitted unambiguous identification of the accumulated elements. The results were used for analysis of distribution of heavy metals in the Poznań atmosphere. Maps illustrating the level of air pollution with heavy metals Cs, Sb, V, Zn and trace elements Al, Ca, Cr, Na were made.

  5. Balance between inbreeding and outcrossing in a nannandrous species, the moss Homalothecium lutescens.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, F; Cronberg, N; Hansson, B

    2016-01-01

    Epiphytic dwarf males on the females present a possible solution to the problem of short fertilization distances in mosses. However, leptokurtic spore dispersal makes dwarf males likely to be closely related to their host shoot, with an accompanying risk of inbreeding. The capacity of a female to harbour a high number of different dwarf males suggests that there may be mechanisms in place that counteract inbreeding, such as polyandry and post-fertilization selection. We have genotyped sporophytes, female host shoots and dwarf males in four populations of the moss Homalothecium lutescens. We found no evidence of selective sporophyte abortion based on level of heterozygosity. The occurrence of entirely homozygous sporophytes together with significantly positive inbreeding coefficients in three of the populations (mean FIS between 0.48 and 0.64) suggest frequent mother-son mating events. However, 23% of all sampled sporophytes had a higher level of heterozygosity compared with the mean expected heterozygosity at the population level. Polyandry was frequent, on average 59% of the sporophytes on a female shoot were sired by distinct fathers. In conclusion, sporadic fertilizations by dwarf males originating from nonhost female shoots appear to counteract strong inbreeding. PMID:26328759

  6. AirMOSS P-Band Radar Retrieval of Subcanopy Soil Moisture Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaeenejad, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture, as a key variable of the Earth system, plays an important role in our under-standing of the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. The importance of such knowledge has led NASA to fund missions such as Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS). The AirMOSS mission seeks to improve the estimates of the North American Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) by providing high-resolution observations of the root zone soil moisture (RZSM) over regions representative of the major North American biomes. AirMOSS flies a P-band SAR to penetrate vegetation and into the root zone to provide estimates of RZSM. The flights cover areas containing flux tower sites in regions from the boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada, to the tropical forests in La Selva, Costa Rica. The radar snapshots are used to generate estimates of RZSM via inversion of a scattering model of vegetation overlying soils with variable moisture profiles. These retrievals will be used to generate a time record of RZSM, which will be integrated with an ecosystem demography model in order to estimate the respiration and photosynthesis carbon fluxes. The aim of this work is the retrieval of the moisture profile over AirMOSS sites using the collected P-band radar data. We have integrated layered-soil scattering models into a forest scattering model; for the backscattering from ground and for the trunk-ground double-bounce mechanism, we have used a layered small perturbation method and a coherent scattering model of layered soil, respectively. To estimate the soil moisture profile, we represent it as a second-order polynomial in the form of az2 + bz + c, where z is the depth and a, b, and c are the coefficients to be retrieved from radar measurements. When retrieved, these coefficients give us the soil moisture up to a prescribed depth of validity. To estimate the unknown coefficients of the polynomial, we use simulated

  7. The linkage between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in boreal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiirola, Marja; Leppänen, Sanna; Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-05-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15N2 and 13CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbonfixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MOSS PHYSCOMITRELLA PATENS DELTA5-DESATURASE GENE INVOLVED IN ARACHIDONIC AND EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens contains high levels of arachidonic acid and lesser amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid. In general, these C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids are synthesized from linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, respectively, by a series of reactions catalyzed by a delta6-desaturase, an ...

  9. Lichen, moss and soil in resolving the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), including 28 persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) congeners in lichen, moss and soil collected from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, China. This allows research provides insight into elevation gradient distributions and possible cold trapping effects of SVOCs in this high mountain area, and compares lichens and mosses as air passive samplers for indicating SVOC occurrences. DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene predominated in all of the samples. Source analysis indicted that there were fresh inputs of DDTs and HCHs in the sampling region. Lichens and mosses shared commonalities in revealing the profiles and levels of SVOCs based on their lipid-content-normalized concentrations. The concentrations of 12 OCPs and 14 PCBs in lichens were significantly linearly correlated with altitudes, whereas the correlations for mosses and soil with altitudes were insignificant. Both a frequency distribution diagram and the Mountain Contamination Potential Model indicated that SVOCs with specific values of log KOA (8-11) and log KWA (2-4) had relative high mountain contamination potential on the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25770945

  10. Air quality in urban parking garages (PM10, major and trace elements, PAHs): Instrumental measurements vs. active moss biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Kuzmanoski, Maja; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Popović, Aleksandar

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in four parking garages in downtown of Belgrade with the aim to provide multi-pollutant assessment. Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority PAHs and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in PM10 samples. The carcinogenic health risk of employees' occupational exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) and PAHs (B[a]A, Cry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P and DB[ah]A) was estimated. A possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for monitoring of trace element air pollution in semi-enclosed spaces was evaluated as well. The results showed that concentrations of PM10, Cd, Ni and B[a]P exceeded the EU Directive target values. Concentration of Zn, Ba and Cu were two orders of magnitude higher than those measured at different urban sites in European cities. Cumulative cancer risk obtained for heavy metals and PAHs was 4.51 × 10-5 and 3.75 × 10-5 in M and PP, respectively; upper limit of the acceptable US EPA range is 10-4. In the moss, higher post-exposure than pre-exposure (background) element concentrations was observed. In comparison with instrumental monitoring data, similar order of abundances of the most elements in PM10 and moss samples was found. However, using of the S. girgensohnii moss bag technique in indoor environments needs further justification.

  11. Practical Application of Methanol-Mediated Mutualistic Symbiosis between Methylobacterium Species and a Roof Greening Moss, Racomitrium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Akio; Takai, Yuichiro; Suzukawa, Ikko; Akita, Motomu; Murase, Haruhiko; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Bryophytes, or mosses, are considered the most maintenance-free materials for roof greening. Racomitrium species are most often used due to their high tolerance to desiccation. Because they grow slowly, a technology for forcing their growth is desired. We succeeded in the efficient production of R. japonicum in liquid culture. The structure of the microbial community is crucial to stabilize the culture. A culture-independent technique revealed that the cultures contain methylotrophic bacteria. Using yeast cells that fluoresce in the presence of methanol, methanol emission from the moss was confirmed, suggesting that it is an important carbon and energy source for the bacteria. We isolated Methylobacterium species from the liquid culture and studied their characteristics. The isolates were able to strongly promote the growth of some mosses including R. japonicum and seed plants, but the plant-microbe combination was important, since growth promotion was not uniform across species. One of the isolates, strain 22A, was cultivated with R. japonicum in liquid culture and in a field experiment, resulting in strong growth promotion. Mutualistic symbiosis can thus be utilized for industrial moss production. PMID:22479445

  12. 76 FR 52596 - Request for Comment Concerning Interpretations of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act; Rule Governing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... (40 FR 25721) providing interim guidance during the initial implementation of the Act. As the... the Federal Register (42 FR 36112) its Interpretations of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act to assist... Commission published in the Federal Register (40 FR 60188) its Rule Governing Disclosure of Written...

  13. A new species of Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al., a moss-inhabiting flea beetle from Thailand (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second known species of flea beetle genus Cangshanaltica Konstantinov et al. (C. siamensis sp. nov.) from Thailand is described and illustrated. The described species is associated with moss habitats in a mountain forest. A key to the two known species of Cangshanaltica is provided...

  14. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  15. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  16. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  17. Using a Micro-Uav for Ultra-High Resolution Multi-Sensor Observations of Antarctic Moss Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, A.; Robinson, S.; Turner, D.; Harwin, S.; Kelcey, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is the first to use an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for mapping moss beds in Antarctica. Mosses can be used as indicators for the regional effects of climate change. Mapping and monitoring their extent and health is therefore important. UAV aerial photography provides ultra-high resolution spatial data for this purpose. We developed a technique to extract an extremely dense 3D point cloud from overlapping UAV aerial photography based on structure from motion (SfM) algorithms. The combination of SfM and patch-based multi-view stereo image vision algorithms resulted in a 2 cm resolution digital terrain model (DTM). This detailed topographic information combined with vegetation indices derived from a 6-band multispectral sensor enabled the assessment of moss bed health. This novel UAV system has allowed us to map different environmental characteristics of the moss beds at ultra-high resolution providing us with a better understanding of these fragile Antarctic ecosystems. The paper provides details on the different UAV instruments and the image processing framework resulting in DEMs, vegetation indices, and terrain derivatives.

  18. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of the Moss Tortula ruralis: Gene Content and Structural Arrangement Relative to Other Green Plant Chloroplast Genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tortula ruralis, a widely distributed moss species in the family Pottiaceae, is increasingly being used as a model organism for the study of desiccation tolerance and mechanisms of cellular repair. In this paper, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of Tortula ruralis, only the second publishe...

  19. Comparative radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant macrofossils and aquatic moss from the ice-free corridor of western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.M.; Beukens, R.P.; Kieser, W.E.; Vitt, D.H.

    1987-09-01

    In order to assess the reliability of aquatic moss for radiocarbon dating, /sup 14/C analyses were performed on a stratigraphic series of terrestrial plant macrofossils and samples of Drepanocladus crassicostatus from a small, hard-water lake (pH = 8.2) in the ice-free corridor of Alberta. All /sup 14/C dating was done by using accelerator mass spectrometry. Mazama Ash provided an independent chronological control. The aquatic bryophyte samples consistently produced /sup 14/C ages significantly older than the terrestrial macrofossils. The relation between the radiocarbon dates from the macrofossils and the moss was not linear, and age differences ranged from approximately 1400 to 6400 yr. The /sup 14/C content of D. crassicostatus growing in the lake at present was less than 85% modern. Despite the apparent inability to take up /sup 14/C-deficient carbon by the direct incorporation of bicarbonate, the bryophytes clearly do not provide reliable material /sup 14/C dating. The /sup 14/C deficiency of aquatic mosses may be explained by the generation of /sup 14/C-deficient CO/sub 2/ through isotopic exchange, the formation of CO/sub 2/ from bicarbonate by chemical processes, and metabolic CO/sub 2/ production. These results demonstrate the potential unreliability of /sup 14/C dates from aquatic mosses and raise serious concerns about the deglaciation dates from the ice-free corridor that were obtained from aquatic Drepanocladus.

  20. 78 FR 23843 - Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin' the Riverfront Festival; Robertson Lake & O'Leary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the Port A. Regulatory... FR 9866), providing proper notice and opportunity to comment on this rule. No comments were received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Moss Point Rockin'...

  1. Stevesaltica, a new genus of moss and leaf-litter inhabiting flea beetles from Bolivia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus (Stevesaltica) with two new species (S. normi and S. perdita) from Bolivia is described and illustrated. It is similar to Exoceras Jacoby. An identification key for all flea beetle genera known to occur in mosses in the Western Hemisphere is provided....

  2. Stable isotopes and Antarctic moss banks: Plants and soil microbes respond to recent warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royles, Jessica; Amesbury, Matthew; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Convey, Peter; Hodgson, Dominic; Griffiths, Howard; Leng, Melanie; Charman, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, with air temperature increases of as much as 3°C recorded since the 1950s. However, the longer-term context of this change is limited and existing records, largely relying on ice core data, are not suitably located to be able to trace the spatial signature of change over time. We are working on a project exploiting stable isotope records preserved in moss peat banks spanning 10 degrees of latitude along the Antarctic Peninsula as an archive of late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a unique time series of past moss growth and soil microbial activity that has been produced from a 150 year old moss bank at Lazarev Bay, Alexander Island (69°S), a site at the southern limit of significant plant growth in the Antarctic Peninsula region. These moss banks are ideal archives for palaeoclimate research as they are well-preserved by freezing, generally monospecific, easily dated by radiocarbon techniques, and have sufficiently high accumulation rates to permit decadal resolution. We use accumulation rates, cellulose δ13C and fossil testate amoebae to show that growth rates, assimilation and microbial productivity rose rapidly in the 1960s, consistent with temperature change, although recently may have stalled, concurrent with other evidence. The increase in biological activity is unprecedented in the last 150 years. Along with work completed on Signy Island (60°S), in the South Orkney Islands, in which we used carbon isotope evidence to show recent climate-related enhancement of CO2 assimilation and peat accumulation rates in Antarctica, the observed relationships between moss growth, microbial activity and climate suggests that moss bank records have the potential to test the regional expression of temperature variability shown by instrumental data on the Antarctic Peninsula over centennial to millennial timescales, by providing long-term records of summer growth conditions

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome in the desiccation-tolerant moss Syntrichia caninervis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Syntrichia caninervis is a desiccation-tolerant moss and the dominant bryophyte of the Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) found in the Mojave and Gurbantunggut deserts. Next generation high throughput sequencing technologies offer an efficient and economic choice for characterizing non-model organism transcriptomes with little or no prior molecular information available. Results In this study, we employed next generation, high-throughput, Illumina RNA-Seq to analyze the poly-(A) + mRNA from hydrated, dehydrating and desiccated S. caninervis gametophores. Approximately 58.0 million paired-end short reads were obtained and 92,240 unigenes were assembled with an average size of 493 bp, N50 value of 662 bp and a total size of 45.48 Mbp. Sequence similarity searches against five public databases (NR, Swiss-Prot, COSMOSS, KEGG and COG) found 54,125 unigenes (58.7%) with significant similarity to an existing sequence (E-value ≤ 1e-5) and could be annotated. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation assigned 24,183 unigenes to the three GO terms: Biological Process, Cellular Component or Molecular Function. GO comparison between P. patens and S. caninervis demonstrated similar sequence enrichment across all three GO categories. 29,370 deduced polypeptide sequences were assigned Pfam domain information and categorized into 4,212 Pfam domains/families. Using the PlantTFDB, 778 unigenes were predicted to be involved in the regulation of transcription and were classified into 49 transcription factor families. Annotated unigenes were mapped to the KEGG pathways and further annotated using MapMan. Comparative genomics revealed that 44% of protein families are shared in common by S. caninervis, P. patens and Arabidopsis thaliana and that 80% are shared by both moss species. Conclusions This study is one of the first comprehensive transcriptome analyses of the moss S. caninervis. Our data extends our knowledge of bryophyte transcriptomes, provides an insight to plants

  4. GPR survey to detect buried prehistorical remains at North Ballachulish Moss (Scotland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Persico, R.; Utsi, E.

    2009-04-01

    This work deals with the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) exploitation to map the underlying topography of North Ballachulish Moss as part of an archaeological evaluation of the area that was under threat of development. The aim of the survey has been to reconstruct peat depth and detect and locate buried localised targets [1]. During the survey many radar anomalies have been detected and the reliability of the radar survey has been confirmed by ground-truthing under the form of sediment coring, test-pitting and trial excavations. Sediment coring and test-pitting provided corroborative evidence for the peat depths as defined by the radar survey. Trial trenching revealed that a suite of radar anomalies, identified during the course of the survey, are related to a buried prehistoric surface with an associated abundance of man-made artefacts (wooden stakes). The data interpretation has benefited of the representation of the GPR results under the format of horizontal time-slices that well pointed out the depth of the peat and the localization and the shape of the buried localised targets. In particular, the series of time-slices show the development of discrete surfaces and their relationship to an adjacent headland. The orientation of the site and its proximity to the location of a buried prehistoric wooden figure suggest ritual importance. Finally, the measurements have been processed by a novel data processing approach based on the microwave tomography [3-4]; the results of this data processing have been compared with the ones of the standard data processing and have confirmed the above said outcomes of the standard data processing. [1] C.M. Clarke, E.Utsi, V. Utsi, "Ground penetrating radar investigations at North Ballachulish Moss, Highland, Scotland", Archaeological Prospection, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 107-121-75 , 1999 [2] E. Utsi, "Ground-penetrating radar time-slices from North Ballachulish Moss", Archaeological Prospection, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 65-75, 2004. [3] F

  5. Interactive Effects of Moss-Dominated Crusts and Artemisia ordosica on Wind Erosion and Soil Moisture in Mu Us Sandland, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongsheng; Bu, Chongfeng; Mu, Xingmin; Shao, Hongbo; Zhang, Kankan

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effects of biological soil crusts (BSCs) on soil moisture and wind erosion and study the necessity and feasibility of disturbance of BSCs in the Mu Us sandland, the effects of four treatments, including moss-dominated crusts alone, Artemisia ordosica alone, bare sand, and Artemisia ordosica combined with moss-dominated crusts, on rainwater infiltration, soil moisture, and annual wind erosion were observed. The major results are as follows. (1) The development of moss-dominated crusts exacerbated soil moisture consumption and had negative effects on soil moisture in the Mu Us sandland. (2) Moss-dominated crusts significantly increased soil resistance to wind erosion, and when combined with Artemisia ordosica, this effect became more significant. The contribution of moss-dominated crusts under Artemisia ordosica was significantly lower than that of moss-dominated crusts alone in sites where vegetative coverage > 50%. (3) Finally, an appropriate disturbance of moss-dominated crusts in the rainy season in sites with high vegetative coverage improved soil water environment and vegetation succession, but disturbance in sites with little or no vegetative cover should be prohibited to avoid the exacerbation of wind erosion. PMID:24982973

  6. Aquatic mosses as a monitoring tool for 137Cs contamination in streams and rivers-a field study from central southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Hongve, D; Brittain, J E; Bjørnstad, H E

    2002-01-01

    Mosses are frequently used as biomonitors for trace element pollution in the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to assess their usefulness as a tool in monitoring and in regional surveys of radioactive contamination. Specimens of the aquatic mosses, Fontinalis antipyretica and F. dalecarlica, were transplanted from non-contaminated areas to streams and rivers in the Norwegian Jotunheimen Mountains and neighbouring lowland areas that had received radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident. Equilibrium concentrations of 137Cs in the exposed mosses were reached after a few weeks. Two series from 20 streams in 1994 and 1996 show linear correlations between activities in water and moss samples and biomagnification ratios of 10(4) - 10(5). We conclude that mosses are better suited for monitoring purposes than water samples, because they provide values integrated over weeks while the radioactivity in surface waters can be subject to rapid variations according to hydrological events. The activity concentrations in aquatic mosses can be easily measured with good precision even when aqueous concentrations are below the limit of detection. Use of aquatic mosses also reduces the logistic problems of transporting large volumes of water, especially in areas inaccessible by road. PMID:11936604

  7. Influence of water hardness on accumulation and elimination of cadmium in two aquatic mosses under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, C; Vaillancourt, G; Pazdernik, L

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of water hardness on the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) by two aquatic mosses, Fontinalis dalecarlica and Platyhypnidium riparioides, under laboratory conditions. The two mosses were exposed to nominal Cd concentrations of 0, 0.8, 2, and 10 microg . L-1, which includes the concentration range generally found in nature. The influence of three levels of water hardness (very soft: 11.7 mg . L-1; soft: 44.2 mg . L-1; and hard water: 92.3 mg . L-1 as CaCO3) was measured while maintaining the alkalinity and pH constant during the 28-day exposure. The Cd accumulation by the aquatic mosses was rapid, showing the potential of accumulation and the sensitivity of this biomonitor. Even if the actual Cd concentration in the water was low (concentration <0.15 microg . L-1 to 6.82 microg . L-1 of Cd), the uptake of Cd was very fast and mostly linear. This study was conducted in water hardness comparable to that found in the Canadian shield (hardness was <100 mg . L-1 as CaCO3). When the actual Cd concentration in the water was as high as 6.82 microg . L-1, the uptake of Cd was mostly linear and the steady state condition was not reach. Accumulation rates of Cd were significantly different when the mosses were in very soft (11.7 mg . L-1) as compared to hard water (92.3 mg . L-1 as CaCO3). The elimination of Cd followed a very slow process for the two species studied. The elimination rates of Cd from the mosses were not influenced by water hardness. PMID:9419268

  8. Best options for the exposure of traditional and innovative moss bags: A systematic evaluation in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Aboal, J R; Adamo, P; Bargagli, R; Boquete, T; Di Palma, A; Real, C; Reski, R; Spagnuolo, V; Steinbauer, K; Tretiach, M; Varela, Z; Zechmeister, H; Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To develop an internationally standardized protocol for the moss bag technique application, the research team participating in the FP7 European project "MOSSclone" focused on the optimization of the moss bags exposure in terms of bag characteristics (shape of the bags, mesh size, weight/surface ratio), duration and height of exposure by comparing traditional moss bags to a new concept bag, "Mossphere". In particular, the effects of each variable on the metal uptake from the air were evaluated by a systematic experimental design carried out in urban, industrial, agricultural and background areas of three European countries with oceanic, Mediterranean and continental climate. The results evidenced that the shape, the mesh size of the bags and the exposure height (in the tested ranges), did not significantly influence the uptake capacity of the transplanted moss. The aspects more affecting the element uptake were represented by the density of the moss inside the bags and the relative ratio between its weight and the surface area of the bag. We found that, the lower the density, the higher the uptake recorded. Moreover, three weeks of exposure were not enough to have a consistent uptake signal in all the environments tested, thus we suggest an exposure period not shorter than 6 weeks, which is appropriate in most situations. The above results were confirmed in all the countries and scenarios tested. The adoption of a shared exposure protocol by the research community is strongly recommended since it is a key aspect to make biomonitoring surveys directly comparable, also in view of its recognition as a monitoring method by the EU legislation. PMID:27108040

  9. Automatic Event Detection in Search for Inter-Moss Loops in IRIS Si IV Slit-Jaw Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayock, Brian; Winebarger, Amy R.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The high-resolution capabilities of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) mission have allowed the exploration of the finer details of the solar magnetic structure from the chromosphere to the lower corona that have previously been unresolved. Of particular interest to us are the relatively short-lived, low-lying magnetic loops that have foot points in neighboring moss regions. These inter-moss loops have also appeared in several AIA pass bands, which are generally associated with temperatures that are at least an order of magnitude higher than that of the Si IV emission seen in the 1400 angstrom pass band of IRIS. While the emission lines seen in these pass bands can be associated with a range of temperatures, the simultaneous appearance of these loops in IRIS 1400 and AIA 171, 193, and 211 suggest that they are not in ionization equilibrium. To study these structures in detail, we have developed a series of algorithms to automatically detect signal brightening or events on a pixel-by-pixel basis and group them together as structures for each of the above data sets. These algorithms have successfully picked out all activity fitting certain adjustable criteria. The resulting groups of events are then statistically analyzed to determine which characteristics can be used to distinguish the inter-moss loops from all other structures. While a few characteristic histograms reveal that manually selected inter-moss loops lie outside the norm, a combination of several characteristics will need to be used to determine the statistical likelihood that a group of events be categorized automatically as a loop of interest. The goal of this project is to be able to automatically pick out inter-moss loops from an entire data set and calculate the characteristics that have previously been determined manually, such as length, intensity, and lifetime. We will discuss the algorithms, preliminary results, and current progress of automatic characterization.

  10. A hundred-year-old question: is the moss calyptra covered by a cuticle? A case study of Funaria hygrometrica

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The maternal gametophytic calyptra is critical for moss sporophyte development and ultimately sporogenesis. The calyptra has been predicted to protect the sporophyte apex, including the undifferentiated sporogenous region and seta meristem, from desiccation. We investigate the hypothesis that this waterproofing ability is due to a waxy cuticle. The idea that moss calyptrae are covered by a cuticle has been present in the literature for over a century, but, until now, neither the presence nor the absence of a cuticle has been documented for any calyptra. Methods The epidermis of the calyptra, leafy gametophyte and sporophyte sporangia of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thicknesses of individual cuticle layers were quantified and compared statistically. The immunochemistry antibody (LM19) specific for pectins was used to locate cell wall material within the cuticle. Key Results A multi-layered cuticle is present on the calyptra of F. hygrometrica, including layers analogous to the cuticular layer, cell wall projections, electron-lucent and electron-dense cuticle proper observed in vascular plants. The calyptra rostrum has a cuticle that is significantly thicker than the other tissues examined and differs by specialized thickenings of the cuticular layer (cuticular pegs) at the regions of the anticlinal cell walls. This is the first documentation of cuticular pegs in a moss. Conclusions The calyptra and its associated cuticle represent a unique form of maternal care in embryophytes. This organ has the potential to play a critical role in preventing desiccation of immature sporophytes and thereby may have been essential for the evolution of the moss sporophyte. PMID:21486928

  11. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended. PMID:25647488

  12. Participation of IAA in transduction of gravistimulus in apical cells of moss protonema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksyniuk, U. A.; Khorkavtsiv, O. Y.; Lesniak, Y. I.

    Growth movements of vascular plant axis organs -- photo-, gravi- and other tropisms -- are tightly connected with IAA transport (Hertel, 1983; Medvedev, 1996; Kiss, 2000). Moss protonema synthesizes IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and transports it basipetally favouring growth and differentiation of caulonema (Bopp, 1979; Rose, Bopp, 1983; Rose et al., 1983). We aimed at studying the role of IAA in moss protonema gravitropism using exogenous IAA, 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- phytotropins NPA (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid) and TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). Six-day gravitropic protonema of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans were taken for experiments. Auxin and phytotropins solutions were laid on protonema mats the latters being kept in solutions for 30 min. Then the surplus of solutions were poured off and Petri dishes were placed vertically for 6 h. 20 μ M of IAA and of other synthetic auxins did not significantly influence the angle of protonema gravity bending, 40 μ M of the agents, howewer, reduced the per cent of apical cells bendings and their angles. The most expressed influence on the angles of bending had the inhibitors of polar IAA transport -- NPA. 0,1 -- 3,0 μ M of this phytotropin did not change the form of apical cell, did not disturb the general distribution of amyloplasts and did not significantly lower the per cent and the value of gravity bending angle, though 10 μ M of the phytotropin - inhibited gravity bending. The mixture of 1-NAA and NPA having been added into the medium the influence of NPA was lowered and gravitropic growth renewed in course of time. 10 μ M of other phytopropin TIBA also inhibited gravitropism of Ceratodon purpureus and Pohlia nutans protonema. The analysis of basipetal transport of IAA in moss rhizoids and protonema may indicate the availability of special IAA transport in these structures (Bopp, Cerier, 1988). On the basis of the

  13. [The growth movements of moss protonemata under clinostatic and microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kordium, E. L.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Sack, F.; Kern, F.; Kardash, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of dark-grown protonemata of moss Ceratodon purpureus wt-4 (Germany) and wt-U (Ukraine) were rotated on clinostat or flown in space (experiment "Protonema" aboard Bion-11, December 24, 1996-January 7, 1997) to determine the effects of altered gravity on orientation of protonemata growing filaments. Protonemata had been cultivated 8 days in vertical stationary position at dark to be transported to microgravity or placed in clinostat for the period of 14 days. In the ground control, protonemata demonstrated the negatively gravitropic growth (straight upwards in a bundle of compact filaments). The horizontal or circular rotation in clinostat and exposure to microgravity made filaments grow every each way within the substrate plane but with an apparent trend to rightward curling resulting in "spiral galaxies".

  14. PREFACE: The 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dengqing; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the 4th Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures (MoSS2013) run under the auspices of the Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group and hosted by Harbin Institute of Technology (China) from 7-9 January 2013. The conference has been organized in collaboration with the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and follows a one day seminar on Ropes, Cables, Belts and Chains: Theory and Applications and the MoSS2006 symposium held at the University of Northampton (UK) in 2004 and 2006, respectively, the MoSS2008 symposium held at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (USA) in 2008 and the MoSS2010 symposium hosted by Mondragon University and held in San Sebastian (Spain) in 2010. The remit of the Symposium on the Mechanics of Slender Structures series involves a broad range of scientific areas. Applications of slender structures include terrestrial, marine and space systems. Moving elastic elements such as ropes, cables, belts and tethers are pivotal components of many engineering systems. Their lengths often vary when the system is in operation. The applications include vertical transportation installations and, more recently, space tether propulsion systems. Traction drive elevator installations employ ropes and belts of variable length as a means of suspension, and also for the compensation of tensile forces over the traction sheave. In cranes and mine hoists, cables and ropes are subject to length variation in order to carry payloads. Tethers experiencing extension and retraction are important components of offshore and marine installations, as well as being proposed for a variety of different space vehicle propulsion systems based on different applications of momentum exchange and electrodynamic interactions with planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, cables and slender rods are used extensively in civil engineering

  15. Composition and structure of photosystem I in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andreas; Petersen, Jørgen; Webber-Birungi, Mariam T.; Powikrowska, Marta; Lassen, Lærke Marie Münter; Naumann-Busch, Bianca; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ye, Juanying; Boekema, Egbert J.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Lunde, Christina; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2013-01-01

    Recently, bryophytes, which diverged from the ancestor of seed plants more than 400 million years ago, came into focus in photosynthesis research as they can provide valuable insights into the evolution of photosynthetic complexes during the adaptation to terrestrial life. This study isolated intact photosystem I (PSI) with its associated light-harvesting complex (LHCI) from the moss Physcomitrella patens and characterized its structure, polypeptide composition, and light-harvesting function using electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, biochemical, and physiological methods. It became evident that Physcomitrella possesses a strikingly high number of isoforms for the different PSI core subunits as well as LHCI proteins. It was demonstrated that all these different subunit isoforms are expressed at the protein level and are incorporated into functional PSI–LHCI complexes. Furthermore, in contrast to previous reports, it was demonstrated that Physcomitrella assembles a light-harvesting complex consisting of four light-harvesting proteins forming a higher-plant-like PSI superstructure. PMID:23682117

  16. Orbital experiment ``Gravisensor'': phototropic reactions of the moss Physcomitrella patens to different types of LED lighting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Vladimir; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Skripnikov, Alexander; Zyablova, Natalya; Mukhoyan, Makar; Emelianov, Grigory

    The experiment was conducted on Russian Biological Satelite Bion-M #1 19.04-19.05 2013. Five transparent plastic cultural flasks were placed in five light isolated sections of Biocont-B2 cylindrical container with inner diameter of 120 mm and height of 230 mm. In four sections the flasks could be illuminated by top or side LED with wavelength of 458 nm, 630 nm, 730 nm, and white (color temperature 5000º К, peaks 453, 559 nm). Photon flux in each variant was 15 umol/(m2c). In the fifth section the flask with the shoots was in conditions of constant dark. Each section was equipped with its own video camera module. Cameras, video recorder and lighting were managed by micro controller. 12 days before launch, 5 tips of the moss shoots were explanted at each of the five flasks on the agar medium with nutrient components and were cultivated under white fluorescent lamps at 12 hour photo period till the launch. After entering the orbit and during next 14 days of flight top LEDs were turned on above the flasks. Then for the following 14 days of flight the side LEDs of similar wavelength were turned on. The moss gametophores were cultivated at 12-h photoperiod. During the experiment on an hourly basis a video recording of the moss was performed. Similar equipment was used for ground control. After the experiment video files were used to produce separate time-lapse films for each flask using AviSynth program. In flight the shoots demonstrated the maximum growth speed with far red lighting and slower speed with white lighting. With blue and red lighting after switching to side light stimuli the growth of shoots almost stopped. In the dark the shoots continued to grow until the 13 day after launch of the satellite, then their growth stopped. In ground control the relation of growth rate with various LEDs remained basically the same, with the exception of side blue lighting, where the shoots demonstrated considerable vertical growth. In flight the angle of inclination towards

  17. Comparative studies of metal air pollution by atomic spectrometry techniques and biomonitoring with moss and lichens.

    PubMed

    State, Gabriel; Popescu, Ion V; Radulescu, Cristiana; Macris, Cristina; Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Dulama, Ioana; Niţescu, Ovidiu

    2012-09-01

    Our study was dedicated to the analysis of air pollution level with metals in Dambovita County, Romania; maps of the concentration distributions for air pollutants were drawn; statistical analysis includes calculation of the background concentrations and the contamination factors. The highest values of the contamination factor CF is 63.1 ± 6.63 for mosses samples and 33.12 ± 3.96 for lichens and it indicates extreme contaminations in the surroundings of steel works and an electric plant. The comparison of the distribution maps for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations enables the identification of the pollution sources, the limits of areas with very high levels of pollution, the comparison of the concentration gradients in some areas and the influence of woodlands on the spread of pollutants through the air. PMID:22760846

  18. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport. PMID:25806686

  19. Amyloplasts as possible statoliths in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus.

    PubMed

    Walker, L M; Sack, F D

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of gravitropism and of amyloplast sedimentation were studied in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. The protonemata grew straight up at a rate of 20-25 micromoles h-1 in nutrient-supplemented agar. After they were oriented to the horizontal, upward curvature was first detected after 1-1.5 h and reached 84 degrees by 24 h. The tip cells exhibited an amyloplast zonation, with a tip cluster of non-sedimenting amyloplasts, an amyloplast-free zone, and a zone with pronounced amyloplast sedimentation. This latter zone appears specialized more for lateral than for axial sedimentation since amyloplasts sediment to the lower wall in horizontal protonemata but do not fall to the basal wall in vertical protonemata. Amyloplast sedimentation started within 15 min of gravistimulation; this is within the 12-17-min presentation time. The data support the hypothesis that some amyloplasts function as statoliths in these cells. PMID:11538268

  20. Amyloplasts as possible statoliths in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus.

    PubMed

    Walker, L M; Sack, F D

    1990-04-01

    The kinetics of gravitropism and of amyloplast sedimentation were studied in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. The protonemata grew straight up at a rate of 20-25 μm·h(-) in nutrient-supplemented agar. After they were oriented to the horizontal, upward curvature was first detected after 1-1.5 h and reached 84° by 24 h. The tip cells exhibited an amyloplast zonation, with a tip cluster of nonsedimenting amyloplasts, an amyloplast-free zone, and a zone with pronounced amyloplast sedimentation. This latter zone appears specialized more for lateral than for axial sedimentation since amyloplasts sediment to the lower wall in horizontal protonemata but do not fall to the basal wall in vertical protonemata. Amyloplast sedimentation started within 15 min of gravistimulation; this is within the 12-17-min presentation time. The data support the hypothesis that some amyloplasts function as statoliths in these cells. PMID:24196676

  1. Amyloplasts as possible statoliths in gravitropic protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of gravitropism and of amyloplast sedimentation were studied in dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. The protonemata grew straight up at a rate of 20-25 micromoles h-1 in nutrient-supplemented agar. After they were oriented to the horizontal, upward curvature was first detected after 1-1.5 h and reached 84 degrees by 24 h. The tip cells exhibited an amyloplast zonation, with a tip cluster of non-sedimenting amyloplasts, an amyloplast-free zone, and a zone with pronounced amyloplast sedimentation. This latter zone appears specialized more for lateral than for axial sedimentation since amyloplasts sediment to the lower wall in horizontal protonemata but do not fall to the basal wall in vertical protonemata. Amyloplast sedimentation started within 15 min of gravistimulation; this is within the 12-17-min presentation time. The data support the hypothesis that some amyloplasts function as statoliths in these cells.

  2. Novel Biogenic Aggregation of Moss Gemmae on a Disappearing African Glacier

    PubMed Central

    Uetake, Jun; Tanaka, Sota; Hara, Kosuke; Tanabe, Yukiko; Samyn, Denis; Motoyama, Hideaki; Imura, Satoshi; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Tropical regions are not well represented in glacier biology, yet many tropical glaciers are under threat of disappearance due to climate change. Here we report a novel biogenic aggregation at the terminus of a glacier in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda. The material was formed by uniseriate protonemal moss gemmae and protonema. Molecular analysis of five genetic markers determined the taxon as Ceratodon purpureus, a cosmopolitan species that is widespread in tropical to polar region. Given optimal growing temperatures of isolate is 20–30°C, the cold glacier surface might seem unsuitable for this species. However, the cluster of protonema growth reached approximately 10°C in daytime, suggesting that diurnal increase in temperature may contribute to the moss’s ability to inhabit the glacier surface. The aggregation is also a habitat for microorganisms, and the disappearance of this glacier will lead to the loss of this unique ecosystem. PMID:25401789

  3. Metabolite profiling of the moss Physcomitrella patens reveals evolutionary conservation of osmoprotective substances.

    PubMed

    Erxleben, Anika; Gessler, Arthur; Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Reski, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is suitable for systems biology studies, as it can be grown axenically under standardised conditions in plain mineral medium and comprises only few cell types. We report on metabolite profiling of two major P. patens tissues, filamentous protonema and leafy gametophores, from different culture conditions. A total of 96 compounds were detected, 21 of them as yet unknown in public databases. Protonema and gametophores had distinct metabolic profiles, especially with regard to saccharides, sugar derivates, amino acids, lignin precursors and nitrogen-rich storage compounds. A hydroponic culture was established for P. patens, and was used to apply drought stress under physiological conditions. This treatment led to accumulation of osmoprotectants, such as altrose, maltitol, ascorbic acid and proline. Thus, these osmoprotectants are not unique to seed plants but have evolved at an early phase of the colonization of land by plants. PMID:22038371

  4. MossWinn—methodological advances in the field of Mössbauer data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klencsár, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The methodology of Mössbauer data analysis has been advanced via the development of a novel scientific database system concept and its realization in the field of Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as by the application of parallel computing techniques for the enhancement of the efficiency of various processes encountered in the practice of Mössbauer data handling and analysis. The present article describes the new database system concept along with details of its realization in the form of the MossWinn Internet Database (MIDB), and illustrates the performance advantage that may be realized on multi-core processor systems by the application of parallel algorithms for the implementation of database system functions.

  5. Activation of Shikimate, Phenylpropanoid, Oxylipins, and Auxin Pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum Elicitors-Treated Moss.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Schmelz, Eric; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins, and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. PMID:27047509

  6. Activation of Shikimate, Phenylpropanoid, Oxylipins, and Auxin Pathways in Pectobacterium carotovorum Elicitors-Treated Moss

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Alfonso; Montesano, Marcos; Schmelz, Eric; Ponce de León, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Plants have developed complex defense mechanisms to cope with microbial pathogens. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of defense. While substantial progress has been made in understanding the activation of plant defense by PAMPs and DAMPs recognition in tracheophytes, far less information exists on related processes in early divergent plants like mosses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that were induced in P. patens in response to elicitors of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, using a cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. A total of 239 unigenes were identified, including genes involved in defense responses related to the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, and oxylipin pathways. The expression levels of selected genes related to these pathways were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, confirming their rapid induction by P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. In addition, P. patens induced cell wall reinforcement after elicitor treatment by incorporation of phenolic compounds, callose deposition, and elevated expression of Dirigent-like encoding genes. Small molecule defense markers and phytohormones such as cinnamic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and auxin levels all increased in elicitor-treated moss tissues. In contrast, salicylic acid levels decreased while abscisic acid levels remained unchanged. P. patens reporter lines harboring an auxin-inducible promoter fused to β-glucuronidase revealed GUS activity in protonemal and gametophores tissues treated with elicitors of P.c. carotovorum, consistent with a localized activation of auxin signaling. These results indicate that P. patens activates the shikimate, phenylpropanoid, oxylipins, and auxin pathways upon treatment with P.c. carotovorum derived elicitors. PMID:27047509

  7. CO2 flux from tundra lichen, moss, and tussock, Council, Alaska: Assessment of spatial representativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Chae, N.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 flux-measurement in dominant tundra vegetation on the Seward Peninsula of Alaska was examined for spatial representativeness, using a manual chamber system. In order to assess the representativeness of CO2 flux, a 40 m × 40 m (5-m interval; 81 total points) plot was used in June, August, and September of 2011. Average CO2 fluxes in lichen, moss, and tussock tundra were 3.4 ± 2.7, 4.5 ± 2.9, and 7.2 ± 5.7 mgCO2/m2/m during growing season, respectively, suggesting that tussock tundra is a significant CO2 source, especially considering the wide distribution of tussock tundra in the circumpolar region. Further, soil temperature, rather than soil moisture, held the key role in regulating CO2 flux at the study site: CO2 flux from tussock increased linearly as soil temperature increased, while the flux from lichen and moss followed soil temperature nearly exponentially, reflecting differences in surface area covered by the chamber system. Regarding sample size, the 81 total sampling points over June, August, and September satisfy an experimental average that falls within ±10% of full sample average, with a 95% confidence level. However, the number of sampling points for each variety of vegetation during each month must provide at least ±20%, with an 80% confidence level. In order to overcome the logistical constraints, we were required to identify the site's characteristics with a manual chamber system over a 40 m × 40 m plot and to subsequently employ an automated chamber for spatiotemporal representativeness.

  8. Determination of heavy metal pollution in Zonguldak (Turkey) by moss analysis (hypnum cupressiforme)

    SciTech Connect

    Uyar, G.; Avcil, E.; Oren, M.; Karaca, F.; Oncel, M.S.

    2009-01-15

    This paper explores the first attempt at determining the levels of atmospheric heavy metal contamination in the Zonguldak province through the analysis of moss (Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.). Sampling was performed at 24 sites after a wet period to avoid contamination from soil compounds in the province. Dried samples, which were unwashed but cleaned of soil particles and other extraneous material, were digested with HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) were analyzed by ICP-OES to estimate the geographic distribution of the atmospheric heavy metal depositions. The general order of the concentrations of the heavy metal content in Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was observed to be Fe > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Co. Mean levels of the measured elements were higher when compared to European levels. Arsenic, iron, and chromium were the most elevated elements when compared with European data. The mean concentrations of these elements in the studied area were 8.3 (Co), 6.7 (Fe), 5.2 (Cr), 4.6 (As), and 2.7 (Ni) times the background levels of the reference site (C3). Among the studied heavy metals, only lead showed little variation in measured values due to traffic in the area. Main sources of increased heavy metal content of the moss samples were found to be: I) the Catalagzi Power Plant (CATES); ii) the Eregli Iron-Steel Plant (ERDEMIR); iii) space heating; and iv) traffic-related emissions. Results are presented in the form of color-scaled contour maps using a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based mapping technique.

  9. Methane oxidation associated to submerged brown-mosses buffers methane emissions from Siberian polygonal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebner, Susanne; Zeyer, Josef; Knoblauch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Circumpolar peatlands store roughly 18 % of the globally stored carbon in soils [based on 1, 2]. Also, northern wetlands and tundra are a net source of methane (CH4), an effective greenhouse gas (GHG), with an estimated annual CH4 release of 7.2% [3] or 8.1% [4] of the global total CH4 emission. Although it is definite that Arctic tundra significantly contributes to the global methane emissions in general, regional variations in GHG fluxes are enormous. CH4 fluxes of polygonal tundra within the Siberian Lena Delta, for example, were reported to be low [5, 6], particularly at open water polygonal ponds and small lakes [7] which make up around 10 % of the delta's surface. Low methane emissions from polygonal ponds oppose that Arctic permafrost thaw ponds are generally known to emit large amounts of CH4 [8]. Combining tools of biogeochemistry and molecular microbiology, we identified sinks of CH4 in polygonal ponds from the Lena Delta that were not considered so far in GHG studies from Arctic wetlands. Pore water CH4 profiling in polygonal ponds on Samoylov, a small island in the central part of the Lena Delta, revealed a pronounced zone of CH4 oxidation near the vegetation surface in submerged layers of brown-mosses. Here, potential CH4 oxidation was an order of magnitude higher than in non-submerged mosses and in adjacent bulk soil. We could additionally show that this moss associated methane oxidation (MAMO) is hampered when exposure of light is prevented. Shading of plots with submerged Scorpidium scorpioides inhibited MAMO leading to higher CH4 concentrations and an increase in CH4 fluxes by a factor of ~13. Compared to non-submerged mosses, the submerged mosses also showed significantly lower δ13C values indicating that they use carbon dioxide derived from methane oxidation for photosynthesis. Applying stable isotope probing of DNA, type II methanotrophs were identified to be responsible for the oxidation of CH4 in the submerged Scorpidium scorpioides. Our

  10. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  11. Methane oxidation associated to submerged brown-mosses buffers methane emissions from Siberian polygonal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebner, Susanne; Zeyer, Josef; Knoblauch, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Circumpolar peatlands store roughly 18 % of the globally stored carbon in soils [based on 1, 2]. Also, northern wetlands and tundra are a net source of methane (CH4), an effective greenhouse gas (GHG), with an estimated annual CH4 release of 7.2% [3] or 8.1% [4] of the global total CH4 emission. Although it is definite that Arctic tundra significantly contributes to the global methane emissions in general, regional variations in GHG fluxes are enormous. CH4 fluxes of polygonal tundra within the Siberian Lena Delta, for example, were reported to be low [5, 6], particularly at open water polygonal ponds and small lakes [7] which make up around 10 % of the delta's surface. Low methane emissions from polygonal ponds oppose that Arctic permafrost thaw ponds are generally known to emit large amounts of CH4 [8]. Combining tools of biogeochemistry and molecular microbiology, we identified sinks of CH4 in polygonal ponds from the Lena Delta that were not considered so far in GHG studies from Arctic wetlands. Pore water CH4 profiling in polygonal ponds on Samoylov, a small island in the central part of the Lena Delta, revealed a pronounced zone of CH4 oxidation near the vegetation surface in submerged layers of brown-mosses. Here, potential CH4 oxidation was an order of magnitude higher than in non-submerged mosses and in adjacent bulk soil. We could additionally show that this moss associated methane oxidation (MAMO) is hampered when exposure of light is prevented. Shading of plots with submerged Scorpidium scorpioides inhibited MAMO leading to higher CH4 concentrations and an increase in CH4 fluxes by a factor of ~13. Compared to non-submerged mosses, the submerged mosses also showed significantly lower δ13C values indicating that they use carbon dioxide derived from methane oxidation for photosynthesis. Applying stable isotope probing of DNA, type II methanotrophs were identified to be responsible for the oxidation of CH4 in the submerged Scorpidium scorpioides. Our

  12. Reconstructions of Late Holocene Climate Using Ice-entombed Mosses and Sub-fossil Peat on the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zicheng; Loisel, Julie; Beilman, David; Cleary, Kate

    2015-04-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of three regions on Earth that have experienced the greatest warming over recent decades. Here we used paleo records from fossil mosses and peats on the WAP to explore a new paleoclimate archive that links climate, cryosphere and ecosystem dynamics for reconstructing climate change in recent millennia. Continuing retreat of ice and permanent snow has recently exposed numerous entombed mosses and intact peatbank ecosystems along the WAP around 65°S latitude that have been buried under ice and snow during the cold "Little Ice Age" (LIA). Radiocarbon dating indicates ages of 850-600 cal yr BP from re-exposed moss samples from retreating ice and of 100 cal yr BP from near shrinking snow. This age difference suggests that initial climate cooling and subsequent ice advance overran peatbanks immediately below the ice margin at the onset of the LIA, followed by permanent snow expansion often from low elevation upslope at the end of the LIA. Furthermore, detailed macrofossil and pollen analysis of a peat core from a moss peatbank on nearby mainland Antarctic Peninsula show dramatic shifts from a waterlogged peatland dominated by pure stands of Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica) before the LIA at 2400-600 cal yr BP to an aerobic peatbank dominated by erect mosses Polytrichum strictum and Chorisodontium aciphyllum in the last 50 years. At present the nearest known occurrence of Deschampsia "bog peats" is in South Georgia, about 1900 km north at 54°S, a location having a mean annual temperature 6°C higher than the study region on the WAP. If we use this modern spatial relationship as an analogue, then this suggests that the climate a few centuries ago was much warmer (up to 6°C) than today and supported very different ecosystems on the WAP. Our results show that these re-exposed sub-fossil mosses and peats are potentially very useful for the reconstructions of coastal low-elevation terrestrial climates. These records

  13. A new millipede, Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp., (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from New Mexico, USA, and the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial habitats.

    PubMed

    Wynne, J Judson; Shear, William A

    2016-01-01

    Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp. is described from the moss gardens of one lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, Cibola Co., New Mexico. Most chordeumatidans require mesic conditions, and these environments are limited to moss gardens in several cave entrances and beneath cave skylights in El Malpais. Presently, this species is known from the moss gardens of a single of cave in the monument. We suggest A. awishoshola may be a climatic relict, having become restricted to the cave environment following the end of the Pleistocene. We discuss the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial and relictual habitats. Recommendations are provided to aid in the conservation and management of A. awishoshola and these habitats. PMID:27394265

  14. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential. PMID:18205784

  15. Effects of seven pure flavonoids from mosses on germination and growth of Tortula muralis HEDW (Bryophyta) and Raphanus sativus L (Magnoliophyta).

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Sorbo, Sergio; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Castaldo Cobianchi, Rosa

    2003-04-01

    Dried mosses (five moss species) were progressively extracted and subjected to a four-step Craig distribution. Seven pure flavonoids were isolated and identified. The flavonoids were the flavones apigenin, apigenin-7-O-triglycoside, lucenin-2, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside, saponarine and vitexin; and the biflavonoid bartramiaflavone and they were submitted to biological tests. The tests were performed in vitro on spore germination and protonemal growth of the moss Tortula muralis and on seed germination and root growth of Raphanus sativus. Flavonoids caused a decrease in the percentage of spore germination, protonemal development and root growth. In addition they caused morphological alterations, such as forked tips, swollen apices, rounded cells and early formation of brood cells in the protonemata. Data were discussed in relation to the presence of allelochemicals in mosses. PMID:12591270

  16. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests. PMID:27068915

  17. Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandois, L.; Agnan, Y.; Leblond, S.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Le Roux, G.; Probst, A.

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the influence of local environment and spatial integration of Trace Metals (TM) by biomonitors, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn and some rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been measured in lichens and mosses collected in three French forest sites located in three distinct mountainous areas, as well as in the local soil and bedrock, and in both bulk deposition (BD) and throughfall (TF). Similar enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using lichens and mosses and local bedrock for most elements, except for Cs, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Cu which were significantly (KW, p < 0.05) more enriched in mosses. Similar REE ratios were measured in soils, bedrock, lichens and mosses at each study sites, indicating a regional integration of atmospheric deposition by both biomonitors. Both TM signature and REE composition of mosses revealed that this biomonitor is highly influenced by throughfall composition, and reflect atmospheric deposition interaction with the forest canopy. This explained the higher enrichment measured in mosses for elements which concentration in deposition were influenced by the canopy, either due to leaching (Mn), direct uptake (Ni), or dry deposition dissolution (Pb, Cu, Cs).

  18. Gene cloning of the 18S rRNA of an ancient viable moss from the permafrost of northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Gilichinsky, David A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    1999-12-01

    A moss plant dating as much as 40,000 years old was collected from the permafrost of the Kolyma Lowlands of Northeastern Siberia. The plant tissue was revived and cultured for the extraction of its genomic DNA. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was cloned and its sequence studied. Comparative sequence analysis of the cloned ribosomal DNA to other known 18S RNA showed very high sequence identity and was revealed to be closest to the moss specie, Aulacomnium turgidum. The results of this study also show the ability of biological organisms to rest dormant in deep frozen environments where they can be revived and cultured under favorable conditions. This is significant in the notion that celestial icy bodies can be media to preserve biological function and genetic material during long term storage or transport.

  19. Metabolic engineering of the moss Physcomitrella patens to produce the sesquiterpenoids patchoulol and α/β-santalene.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin; Zhang, Yu-Hua; Chen, Dong-Fang; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2014-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens, has been genetically engineered to produce patchoulol and β-santalene, two valuable sesquiterpenoid ingredients in the fragrance industry. The highest yield of patchoulol achieved was 1.34 mg/g dry weight. This was achieved by non-targeted transformation of the patchoulol synthase and either a yeast or P. patens HMGR gene under the control of a 35S promoter. Santalene synthase targeted to the plastids yielded 0.039 mg/g dry weight of α/β santalene; cytosolic santalene synthase and 35S controlled HMGR afforded 0.022 mg/g dry weight. It has been observed that the final yield of the fragrance molecules is dependent on the expression of the synthase. This is the first report of heterologous production of sesquiterpenes in moss and it opens up a promising source for light-driven production of valuable fragrance ingredients. PMID:25477891

  20. Evolution of heavy metal tolerance in bryophytes II. An ecological and experimental investigation of the copper moss, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J. )

    1987-06-01

    About six bryophyte species (including both mosses and liverworts) are generally thought to be restricted to copper-enriched substrates and are consequently known as copper mosses. One of these, Scopelophila cataractae (Pottiaceae), is known from several sites in southern Arizona and occurs at six localities in the Eastern US. Chemical analyses of substrates from the eastern US localities showed that all but one population grew on copper-enriched soil. The one substrate sample low in copper was very high in iron. Plants from five of the six eastern US localities for S. cataractae were grown experimentally on four soil types ranging from highly to not contaminated, and all grew best on the soil contaminated with copper, lead, and zinc. There was no significant variation in growth between populations on the four soil treatments. This lack of population differentiation is in contrast to flowering plants and may be related to the absence of sexual reproduction in S. cataractae in North America.