Science.gov

Sample records for motivate effective financial

  1. Motivating Women to Adopt Positive Financial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Megan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    In a strengths-based study, 17 women ages 25 to 54 participated in focus groups to identify their motivations for positive financial behavior change. Performing a thematic analysis of data, evidence shows they progressed through the Transtheoretical Model stages of change. Emotion, family influence, and life transitions helped participants…

  2. Financial Motivation Undermines Maintenance in an Intensive Diet and Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152

  3. Financial versus Health Motivation to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Sindelar, Jody L.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Smoking is the most preventable cause of death, thus justifying efforts to effectively motivate quitting. We compared the effectiveness of financial versus health messages to motivate smoking cessation. Low-income individuals disproportionately smoke and, given their greater income constraints, we hypothesized that making financial costs of smoking more salient would encourage more smokers to try quitting. Further, we predicted financial messages would be stronger in financial settings where pecuniary constraints are most salient. Methods We conducted a field study in low-income areas of New Haven, Connecticut using brochures with separate health vs. financial messages to motivate smoking cessation. Displays were rotated among community settings—check-cashing, health clinics, and grocery stores. We randomized brochure displays with gain-framed cessation messages across locations. Results Our predictions were confirmed. Financial messages attracted significantly more attention than health messages, especially in financial settings. Conclusions These findings suggest greater emphasis on the financial gains to quitting and use of financial settings to provide cessation messages may be more effective in motivating quitting. Importantly, use of financial settings could open new, non-medical venues for encouraging cessation. Encouraging quitting could improve health, enhance spending power of low-income smokers, and reduce health disparities in both health and purchasing power. PMID:24139975

  4. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices

    PubMed Central

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  5. Time to Pay Up: Analyzing the Motivational Potential of Financial Awards in a TIF Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jennifer King; Malen, Betty; Jackson, Cara; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of educator incentive programs rests on the assumption that the potential rewards for participants will motivate them to behave in certain ways (e.g., choose certain jobs, expend greater effort, engage in capacity-building professional development). Some researchers have examined the impact of financial incentives on teacher…

  6. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  7. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  8. Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lucy J; Stevens, Lucy H; Threapleton, Christopher J D; Vainiute, Jurgita; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish; Gallagher, Peter

    2012-10-01

    It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18-35years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance. Performance in the motivated group was significantly improved compared to the control group on the NSMT (condition by session; F(1,33)=4.52, p=0.041) and the ANT, with participants increasing performance to cued presentations within the alerting network (F(1,36)=5.48, p=0.025) and being less distracted by incongruent stimuli in the executive control network (F(1,36)=6.74, p=0.014). There were significant negative correlations between the 'Interest/ Enjoyment' Intrinsic Motivation Inventory subscale and both NSMT between-search errors and ANT(alerting). In the motivated group, those who had higher self-reported internal motivation were less susceptible to- or affected by- the external motivation of financial incentive. The effects of motivational factors should not be overlooked when interpreting absolute levels of performance in neuropsychological processes. PMID:22738789

  9. Shared vision and autonomous motivation vs. financial incentives driving success in corporate acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives. PMID:25610406

  10. Shared vision and autonomous motivation vs. financial incentives driving success in corporate acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Byron C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives. PMID:25610406

  11. The Effects of Sources of Motivation on Teachers' Motivation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    This study, in which a descriptive scanning model is used, aims to determine the effects of motivational sources on teachers' motivation levels. The population sample for this study consists of teachers working in the Elazig city center in 2006-2007 academic year. A sample of 225 teachers was randomly selected from this population. Data obtained…

  12. Strategically Stunning: The Professional Motivations Behind the Lipstick Effect.

    PubMed

    Netchaeva, Ekaterina; Rees, McKenzie

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of increased desire for, and use of, appearance-enhancing items during times of economic recession has been termed the lipstick effect The motivation underlying this effect has been attributed to women's desires to enhance their attractiveness to financially stable partners (Hill, Rodeheffer, Griskevicius, Durante, & White, 2012). In the present research, we found evidence for our proposal that during times of economic recession, the heightened economic concern experienced by women translates into increased desire to use appearance-enhancing items to both attract romantic partners and create a favorable impression of themselves in the workplace, as both strategies can help women become secure financially. We also found that women with high economic concern elect to improve their professional appearance more frequently than their romantic attractiveness, which suggests that their motivation to obtain resources through a job dominates their motivation to obtain resources through a partner. PMID:27356962

  13. Effective Motivation in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

    2008-01-01

    This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

  14. Does general motivation energize financial reward-seeking behavior? Evidence from an effort task.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, Justin; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to predict how hard subjects work for financial rewards from their general trait and state reward-motivation. We specifically asked 1) whether individuals high in general trait "reward responsiveness" work harder 2) whether task-irrelevant cues can make people work harder, by increasing general motivation. Each trial of our task contained a 1 second earning interval in which male subjects earned money for each button press. This was preceded by one of three predictive cues: an erotic picture of a woman, a man, or a geometric figure. We found that individuals high in trait "reward responsiveness" worked harder and earned more, irrespective of the predictive cue. Because female predictive cues are more rewarding, we expected them to increase general motivation in our male subjects and invigorate work, but found a more complex pattern. PMID:25259798

  15. Does General Motivation Energize Financial Reward-Seeking Behavior? Evidence from an Effort Task

    PubMed Central

    Chumbley, Justin; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to predict how hard subjects work for financial rewards from their general trait and state reward-motivation. We specifically asked 1) whether individuals high in general trait “reward responsiveness” work harder 2) whether task-irrelevant cues can make people work harder, by increasing general motivation. Each trial of our task contained a 1 second earning interval in which male subjects earned money for each button press. This was preceded by one of three predictive cues: an erotic picture of a woman, a man, or a geometric figure. We found that individuals high in trait “reward responsiveness” worked harder and earned more, irrespective of the predictive cue. Because female predictive cues are more rewarding, we expected them to increase general motivation in our male subjects and invigorate work, but found a more complex pattern. PMID:25259798

  16. Effective Student Motivation Commences with Resolving "Dissatisfiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Ann; Simpson, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The evolution in students' expectations based on Maslow's theory of human motivation shows a transition from expectations having an effect upon motivation towards those providing a satisfactory experience. Maslow's argument was that once the lower level needs, such as physiological and safety needs, are met other higher needs emerge. In the…

  17. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  18. Employee Motivation for Personal Development Plan Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele, Lisa; Grohnert, Therese; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to understand conditions under which personal development plans (PDPs) can effectively be implemented for professional learning. Both the organization's manner of supporting the PDP practice as well as the individual employee's motivation is taken into account. Design/ methodology/approach: A questionnaire was…

  19. The Effects of Financial Education and Networks on Business Students' Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yunhyung; Park, Youngkyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effects of financial education and educational networks on students' financial literacy. With a sample (N = 105) of senior students in a business college, the study finds that not only financial education, but also strong networks with professors, are positively related to the financial literacy of business…

  20. Course-Specific Intrinsic Motivation: Effects of Instructor Support and Global Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…

  1. Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, William H.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic approach to the motivation of employees involves two-way communication, involvement, commitment, training, participation, and job enrichment. Demotivation is a pitfall which may occur when motivation is lacking. (BP)

  2. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Melissa M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation. PMID:22577524

  3. Too many motives? The interactive effects of multiple motives on organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Bolino, Mark C; Lin, Cheng-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Prior research indicates that employees engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) because of prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management motives. Building upon and extending prior research, we investigate all 3 OCB motives by developing a categorization scheme to differentiate their distinctiveness and by building a contextualized argument regarding their interactive effects on OCB in a more collectivistic culture. In a sample of 379 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads from Taiwan, we found that the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was strengthened by organizational concern motives; likewise, the relationship between organizational concern and OCBs directed at the organization was strengthened by prosocial values motives. However, in contrast to prior research (Grant & Mayer, 2009), the relationship between prosocial values motives and OCBs directed at individuals was weakened by impression management motives. A 3-way interaction between all 3 motives further suggests that, in Asian cultures, impression management motives may undermine the positive effects of prosocial values and organizational concern motives on OCBs directed at individuals but not OCBs directed at the organization. PMID:25198096

  4. The Effects of a Motivational Training Program on Competitive Swimming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Block, Frank; Evans, Fred

    1981-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of a seven-week motivational training program on competitive veteran swimmers. Results suggested that the motivational training program exerted significant and positive influences on swimming performances. Swimmers perceived the program effective in improving swimming performances, developing personal motivation, establishing…

  5. Teaching Well and Liking It: Motivating Faculty To Teach Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, James L., Ed.

    Chapters in this collection on college faculty motivation and teaching effectiveness include: "The Meaning of Human Motivation" (Charles J. Walker and Cynthia Symons); "Wanting to Be a Good Teacher: What Have We Learned To Date?" (Wilbert J. McKeachie); "Beyond Male Theory: A Feminist Perspective on Teaching Motivation" (Judith Glazer);…

  6. Effects of Formative Feedback on Intrinsic Motivation: Examining Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El, Ron Pat; Tillema, Harm; van Koppen, Sabine W. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigate the influence of ethnic differences on student motivation when learning from formative feedback. Interpersonal teacher behavior and student motivational needs are used to explain the effects of assessment for learning on intrinsic motivation by comparing students from different ethnic backgrounds. The final study's…

  7. Domain effects and financial risk attitudes.

    PubMed

    Vlaev, Ivo; Kusev, Petko; Stewart, Neil; Aldrovandi, Silvio; Chater, Nick

    2010-09-01

    We investigated whether financial risk preferences are dependent on the financial domain (i.e., the context) in which the risky choice options are presented. Previous studies have demonstrated that risk attitudes change when gambles are framed as gains, losses, or as insurance. Our study explores this directly by offering choices between identical gambles, framed in terms of seven financial domains. Three factors were extracted, explaining 68.6% of the variance: Factor 1 (Positive)-opportunity to win, pension provision, and job salary change; Factor 2 (Positive-Complex)-investments and mortgage buying; Factor 3 (Negative)-possibility of loss and insurance. Inspection of the solution revealed context effects on risk perceptions across the seven scenarios. We also found that the commonly accepted assumption that women are more risk averse cannot be confirmed with the context structure suggested in this research; however, it is acknowledged that in the students' population the variance across genders might be considerably less. These results suggest that our financial risk attitude measures may be tapping into a stable aspect of "context dependence" of relevance to real-world decision making. PMID:20840489

  8. Health worker motivation in Africa: the role of non-financial incentives and human resource management tools

    PubMed Central

    Mathauer, Inke; Imhoff, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    Background There is a serious human resource crisis in the health sector in developing countries, particularly in Africa. One of the challenges is the low motivation of health workers. Experience and the evidence suggest that any comprehensive strategy to maximize health worker motivation in a developing country context has to involve a mix of financial and non-financial incentives. This study assesses the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in two cases, in Benin and Kenya. Methods The study design entailed semi-structured qualitative interviews with doctors and nurses from public, private and NGO facilities in rural areas. The selection of health professionals was the result of a layered sampling process. In Benin 62 interviews with health professionals were carried out; in Kenya 37 were obtained. Results from individual interviews were backed up with information from focus group discussions. For further contextual information, interviews with civil servants in the Ministry of Health and at the district level were carried out. The interview material was coded and quantitative data was analysed with SPSS software. Results and discussion The study shows that health workers overall are strongly guided by their professional conscience and similar aspects related to professional ethos. In fact, many health workers are demotivated and frustrated precisely because they are unable to satisfy their professional conscience and impeded in pursuing their vocation due to lack of means and supplies and due to inadequate or inappropriately applied human resources management (HRM) tools. The paper also indicates that even some HRM tools that are applied may adversely affect the motivation of health workers. Conclusion The findings confirm the starting hypothesis that non-financial incentives and HRM tools play an important role with respect to increasing motivation of health professionals. Adequate HRM tools can uphold and strengthen the professional ethos of doctors

  9. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT. PMID:26634389

  10. 77 FR 46069 - Request for Information on Effective Financial Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ....gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-26/pdf/2010-21305.pdf ). 5. How might CFPB effectively disseminate... FINANCIAL PROTECTION Request for Information on Effective Financial Education AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (``Dodd-Frank'') established the Office of Financial...

  11. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    PubMed

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory. PMID:26112370

  12. The Crescendo Effect in Career Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategic model for career motivation based on component dimensions of self-identity, self-insight, and career resilience. Identifies these elements as part of the greater construct of career commitment. (SK)

  13. Effects of motivation on car-following

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesser, T.

    1982-01-01

    Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

  14. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Golebiowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Jakub; Kubik, Jakub; Popik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether "optimism" as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS), we identified rats displaying "pessimistic" and "optimistic" traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although "optimistic" and "pessimistic" animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the "optimistic" rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their "pessimistic" conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders. PMID:25762910

  15. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rygula, Rafal; Golebiowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Jakub; Kubik, Jakub; Popik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether “optimism” as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS), we identified rats displaying “pessimistic” and “optimistic” traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although “optimistic” and “pessimistic” animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the “optimistic” rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their “pessimistic” conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders. PMID:25762910

  16. Motivational Screen Design Guidelines for Effective Computer-Mediated Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung Heum; Boling, Elizabeth

    Screen designers for computer-mediated instruction (CMI) products must consider the motivational appeal of their designs. Although learners may be motivated to use CMI programs initially because of their novelty, this effect wears off and the instruction must stand on its own. Instructional screens must provide effective and efficient instruction,…

  17. Characteristics and Motivational Factors of Effective Extension Advisory Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearman, Teresa Joy

    2011-01-01

    Building an effective Extension advisory leadership system is essential for Cooperative Extension to ensure the existence and relevance of university outreach programs to meet community needs. The purpose of this study has been to explore characteristics and motivational factors of effective Extension advisory leaders for identifying, motivating,…

  18. Effects of optimism on creativity under approach and avoidance motivation

    PubMed Central

    Icekson, Tamar; Roskes, Marieke; Moran, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on avoiding failure or negative outcomes (avoidance motivation) can undermine creativity, due to cognitive (e.g., threat appraisals), affective (e.g., anxiety), and volitional processes (e.g., low intrinsic motivation). This can be problematic for people who are avoidance motivated by nature and in situations in which threats or potential losses are salient. Here, we review the relation between avoidance motivation and creativity, and the processes underlying this relation. We highlight the role of optimism as a potential remedy for the creativity undermining effects of avoidance motivation, due to its impact on the underlying processes. Optimism, expecting to succeed in achieving success or avoiding failure, may reduce negative effects of avoidance motivation, as it eases threat appraisals, anxiety, and disengagement—barriers playing a key role in undermining creativity. People experience these barriers more under avoidance than under approach motivation, and beneficial effects of optimism should therefore be more pronounced under avoidance than approach motivation. Moreover, due to their eagerness, approach motivated people may even be more prone to unrealistic over-optimism and its negative consequences. PMID:24616690

  19. Integration of Professional Certification Examinations with the Financial Planning Curriculum: Increasing Efficiency, Motivation, and Professional Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Joseph W.; Zhu, Dandan; Hampton, Vickie L.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Salter, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical-based rationale and plan of action for educational programs to encourage and create opportunities for the integration of course study with professional exam preparation, while highlighting the complementary benefits for students, academic programs, and the financial services profession. Serving primarily as a…

  20. The Effects of Training Medical Students in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…

  1. Teacher Judgment, Student Motivation, and the Mediating Effect of Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Based on Weiner's attributional theory of intrapersonal motivation, the mediating effect of attributions between teacher judgment and student motivation was examined. In two studies, 144 German and 272 Chinese fourth-grade elementary school students were tested on their mathematical achievement, causal ascriptions for success and failure,…

  2. The Role of Motivation to Lead for Leadership Training Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiehl, Sibylle K.; Felfe, Jörg; Elprana, Gwen; Gatzka, Magdalena B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the construct of motivation to lead (MtL) is considered as a predictor of leadership training effectiveness. MtL, the individual preference to take on leadership roles, is a motivation that specifically relates to the content of leadership training. A total of 132 managers participated in a longitudinal follow-up study. The…

  3. High fives motivate: the effects of gestural and ambiguous verbal praise on motivation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bradley J; Zentall, Shannon R

    2014-01-01

    The type of praise children receive influences whether children choose to persist after failure. One mechanism through which praise affects motivation is through the causal attributions inferred from language. For example, telling a child "You got an A on the test because you're smart," provides an explicit link between possessing a trait and an outcome, specifically that intelligence causes success. Nonetheless, most praise given to children is ambiguous, or lacks explicit attributions (e.g., "yea" or a thumbs up). To investigate the effects of ambiguous praise on motivation, we randomly assigned 95 5-6-year-old children to a praise condition (verbal trait; verbal effort; verbal ambiguous; or gestural) and measured motivation using task persistence, self-evaluations, and eye fixations on errors. Ambiguous praise, similar to verbal effort praise, produced higher persistence and self-evaluations, and fewer fixations on error after failure compared to verbal trait praise. Interestingly, gestures produced the highest self-evaluations. Thus, praise without explicit attributions motivated as well or better than praise explicitly focused on effort, which may suggest that children interpret ambiguous praise in the most beneficial manner. PMID:25221532

  4. Financial Decentralization in Malaysian Schools: Strategies for Effective Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzi, Norfariza Mohd; Ghani, Muhammad Faizal A.; Siraj, Saedah; Afshari, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents findings on the essential strategies required at the school site and the relevant people responsible for the effective implementation of school-based financial management in Malaysia. Many lessons have been learned since more than a decade of the school-based financial management reform in Malaysia through the establishment…

  5. Characteristics of Effective Training: Developing a Model To Motivate Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Dena; Ezell, Patsy

    2003-01-01

    The Parenting and Consumer Education project identified effective models for training welfare-to-work facilitators. Premises were the importance of process, learner responsibility, and improvement of social networks. Effective training was learner focused, inspiring, and motivating; demonstrated productive behaviors and effective life skills; and…

  6. The Effects of Financial Education on Impulsive Decision Making.

    PubMed

    DeHart, William B; Friedel, Jonathan E; Lown, Jean M; Odum, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Delay discounting, as a behavioral measure of impulsive choice, is strongly related to substance abuse and other risky behaviors. Therefore, effective techniques that alter delay discounting are of great interest. We explored the ability of a semester long financial education course to change delay discounting. Participants were recruited from a financial education course (n = 237) and an abnormal psychology course (n = 80). Both groups completed a delay-discounting task for $100 during the first two weeks (Time 1) of the semester as well as during the last two weeks (Time 2) of the semester. Participants also completed a personality inventory and financial risk tolerance scale both times and a delay-discounting task for $1,000 during Time 2. Delay discounting decreased in the financial education group at the end of the semester whereas there was no change in delay discounting in the abnormal psychology group. Financial education may be an effective method for reducing delay discounting. PMID:27442237

  7. The Effects of Financial Education on Impulsive Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    DeHart, William B.; Friedel, Jonathan E.; Lown, Jean M.; Odum, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Delay discounting, as a behavioral measure of impulsive choice, is strongly related to substance abuse and other risky behaviors. Therefore, effective techniques that alter delay discounting are of great interest. We explored the ability of a semester long financial education course to change delay discounting. Participants were recruited from a financial education course (n = 237) and an abnormal psychology course (n = 80). Both groups completed a delay-discounting task for $100 during the first two weeks (Time 1) of the semester as well as during the last two weeks (Time 2) of the semester. Participants also completed a personality inventory and financial risk tolerance scale both times and a delay-discounting task for $1,000 during Time 2. Delay discounting decreased in the financial education group at the end of the semester whereas there was no change in delay discounting in the abnormal psychology group. Financial education may be an effective method for reducing delay discounting. PMID:27442237

  8. Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Ann; Gilley, Jerry W.; McMillan, Heather S.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that numerous variables have an impact on a leader's effectiveness. This study explores the behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness in driving change. The findings confirm previous research that identifies change effectiveness skills, while isolating the specific leader behaviors deemed most valuable to implementing…

  9. High School Motivation and Engagement: Gender and Age Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This brief report presents on gender and age effects in academic motivation and engagement. The results are based on an updated and much expanded dataset (from prior research) of 33,778 students from 92 high schools in Australia. Findings show there are significant gender and age effects--a number of which are qualified by the interaction of…

  10. Effects of consumer motives on search behavior using internet advertising.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kenneth C C

    2004-08-01

    Past studies on uses and gratifications theory suggested that consumer motives affect how they will use media and media contents. Recent advertising research has extended the theory to study the use of Internet advertising. The current study explores the effects of consumer motives on their search behavior using Internet advertising. The study employed a 2 by 2 between-subjects factorial experiment design. A total of 120 subjects were assigned to an experiment condition that contains an Internet advertisement varying by advertising appeals (i.e., rational vs. emotional) and product involvement levels (high vs. low). Consumer search behavior (measured by the depth, breadth, total amount of search), demographics, and motives were collected by post-experiment questionnaires. Because all three dependent variables measuring search behavior were conceptually related to each other, MANCOVA procedures were employed to examine the moderating effects of consumer motives on the dependent variables in four product involvement-advertising appeal conditions. Results indicated that main effects for product involvements and advertising appeals were statistically significant. Univariate ANOVA also showed that advertising appeals and product involvement levels influenced the total amount of search. Three-way interactions among advertising appeals, product involvement levels, and information motive were also statistically significant. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:15331030

  11. The Effect of a High School Financial Literacy Course on Student Financial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    New Jersey school districts establish curriculums to meet the proficiencies found in the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards (NJCCCS). The research focuses on the effectiveness of the Washington Township High School Career and Technology Education Department's curriculum in addressing the NJCCS Financial Literacy benchmarks. The…

  12. Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    The teacher's use of motivational strategies is generally believed to enhance student motivation, yet the literature has little empirical evidence to support this claim. Based on a large-scale investigation of 40 ESOL classrooms in South Korea involving 27 teachers and more than 1,300 learners, this study examined the link between the teachers'…

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Non-Financial Motivators and Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieszczak, Gina L.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations depend extensively on Information Technology professionals to drive and deliver technology solutions quickly, efficiently, and effectively to achieve business goals and profitability. It has been demonstrated that professionals with experience specific to the company are valuable assets, and their departure puts technology projects…

  14. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  15. Motivational Effects on Test Scores of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven M.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of motivational manipulated conditions on students' mathematics scores, elementary students received either ordinary standardized test instructions or special instructions (do as well as possible for themselves, parents, and teachers). Those given special instructions scored significantly higher in the test, implying that…

  16. The Effectiveness of Principal Leadership Style on Teacher Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallmeier, Kevin

    Effective schools research affirms that good principal managerial and leadership skills are important to motivating teachers. A literature review reveals that early organization-behavior theory was dominated by the scientific-management movement in which the worker is a passive instrument of management. This was followed by increased concern with…

  17. Students as Web Site Authors: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Web site design project on students' motivation and achievement. Tenth-grade biology students worked together in teams on an ecology project that required them to locate relevant information on the Internet, decide which information should be included on their Web site, organize the information into Web pages,…

  18. Communicate and Motivate: The School Leader's Guide to Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Develop the skills you need to communicate effectively and in ways that motivate your faculty towards success. Written especially for principals and other administrators, this book will empower you to communicate well as you work to promote a student-centered environment best suited to schoolwide achievement. Learn to approach one-on-one…

  19. The Effects of a Motivational Training Program on Competitive Swimming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Block, Frank; Evans, Fred

    1981-01-01

    Studied the effects of a seven-week motivational training program on the attitudes and sports performance of five veteran members of the Chicago State University swim team. The program stressed four basic aspects: cognitive-behavioral synthesization; personology; micro-group exercises; and individual counseling. (Author/SJL)

  20. Effects of Explicit Instructions, Metacognition, and Motivation on Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; O'Neil, Harold F.; Peng, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Effects of explicit instructions, metacognition, and intrinsic motivation on creative homework performance were examined in 303 Chinese 10th-grade students. Models that represent hypothesized relations among these constructs and trait covariates were tested using structural equation modelling. Explicit instructions geared to originality were…

  1. Effects of Motivational and Volitional Email Messages (MVEM) with Personal Messages on Undergraduate Students' Motivation, Study Habits and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Keller, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated what kind of supportive information can be effective in improving the situation where there were severe motivational challenges. Motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) were constructed based on an integrated model of four theories and methods, which are Keller's ARCS model, Kuhl's action control theory,…

  2. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  3. Effective Factors in Enhancing School Manager's Job Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Mirzamani, S. Mahmoud; Esfahani, Hamideh Darb

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines the effective factors in enhancing school manager's job motivation from viewpoint of school mangers, teachers, education department managerial and staff experts in teaching, and also identifies and prioritizes each of these factors and indicators. Method For selecting a representative sample and increasing measurement precision, 587 people were selected using classified random sampling. The measurement tool was a 79-questionnaire made by the researcher. The questionnaire was collected using motivation theories and observing the findings of previous researches. Then, according to the three-stage Delphi technique, the questionnaire was sent to experts in education. The reliability of instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, and total reliability of the test was 0.99; the validity of the instrument was assessed by factor analysis (Construct Validity) and its load factor was 0.4 which was high. Results The results from factor analysis shows that the effective factors in enhancing manager's job motivation are as follows: self- actualization (51%) including 28 indices; social factor (7/9%) including 22 indices; self-esteem (3.2%) including 17 indices; job desirable features (2.2%) including 4 indices; physiologic (1.8%) including 4 indices; and job richness (1.6%) including 4 indices. Conclusions The results show that the six mentioned factors determine 68% of the total variance of manager's motivation. PMID:22952541

  4. The effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy: is it from being paid or from the extra aid?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Financial incentives appear to be effective in promoting smoking cessation in pregnancy. The mechanisms by which they might operate however, are poorly understood. The present study examines how financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy may work, by exploring pregnant women's experiences of trying to stop smoking, within and outside of a financial incentives scheme. Methods Thirty-six (n = 36) UK-based pregnant smokers (n = 36), offered standard NHS Stop-Smoking Services, of whom twenty (n = 20) were enrolled in a financial incentives scheme for smoking cessation (n = 20) and sixteen (n = 16) were not, were interviewed about (i) their motivation to stop smoking, and (ii) the factors they perceived as influencing their quitting efforts. Framework Analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Women in the two groups reported similar reasons for wanting to stop smoking during pregnancy. However, they described dissimilar experiences of the Stop-Smoking Services, which they perceived to have differentially influenced their quit attempts. Women who were incentivised reported using the services more than women who were not incentivised. In addition, they described the motivating experience of being monitored and receiving feedback on their progress. Non-incentivised women reported problems receiving the appropriate Nicotine Replacement Therapy, which they described as having a detrimental effect on their quitting efforts. Conclusion Women participating in a financial incentives scheme to stop smoking reported greater engagement with the Stop-Smoking Services, from which they described receiving more help in quitting than women who were not part of the scheme. These results highlight the complexity of financial incentives schemes and the intricacies surrounding the ways in which they operate to affect smoking cessation. These might involve influencing individuals' motivation and self-regulation, changing engagement with and provision of

  5. Motivated attention: Incentive effects on attentional modification of prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Hawk, Larry W.; Mazzullo, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is greater for attended compared to ignored prestimuli, and, consistent with theories of motivated attention, initial evidence suggests that this effect is greater among participants given performance-based incentives. The present study examined a within-subjects incentive manipulation. Participants (n = 41) completed two blocks of a tone discrimination task. During the incentive block, participants received trialwise feedback with small monetary incentives for task performance. Startle eyeblink EMG responses to auditory probes were assessed at 60-, 120-, and 180-ms tone-probe stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). As predicted, PPI was enhanced during attended compared to ignored prestimuli only at the 120-ms SOA in the incentive condition. There was no evidence of attentional modification in the no-incentive condition. These data suggest that attentional modification of PPI is sensitive to within-subjects manipulations of incentive, providing a useful tool for testing models of motivated attention in psychopathology and psychopharmacology. PMID:17640265

  6. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions. PMID:23100542

  7. Effects of Brain-Based Learning Approach on Students' Motivation and Attitudes Levels in Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyurek, Erkan; Afacan, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of brain-based learning approach on attitudes and motivation levels in 8th grade students' science classes. The main reason for examining attitudes and motivation levels, the effect of the short-term motivation, attitude shows the long-term effect. The pre/post-test control group research model…

  8. The Effects of Different Teaching Approaches in Introductory Financial Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Bea; Nouri, Hossein; Samanta, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of the two different teaching approaches in the first accounting course on student performance in a subsequent finance course. The study compares 128 accounting and finance students who took introductory financial accounting by either a user approach or a traditional preparer approach to examine…

  9. Financial Aid and Persistence in Community Colleges: Assessing the Effectiveness of Federal and State Financial Aid Programs in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.; Malcolm, Zaria

    2009-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, state-wide dataset, this study assessed the effect of financial aid on the persistence of full-time students in associate's degree programs at the Oklahoma community colleges. Three financial-aid sources were examined: the Oklahoma Higher Learning Access Program (OHLAP), Pell grants, and Stafford loans. Results indicate that…

  10. Exploring Motivations, Awareness of Side Effects, and Attitudes among Potential Egg Donors.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Carter, James; White, Melinda

    2016-05-01

    This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material. The majority of participants were unconcerned with potential physical and psychological side effects; however, differences emerged based on motherhood status and educational level. Although potential donors felt recipients should receive some information about the donor, they tended to value privacy regarding information giving to resultant offspring. This research study has implications for social work practice, policy, and future research. It is crucial that women receive adequate procedural and side effect information prior to engaging in egg donation. PMID:27263197

  11. Any-Willing-Provider laws: their financial effect on HMOs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Anne; Ambrose, Jan M

    2002-12-01

    Any-Willing-Provider (AWP) legislation requires that health plans accept any health care provider who agrees to conform to the plan's conditions, terms, and reimbursement rates. Many states have adopted such legislation, raising questions about its effect on the managed care market. Those favoring this legislation argue that it will reduce restrictions on choice of provider, while opponents argue that it will reduce competition by increasing administrative and medical costs for managed care plans. Using cross-sectional time-series data for the period 1992-1995 (the period during which many of these laws were enacted), this study investigates the effect that these laws have on HMO financial performance. Our results show that "all-provider" AWP laws have a very limited effect on the financial performance measures we examine. "Pharmacy" AWP laws have a more significant effect, but neither type of law appears to affect the overall profitability of HMOs. PMID:12556022

  12. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  13. Depression Symptoms among Homeless Smokers: Effect of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cendrine; Rogers, Charles R.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is higher among homeless individuals than the general population. Homeless individuals are also more likely to have symptoms of depression. Depression symptoms may add to the burden of homelessness by increasing psychological distress and serve as a barrier to quitting smoking. Objectives The primary goal of this study was to assess the impact of depression symptoms on psychological distress in homeless smokers. The effect of depression symptoms on abstinence and the effect of Motivational Interviewing (MI) on cessation among smokers was also explored. Methods Homeless smokers (N=430) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were randomized to Motivational Interviewing (MI) or standard care (SC). Participants received nicotine replacement therapy and were followed for 26 weeks. Participants were categorized into a depression symptoms (DS) group or control group using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Between group differences of perceived stress, hopelessness, confidence, craving and abstinence were assessed at weeks 8 and 26. The interaction between depression symptoms (levels: DS and control) and the intervention (levels: MI and SC) was also assessed. Results Homeless smokers in the DS group reported higher levels of hopelessness, perceived stress, and craving. There was no effect of DS status on abstinence at week 8 or week 26. There was no significant interaction between depression symptoms (DS vs. Control) and the intervention (MI vs. SC). Conclusion Despite reporting greater psychological distress, homeless smokers with depression symptoms in this sample had abstinence levels similar to the control group. Future research should explore protective factors among depressed smokers. PMID:27267588

  14. College Students' Perceptions of Mothers: Effects of Maternal Employment-Childrearing Pattern and Motive for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Judith S.; Etaugh, Claire

    1995-01-01

    Obtained 460 college students' perceptions of mother's employment-child rearing patterns and employment motives. Results show that continuously employed mothers (CEMs) were perceived as less communal and less were positively evaluated. CEMs were also seen as less communal if their employment was for fulfillment rather than financial necessity.…

  15. Motivational Effects on Self-Regulated Learning with Different Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmeyer, Regina; Rheinberg, Falko

    2006-01-01

    In our cognitive motivational process model (Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, "Zeitschrift fur Padagogische Psychologie," 12:11-23, 1998) we assume that initial motivation affects performance via motivation during learning and learning strategies. These variables are also central for self-regulation theories (e.g., M. Boekaerts, "European Psychologist,"…

  16. Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention on medication compliance.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Alison; Snider-Meyer, Jill; Olson, Debra; Gresser, Susan; Smith, Heather; Kier, Frederick J

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of training geriatric home-based primary care (HBPC) nursing staff in motivational interviewing (MI) techniques, with the goal of increasing patient medication adherence. Nursing staff received 4 hours of training in MI techniques from a licensed psychologist. Results indicated that the MI training increased medication adherence in the HBPC veteran sample by a small, but statistically significant, margin both 1 month and 6 months after the intervention. Although the effect size may be considered small, the clinical and cost ramifications of even a small gain in adherence are extremely important for the patient, clinician, and the medical facility. MI techniques may provide a cost-effective and impactful means of enhancing patient adherence to medications. PMID:25171241

  17. Cohesiveness in financial news and its relation to market volatility.

    PubMed

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Smuc, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets. PMID:24849598

  18. Cohesiveness in Financial News and its Relation to Market Volatility

    PubMed Central

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets. PMID:24849598

  19. Cohesiveness in Financial News and its Relation to Market Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piškorec, Matija; Antulov-Fantulin, Nino; Novak, Petra Kralj; Mozetič, Igor; Grčar, Miha; Vodenska, Irena; Šmuc, Tomislav

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by recent financial crises, significant research efforts have been put into studying contagion effects and herding behaviour in financial markets. Much less has been said regarding the influence of financial news on financial markets. We propose a novel measure of collective behaviour based on financial news on the Web, the News Cohesiveness Index (NCI), and we demonstrate that the index can be used as a financial market volatility indicator. We evaluate the NCI using financial documents from large Web news sources on a daily basis from October 2011 to July 2013 and analyse the interplay between financial markets and finance-related news. We hypothesise that strong cohesion in financial news reflects movements in the financial markets. Our results indicate that cohesiveness in financial news is highly correlated with and driven by volatility in financial markets.

  20. Motivation modulates the effect of approach on implicit preferences.

    PubMed

    Zogmaister, Cristina; Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette

    2016-08-01

    With three studies, we investigated whether motivational states can modulate the formation of implicit preferences. In Study 1, participants played a video game in which they repeatedly approached one of two similar beverages, while disregarding the other. A subsequent implicit preference for the target beverage emerged, which increased with participants' thirst. In Study 2, participants approached one brand of potato chips while avoiding the other: Conceptually replicating the moderation observed in Study 1, the implicit preference for the approached brand increased with the number of hours from last food intake. In Study 3, we experimentally manipulated hunger, and the moderation effect emerged again, with hungry participants displaying a higher implicit preference for the approached brand, as compared to satiated participants. In the three studies, the moderation effect was not paralleled in explicit preferences although the latter were affected by the preference inducing manipulation. Theoretical implications and open questions are discussed. PMID:25948057

  1. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  2. Effects of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two schools in the UK, participated in the…

  3. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE MOTIVATIONAL METHODS (MEDIA, SUBJECT MATTER, AND COMBINATION MOTIVATIONS) IN AN ART PROGRAM IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEMENTS, ROBERT D.; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE WAS TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE TEACHING OF ART IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. QUESTIONNAIRES ASKING HOW MUCH PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT, ART QUALITY, UNIQUENESS, AND PRIDE WERE GENERATED BY EACH MOTIVATIONAL TREATMENT WERE COMPLETED BY OBSERVERS AND ART TEACHERS FOR 90 LESSONS. EACH…

  4. The effectiveness of sentence cues in measuring the Big Three motives.

    PubMed

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

    2007-10-01

    Despite the popularity of free response measures in the motivation literature, research geared toward the development of a standard battery of cues for measuring the Big Three motives (achievement, affiliation, power) has been lacking. The current research examined the effectiveness of sentence cues in eliciting motive imagery in two studies (students, entrepreneurs) comprising 242 men and women. Results indicated that sentence cues were effective in eliciting achievement and affiliation imagery, but not power imagery. In addition, an examination of the subcategories underlying each motive scoring system indicated that there were several infrequently scored subcategories in the achievement and power motive scoring systems that could be considered for removal. PMID:17764388

  5. Motivational orientations and task autonomy fit: effects on organizational attraction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Chi

    2012-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is congruence between applicant needs (i.e., motivational orientations) and what is available (i.e., task autonomy) from an organizational perspective based on the fit between needs and supply. The fit between work motivation and task autonomy was examined to see whether it was associated with organizational attraction. This experimental study included two phases. Phase 1 participants consisted of 446 undergraduate students, of whom 228 were recruited to participate in Phase 2. The fit relations between task autonomy and intrinsic motivation and between task control and extrinsic motivation were characterized. Findings indicated that the fit between work motivation and task autonomy was positively associated with organizational attraction. Based on these results, it may be inferred that employers should emphasize job characteristics such as autonomy or control orientations to attract individuals, and focus on the most suitable work motivations for their organizations. PMID:22582692

  6. Motivation and temporal distance: effect on cognitive and affective manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Gjesme, Torgrim

    2009-10-01

    The implications of temporal distance on motivation-related concepts were examined. The results of an experiment, based on 585 Grade 6 students, indicated that both positive (approach) and negative (avoidance) motivation increased as the future goal or event approached in time. This increase in approach and avoidance motivation influenced the performance of the pupils differently. For pupils with success orientation, the performance increased. For pupils with failure orientation, the performance remained about the same. PMID:19928593

  7. Effective Application of Psychological Motivators for Social Advertisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severn, Jessica

    Social advertisers--those responsible for public and nonprofit advertising and marketing--must employ many of the major psychological motivations used by commercial advertisers to stimulate desire and action on the part of target audiences. For example, commercial advertisers create psychological stimuli to facilitate motivation of the fulfillment…

  8. Developing the Motivation within: Using Praise and Rewards Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Sherry R.; Small, Ruth V.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is a complicated issue. There are myriad reasons why people choose to do what they do. For example, employees usually work for money, students study to earn grades, heart attack victims learn that when they diet they will live longer--the list of extrinsic motivators is endless. Conversely, there are things people do just for the…

  9. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nocola Ann

    2011-01-01

    A discrepancy exists on both state and local assessments between economically disadvantaged and noneconomically disadvantaged 4th grade students in the area of reading. As students enter the intermediate grades, their motivation to read begins to dwindle. This lack of motivation can ultimately put the academic career of these students in jeopardy.…

  10. Motivation: revitalizing performance.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C

    1996-08-01

    It is difficult for health information managers to maintain their career motivation in times of financial cutbacks, reforms, and changing technologies. Diminished motivation leads to poor job performance, which harms the department's productivity and the manager s job security. Revitalizing performance through improved motivation does not depend on fate. The article explains why motivation diminishes and suggests a plan for recapturing lost motivation. PMID:10159539

  11. The Effects of Participative versus Assigned Goal Setting on Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Grace Shing-Yung; Lorenzi, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of participative versus assigned goal setting on intrinsic motivation for interesting and boring tasks. Participative and assigned goal setting had no significantly different effects on performance if the goal was held consistently difficult, but had different effects on intrinsic motivation at different levels of task…

  12. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Improving Learning in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbrzezny, Ruth A.

    A literature review focused on ways for teachers to increase students' motivation. A total of 37 annotations were organized in terms of positive and negative effects of rewards on students' motivation, the issue of whether negative effects of rewards can be manipulated to have a positive effect, and suggestions for the classroom teacher on the use…

  13. The Effectiveness of Youth Financial Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Martha Henn

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive strategies for educating children and youth so they can become effective managers of money and successful navigators of a complex financial marketplace have not yet emerged from the dialogue and debate surrounding financial education. A rich and growing body of research about adult financial education exists, but youth financial…

  14. Motives and Contexts of Identity Change: A Case for Network Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Daniel; Pals, Heili

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we interrelate different theories of identity and describe how various social contexts and cognitive motives influence the process of identity change. We consider two competing theories about the linkage of contexts with motives for identity change: the effect of category traits, based on social identity theory, and the effect of…

  15. Perceived Effectiveness among College Students of Selected Statistical Measures in Motivating Exercise Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray M.; Chatterley, Amanda; Shields, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of selected statistical measures at motivating or maintaining regular exercise among college students. The study also considered whether ease in understanding these statistical measures was associated with perceived effectiveness at motivating or maintaining regular exercise. Analyses were based on a…

  16. Modeling motivation three ways: effects of MI metrics on treatment outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brittany C; Stewart, David G; Arger, Chris; Athenour, Dylan R; Effinger, Jenell

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how three different measures of motivation (cognitive motivation, taking steps, and self-efficacy for change and maintenance) predict substance use outcomes after engaging in a Motivational Interviewing intervention. Participants were 225 high school students enrolled in Project Reducing the Effects of Alcohol and Drugs on Youth (Project READY), a NIDA-funded intervention initially developed with Motivational Interviewing (MI) principles for adolescents identified by schools as having problems with alcohol or other drug use. We measured motivation at multiple time points during the intervention in multiple methods. Cognitive motivation was assessed using a Decisional Balance matrix at Session 3 of treatment. We measured self-efficacy with the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, administered at 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-week follow-ups. A measure of taking steps (SOCRATES, v. 8) was administered at intake and Session 8. We hypothesized that motivation would follow the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) pathway, and we proposed a model where cognitive motivation would predict self-confidence for change and taking steps toward change, and self-confidence and taking steps would predict substance use outcomes. We tested our model using path analysis in AMOS and found support for a motivational continuum predicting percent days abstinent at 16-week follow-up [χ(2) = 2.75, df = 7, p = .90, CFI = 1, RMSEA (90% confidence interval) = .00 - .03]. This model demonstrates that motivational metrics predict unique outcomes at different time points and serve as important components of intervention. PMID:24467198

  17. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives. PMID:25154126

  18. Sources of motivation, interpersonal conflict management styles, and leadership effectiveness: a structural model.

    PubMed

    Barbuto, John E; Xu, Ye

    2006-02-01

    126 leaders and 624 employees were sampled to test the relationship between sources of motivation and conflict management styles of leaders and how these variables influence effectiveness of leadership. Five sources of motivation measured by the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested-intrinsic process, instrumental, self-concept external, self-concept internal, and goal internalization. These sources of work motivation were associated with Rahim's modes of interpersonal conflict management-dominating, avoiding, obliging, complying, and integrating-and to perceived leadership effectiveness. A structural equation model tested leaders' conflict management styles and leadership effectiveness based upon different sources of work motivation. The model explained variance for obliging (65%), dominating (79%), avoiding (76%), and compromising (68%), but explained little variance for integrating (7%). The model explained only 28% of the variance in leader effectiveness. PMID:16673944

  19. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: accuracy x knowledge accessibility effects.

    PubMed

    Stapel, D A; Koomen, W; Zeelenberg, M

    1998-04-01

    Four studies provide evidence for the notion that there may be boundaries to the extent to which accuracy motivation may help perceivers to escape the influence of fortuitously activated information. Specifically, although accuracy motivations may eliminate assimilative accessibility effects, they are less likely to eliminate contrastive accessibility effects. It was found that the occurrence of different types of contrast effects (comparison and correction) was not significantly affected by participants' accuracy motivations. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanisms instigated by accuracy motivations differ from those ignited by correction instructions: Accuracy motivations attenuate assimilation effects because perceivers add target interpretations to the one suggested by primed information. Conversely, it was found that correction instructions yield contrast and prompt respondents to remove the priming event's influence from their reaction to the target. PMID:9569650

  20. Dissociable effects of motivation and expectancy on conflict processing: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soutschek, Alexander; Stelzel, Christine; Paschke, Lena; Walter, Henrik; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that both motivation and task difficulty expectations activate brain regions associated with cognitive control. However, it remains an open question whether motivational and cognitive determinants of control have similar or dissociable impacts on conflict processing on a neural level. The current study tested the effects of motivation and conflict expectancy on activity in regions related to processing of the target and the distractor information. Participants performed a picture-word interference task in which we manipulated the size of performance-dependent monetary rewards (level of motivation) and the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials within a block (level of conflict expectancy). Our results suggest that motivation improves conflict processing by facilitating task-relevant stimulus processing and task difficulty expectations mainly modulate the processing of distractor information. We conclude that motivation and conflict expectancy engage dissociable control strategies during conflict resolution. PMID:25203271

  1. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. PMID:27488914

  2. A Reader Responds to Guilloteaux and Dornyei's "Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    There is a wealth of literature examining the role of motivation in second language (L2) learning but remarkably little research that has examined how teachers can foster motivation in the classroom. For this reason alone Guilloteaux and Dornyei's (2008) correlational study of the relationship between motivational strategies and student motivation…

  3. Brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational audiovisual stimuli on psychophysiological responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; Silva, Vinícius B; Karageorghis, Costas I; Bird, Jonathan M; Santos, Priscila C; Altimari, Leandro R

    2016-05-01

    Motivational audiovisual stimuli such as music and video have been widely used in the realm of exercise and sport as a means by which to increase situational motivation and enhance performance. The present study addressed the mechanisms that underlie the effects of motivational stimuli on psychophysiological responses and exercise performance. Twenty-two participants completed fatiguing isometric handgrip-squeezing tasks under two experimental conditions (motivational audiovisual condition and neutral audiovisual condition) and a control condition. Electrical activity in the brain and working muscles was analyzed by use of electroencephalography and electromyography, respectively. Participants were asked to squeeze the dynamometer maximally for 30s. A single-item motivation scale was administered after each squeeze. Results indicated that task performance and situational motivational were superior under the influence of motivational stimuli when compared to the other two conditions (~20% and ~25%, respectively). The motivational stimulus downregulated the predominance of low-frequency waves (theta) in the right frontal regions of the cortex (F8), and upregulated high-frequency waves (beta) in the central areas (C3 and C4). It is suggested that motivational sensory cues serve to readjust electrical activity in the brain; a mechanism by which the detrimental effects of fatigue on the efferent control of working muscles is ameliorated. PMID:26948160

  4. Effects of Structural versus Surface Similarity on Transfer of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Mimi

    The relative contribution of students' capability to perceive structural versus surface similarity on their motivation transfer was studied. It was hypothesized that surface similarity would lead to greater transfer of self-efficacy among tasks due to its readily perceptible nature. More specifically, it was hypothesized that the perception of…

  5. Motivation, Process and Participation: The Effect of Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Tilda

    1999-01-01

    A survey of Scottish older adults participating in three educational contexts (Universities of the Third Age, self-help classes, and formal adult education) as well as nonparticipants found that participants were motivated by the need for mental activity, social engagement, and second-chance learning. The process of learning and ownership of…

  6. The Effect of Differential Motivation on IRT Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelhaëuser, Marie-Anne; Béguin, Anton A.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of a pretest design. The study also investigated…

  7. Courageous Reading Instruction: The Effects of an Elementary Motivation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinak, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to more clearly understand the erosion of engagement in some readers, a number of researchers (J. Brophy, 2008; J. Guthrie, 2010; K. Mohr, 2006) and organizations (Education Alliance, 2010) have called for the investigation of strategies to improve elementary reading motivation. Consequently this mixed-methods investigation focused…

  8. The Effects of Differentiation and Motivation on Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Dorraine; Mansour, Sueha Kayyal; Sydor, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    This report described how implementation of differentiated assignments provided documentation of how students' motivation increased. The volunteers that participated in this study were 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. Students struggle academically to meet the expectations of their instructors. These struggles impact how students learn academically,…

  9. Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for School Effectiveness: An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

    2006-01-01

    Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This study assessed the…

  10. The Effect of Student Motivation on Intervention Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Regina Christian

    2013-01-01

    Students who are removed from the regular school setting receive referrals to disciplinary alternative education programs (DAEPs), which focus on behavior management. Because students enroll for less than 30 days, it is important to quickly determine students' level of motivation to change, as doing so allows for immediate connection to…

  11. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  12. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  13. An Investigation of the Effects of School Context and Sex Differences on Students' Motivational Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowson, Martin; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nelson, Genevieve F.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely postulated that school context characteristics and sex may influence students' motivational orientations. However, relatively little empirical evidence exists to support this postulate. Hence the present study sought to examine both the individual and interactive effects of school and sex differences on students' motivational goals.…

  14. Intrinsic Motivation, Self-Perception, and Their Effects on Black Urban Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    This study examined the effects of specific motivational dimensions and self-perceptions of a group of 47 urban black fourth and fifth grade students on attendance and academic achievement. Each student's responses to a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and a self-perception inventory were compared to each other and to his or her…

  15. The Isolation of Motivational, Motoric, and Schedule Effects on Operant Performance: A Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackney, Ryan J.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Neisewander, Janet L.; Sanabria, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Dissociating motoric and motivational effects of pharmacological manipulations on operant behavior is a substantial challenge. To address this problem, we applied a response-bout analysis to data from rats trained to lever press for sucrose on variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement. Motoric, motivational, and schedule factors (effort…

  16. Investigating Effects of Problem-Based versus Lecture-Based Learning Environments on Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two learning environments (i.e., problem-based learning [PBL] versus lecture-based [LB] environments) on undergraduates' study motivation. Survey results demonstrated that PBL students scored higher on competence but did not differ from LB students on autonomous motivation. Analyses of focus groups further…

  17. Enhancing Student Motivation and Engagement: The Effects of a Multidimensional Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the effects of a multidimensional educational intervention on high school students' motivation and engagement. The intervention incorporated: (a) multidimensional targets of motivation and engagement, (b) empirically derived intervention methodology, (c) research-based risk and protective factors, (d)…

  18. Facilitating Motivation in Young Adolescents: Effects of an After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Farkas, Melanie S.; Sohmer, Richard; Michaels, Sarah; Valsiner, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a motivationally facilitative after-school program on 7th grade students' autonomous motivation, learning goals, school engagement, and performance in science class. Pairs of students were individually matched on sex, race/ethnicity, free lunch status, and science grades and each member was randomly assigned to…

  19. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  20. Motivational Effect of Web-Based Simulation Game in Teaching Operations Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tung Nhu

    2015-01-01

    Motivational effects during a simulated educational game should be studied because a general concern of lecturers is motivating students and increasing their knowledge. Given advances in internet technology, traditional short in-class games are being substituted with long web-based games. To maximize the benefits of web-based simulation games, a…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Pieter; van Nimwegen, Christof; van Oostendorp, Herre; van der Spek, Erik D.

    2013-01-01

    It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional…

  2. Effects of a Critical Thinking Skills Program on the Learning Motivation of Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Weiping; Jia, Xiaojuan; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Shan, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Learning motivation has a significant effect on student learning, which is a key determinant of academic performance and creativity. It is increasingly popular and important to cultivate learning motivation in schools. To consider this trend, a long-term intervention program named "Learn to Think" (LTT) was designed not only to improve…

  3. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  4. Financial Literacy Curriculum: The Effect on Offender Money Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    Offenders involved in this study lacked basic financial knowledge which presented a barrier to their success upon release. The researcher modified existing curriculum and created a course in financial literacy for offenders within a medium security correctional facility based upon their personal experiences. The offenders gained financial…

  5. Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Foote, Jeffrey; Cleland, Charles; Magura, Stephen; Mahmood, Daneyal; Kosanke, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Patient treatment matching hypotheses were tested for substance users randomly assigned to a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT; n= 114) or a group motivational intervention (GMI; n= 116). Treatment was scheduled twice weekly for 10 weeks. Using a patient attribute by treatment interaction design with a 15-week follow-up, the study predicted that alexithymia, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and network support for alcohol and drug use would be associated with less substance use for CBT subjects and that hostility and lower treatment motivation would be associated with less substance use for GMI subjects. Three of the hypothesized moderators were empirically supported: alexithymia, network support for alcohol, and ASPD. Results indicate the use of assessing specific patient attributes to better inform treatment recommendations. PMID:15768570

  6. "Payment by Results"--financial incentives and motivational interviewing, adherence interventions in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection: a pilot program.

    PubMed

    Foster, Caroline; McDonald, Susan; Frize, Graham; Ayers, Sarah; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests financial incentives (FIs) improve medication adherence in select populations. A small proportion of adolescents with perinatal HIV (PaHIV) transfer to adult services with established poor adherence and advanced disease. We describe a single center adherence intervention combining FIs with motivational interviewing (MI). Eligible patients (PaHIV,16-25 years, CD4 count ≤ 200, off ART despite multiple attempts) received MI, and FI dependent on viral load (VL) reduction for 1 year. Outcome measures compared CD4 gain from baseline at 1 year and 12 months post cessation of FI/MI. Eleven young people enrolled; median age 19 years, 8 female. Baseline median CD4 count 30 cells/μL (IQR 10-160), VL 12,870 c/mL. Outcomes at 12 months: 9/11 ever achieved VL < 50, 5 sustained undetectable VL, median CD4 140, mean CD4 gain 90 cells/μL at 1 year. Twelve months post cessation of MI/FI; six VL < 50, median CD4 75, mean CD4 gain 122 cells/μL. Total FI expenditure £1,350: £68 per 50 CD4 cells at 1 year, £55 at 24 months. To prevent death, adolescents with PaHIV require novel interventions to reverse poor patterns of adherence established since childhood. FI/MI improved virological and immunological outcomes with minimal expenditure. Extension of this pilot work for vulnerable individuals is now indicated. PMID:24428797

  7. Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353

  8. Assessment the effect of the CBT on motivation of the nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Behzadi, Somayeh; Sabouri, Farhad; Alavi, Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motivation to academic achievement is critical for students of medical sciences, particularly nursing students. It is directly related to high levels of achievement and quality of life. Accordingly, diminished motivation would result in academic decline, study and work desertion and exhaustion. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioural intervention on the motivation for academic achievement of the nursing students. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 64 female nursing students who were recruited to study based on the inclusion criteria. After sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to study and control groups. Then, cognitive behavioural intervention was administered in study group during 60 days. Academic motivation scale was filled before, after and one month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tests (Chi-square, t-test). Results: After the intervention, mean scores of academic motivation were significantly increased in study group, compared to control group (P < 0.001). Comparison of the mean scores of academic motivation in two groups revealed a significant increase in mean score of academic motivation 151.50 (20.22) after cognitive behavioural intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings suggested that cognitive behavioural intervention was a valuable psychotherapy technique to improve academic achievement motivation among nursing students. PMID:27095983

  9. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PMID:24059820

  10. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  11. Motivated Rejection of (Climate) Science: Causes, Tools, and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the relevant scientific community long ago settled on the conclusion that human economic activities are causing climate change through the emission of greenhouse gases, a small but vocal number of dissenters remains unconvinced by the evidence. I examine the cognitive and motivational factors that underlie the rejection of scientific evidence, and I illustrate the techniques by which contrarians seek to shape public debate and mislead the public. I also suggest that contrarian activities have seeped into the scientific community and have arguably altered the interpretation of the risks posed by climate change.

  12. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  13. 12 CFR 380.26 - Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...

  14. 12 CFR 380.26 - Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...

  15. 12 CFR 380.26 - Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a bridge financial company. 380.26 Section 380.26 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE... Effect of transfer of assets and obligations to a bridge financial company. (a) The purchase of any asset or assumption of any asset or liability of a covered financial company by a bridge financial...

  16. The Effects of Motivation on Student Performance on Science Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Tina Heard

    Academic achievement of public school students in the United States has significantly fallen behind other countries. Students' lack of knowledge of, or interest in, basic science and math has led to fewer graduates of science, technology, engineering, and math-related fields (STEM), a factor that may affect their career success and will certainly affect the numbers in the workforce who are prepared for some STEM jobs. Drawing from self-determination theory and achievement theory, the purpose of this correlational study was to determine whether there were significant relationships between high school academic performance in science classes, motivations (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation), and academic performance in an introductory online college biology class. Data were obtained at 2 points in time from a convenience multiethnic sample of adult male ( n =16) and female (n = 49) community college students in the southeast United States. Correlational analyses indicated no statistically significant relationships for intrinsic or extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, or self-regulation with high school science mean-GPA nor college biology final course grade. However, high school academic performance in science classes significantly predicted college performance in an entry-level online biology class. The implications of positive social change include knowledge useful for educational institutions to explore additional factors that may motivate students to enroll in science courses, potentially leading to an increase in scientific knowledge and STEM careers.

  17. Effectiveness of Financial Incentives in a Worksite Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Faghri, Pouran D.; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of financial incentive in a diabetes prevention weight loss program at worksites. Design Group-level randomized intervention study. Setting Four long-term care facilities, randomly assigned to “incentive-IG” or “non incentive-NIG” groups. Participants Ninety-nine employees, all overweight or obese (BMI= mean 34.8±7.4 kg/m2) and at risk for type 2 diabetes. Intervention A 16 week weight loss program (diabetes prevention program) with a 3 month follow up. IG could either choose a "standard incentive" to receive cash award when achieving the projected weight loss or to participate in a "standard plus deposit incentive" to get additional money matched with their deposit for projected weight loss. All of the participants received a one-hour consultation for a healthy weight loss at the beginning. Measures Weight-loss, diabetes risk score (DRS), and cardiovascular risk outcomes. Analyses Linear and logistic regressions for completed cases with adjustments for clustering effect at group level. Results IG lost on average more pounds (p=0.027), reduced BMI (p=0.04), and reduced in DRS (p=0.011) compared to NIG at week 16. At the 12-week follow-up period, those in IG plus deposit subgroup had twice the odds (OR=2.2, p=0.042) and those in the standard IG had three times the odds of achieving weight loss goals than NIG; those in the IG plus deposit group reduced DRS by 0.4 (p=0.045). Conclusion Monetary incentives appear to be effective in reducing weight and diabetes risk.

  18. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. PMID:26453484

  19. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  20. Effect of motivation on academic fluency performance in survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Holland, Alice Ann; Hughes, Carroll W; Harder, Lana; Silver, Cheryl; Bowers, Daniel C; Stavinoha, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed previously that extrinsic motivation may enable survivors of childhood medulloblastoma to significantly improve aspects of neurocognitive performance. In healthy populations, enhanced motivation has been shown to promote academic fluency, a domain likely more relevant to the educational outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma survivors than academic skill development. The present study investigates the effect of enhanced extrinsic motivation on fluent (i.e., accurate and efficient) academic performance in pediatric medulloblastoma survivors. Participants were 36 children, ages 7-18, who had completed treatment for medulloblastoma. Participants completed a neuropsychological battery that included administration of equivalent tasks on Forms A and B of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Half were randomly assigned to an incentive condition prior to the administration of Form B. Provision of a performance-based incentive resulted in statistically significant improvement, but not normalization of function, in performance on measures of academic fluency. No demographic, treatment-related, academic, neuropsychological, or self-perception variables predicted response to incentive. Findings suggest that academic performance of survivors may significantly improve under highly motivating conditions. In addition to implications for educational services, this finding raises the novel possibility that decreased motivation represents an inherent neuropsychological deficit in this population and provides a rationale for further investigation of factors affecting individual differences in motivational processes. Further, by examining effort in a context where effort is not inherently suspect, present findings also significantly contribute to the debate regarding the effects of effort and motivation on neuropsychological performance. PMID:25825959

  1. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

  2. Adoption and Perceived Effectiveness of Financial Improvement Strategies in Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, George M.; Pink, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the use and perceived success of strategies to improve the financial performance of Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs). Methods: Information about the use and perceived effectiveness of 44 specific strategies to improve financial performance was collected from an online survey of 291 CAH Chief Executive Officers and Chief…

  3. Motivation gains in performance groups: paradigmatic and theoretical developments on the Köhler effect.

    PubMed

    Hertel, G; Kerr, N L; Messé, L A

    2000-10-01

    In contrast to many demonstrations of social loafing, relatively few studies have documented group motivation gains. One such exception was O. Köhler's (1926, 1927) finding that team members working together did better at a taxing persistence task than would be expected from their individual performances, particularly when there was a moderate discrepancy in coworkers' capabilities. In Experiment 1, we developed a paradigm within which Köhler's overall motivation gain effect could be replicated, although the discrepancy in coworkers' capabilities did not moderate these motivation gains (after statistical artifacts were taken into account). Experiment 2 indicated that this motivation gain occurred under conjunctive but not under additive task demands, suggesting that the instrumentality of one's contribution to valued outcomes is a more likely explanation of the Köhler effect than social comparison processes. PMID:11045740

  4. Effects of peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Moon Sook; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of video-based peer review on communication skills and learning motivation among nursing students. A non-equivalent control with pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 47 sophomore nursing students taking a fundamentals of nursing course at a nursing college in Korea. Communication with a standardized patient was videotaped for evaluation. The intervention group used peer reviews to evaluate the videotaped performance; a small group of four students watched the videotape of each student and then provided feedback. The control group assessed themselves alone after watching their own videos. Communication skills and learning motivation were measured. The intervention group showed significantly higher communication skills and learning motivation after the intervention than did the control group. The findings suggest that peer review is an effective learning method for nursing students to improve their communication skills and increase their motivation to learn. PMID:21323255

  5. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between global sleep quality and experience of alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants College students (N = 1,878) who reported past-month drinking. Methods Participants completed online surveys assessing sleep and alcohol-related behaviors. Results Poorer sleep quality and higher drinking motives (coping, conformity, and enhancement) predicted greater alcohol-related consequences, controlling for drinking. Further, coping motives moderated the relationship between sleep quality and consequences such that participants reporting poor sleep and high coping motives experienced heightened levels of consequences. Conclusions These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between sleep problems and alcohol-related risk and provide implications for targeted campus-based health promotion interventions. PMID:24588270

  6. Effects of Relationship Motivation, Partner Familiarity, and Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M.; Morrison, Diane M.; Stoner, Susan A.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation, then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high), and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants’ primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making, and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically-based risky sex interventions. PMID:19332435

  7. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on high school students' motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michele T.

    2007-12-01

    A problem facing educators is students' academic motivation to successfully complete science class offerings and pass state standardized tests. This study focused on the effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods to motivate high school science students to complete classroom activities. It was the intent of this study to provide a voice for students regarding what activities promote their motivation. A constant comparative analysis including open, axial, and selective coding of participants' interview responses and classroom observations provided codes used to develop a substantive theory of motivation and personal investment in students' learning. The findings of this study were that teachers should provide students with constructivist lessons such as cooperative groups, problem-based learning, and inquiry questions in which to learn content objectives. As social beings, students are more motivated to participate in activities that allow them to work with peers, contribute their own ideas, and relate topics of interest to their own realities. Keeping these ideas in mind during lesson preparation will increase students' motivation and achievement. Variation of instruction should include activities that reflect multiple intelligences and real world situations. The researcher recommends the development of professional learning communities as a way for teachers to share teaching practices that motivate students to learn and become problem solvers, thus promoting social change in educators' pedagogy in the researcher's teaching community. In an era of educational accountability and federal regulations, this study provides an important tool for teachers to employ in order to meet the educational needs of their students.

  8. The Effects of Different Motivational Climates on Students' Achievement Goals, Motivational Strategies and Attitudes toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse whether conducting physical education lessons according to different motivational climates leads to a significant difference between students' achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes towards physical education. Participants (81-ninth grade students) were allocated to one of three experimental…

  9. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  10. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  11. The Effects of Autonomy on Motivation and Performance in the College Classroom

    PubMed

    Garcia; Pintrich

    1996-10-01

    The goals of this study were to extend the literature about classroom autonomy in several ways. First, since previous research on autonomy has tended to focus on younger learners, we examined whether the positive effects of autonomy on motivation and performance would be replicated in a college sample. Second, we tested to see whether the well-established links between intrinsic motivation and autonomy would also be found using motivational constructs that play key roles in learning (specifically, task value, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). Third, we sought to trace the effect of autonomy on changes in student motivation over the course of a semester. Finally, we examined the role of autonomy on course performance. We found that experiences of classroom autonomy in the college classroom were more closely related to motivational factors than to performance. While the immediate experience of autonomy may not be directly facilitative of high course grades, autonomy does seem to foster intrinsic goal orientation, task value, and self-efficacy, all of which are critical components of "continuing motivation." The data presented here lend further support for the benefits of fostering autonomy within academic settings. PMID:8979875

  12. Behavioral and biochemical evidence of the role of acetaldehyde in the motivational effects of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Peana, Alessandra T.; Acquas, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Since Chevens' report, in the early 50's that his patients under treatment with the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, antabuse, could experience beneficial effects when drinking small volumes of alcoholic beverages, the role of acetaldehyde (ACD) in the effects of ethanol has been thoroughly investigated on pre-clinical grounds. Thus, after more than 25 years of intense research, a large number of studies have been published on the motivational properties of ACD itself as well as on the role that ethanol-derived ACD plays in the effects of ethanol. Accordingly, in particular with respect to the motivational properties of ethanol, these studies were developed following two main strategies: on one hand, were aimed to challenge the suggestion that also ACD may exert motivational properties on its own, while, on the other, with the aid of enzymatic manipulations or ACD inactivation, were aimed to test the hypothesis that ethanol-derived ACD might have a role in ethanol motivational effects. Furthermore, recent evidence significantly contributed to highlight, as possible mechanisms of action of ACD, its ability to commit either dopaminergic and opioidergic transmission as well as to activate the Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase cascade transduction pathway in reward-related brain structures. In conclusion, and despite the observation that ACD seems also to have inherited the elusive nature of its parent compound, the behavioral and biochemical evidence reviewed points to ACD as a neuroactive molecule able, on its own and as ethanol metabolite, to exert motivational effects. PMID:23874276

  13. Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

  14. Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time. Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230–6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598–3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966–6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives. Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health. PMID:26072677

  15. Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

  16. The Expertise Reversal Effect: Cognitive Load and Motivational Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel; Buchwald, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The expertise reversal effect occurs when a learner's expertise moderates design principles such as the redundancy principle (i.e., redundant information should be excluded rather than included) derived from the cognitive load theory. Although this effect is supported by numerous experiments, indicating an overall large effect size, a variety of…

  17. Effective Practices of Financial Education for College Students: Students' Perceptions of Credit Card Use and Financial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carla

    2013-01-01

    College students who are unprepared for financial decision making may make risky decisions such as compulsive spending and debt accumulation. Financial stress impacts both academic achievement and retention. The current literature addresses the deficiency college students have when making financially responsible decisions, but little is mentioned…

  18. Effects of Person versus Process Praise on Student Motivation: Stability and Change in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimovitz, Kyla; Henderlong Corpus, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of person praise and process praise on college students' motivation and how these effects change as students progress through their undergraduate years. Hundred and eleven college students worked on three puzzle tasks and received either person praise, process praise, or no praise. Following subsequent failure,…

  19. Gender and Corporal Expression Activity in Physical Education: Effect of an Intervention on Students' Motivational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevil, Javier; Abós, Ángel; Aibar, Alberto; Julián, José Antonio; García-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme on a series of motivational variables in a corporal expression teaching unit. An analysis was also conducted in terms of whether the impact of the intervention would be effective in boys and…

  20. Group Investigation Effects on Achievement, Motivation, and Perceptions of Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ivy Geok Chin; Sharan, Shlomo; Lee, Christine Kim Eng

    2007-01-01

    In an experiment conducted in 7 eighth-grade (Ages 13-14) classes in Singapore, the authors evaluated the effects of the group investigation method of cooperative learning versus the effects of the traditional whole-class method of instruction on students' academic achievement and on their motivation to learn. The authors also investigated…

  1. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  2. The Effect of Visitor Motivation on the Success of Environmental Education at the Toronto Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James G. W.; Joordens, Steve

    2014-01-01

    With the number and scope of environmental challenges continuing to increase, an understanding of the effectiveness of conservation programs is essential in order to allocate limited resources. This paper examines the effectiveness of environmental education within a zoo setting, focusing on the role of learners' identity-related motivation.…

  3. Effects of goal- and task-oriented motivation in the guilty action test.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Guilty Action Test in detecting critical information from goal-oriented and task-oriented informed innocent examinees. A mock crime procedure was employed and informed innocent participants were either motivated to prove innocence (goal-oriented motivation) or to prove innocence by being cooperative on the test (task-oriented motivation). Half of the participants in each motivation condition were promised course credit reward for successful completion of their mission to prove innocence or to be cooperative (high incentive level). The other half were promised no reward (low incentive level). A fifth group of uninformed innocent participants served for control purposes. Electrodemal, respiration, and cardiovascular measures were used to indicate the motivation effects. Results showed that the combination of goal-oriented instructions and an incentive for success contributed to enhanced responses to the crime-related information. The combination of task-oriented instructions and an incentive for success attenuated these responses. Skin conductance responses were most sensitive to these effects. Theoretical and practical aspects of the results were discussed. PMID:23458884

  4. Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Motivations for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students’ informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for informational text comprehension, was provided in four-week instructional units for 615 grade 7 students. These classroom motivational-engagement supports were implemented within integrated literacy/history instruction in the Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) framework. CORI increased informational text comprehension compared with traditional instruction (TI) in a switching replications experimental design. Students’ perceptions of the motivational-engagement supports were associated with increases in students’ intrinsic motivation, value, perceived competence, and increased positive engagement (dedication) more markedly in CORI than in TI, according to multiple regression analyses. Results extended the evidence for the effectiveness of CORI to literacy/history subject matter and informational text comprehension among middle school students. The experimental effects in classroom contexts confirmed effects from task-specific, situated experimental studies in the literature. PMID:25506087

  5. Evaluating Pharmacists' Motivation and Job Satisfaction Factors in Saudi Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place. PMID:27350504

  6. Leader Influences on Training Effectiveness: Motivation and Outcome Expectation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaduto, Anne; Lindsay, Douglas; Chiaburu, Dan S.

    2008-01-01

    Training effectiveness is a function of trainee characteristics, training design and contextual factors. Social exchanges in the work environment have received less attention compared with other training effectiveness predictors. We focus on the extent to which leaders (through their relationships and exchanges with followers) influence skill…

  7. Encouraging Realistic Expectations in STEM Students: Paradoxical Effects of a Motivational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sverdlik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    College students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52) to consider the importance of downgrading one’s expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered 4 months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students’ responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources. PMID:27507955

  8. Encouraging Realistic Expectations in STEM Students: Paradoxical Effects of a Motivational Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathan C; Sverdlik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    College students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) disciplines are increasingly faced with highly competitive and demanding degree programs and are at risk of academic overconfidence. Following from theory and research highlighting the psychological and developmental risks of unrealistic expectations, the present exploratory study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a motivational intervention encouraging college students in STEM degree programs (N = 52) to consider the importance of downgrading one's expectations in response to academic setbacks. Contrary to study hypotheses, the results showed intervention participants to report significantly higher expectations and optimism on post-test measures administered 4 months later, no significant gains in emotional well-being or achievement goal orientations, and lower GPAs over five subsequent semesters. These paradoxical effects underscore the need for additional larger-scale research on the nature of students' responses to potentially ego-threatening motivational programs in STEM disciplines so as to minimize achievement deficits at the expense of preserving motivational resources. PMID:27507955

  9. `Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer': Effectiveness of an intervention programme to motivate students for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2 years in the intervention programme, which was implemented as an elective in the school curriculum. Our longitudinal study design for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention programme included all students at the grade levels involved in the programme with students who did not participate serving as a control group. Mixed-model analyses of variance showed none of the intended effects of the intervention programme on science motivation; latent growth models corroborated these results. When the programme began, students who enrolled in the science elective (n = 92) were already substantially more motivated than their classmates (n = 228). Offering such an intervention programme as an elective did not further increase the participating students' science motivation. It seems worthwhile to carry out intervention programmes with talented students who show (comparatively) little interest in science at the outset rather than with highly motivated students who self-select into the programme.

  10. Testing the Affiliation Hypothesis of Homoerotic Motivation in Humans: The Effects of Progesterone and Priming.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Fessler, Daniel M T; Cholakians, Argine Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    The frequency of homoerotic behavior among individuals who do not identify as having an exclusively homosexual sexual orientation suggests that such behavior potentially has adaptive value. Here, we define homoerotic behavior as intimate erotic contact between members of the same sex and affiliation as the motivation to make and maintain social bonds. Among both male and female nonhuman primates, affiliation is one of the main drivers of homoerotic behavior. Correspondingly, in humans, both across cultures and across historical periods, homoerotic behavior appears to play a role in promoting social bonds. However, to date, the affiliation explanation of human homoerotic behavior has not been adequately tested experimentally. We developed a measure of homoerotic motivation with a sample of 244 men and women. Next, we found that, in women (n = 92), homoerotic motivation was positively associated with progesterone, a hormone that has been shown to promote affiliative bonding. Lastly, we explored the effects of affiliative contexts on homoerotic motivation in men (n = 59), finding that men in an affiliative priming condition were more likely to endorse engaging in homoerotic behavior compared to those primed with neutral or sexual concepts, and this effect was more pronounced in men with high progesterone. These findings constitute the first experimental support for the affiliation account of the evolution of homoerotic motivation in humans. PMID:25420899

  11. Navigating the New Normal: Financial Imperatives for MSI Effectiveness and Avoiding Financial Exigency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Serving on the board of any nonprofit organization has taken on added significance in recent years. There is greater accountability for trustees and for the overall mission and effectiveness of the organizations that they have the ultimate fiduciary responsibility to maintain. The changes have challenged not only the personal commitment that board…

  12. Effects of Stimulant Medication under Varied Motivational Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; Prager, Kevin L.; Thomas, Karen; Kochy, Jane; Dyer, Tim J.; Perry, Lora; Pritchard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the evocative effects of four conditions (high- and low-preference activities, low and divided attention) and stimulant medication on the behavior of a 16-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and moderate mental retardation. All behavior (activity engagement, activity changes, inappropriate touching, rude…

  13. Effects of dietary fibers with different physicochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carol Souza; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2012-09-10

    The satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of fibers with varying physicochemical properties (bulkiness, viscosity and fermentability) on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets: lignocellulose (LC), pectin (PEC), resistant starch (RS), and control (C) without fiber, in four periods in a Latin square design. Each fiber was fed at a low (L) followed by a high (H) inclusion level (7 days each). At 1h, 3h, and 7h after the morning meal, feeding motivation was assessed in an operant test, where turning a wheel yielded multiple food rewards, and in a runway test, where walking a fixed U-shaped track yielded one food reward. Pigs were observed in their home pen for 6h, using 90-s instantaneous scan sampling. In the operant test, throughout the day feeding motivation was higher for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on LC. In the runway, feeding motivation increased particularly at 1h after the meal for pigs on PEC compared with pigs on RS. Also at 7h, feeding motivation tended to decrease for pigs on RS compared with pigs fed other diets. In their home pen, pigs on PEC showed more feeder-directed behavior compared with pigs on RS. In conclusion, PEC was the least satiating fiber. LC and RS, despite a lower supply of available energy, were the most satiating fibers, possibly due to their bulky and fermentation properties, respectively. PMID:22796465

  14. Effects of age, sex, and neuropsychological performance on financial decision-making.

    PubMed

    Shivapour, Sara K; Nguyen, Christopher M; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we explored how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56-90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision-Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. However, after controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation), whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation). In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants' financial decision-making ability and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one's financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources. PMID:22715322

  15. Effects of Age, Sex, and Neuropsychological Performance on Financial Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Shivapour, Sara K.; Nguyen, Christopher M.; Cole, Catherine A.; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we explored how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56–90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision-Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. However, after controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation), whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation). In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making ability and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources. PMID:22715322

  16. The Effects of Participatory English Classes on the Motivation of Science Students for Learning English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Maiko

    This study researched the effects of participatory English classes on the motivation of university students of an engineering department who had failed in learning English in their junior-and senior high school days. As a participatory class is generally said to be able to make learners feel achievement and to raise their autonomy in learning, the author empirically gave the students English classes for 14-times in the form of a workshop for the first semester in 2009 and examined their changes in motivation and English reading abilities. As the results of a questionnaire and a test in the last class, it was found that the students attended all classes with strong motivation and improved their WPM and ability to comprehend in reading English.

  17. Perceived Norms Mediate Effects of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Sanctioned College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for 198 college students sanctioned for alcohol-related violations of school policy (Carey, Henson, Carey, & Maisto, 2009). Using multivariate latent growth curve models, we evaluated theoretically-derived mediators of the observed BMI effect: motivation to change (readiness-to-change, costs and benefits of drinking), and drinking norms (injunctive norms for peers, and descriptive norms for friends, local peers, and national peers). Results provided partial support for mediation by changes in perceptions of descriptive but not injunctive norms, a pattern that varied by gender and norm type. We found no evidence of a mediating role for any of the motivational variables. PMID:22238504

  18. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  19. Achievement Motivation Training--Effects on ABE/ASE Students' Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…

  20. Academic Motivation in Post-Secondary Students: Effects of Career Outcome Expectations and Type of Aspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…

  1. The Cooperative Learning Effects on English Reading Comprehension and Learning Motivation of EFL Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Ching-Ying; Wu, Hui-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aims to investigate the effects of using cooperative learning to enhance the English reading comprehension and learning motivation of EFL freshmen by comparing the cooperative learning instruction and traditional lecture instruction. This experiment was implemented in a Freshman English Reading course, a two credit course,…

  2. Picking Teams: Motivational Effects of Team Selection Strategies in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Prusak, Keven A.; Beddoes, Zack; Eggett, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The tacitly sanctioned practice of publicly picking teams in physical education has been categorized as instructionally inappropriate, yet its practice persists. Therefore, the purpose of this two-study article was to examine its effects on achievement goals orientations and motivational profiles of male junior high school physical education…

  3. Is Case-Based Instruction Effective in Enhancing High School Students' Motivation toward Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning (CBL) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on 10th grade students' perceived motivation about chemistry as a school subject. Two classes were randomly selected from a high school. One class was assigned to be an experimental group and the other…

  4. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  5. Effects of Teacher Autonomy Support and Students' Autonomous Motivation on Learning in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys,…

  6. Longitudinal Goal Patterns and Their Effects on Students' Motivation in Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Ping; Liu, Yuanlong; McBride, Ron E.; Bruene, April

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examined longitudinal achievement goal patterns and their effects on students' motivation and performance from the 5th to 6th grade in physical education running programs. In their 5th and 6th grade, 412 participants completed questionnaires assessing their task and ego orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and…

  7. Effects of Reward on Self-Regulation, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selart, Marcus; Nordstrom, Thomas; Kuvaas, Bard; Takemura, Kazuhisa

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the effects of two types of rewards (performance-contingent versus engagement-contingent) on self-regulation, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Forty-two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to three conditions; i.e. a performance-contingent reward group, an engagement-contingent reward group and a control group.…

  8. The Situational Leadership Approach Effects on Employee Motivation in Multi-Generational Information Technology Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Thaddaeus

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the three generations comprising today's IT organizations to determine whether the Situational Leadership approach is effective in motivating this diverse work force to perform project-related tasks. Baby Boomer employees, Generation X employees, and Generation Y employees are the three generations actively employed in IT…

  9. Experimental Effects of Online Collaborative Tools on High School Student Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Doreen L.

    2012-01-01

    To succeed in today's information-rich society, students must utilize technology effectively. Online tools present unique opportunities to create and share knowledge. It was unclear if the use of these tools impacted student motivation, since many teachers were not incorporating technology of interest into lessons. Another concern was the…

  10. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  11. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M…

  12. Motivational Interviewing as a Supervision Strategy in Probation: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Scott T.; Vader, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Norma; Harris, T. Robert; Eells, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been recommended as a supervision style in probation. This project examined the effectiveness of an MI training curriculum on probation officer MI skill and subsequent probationer outcome. Twenty probation officers were randomized to receive MI training, or to a waiting list control, while an additional group of…

  13. Data Coaching: Measuring the Effects of Feedback on Low-Stakes Test Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between students' academic motivation, evidence of achievement as measured by assessments and the effects of feedback in mediating effort. Policy makers currently view student achievement is as synonymous with proficiency on standardized tests. Testing students as a means of determining educational…

  14. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  15. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  16. Self-Evaluated Effects of Web-Based Portfolio Assessment System for Various Student Motivation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the self-evaluated effects of a web-based portfolio assessment system on various categories of students of motivation. The subjects for this study were the students of two computer classes in a Junior High School. The experimental group used the web-based portfolio assessment system whereas the control…

  17. Learning Science via Animated Movies: Its Effect on Students' Thinking and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Miri; Ashkar, Tamar; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2011-01-01

    Some researchers claim that animations may hinder students' meaningful learning or evoke misunderstandings. In order to examine these assertions, our study investigated the effect of animated movies on students' learning outcomes and motivation to learn. Applying the quantitative methodology, two pre- and post-questionnaires were administered:…

  18. The Motivational Effect of Televised Instruction on Teacher Directed Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganguly, Indrani

    It has been suggested that in science education the immediacy and pervasiveness of television and its ability to bring the world into the classroom could be effectively used by the teacher. The motivational uses of instructional television in a high school environmental science class were studied with 57 tenth graders at a suburban high school.…

  19. Effects of Online Reciprocal Teaching on Reading Strategies, Comprehension, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ching-Ting; Yang, Shu Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two types of online remedial reading interventions on the reading strategy and comprehension, motivational beliefs, and self-efficacy of 36 low-achieving students (explicit teaching before reciprocal teaching [ET-RT] vs. direct instruction [DI]). We designed a 10-unit online remedial English reading program based…

  20. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  1. The Effect of a Brief Training in Motivational Interviewing on Trainee Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an empirically based practice that provides counselors with methods for working with resistant and ambivalent clients. Whereas previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of training current clinicians in this evidenced-based practice, no research has investigated the efficacy of teaching MI to…

  2. The Effects of Family Cultural Capital and Reading Motivation on Reading Behaviour in Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Hsiu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed and tested a structural model of the effects of family cultural capital and reading motivation on reading behaviour in elementary school students. Participants were 467 fifth and sixth graders from elementary schools in Changhua County, Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study included the Family Cultural Capital Scale,…

  3. Effect of Middle School Students' Motivation to Learn Technology on Their Attitudes toward Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation to learn technology, as perceived by South Korean middle school students, on their attitudes toward engineering. Using the instruments of Glynn et al. (2011) and Lee (2008), the study focused on eighth and ninth grade students in four middle schools located in South Korea's…

  4. How Do Young Tenured Professors Benefit from a Mentor? Effects on Management, Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; Belder, Rosalie; van Arensbergen, Pleun; van den Besselaar, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Do young tenured professors who receive mentorship differ from those without mentorship in terms of motivation, scholarly performance, and group management practice? We conducted a survey among research group leaders in the biomedical and health sciences in the Netherlands, to study the effects of mentorship. Our results show that mentorship…

  5. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and drop" game,…

  6. EFFECTS OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON PERCEPTUAL-COGNITIVE EFFICIENCY OF CHILDREN WHO VARY IN INTELLECTUAL LEVEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMOCK, CHARLES D.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF INCENTIVE MOTIVATIONAL CONDITIONS ON SELECTED ASPECTS OF PERCEPTION AND CONCEPT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE OF SLOW LEARNING, AVERAGE, AND BRIGHT CHILDREN. THE TOTAL POPULATION OF THE FOURTH-GRADE CHILDREN IN A PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SYSTEM WAS ADMINISTERED THE TEST OF EDUCATIONAL ABILITY. CHILDREN…

  7. Effects of a Value-Reappraisal Intervention on Statistics Students' Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an exploratory value-reappraisal intervention on students' motivation and performance in an undergraduate introductory statistics course. They sampled 82 students from 2 instructors' sections during both the fall and spring semesters. Students were randomly assigned within each section to either the…

  8. Explaining the Relation between Academic Motivation and Substance Use: Effects of Family Relationships and Self Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; And Others

    The inverse relation between academic motivation and substance use has been well established, but the direction of the influence remains to be specified; two possible influences are the mediating and moderating effects of family relationships and self-esteem. In this study, investigators used General Estimating Equation (GEE) models based on data…

  9. The Effects of Second Life on the Motivation of Undergraduate Students Learning a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Amy K.; Gump, Andrew W.; Downey, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds are an emerging technology in computer-assisted learning. Due to the novelty of these new learning spaces, little research has been done on the use or the effects on students learning foreign languages. This research looks at how the use of the virtual world Second Life affects the motivation of students in an undergraduate Spanish…

  10. The Motivational Effects of School-Based Performance Awards. CPRE Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Odden, Allan; Milanowski, Anthony; Heneman, Herbert, III

    From 1995-98, The Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) teacher compensation researchers conducted interviews and survey questionnaires of teachers and principals in three sites to measure the motivational effects of school-based performance award (SBPA) programs. When a school met preset educational objectives, the SBPA programs in…

  11. The Effects of Peer Instruction on Students' Conceptual Learning and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on college students' conceptual learning, motivation, and self-efficacy in an algebra-based introductory physics course for nonmajors. Variables were studied via a quasi-experiment, Solomon four-group design on 123 students. Treatment groups were taught by peer instruction.…

  12. The Effects of Designing Webquests on the Motivation of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halat, Erdogan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of webquest-based applications on the pre-service elementary school teachers' motivation in mathematics. There were a total of 202 pre-service elementary school teachers, 125 in a treatment group and 77 in a control group. The researcher used a Likert-type questionnaire consisting of 34 negative…

  13. The Effects of Captions on Deaf Students' Content Comprehension, Cognitive Load, and Motivation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Joong-O.; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of captions on deaf students' content comprehension, cognitive load, and motivation in online learning. The participants in the study were 62 deaf adult students who had limited reading comprehension skills and used sign language as a first language. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control group…

  14. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  15. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  16. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  17. The Effect of an Experiential Learning Program on Middle School Students' Motivation toward Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Andrea E.; Basile, Carole G.; Albright, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to evaluate the effects of four experiential learning programs on the interest and motivation of middle school students toward mathematics and science. The Expectancy-Value model provided a theoretical framework for the exploration of 336 middle school student participants. Initially, participants were generally…

  18. Effects of Situated Mobile Learning Approach on Learning Motivation and Performance of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chester S. J.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Su, Addison Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a 5-step vocabulary learning (FSVL) strategy and a mobile learning tool in a situational English vocabulary learning environment and assessed their effects on the learning motivation and performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) students in a situational English vocabulary learning environment. Overall, 80 EFL…

  19. Effects of Self-Monitoring on Web-Based Language Learner's Performance and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a self-monitoring strategy on EFL online learners' academic performance and motivational beliefs. A total of 90 college freshmen participated in the study, and instruments used in the study included two general English proficiency tests, a course-based reading comprehension test, and a modified version of the…

  20. The Mediating Effect of Gaming Motivation Between Psychiatric Symptoms and Problematic Online Gaming: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. Objective This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. Methods An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. Results The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, P<.001) and a significant indirect (mediating) effect

  1. Responding to financial pressures. The effect of managed care on hospitals' provision of charity care.

    PubMed

    Mas, Núria

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare financing and insurance is changing everywhere. We want to understand the impact that financial pressures can have for the uninsured in advanced economies. To do so we focus on analyzing the effect of the introduction in the US of managed care and the big rise in financial pressures that it implied. Traditionally, in the US safety net hospitals have financed their provision of unfunded care through a complex system of cross-subsidies. Our hypothesis is that financial pressures undermine the ability of a hospital to cross-subsidize and challenges their survival. We focus on the impact of price pressures and cost-controlling mechanisms imposed by managed care. We find that financial pressures imposed by managed care disproportionately affect the closure of safety net hospitals. Moreover, amongst those hospitals that remain open, in areas where managed care penetration increases the most, they react by closing the health services most commonly used by the uninsured. PMID:23389814

  2. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization. PMID:15686065

  3. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  4. The Effects of Student Financial Aid on Persistence: A Sequential Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of effects of different student financial aid types on year-to-year persistence of high school seniors of 1980 found social and educational background had differential effects at different points in the college experience, college experiences were influential, student aid had a positive effect on persistence, and loans promoted…

  5. Integrating Problem-Based Learning and Simulation: Effects on Student Motivation and Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Kim, Sang Suk

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that a teaching strategy integrating problem-based learning and simulation may be superior to traditional lecture. The purpose of this study was to assess learner motivation and life skills before and after taking a course involving problem-based learning and simulation. The design used repeated measures with a convenience sample of 83 second-year nursing students who completed the integrated course. Data from a self-administered questionnaire measuring learner motivation and life skills were collected at pretest, post-problem-based learning, and post-simulation time points. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined that the mean scores for total learner motivation (F=6.62, P=.003), communication (F=8.27, P<.001), problem solving (F=6.91, P=.001), and self-directed learning (F=4.45, P=.016) differed significantly between time points. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction revealed that total learner motivation and total life skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation and from post-problem-based learning test to postsimulation test. Subscales of learner motivation and life skills, intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem-solving skills, and self-directed learning skills significantly increased both from pretest to postsimulation test and from post-problem-based learning test to post-simulation test. The results demonstrate that an integrating problem-based learning and simulation course elicits significant improvement in learner motivation and life skills. Simulation plus problem-based learning is more effective than problem-based learning alone at increasing intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy for learning and performance, problem solving, and self-directed learning. PMID:26066305

  6. Effective Practices of Financial Education for College Students: Students' Perceptions of Credit Card Use and Financial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carla; Card, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group study was to determine the influence that a financial education intervention administered in First Year Experience courses had on students' perceptions of their financial behavior such as compulsive spending and credit card use. This study utilized the five-point Likert-type…

  7. Approach/Avoidance Motivation, Message Framing, and Health Behavior: Understanding the Congruency Effect.

    PubMed

    Sherman, David K; Mann, Traci; Updegraff, John A

    2006-06-01

    Health messages framed to be congruent with individuals' approach/avoidance motivations have been found to be more effective in promoting health behaviors than health messages incongruent with approach/avoidance motivations. This study examines the processes underlying this congruency effect. Participants (undergraduate students, N = 67) completed a measure of approach/avoidance orientation (the BIS/BAS scales) and read either a gain- or loss-framed message promoting dental flossing. Results demonstrated a congruency effect: Participants who read a congruently framed message had greater flossing efficacy, intended to floss more, and used more dental flosses than did the participants who read an incongruent message. Moreover, intention to perform the behavior predicted the congruency effect and self-efficacy mediated participants' intentions to perform the health behavior. Discussion centers on the role of personality factors and situational factors in models of behavior change. PMID:19079797

  8. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. PMID:27565750

  9. The Effect of Turkish Students' Motivational Beliefs on Their Metacognitive Self-Regulation in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Balta, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    It is emphasized in several studies that both domain specific factors and cultural values and beliefs could have an effect on students' metacognitive self-regulation and motivational beliefs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of motivational beliefs on Turkish students' metacognitive self-regulation in physics courses.…

  10. Core self-evaluations and training effectiveness: prediction through motivational intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Daniel S; Pond, Samuel B; Surface, Eric A

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the processes through which trainee characteristics influence learning is important for identifying mechanisms that drive training effectiveness. We examine the direct and indirect paths through which core self-evaluations (CSE) impact learning. We also include general cognitive ability (GCA) to explore whether CSE's paths to effectiveness differ from those of a well-documented predictor of learning. We proposed a model in which CSE contributes to training effectiveness through its influence on motivational intervening mechanisms, and we tested this model empirically with military personnel (N = 638) who participated in job-required training. The data supported a partially mediated model. Irrespective of inclusion of GCA as a control variable, motivation and effort allocation (MEA) process variables (i.e., training motivation, midtraining self-efficacy, and midtraining goal setting) mediated (or partially mediated) the relationship between CSE and training outcomes that included affective (e.g., intentions to transfer), cognitive (e.g., declarative knowledge), and skill-based (e.g., proficiency) learning. Conversely, GCA had neither direct nor indirect effects on affective learning but did demonstrate direct effects on cognitive and skill-based learning. Results support the utility of including CSE in training research and practice, suggest that MEA serves as an explanatory mechanism for CSE's relation to learning outcomes, and demonstrate that CSE and GCA differentially influence training effectiveness and do so through different explanatory mechanisms. PMID:23565894

  11. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  12. Understanding motivations to participate in an observational research study: Why do patients enroll?

    PubMed

    Soule, Michael C; Beale, Eleanor E; Suarez, Laura; Beach, Scott R; Mastromauro, Carol A; Celano, Christopher M; Moore, Shannon V; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    By understanding common motivations for participating in observational research studies, clinicians may better understand the perceived benefits of research participation from their clients' perspective. We enrolled 164 cardiac patients in a study about the effects of gratitude and optimism. Two weeks post-enrollment, participants completed a four-item questionnaire regarding motivations for study enrollment. Altruistic motivation ranked highest, while intellectual, health-related, and financial motivations rated lower. Four subgroups of participants emerged, each with distinct characteristics and different priorities for participating. These findings may help front-line clinicians to understand which motivations for participation apply to their clients who enroll in non-treatment-based research projects. PMID:26933943

  13. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience. PMID:19774476

  14. The effects of motivation feedback in patients with severe mental illness: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Eline C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Dam, Arno; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of providing clinicians with regular feedback on the patient’s motivation for treatment in increasing treatment engagement in patients with severe mental illness. Methods Design: cluster randomized controlled trial (Dutch Trials Registry NTR2968). Participants: adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a personality disorder and their clinicians, treated in 12 community mental health teams (the clusters) of two mental health institutions in the Netherlands. Interventions: monthly motivation feedback (MF) generated by clinicians additional to treatment as usual (TAU) and TAU by the community mental health teams. Primary outcome: treatment engagement at patient level, assessed at 12 months by clinicians. Randomization: teams were allocated to MF or TAU by a computerized randomization program that randomized each team to a single treatment by blocks of varying size. All participants within these teams received similar treatment. Clinicians and patients were not blind to treatment allocation at the 12-month assessment. Results The 294 randomized patients (148 MF, 146 TAU) and 57 clinicians (29 MF, 28 TAU) of 12 teams (6 MF, 6 TAU) were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups on treatment engagement were found (adjusted mean difference =0.1, 95% confidence interval =−2.2 to 2.3, P=0.96, d=0). Preplanned ancillary analyses showed statistically significant interaction effects between treatment group and primary diagnosis on treatment motivation and quality of life (secondary outcomes), which were beneficial for patients with a primary diagnosis of a personality disorder but not for those with a psychotic disorder. There were no reports of adverse events. Conclusion The current findings imply that monitoring and discussing the patient’s motivation is insufficient to improve motivation and treatment engagement, and

  15. Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity.

    PubMed

    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L

    2016-03-23

    The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated. PMID:26876476

  16. Differential effects and temporal course of attentional and motivational training on excessive drinking.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Hosier, Steven G; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2015-12-01

    Two cognitive-motivational variables that help to solidify drinkers' intentions to drink are their alcohol attentional bias and their maladaptive motivation. The Alcohol Attention Control Training Programme (AACTP) was designed to rectify the former, and the Life Enhancement and Advancement Programme (LEAP) was designed to rectify the latter. The present study used a factorial design to compare the individual and combined effects of the 2 interventions on mean weekly drinking and atypical weekly drinking of 148 harmful drinkers (49% males, mean age = 28.8 years). A variety of other cognitive-motivational and demographic measures were also taken at baseline, and the drinking measures were reassessed at posttreatment and 3 and 6 months later. In comparison with LEAP, the effects of AACTP were less enduring. Combining AACTP and LEAP had few incremental benefits. These results suggest that AACTP would be more effective for achieving short-term reductions in drinking, whereas LEAP would be more effective for alleviating problematic drinking. PMID:26348159

  17. Competitive strategy in turbulent healthcare markets: an analysis of financially effective teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, J

    1998-01-01

    As the healthcare marketplace, characterized by declining revenues and heavy price competition, continues to evolve toward managed care, teaching hospitals are being forced to act more like traditional industrial organizations. Profit-oriented behavior, including emphases on market strategies and competitive advantage, is now a necessity if these hospitals are going to survive the transition to managed care. To help teaching hospitals evaluate strategic options that maximize financial effectiveness, this study examined the financial and operating data for 100 major U.S. teaching hospitals to determine relationships among competitive strategy, market environment, and financial return on invested capital. Results should help major hospitals formulate more effective strategies to combat environmental turbulence. PMID:10338929

  18. The Effects of Nurse Staffing on Hospital Financial Performance: Competitive Versus Less Competitive Markets

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Damian; Neff, Donna; Al-Amin, Mona; Nogle, June; Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospitals facing financial uncertainty have sought to reduce nurse staffing as a way to increase profitability. However, nurse staffing has been found to be important in terms of quality of patient care and nursing related outcomes. Nurse staffing can provide a competitive advantage to hospitals and as a result better financial performance, particularly in more competitive markets Purpose In this study we build on the Resource-Based View of the Firm to determine the effect of nurse staffing on total profit margin in more competitive and less competitive hospital markets in Florida. Methodology/Approach By combining a Florida statewide nursing survey with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and the Area Resource File, three separate multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the effect of nurse staffing on financial performance while accounting for market competitiveness. The analysis was limited to acute care hospitals. Findings Nurse staffing levels had a positive association with financial performance (β=3.3; p=0.02) in competitive hospital markets, but no significant association was found in less competitive hospital markets. Practice Implications Hospitals in more competitive hospital markets should reconsider reducing nursing staff, as these cost cutting measures may be inefficient and negatively affect financial performance. PMID:22543824

  19. The physiology of opiate hedonic effects and the role of opioids in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Carr, K D

    1984-01-01

    The topics discussed in this article are the neural mechanisms of opiate hedonic effects and the role of endogenous opioids in regulating motivational-affective responses of the organism. First, research on the mechanisms of opiate hedonic effects is briefly reviewed; evidence is discussed which suggests the existence of separate neural substrates for the mediation of opiate analgesia, amelioration of aversive emotion, and reward. In the remainder of the article, recent work of our laboratory is summarized which concerns the role of endogenous opioids in regulating feeding and reward elicited by electrical stimulation in the lateral hypothalamus; evidence is presented which indicates that opioid activity associated with the state of food motivation potentiates reward processes. In addition, evidence is discussed which suggests that this opioid activity may concurrently diminish the organism's emotional responsiveness to competing aversive stimuli. The relevance of this area of research to human opiate abuse is discussed. PMID:6388274

  20. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn. PMID:25278834

  1. Effects of Online College Student's Internet Self-Efficacy on Learning Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chiung-Sui; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Sung, Hung-Yen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Nian-Shing; Cheng, Shan-Shan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how Internet self-efficacy helps students to transform motivation into learning action, and its influence on learning performance. In this study, the effects of Internet self-efficacy on motivation and the learning performance of online college students were examined using social cognitive theory. The subjects of this study…

  2. The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Affect and Evaluation of the Creative Process among Fine Arts Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…

  3. Effects of Fitness Test Type, Teacher, and Gender on Exercise Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Self-worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.; Corbin, Charles B.

    1991-01-01

    A study of seventh and eighth graders in the southwest compared effects on exercise-intrinsic motivation and physical self-worth of taking either the President's Challenge or the Fitnessgram fitness test battery. Results did not support the premise that fitness test batteries would produce different motivational and self-perception outcomes. (SM)

  4. The Effects of Choice on Intrinsic Motivation and Related Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patall, Erika A.; Cooper, Harris; Robinson, Jorgianne Civey

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 41 studies examined the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes in a variety of settings with both child and adult samples. Results indicated that providing choice enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance, and perceived competence, among other outcomes. Moderator tests revealed the effect…

  5. Effects of global financial crisis on network structure in a local stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Maeng, Seong Eun; Ha, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2014-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis on threshold networks of a local Korean financial market around the time of the crisis. Prices of individual stocks belonging to KOSPI 200 (Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200) are considered for three time periods, namely before, during, and after the crisis. Threshold networks are constructed from fully connected cross-correlation networks, and thresholds of cross-correlation coefficients are assigned to obtain threshold networks. At the high threshold, only one large cluster consisting of firms in the financial sector, heavy industry, and construction is observed during the crisis. However, before and after the crisis, there are several fragmented clusters belonging to various sectors. The power law of the degree distribution in threshold networks is observed within the limited range of thresholds. Threshold networks are fatter during the crisis than before or after the crisis. The clustering coefficient of the threshold network follows the power law in the scaling range.

  6. Development of an Effective School-Based Financial Management Profile in Malaysia: The Delphi Method Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radzi, Norfariza Mohd; Ghani, Muhammad Faizal A.; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    The agenda for national development requires a persistent improvement in education as a tool for creating knowledgeable human capital, highly skilled labour, a high technology society and ultimately a highly civilized nation for the future challenging world. It requires considerable financial and technical investment as well as effective and…

  7. The Effects of Financial Aid Policies on Student Persistence in Taiwanese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ching-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of financial aid policies on student persistence between the first and second year at a private four-year postsecondary institution in Taiwan. A two-phase sequential research design was employed with priority was given to the quantitative data--structural equation modeling (SEM). While the…

  8. The Effect of Labor Market Conditions and Financial Aid on Doctoral Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa D.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-three percent of doctoral students never complete their degree. This dropout is the highest among graduate and professional degree programs. Previous cross sectional studies of doctoral students' retention show the importance of financial aid in predicting degree completion. The studies however, do not estimate the labor market's effect on…

  9. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence from Four Australian Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the…

  10. Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Shattuck, Mischa; Bidwell, Posy; Thomas, Steve; Wyness, Laura; Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2008-01-01

    Background A key constraint to achieving the MDGs is the absence of a properly trained and motivated workforce. Loss of clinical staff from low and middle-income countries is crippling already fragile health care systems. Health worker retention is critical for health system performance and a key problem is how best to motivate and retain health workers. The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention. Methods Four literature databases were searched together with Google Scholar and 'Human Resources for Health' on-line journal. Grey literature studies and informational papers were also captured. The inclusion criteria were: 1) article stated clear reasons for implementing specific motivations to improve health worker motivation and/or reduce medical migration, 2) the intervention recommended can be linked to motivation and 3) the study was conducted in a developing country and 4) the study used primary data. Results Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of a mixture of qualitative and quantitative studies. Seven major motivational themes were identified: financial rewards, career development, continuing education, hospital infrastructure, resource availability, hospital management and recognition/appreciation. There was some evidence to suggest that the use of initiatives to improve motivation had been effective in helping retention. There is less clear evidence on the differential response of different cadres. Conclusion While motivational factors are undoubtedly country specific, financial incentives, career development and management issues are core factors. Nevertheless, financial incentives alone are not enough to motivate health workers. It is clear that recognition is highly influential in health worker motivation and that adequate resources and appropriate infrastructure can improve morale significantly. PMID:19055827

  11. Peacocks, Picasso, and parental investment: The effects of romantic motives on creativity.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Cialdini, Robert B; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2006-07-01

    Four experiments explored the effects of mating motivation on creativity. Even without other incentives to be creative, romantic motives enhanced creativity on subjective and objective measures. For men, any cue designed to activate a short-term or a long-term mating goal increased creative displays; however, women displayed more creativity only when primed to attract a high-quality long-term mate. These creative boosts were unrelated to increased effort on creative tasks or to changes in mood or arousal. Furthermore, results were unaffected by the application of monetary incentives for creativity. These findings align with the view that creative displays in both sexes may be linked to sexual selection, qualified by unique exigencies of human parental investment. PMID:16834480

  12. Challenge and threat motivation: effects on superficial and elaborative information processing

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Blascovich, James; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper integrates the motivational states of challenge and threat within a dual processing perspective. Previous research has demonstrated that individuals experience a challenge state when individuals have sufficient resources to cope with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 1993). Because the experience of resource availability has been shown to be associated with superficial processing (Garcia-Marques and Mackie, 2007), we tested the hypothesis that challenge is associated with superficial processing in two persuasion experiments. Experiment 1 revealed that inducing attitudes of participants in a challenge state was not sensitive to the quality of arguments presented. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the effect occurs even when task engagement, manipulated by the presence (vs. the absence) of a task observer (Blascovich et al., 1993), is high. The implications of these results for the biopsychosocial model model and the cognitive and motivational literature are discussed. PMID:25352823

  13. The effects of food deprivation and incentive motivation on blood glucose levels and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Green, M W; Elliman, N A; Rogers, P J

    1997-11-01

    The current study investigated the relationships between blood glucose levels, mild food deprivation, sympathetic arousal, and cognitive processing efficiency. Subjects (n = 82) were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, comprising combined manipulations of food deprivation and incentive motivation. Baseline and mid-session measurements of blood glucose, blood pressure and pulse rate were taken. Subjects completed a number of measures of cognitive processing efficiency and self report measures of affective and somatic state. Although glucose levels were lowered following food deprivation, there was no significant detrimental effect of food deprivation on task performance. However, improved recognition memory processing times were associated with deprivation. Incentive motivation was associated with faster simple reaction times and higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant relationships between glucose levels and task performance, further supporting the hypothesis that the brain is relatively invulnerable to short food deprivation. PMID:9399371

  14. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. PMID:25673732

  15. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation

    PubMed Central

    Reinkensmeyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. PMID:25673732

  16. Motivating Factors for Philanthropy at a Ministry Preparation Graduate Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Jay Paul

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative case study was conducted to determine whether major donors to an institution of higher education that existed to prepare ministers and missionaries were perceived by the institution's leaders as motivated by organizational effectiveness, financial efficiency, or evaluations by donor watchdog agencies. The case study was conducted…

  17. Motivation and movement: the effect of monetary incentive on performance speed.

    PubMed

    Mir, Pablo; Trender-Gerhard, Iris; Edwards, Mark J; Schneider, Susanne A; Bhatia, Kailash P; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2011-04-01

    From observation of human behavior, we know that speed of movement initiation and execution can be influenced by motivational factors, for example we walk faster when in a hurry (sense of urgency) or write faster during an exam (potential reward of good results). However, there is scant experimental evidence for the motivational modulation of movement in man. Experiments in non-human primates have demonstrated shortening of reaction times in response to reward. However, it is not clear how reward might affect performance of reaction time (RT) tasks in humans, and specifically whether warned and unwarned simple and uncued and precued choice RTs are similarly or differentially affected by reward. The effect of monetary incentive on total time (TT, (RT + MT)) was assessed in 16 healthy participants using four paradigms: warned simple RT (wSRT), unwarned simple RT (uSRT), uncued choice RT (uCRT), and precued choice RT (pCRT). wSRT, uSRT, and pCRT tasks all allow advance preparation and preprogramming of the movement, whereas uCRT does not. We found a significant effect of monetary incentive in shortening TTs in wSRT, uSRT, and pCRT tasks, but no effect on the uCRT task. These results demonstrate that monetary incentive can speed up movement initiation and execution in human participants, but only in tasks where preprogramming of the response is possible. This suggests that in reaction time tasks such as these, monetary incentive is having its effect by enhancing preparation of preprogrammed movement, but has little effect when movements cannot be specified in advance. These "RT and reward" tasks provide a useful paradigm for investigation into the effects of monetary incentive on reaction times in man and to study motivational modulation of movement speed in health and disease. PMID:21337028

  18. Understanding the Effects of Stress and Alcohol Cues on Motivation for Alcohol via Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. Methods In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision-making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements; an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand; and a monetary delay discounting task (DDT), measuring intertemporal choice. Results The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. Conclusions These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. PMID:24890323

  19. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences. PMID:26222998

  20. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels. PMID:21117984

  1. Undesirable financial effects of head and neck cancer radiotherapy during the initial treatment period

    PubMed Central

    Egestad, Helen; Nieder, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare cost and reforms are at the forefront of international debates. One of the current discussion themes in oncology is whether and how patients’ life changes due to costs of cancer care. In Norway, the main part of the treatment costs is supported by general taxpayer revenues. Objectives The objective of this study was to clarify whether head and neck cancer patients (n=67) in northern Norway experienced financial health-related quality of life (HRQOL) deterioration due to costs associated with treatment. Design HRQOL was examined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 in the beginning and in the end of radiation treatment in patients treated at the University Hospital in Northern Norway. Changes in financial HRQOL were calculated and compared by paired sample T-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine correlations among gender, marital status, age and treatment with or without additional chemotherapy and changes in the HRQOL domain of financial difficulties. Results The majority of score results at both time points were in the lower range (mean 15–25), indicating limited financial difficulties. We observed no statistically significant differences by gender, marital status and age. Increasing financial difficulties during treatment were reported by male patients and those younger than 65, that is, patients who were younger than retirement age. The largest effect was seen in singles. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions During the initial phase of the disease trajectory, no significant increase in financial difficulties was found. This is in line with the aims of the Norwegian public healthcare model. However, long-term longitudinal studies should be performed, especially with regard to the trends we observed in single, male and younger patients. PMID:25623815

  2. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  3. Distinct neural networks support the mere ownership effect under different motivational contexts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-08-01

    The "mere ownership effect" refers to individuals' tendency to evaluate objects they own more favorably than comparable objects they do not own. There are numerous behavioral demonstrations of the mere ownership effect, but the neural mechanisms underlying the expression of this self-positivity bias during the evaluation of self-associated objects have not been identified. The present study aimed to identify the neurobiological expression of the mere ownership effect and to assess the potential influence of motivational context. During fMRI scanning, participants made evaluations of objects after ownership had been assigned under the presence or absence of self-esteem threat. In the absence of threat, the mere ownership effect was associated with brain regions implicated in processing personal/affective significance and valence (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vMPFC], ventral anterior cingulate cortex [vACC], and medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). In contrast, in the presence of threat, the mere ownership effect was associated with brain regions implicated in selective/inhibitory cognitive control processes (inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], middle frontal gyrus [MFG], and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [lOFC]). These findings indicate that depending on motivational context, different neural mechanisms (and thus likely different psychological processes) support the behavioral expression of self-positivity bias directed toward objects that are associated with the self. PMID:25575018

  4. Impact of HMO mergers and acquisitions on financial performance.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the effect of health maintenance organization (HMO) mergers and acquisitions on financial performance, as indicated by cash flow returns, profitability ratios, and efficiency indicators. Pooled, cross-sectional files of financial performance data were created for HMO mergers occurring in the period of 1988 to 1994. The study uses a time-series design involving the analysis of pre- and post-acquisition financial performance measured over a period of four years. Change scores for the industry-adjusted financial performance measures were calculated and then evaluated using t-tests. The study showed that HMO mergers had a positive effect on financial performance and efficiency. This effect disappeared, however, after adjusting for HMO industry returns. Potential synergies arising from HMO mergers have been largely illusory. Mergers may have been a result of non-value enhancing motives or management overconfidence. PMID:12462660

  5. Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  6. Geography and distance effect on financial dynamics in the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang; Zhong, Li-Xin; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2016-09-01

    Geography effect is investigated for the Chinese stock market including the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets, based on the daily data of individual stocks. The stocks in the Shanghai city and the Guangdong province are found to greatly contribute to the Shanghai and Shenzhen markets in the geographical sector, respectively. By investigating a geographical correlation on a geographical parameter, the stock location is found to have an impact on the financial dynamics, except for the financial crisis time of the Shenzhen market. Stock distance effect is further studied, with the probability of the short distance observed to be much greater than that of the long distance. The distance is found to only affect the stock correlation of the Shanghai stock market, but has no effect on the Shenzhen stock market.

  7. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    PubMed

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead. PMID:7148690

  8. The Effectiveness of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviour Change: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Robalino, Shannon; McColl, Elaine; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Financial incentive interventions have been suggested as one method of promoting healthy behaviour change. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviour change; to explore whether effects vary according to the type of behaviour incentivised, post-intervention follow-up time, or incentive value. Data Sources Searches were of relevant electronic databases, research registers, www.google.com, and the reference lists of previous reviews; and requests for information sent to relevant mailing lists. Eligibility Criteria Controlled evaluations of the effectiveness of financial incentive interventions, compared to no intervention or usual care, to encourage healthy behaviour change, in non-clinical adult populations, living in high-income countries, were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess all included studies. Meta-analysis was used to explore the effect of financial incentive interventions within groups of similar behaviours and overall. Meta-regression was used to determine if effect varied according to post-intervention follow up time, or incentive value. Results Seventeen papers reporting on 16 studies on smoking cessation (n = 10), attendance for vaccination or screening (n = 5), and physical activity (n = 1) were included. In meta-analyses, the average effect of incentive interventions was greater than control for short-term (≤six months) smoking cessation (relative risk (95% confidence intervals): 2.48 (1.77 to 3.46); long-term (>six months) smoking cessation (1.50 (1.05 to 2.14)); attendance for vaccination or screening (1.92 (1.46 to 2.53)); and for all behaviours combined (1.62 (1.38 to 1.91)). There was not convincing evidence that effects were different between different groups of behaviours. Meta-regression found some, limited, evidence that effect sizes decreased as post-intervention follow

  9. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

  10. The effectiveness of constructivist science instructional methods on middle school students' student achievement and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, John

    A problem facing science educators is determining the most effective means of science instruction so that students will meet or exceed the new rigorous standards. The theoretical framework for this study was based on reform and research efforts that have informed science teachers that using constructivism is the best method of science instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the constructivist method of science instruction affected student achievement and student motivation in a sixth grade science classroom. The guiding research question involved understanding which method of science instruction would be most effective at improving student achievement in science. Other sub-questions included the factors that contribute to student motivation in science and the method of science instruction students receive that affects motivation to learn science. Quantitative data were collected using a pre-test and post-test single group design. T-test and ANCOVA were used to test quantitative hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected using student reflective journals and classroom discussions. Students' perspectives were transcribed, coded and used to further inform quantitative findings. The findings of this study supported the recommendations made by science reformists that the best method of science instruction was a constructivist method. This study also found that participant comments favored constructivist taught classes. The implications for social change at the local level included potential increases in student achievement in science and possibly increased understanding that can facilitate similar changes at other schools. From a global perspective, constructivist-oriented methods might result in students becoming more interested in majoring in science at the college level and in becoming part of a scientifically literate work force.

  11. [Selective feeding in fish: Effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural odors].

    PubMed

    Kasumyan, A O; Marusov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding and defensive motivations evoked by natural olfactory signals (the food odor, the alarm pheromone) on choice and consumption of food items different in color and taste, and the manifestation of foraging behavior were examined in fish (koi Cyprinus carpio, roach Rutilus rutilus). The agar-agar pellets of red and green color having one of the amino acids (glycine, L-proline, L-alanine; all in concentration of 0.1 M) were simultaneously offered to single fishes in pure water, and in water extract of Chironomidae larvae or in water extract of fish skin. It was found out that odors used have different effects on fish foraging activity and on pellet selection for both pellet choice and consumption. On background of food odor, fish grasped pellets more often than in pure water. The equal choice of red and green pellets in pure water shifted to the preference of red ones in the presence of food odor. Despite the increase in the absolute number of pellets grasped, the relative consumption reduced and was replaced by selective consumption of pellets with glycine regardless of their color. Increasing demand for the food quality, due to the increased feeding motivation in response to food odor, is an important adaptation enhancing selection and consumption of food with more appropriate sensory qualities for fish. Defensive motivation caused by alarm pheromone suppressed predisposition. of fish to feed. Fish grasped pellets several times less often than in pure water and refused most of them. Any changes in the color or taste preferences were absent. Feeding behavior of fish of both species was characterized by repeated intraoral pellet testing, but in koi handling was less typical than in roach. In both species, handling activity was higher in those cases when the pellet was finally rejected. This activity was enhanced also on the background of food odor. PMID:26201217

  12. The Effect of Individual Differences in Cognitive Style and Motives in Solving Insight Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Oyvind

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive style, achievement motives, and problem solving performance was investigated in two studies involving a total of 362 Norwegian high school students solving insight problems. Findings support the hypothesis of optimal motivation of Atkinson (1980). (SLD)

  13. Effects of Feeding Back the Motivation of a Collaboratively Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoor, Cornelia; Kownatzki, Salome; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Motivation is an important issue in both face-to-face and computer-supported collaborative learning. There are several approaches for enhancing motivation, including group awareness tools that provide feedback on the group's motivation. However, this feedback was rarely unconfounded with other constructs. Additionally, it is…

  14. Issues in Measuring Mastery/Effectance Motivation in Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George, Ed.; Jacobs, Sue, Ed.

    The presentations and tables in this document deal with the development of mastery motivation from infancy to early preschool years. Discussion was focused on three questions: (1) whether mastery motivation can be measured in infants and young children; (2) whether it is possible to distinguish mastery motivation from cognitive functioning; and…

  15. Quality of Parental Support and Students' Emotions during Homework: Moderating Effects of Students' Motivational Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knollmann, Martin; Wild, Elke

    2007-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between parental support, students' motivational orientations, and students' emotions during homework. It was assumed that intrinsically motivated students would feel better when parents provided much learning autonomy, while extrinsically motivated students would experience more positive affect when…

  16. Relational Effects of Reading Motivation and Academic Achievement among Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozack, Amanda R.; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between academic achievement and reading motivation among adolescent boys. We seek to understand (1) if motivational construct scores change meaningfully over time, (2) what relationship exists between the achievement scores and reported reading motivation, and (3) if students who report higher reading…

  17. Principals' Efforts To Empower Teachers: Effects on Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joan; Wilson, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    Finds a significant relationship between empowering behaviors of principals and teacher motivation (the higher the principal's score, the higher teachers' overall motivation score); but finds no relationship between principal empowering behaviors and either teacher job satisfaction or job stress, although teacher motivation was related to both job…

  18. The effect of motivational status on treatment outcome in the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) study.

    PubMed

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Geller, Josie; Guh, Daphne P; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Brissette, Suzanne; Marsh, David C; Schechter, Martin T; Anis, Aslam H

    2010-09-01

    Dropout and recidivism from addiction treatment has been found to be associated with individuals' readiness for change. Motivation for treatment among participants entering the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) randomized controlled trial, which compared heroin assisted treatment (HAT) to optimized methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), was assessed. Through multivariate regression, we aimed to determine whether baseline motivational status was predictive of four treatment outcomes: early dropout, 12-month retention, 12-month response to treatment, and time to discontinuation of treatment. Among the 251 out-of-treatment chronic opioid dependent patients recruited in Montreal, Quebec and Vancouver, British Columbia, 52% reported having a high level of motivation for treatment. HAT was statistically significantly more effective than MMT on each of the outcomes assessed. Baseline motivational status did not predict retention or time to discontinuation in either HAT or MMT. However, while patients were retained in HAT regardless of motivational status, motivated patients showed a more favourable response to treatment in terms of decreases in crime and illicit drug use. These results suggest that HAT successfully retains opioid dependent patients who otherwise may not have been attracted into existing treatment options, and may enhance the odds of successful rehabilitation among patients motivated for treatment. PMID:20510549

  19. Effect of failure/success feedback and the moderating influence of personality on reward motivation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Deepika; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Treadway, Michael T; Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    While motivation to pursue goals is often assumed to be a trait-like characteristic, it is influenced by a variety of situational factors. In particular, recent experiences of success or failure, as well as cognitive responses to these outcomes, may shape subsequent willingness to expend effort for future rewards. To date, however, these effects have not been explicitly tested. In the present study, 131 healthy individuals received either failure or success feedback on a cognitive task. They were then instructed to either ruminate or distract themselves from their emotions. Finally, they completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a laboratory measure of reward motivation. Results indicate that participants who received failure feedback relied more strongly on the reward magnitude when choosing whether to exert greater effort to obtain larger rewards, though this effect only held under conditions of significant uncertainty about whether the effort would be rewarded. Further, participants with high levels of trait inhibition were less responsive to reward value and probability when choosing whether to expend greater effort, results that echo past studies of effort-based decision-making in psychological disorders. PMID:25759131

  20. The Effectiveness and Cost of Clinical Supervision for Motivational Interviewing: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steve; Paris, Manuel; Añez, Luis; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Hunkele, Karen; Olmstead, Todd A; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of a competency-based supervision approach called Motivational Interviewing Assessment: Supervisory Tools for Enhancing Proficiency (MIA: STEP) was compared to supervision-as-usual (SAU) for increasing clinicians' motivational interviewing (MI) adherence and competence and client retention and primary substance abstinence in a multisite hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial. Participants were 66 clinicians and 450 clients within one of eleven outpatient substance abuse programs. An independent evaluation of audio recorded supervision sessions indicated that MIA: STEP and SAU were highly and comparably discriminable across sites. While clinicians in both supervision conditions improved their MI performance, clinician supervised with MIA: STEP, compared to those in SAU, showed significantly greater increases in the competency in which they used fundamental and advanced MI strategies when using MI across seven intakes through a 16-week follow-up. There were no retention or substance use differences among the clients seen by clinicians in MIA: STEP or SAU. MIA: STEP was substantially more expensive to deliver than SAU. Innovative alternatives to resource-intensive competency-based supervision approaches such as MIA: STEP are needed to promote the implementation of evidence-based practices. PMID:27431042

  1. Motivating contributions to online forums: can locus of control moderate the effects of interface cues?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S Shyam

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to encourage users to participate rather than lurk, online health forums provide authority badges (e.g., guru) to frequent contributors and popularity indicators (e.g., number of views) to their postings. Studies have shown the latter to be more effective, implying that bulletin-board users are motivated by external validation of their contributions. However, no consideration has yet been given to individual differences in the influence of such popularity indicators. Personality psychology suggests that individuals with external, rather than internal, locus of control are more likely to be other-directed and therefore more likely to be motivated by interface cues showing the bandwagon effect of their online posts. We investigate this hypothesis by analyzing data from a 2 (high vs. low authority cue) × 2 (strong vs. weak bandwagon cue) experiment with an online health community. Results show that strong bandwagon cues promote sense of community among users with internal, rather than external, locus of control. When bandwagon cues are weak, bestowal of high authority serves to heighten their sense of agency. Contrary to prediction, weak bandwagon cues appear to promote sense of community and sense of agency among those with external locus of control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26422702

  2. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. [Effects of practical training to increase motivation for learning and related factors].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Akiyama, Shinji; Sagara, Hidenori; Tanaka, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Izushi, Fumio; Namba, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under the six-year pharmaceutical education system that was initiated in April 2006, students who had completed the course in March 2012 became the first graduates. The six-year system encourages students to develop a well-rounded personality, a deep sense of ethics, knowledge required for health care professionals, abilities to identify and solve problems, and practical skills required in clinical settings, as well as basic knowledge and skills. Under the new education system based on the "pharmaceutical education model core curriculums" and "practical training model core curriculums", general pharmaceutical education is implemented in each college, and five-month practical training is conducted in clinical settings. Clinical tasks experienced by students for the first time are expected to significantly influence their motivation to learn and future prospects. In the present survey research, students who had completed practical training evaluated the training program, and correspondence and logistic regression analyses of the results were conducted to examine the future effects and influences of the training on the students. The results suggest that the students viewed the practical training program positively. In addition, clinical experience during the training sessions not only influenced their decisions on future careers, but also significantly increased their motivation to learn. Furthermore, their motivation for learning was increased most by the enthusiasm of pharmacists who advised them in clinical settings, rather than the training program itself. To improve pharmaceutical clinical learning, it is important to develop teaching and working environments for pharmacists in charge of advising students in clinical training. PMID:25366920

  4. [Motivation effect on EEG spectral power and heart rate parameters in students during examination stress].

    PubMed

    Dzhebrailova, T D; Korobeĭnikova, I I; Rudneva, L P

    2014-09-01

    EEG spectral power was calculated in 24 students (18-21 years) with different levels of motivation and anxiety (tested by Spielberger) in two experimental conditions: during the common educational process and the examination stress. Before examination tests, in subjects with high motivation and anxiety level the relative delta activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. In students with medium motivation immediately before an examination the relative beta2-activity power increased in right frontal (F4) brain areas. It is suggested that delta oscillati- ons reflect activity of the defensive motivational system, whereas beta2 oscillations may be associated with the achievement motivation. PMID:25697016

  5. The effects of a problem-based learning digital game on continuing motivation to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprac, Paul K.

    multiple regression analysis but based on students' interviews, continuing interest to learn is influenced by all the components of Eccles' expectancy-value model. Response effects may have confounded quantitative results. Discussion includes challenges of researching in classrooms, CM, and Eccles' motivational model, and the tension between PBL and game based approaches. Future design recommendations and research directions are provided.

  6. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well. PMID:19305308

  7. Prosocial motivation and physicians' work attitudes. Effects of a triple synergy on prosocial orientation in a healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Employees work attitudes are key determinants to organizational performance. This article proposes a model integrating servant leadership, prosocial motivation, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to explain a mechanism through which prosocial motivation plays a central role in enhanding physicians' work attitudes. A cross sectional survey from a sample of physicians indicates that (1) prosocial motivation can be shaped from servant leadership when physicians perceive high value fit with their supervisors, (2) prosocial motivation improves physicians' job satisfaction. Its effects is strengthened when physicians perceive high CSR, and (3) job satisfaction improves organizational commitment. The results provide meaningful insights that a triple synergy of prosocial orientation among physicians, supervisors and organization enhances physicians' work attitudes. PMID:26058287

  8. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  9. Financial Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Nine articles cover topics related to library financial resources: (1) escalating serials prices; (2) library budgeting; (3) entrepreneurship; (4) cutback management; (5) academic library budgets; (6) assessment of library effectiveness; (7) public library fund-raising; (8) capital investment; and (9) unit cost analysis at the Virginia Polytechnic…

  10. [Effect of substances which change the proton-motive force on activity of methane microbe oxygenation].

    PubMed

    Malashenko, Iu P; Sokolov, I G; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaia, V A

    2006-01-01

    High extracellular concentration of K+ stimulated methane oxygenation with Methylomonas rubra 15 [Russian character: see text], Methylococcus thermophilus 111 [Russian character: see text] and Methylococcus capsulatus 494 at neutral value of pH. That was determined by K+ arrival to the cells at neutral medium pH that resulted in the increase of pH difference between the exterior and interior sides of the membrane (ApH) and, respectively, in the increase of the methane oxygenation rate. Thus, methane monooxygenation depends on the availability of ion gradients on a membrane. Ionophores valinomycin and monensin inhibited methane oxygenation by the cells of Methylomonas rubra 15 [Russian character: see text] that evidenced for the methane oxygenation dependence on the protone-motive force which could be formed as the result both of protons displacement with oxygenation of methane monooxygenation products and of the gradient of potassium and sodium ions. Protonophore FCCP suppressed completely methane oxygenation in Methylococcus capsulatus 494 and M. thermophilus 111 [Russian character: see text] at neutral pH, and took no effect at the alkaline values of pH. This suggests that FCCP dissipates the proton-motive force and does not inhibit methane monooxygenase activity. The results obtained indicate that the process of methane oxygenation should be combined with energy generation in a form of the transmembrane electric charge (delta psi) and proton gradient (deltapH). PMID:17243361

  11. Effects of goal-related motivational states on the orienting of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, D

    1989-12-01

    Three experiments are presented indicating that motivational processes arising from incentive and feedback signals exert specific effects on the orienting of visual spatial attention. Subjects played a video game in which targets were presented in one of two peripheral locations. Pre-target cues were employed to orient attention to a location where points could be gained (positive incentive cue), to a location where points could be lost (negative incentive cue) or to neither location (neutral cue). Cost-benefit analyses were used to assess the consequences of such orienting. Although there was no evidence of general attentional biases favoring positive over negative incentives, all three experiments demonstrated an interaction between the incentive value of the current trial and the outcome of the previous trial. Following unsuccessful outcomes, attentional costs were greater for positive than negative incentives, whereas following successful outcomes, costs were larger for negative than positive cues. This pattern was evident for tasks involving detection, perceptual discrimination and memory scanning. These findings are discussed in light of contemporary models of motivation and the control of attention. PMID:2618789

  12. Mirage Models Confront the LHC: The Phenomenology of String-Motivated Effective Field Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Bryan

    In this dissertation, I study a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of data from the LHC. I will consider three models that exhibit so-called 'mirage mediation'. I first consider the Binetruy-Gaillard-Wu (BGW) model, a model arising from heterotic string theory in which the dilaton is stabilized via non-perturbative corrections to the Kahler metric. I then consider the Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi (KKLT) model, a model of Type-IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold, and an extension known as deflected mirage mediation (DMM) where contributions from gauge mediation are added to those arising from gravity mediation and anomaly mediation. The sequence of these three models allows an exploration in which the three dominant methods of communicating SUSY breaking appear in differing ratios. For each model, I outline the extent to which the phenomenologically-motived parameter space can be ruled out by existing experimental data before discussing how the remaining parameter space may be probed by continuing studies at the LHC and dark matter direct detection experiments.

  13. The effect of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on the balance between maintenance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liting; Xu, Baihua

    2016-05-27

    Successful goal-directed behavior in a constantly changing environment requires a balance between maintenance and flexibility. Although some studies have found that positive affect influences this balance differently than neutral affect, one recent study found that motivational intensity of positive affective states influences this balance in a cognitive set-shifting paradigm. However, working memory updating and set shifting are interrelated but distinct components of cognitive control. The present study examined the effect of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on the balance between maintenance and flexibility in working memory. A simple cuing paradigm (the AX Continuous Performance Task) was employed, and neutral affect and high and low approach-motivated positive affect were induced using affective pictures. The results revealed that, relative to neutral affect, low approach-motivated positive affect attenuated maintenance and increased flexibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect promoted maintenance and decreased flexibility. These findings offer further evidence that the effects of positive affect on cognitive control are modulated by approach motivational intensity. PMID:27108198

  14. A truly healthy bottom line: improving financial results through effective health and productivity programs.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Financially speaking, an effective, comprehensive, properly executed health and productivity (H&P) program can drive significant business results. Unfortunately, many companies are not getting the same return on their investments in H&P programs as their peers. This article defines program effectiveness and describes the specific activities of employers that have implemented successful H&P strategies leading to improved health, increased productivity and lower benefit costs-and, in turn, higher levels of performance, returns to shareholders and market premium. PMID:18590178

  15. Analysis of the effects of the global financial crisis on the Turkish economy, using hierarchical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2012-04-01

    We have analyzed the topology of 50 important Turkish companies for the period 2006-2010 using the concept of hierarchical methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). We investigated the statistical reliability of links between companies in the MST by using the bootstrap technique. We also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) technique to observe the cluster structures much better. The MST and HT are known as useful tools to perceive and detect global structure, taxonomy, and hierarchy in financial data. We obtained four clusters of companies according to their proximity. We also observed that the Banks and Holdings cluster always forms in the centre of the MSTs for the periods 2006-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010. The clusters match nicely with their common production activities or their strong interrelationship. The effects of the Automobile sector increased after the global financial crisis due to the temporary incentives provided by the Turkish government. We find that Turkish companies were not very affected by the global financial crisis.

  16. HRM and its effect on employee, organizational and financial outcomes in health care organizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main goals of Human Resource Management (HRM) is to increase the performance of organizations. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the multidimensional character of performance and linked HR practices to various outcome dimensions. This study therefore adds to the literature by relating HR practices to three outcome dimensions: financial, organizational and employee (HR) outcomes. Furthermore, we will analyze how HR practices influence these outcome dimensions, focusing on the mediating role of job satisfaction. Methods This study uses a unique dataset, based on the ‘ActiZ Benchmark in Healthcare’, a benchmark study conducted in Dutch home care, nursing care and care homes. Data from autumn 2010 to autumn 2011 were analyzed. In total, 162 organizations participated during this period (approximately 35% of all Dutch care organizations). Employee data were collected using a questionnaire (61,061 individuals, response rate 42%). Clients were surveyed using the Client Quality Index for long-term care, via stratified sampling. Financial outcomes were collected using annual reports. SEM analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Results It was found that HR practices are - directly or indirectly - linked to all three outcomes. The use of HR practices is related to improved financial outcomes (measure: net margin), organizational outcomes (measure: client satisfaction) and HR outcomes (measure: sickness absence). The impact of HR practices on HR outcomes and organizational outcomes proved substantially larger than their impact on financial outcomes. Furthermore, with respect to HR and organizational outcomes, the hypotheses concerning the full mediating effect of job satisfaction are confirmed. This is in line with the view that employee attitudes are an important element in the ‘black box’ between HRM and performance. Conclusion The results underscore the importance of HRM in the health care sector, especially for HR and

  17. What motivates hate crimes based on sexual orientation? Mediating effects of anger on antigay aggression.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Peterson, John L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of anger in response to gay men within three theoretical models of antigay aggression. Participants were 135 exclusively heterosexual men who completed a structured interview designed to assess sexual prejudice, anger in response to a vignette depicting a nonerotic male-male intimate relationship (i.e. partners saying "I love you", holding hands, kissing), and past perpetration of antigay aggression. Among identified antigay assailants, motivations for one earlier assault (i.e. sexual prejudice, peer dynamics, thrill seeking) were also assessed. Results indicated that anger fully mediated the relationship between sexual prejudice and antigay aggression, partially mediated the effect of peer dynamics on antigay aggression, and did not account for the relationship between thrill seeking and antigay aggression. These findings indicate that anger in response to gay men facilitates antigay aggression among some, but not all, antigay perpetrators. PMID:18161792

  18. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  19. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis. PMID:26842658

  20. Strategies for Motivating Latino Couples' Participation in Qualitative Health Research and Their Effects on Sample Construction

    PubMed Central

    Preloran, H. Mabel; Browner, Carole H.; Lieber, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Many investigators report difficulties recruiting low-income Latinos into health research projects, especially when they seek to enroll more than one family member. We developed a series of strategies that proved effective in motivating candidates who were initially reluctant to enroll. There is a possibility that these strategies biased the composition of the sample. Predictably, the reasons participants gave for enrolling were correlated with the recruitment strategy that had brought them into the study. Furthermore, we found statistically significant associations between recruitment technique and key study variables (e.g., the domestic stability of the couple). By increasing investigators' ability to recruit Latinos, however, the strategies outlined should help to ensure that Latinos' experiences are given due weight in the deliberations of medical professionals and policymakers. PMID:11684612

  1. The strategy and motivational influences on the beneficial effect of neurostimulation: a tDCS and fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-01-15

    Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions. We tested whether supplying a WM strategy (Experiment 1) or providing greater extrinsic motivation through incentives (Experiment 2) would restore tDCS benefit to the low WM capacity group. We also employed functional near infrared spectroscopy to monitor tDCS-induced changes in neural activity. Experiment 1 demonstrated that supplying a WM strategy improved the high WM capacity participants' accuracy and the amount of oxygenated blood levels following anodal tDCS, but it did not restore tDCS-linked WM benefits to the low WM capacity group. Experiment 2 demonstrated that financial motivation enhanced performance in both low and high WM capacity groups, especially after anodal tDCS. Here, only the low WM capacity participants showed a generalized increase in oxygenated blood flow across both low and high motivation conditions. These results indicate that ensuring that participants' incentives are high may expand cognitive benefits associated with tDCS. This finding is relevant for translational work using tDCS in clinical populations, in which motivation can be a concern. PMID:25462798

  2. The strategy and motivational influences on the beneficial effect of neurostimulation: a tDCS and fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kevin T.; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions. We tested whether supplying a WM strategy (Experiment 1) or providing greater extrinsic motivation through incentives (Experiment 2) would restore tDCS benefit to the low WM capacity group. We also employed functional near infrared spectroscopy to monitor tDCS-induced changes in neural activity. Experiment 1 demonstrated that supplying a WM strategy improved the high WM capacity participants’ accuracy and the amount of oxygenated blood levels following anodal tDCS, but it did not restore tDCS-linked WM benefits to the low WM capacity group. Experiment 2 demonstrated that financial motivation enhanced performance in both low and high WM capacity groups, especially after anodal tDCS. Here, only the low WM capacity participants showed a generalized increase in oxygenated blood flow across both low and high motivation conditions. These results indicate that ensuring that participants’ incentives are high may expand cognitive benefits associated with tDCS. This finding is relevant for translational work using tDCS in clinical populations, in which motivation can be a concern. PMID:25462798

  3. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647

  4. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An Empirical Study of Their Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Matthias; Hubmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question…

  5. Invest in Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…

  6. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber

  7. A Multisite Randomized Effectiveness Trial of Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Spanish-Speaking Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Martino, Steve; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami; Anez, Luis M; Paris, Manuel; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José; Miller, William R.; Rosa, Carmen; Matthews, Julie; Farentinos, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Hispanic individuals are underrepresented in clinical and research populations and often excluded from clinical trials in the US. Hence, there are few data on the effectiveness of most empirically validated therapies for Hispanic substance users. We conducted a multisite randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of three individual sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) to three individual sessions of counseling as usual (CAU) on treatment retention and frequency of substance use, with all assessment and treatment sessions conducted in Spanish among 405 individuals seeking treatment for any type of current substance use. Treatment exposure was good, with 66% of participants completing all three protocol sessions. Although both interventions resulted in reductions in substance use during the 4-week therapy phase, there were no significant treatment condition by time interactions nor site by treatment condition interactions. Results suggest that the individual treatments delivered in Spanish were both attractive to and effective with this heterogeneous group of Hispanic adults, but the differential effectiveness of MET may be limited to those whose primary substance use problem is alcohol and may be fairly modest in magnitude. PMID:19803579

  8. Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819 Case Studies on the Effectiveness of State Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute · Battelle · Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 September 2002 · NREL/SR-620-32819Case Studies on the Effecti

  9. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practitioner, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…

  10. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  11. The Effects of Rewards and Punishments on Motivations of the Elementary School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matera, Bryan D.

    2009-01-01

    Past research has shown that rewards and punishments imposed on elementary school students may contribute to increases in student motivation and academic achievement. However, alternative research findings indicate that students may exhibit temporary compliance with such external stimuli and may not develop intrinsic motivation to perform well…

  12. Motivating Children to Learn Effectively: Exploring the Value of Intrinsic Integration in Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habgood, M. P. Jacob; Ainsworth, Shaaron E.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "intrinsic motivation" lies at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar coating for learning content. This article tests the concept of "intrinsic integration" as a way of creating a…

  13. Motivational Effects of Feedback and Goal-Setting on Group Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Carol

    In studies examining the impact of performance information on motivation, both feedback and goal setting have been found to improve performance. To explore the generalizability of E. A. Locke's (1968) theory of task motivation to groups, 180 male masters of business administration (MBA) students were randomly organized into 60 three-person groups.…

  14. Effects of Offender Motivation, Victim Gender, and Participant Gender on Perceptions of Rape Victims and Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Damon; Angelone, D. J.; Kohlberger, Brittany; Hirschman, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine whether knowledge of the motivation of an offender can influence participant perceptions of victim and perpetrator responsibility for a sexual assault. In addition, the synergistic influence of victim gender and participant gender with offender motivation was explored. Participants were 171…

  15. Obligation and Motivation: Obstacles and Resources for Counselor Well-Being and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of obligation in counselors' motivation to do their work. Observes that narrative practices related to the humanities, and to religious and spiritual traditions, may help counselors when obligation-based motivation is overwhelmed by the harsher elements of human nature and of the counseling profession. (RJM)

  16. Effects of Classroom Practices on Reading Comprehension, Engagement, and Motivations for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; Klauda, Susan Lutz

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of classroom supports for multiple motivations and engagement in students' informational text comprehension, motivation, and engagement. A composite of classroom contextual variables consisting of instructional support for choice, importance, collaboration, and competence, accompanied by cognitive scaffolding for…

  17. Academic Self-Concept, Autonomous Academic Motivation, and Academic Achievement: Mediating and Additive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Frederic; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Roy, Amelie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between…

  18. Books Not Burgers: Six Highly Effective Ways to Motivate and Retain Library Student Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lorelei Rose

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a healthy amount in the literature about the importance of motivating student library employees in an academic setting, very little of it discusses the practical aspects of how to motivate students. A supervisor must often use ideas from other disciplines, including the business world and academia. In this article, the author…

  19. The Effects of Personality, Affectivity, and Work Commitment on Motivation to Improve Work through Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naquin, Sharon S.; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2002-01-01

    Naquin and Holton report how the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule were used to measure motivation to improve work through learning of 239 trainees. Positive affect, work commitment, and extraversion were significant antecedents of motivation. Invited reaction by Rodney A. McCloy and Lauress L. Wise raises…

  20. Evaluating the Effects of a "Student Buddy" Initiative on Student Engagement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors which influences second language learning (Dörnyei, 1998; Gardner & Lambert, 1972). A support mechanism which reinforces student motivation through encouragement, social interaction, feedback, sound learning environments and good teaching is crucial for ensuring successful learning. This is…

  1. The Effect of Graphic Novel Supplements on Reading Comprehension and Motivation in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Graphic novels use visual literacy and multimodal learning two methods of teaching. Graphic novels also have a history of being motivating to students. This study aims to quantify the degree of influence graphic novels have on secondary student comprehension and motivation. Students were recruited from two classrooms taught by one twelfth-grade…

  2. Social Support at the Workplace, Motivation to Transfer and Training Transfer: A Multilevel Indirect Effects Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massenberg, Ann-Christine; Spurk, Daniel; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Supervisor support, peer support and transfer motivation have been identified as important predictors of training transfer. Transfer motivation is thought to mediate the support-training transfer relationship. Especially after team training interventions that include all team members (i.e. whole-team training), individual perception of these…

  3. Motivation and the Knowledge Gap: Effects of a Campaign to Reduce Diet-Related Cancer Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viswanath, K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines whether knowledge gaps decrease when motivation to acquire information is similar among more and less educated groups. Compares two groups with differing motivations to acquire cancer and diet information in a community that received a year-long health campaign. Finds evidence of education-based differences in knowledge even among members…

  4. Relationships between Writing Motivation, Writing Activity, and Writing Performance: Effects of Grade, Sex, and Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.; Harbaugh, Allen G.; Shankland, Rebecca K.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Lawrence, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    A convenience sample of 618 children and adolescents in grades 4 through 10, excluding grade 8, were asked to complete a writing motivation and activity scale and to provide a timed narrative writing sample to permit an examination of the relationships between writing motivation, writing activity, writing performance, and the student…

  5. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  6. The Effects of Parental Involvement on Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, Engagement and Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether various dimensions of parental involvement predicted 10th-grade students' motivation (engagement, self-efficacy towards maths and English, intrinsic motivation towards maths and English) using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002). Results showed that both parents' educational aspiration for…

  7. The Effects of Seductive Details on Motivation and Learning in Multimedia Environments: Does Individual Interest Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schehl, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Research about motivation indicates that a student's attention must be gained and sustained for learning to occur. As a result, motivational tactics, including adding interesting words, sounds and visuals to instructional materials, are commonly used by designers of instruction to trigger and sustain learners' interest and engagement…

  8. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An empirical study of their effects on intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.

  9. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened ‘decision space’ that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction

  10. The International Monetary Fund's effects on global health: before and after the 2008 financial crisis.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the G20 countries committed US $750 billion to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which has assumed a central role in global economic management. The IMF provides loans to financially ailing countries, but with strict conditions, typically involving a mix of privatization, liberalization, and fiscal austerity programs. These loan conditions have been extremely controversial. In principle, they are designed to help countries balance their books. In practice, they often translate into reductions in social spending, including spending on public health and health care delivery. As more countries are being exposed to IMF policies, there is a need to establish what we know and do not know about the IMF's effects on global health. This article introduces a series in which contributors review the evidence on the relationship between the IMF and public health and discuss potential ways to improve the Fund's effects on health. While more evidence is needed for some regions, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that IMF programs have been significantly associated with weakened health care systems, reduced effectiveness of health-focused development aid, and impeded efforts to control tobacco, infectious diseases, and child and maternal mortality. Reforms are urgently needed to prevent the current wave of IMF programs from further undermining public health in financially ailing countries and limiting progress toward the health Millennium Development Goals. PMID:19927414

  11. The effects of TeleWound management on use of service and financial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rees, Riley S; Bashshur, Noura

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of a TeleWound program on the use of service and financial outcomes among homebound patients with chronic wounds. The TeleWound program consisted of a Web-based transmission of digital photographs together with a clinical protocol. It enabled homebound patients with chronic pressure ulcers to be monitored remotely by a plastic surgeon. Chronic wounds are highly prevalent among chronically ill patients in the United States (U.S.). About 5 million chronically ill patients in the U.S. have chronic wounds, and the aggregate cost of their care exceeds $20 billion annually. Although 25% of home care referrals in the U.S. are for wounds, less than 0.2% of the registered nurses in the U.S. are wound care certified. This implies that the majority of patients with chronic wounds may not be receiving optimal care in their home environments. We hypothesized that TeleWound management would reduce visits to the emergency department (ED), hospitalization, length of stay, and visit acuity. Hence, it would improve financial performance for the hospital. A quasi-experimental design was used. A sample of 19 patients receiving this intervention was observed prospectively for 2 years. This was matched to a historical control group of an additional 19 patients from hospital records. Findings from the study revealed that TeleWound patients had fewer ED visits, fewer hospitalizations, and shorter length of stay, as compared to the control group. Overall, they encumbered lower cost. The results of this clinical study are striking and provide strong encouragement that a single provider can affect positive clinical and financial outcomes using a telemedicine wound care program. TeleWound was found to be a credible modality to manage pressure ulcers at lower cost and possibly better health outcomes. The next step in this process is to integrate the model into daily practice at bellwether medical centers to determine programmatic effectiveness in larger

  12. Effect of Tramadol/Acetaminophen on Motivation in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Tetsunaga, Tomonori; Tanaka, Masato; Nishida, Keiichiro; Takei, Yoshitaka; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The contribution of apathy, frequently recognized in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases, to chronic low back pain (LBP) remains unclear. Objectives. To investigate levels of apathy and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic LBP treated with tramadol-acetaminophen. Methods. A retrospective case-control study involving 73 patients with chronic LBP (23 male, 50 female; mean age 71 years) treated with tramadol-acetaminophen (n = 36) and celecoxib (n = 37) was performed. All patients were assessed using the self-reported questionnaires. A mediation model was constructed using a bootstrapping method to evaluate the mediating effects of pain relief after treatment. Results. A total of 35 (55.6%) patients met the criteria for apathy. A four-week treatment regimen in the tramadol group conferred significant improvements in the Apathy scale and numerical rating scale but not in the Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Pain Disability Assessment Scale, or Pain Catastrophizing Scale. The depression component of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was lower in the tramadol group than in the celecoxib group. The mediation analysis found that the impact of tramadol-acetaminophen on the change in apathy was not mediated by the pain relief. Conclusions. Tramadol-acetaminophen was effective at reducing chronic LBP and conferred a prophylactic motivational effect in patients with chronic LBP. PMID:27445626

  13. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Methods Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Results Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08–2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67–0.94). Conclusion Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress. PMID:27055263

  14. Is Motivational Interviewing Effective at Reducing Alcohol Misuse in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Eun-Young; Atkins, David C.; Walters, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Foxcroft, Coombes, Wood, Allen, and Almeida Santimano (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in reducing alcohol misuse for youth up to age 25. They concluded that the overall effect sizes of MI in this population were too small to be clinically meaningful. The present paper critically reviews the Foxcroft et al. meta-analysis, highlighting weaknesses, such as problems with search strategies, flawed screening and reviews of full-text articles, incorrect data abstraction and coding, and, accordingly, improper effect size estimation. In addition, between-study heterogeneity and complex data structures were not thoughtfully considered or handled using best practices for meta-analysis. These limitations undermine the reported estimates and broad conclusion made by Foxcroft et al. about the lack of MI effectiveness for youth. We call for new evidence on this question from better-executed studies by independent researchers. Meta-analysis has many important utilities for translational research. When implemented well, the overall effectiveness as well as different effectiveness for different populations can be examined via meta-analysis. Emerging methods utilizing individual participant-level data, such as integrative data analysis, may be particularly helpful for identifying the sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity that matter. The need to better understand the mechanisms of alcohol interventions has never been louder in the addiction field. Through more concerted efforts throughout all phases of generating evidence, we may achieve large-scale evidence that is efficient and robust and provides critical answers for the field. PMID:26237287

  15. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Felice Reddy, L; Fiszdon, Joanna M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  16. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  17. Predicting Motivation To Learn and Motivation To Transfer Learning Back to the Job in a Service Organization--A New Systemic Model for Training Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of human resource development (HRD) focuses on an exploratory study that attempted to identify key predictors of motivation to learn during training and motivation to transfer learning back to the workplace, as well as examine the relationship between the two variables. Presents conceptual frameworks for training transfer. (Author/LRW)

  18. Motivating Lessons: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Content-Based Instruction on EFL Young Learners' Motivated Behaviours and Classroom Verbal Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kuei-Min

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of content-based language instruction (CBLI) on EFL young learners' motivated behaviours, namely attention, engagement, and eager volunteering, and classroom verbal interaction. Situational factors play vital roles in shaping language learners' motivation particularly in EFL contexts. While many private schools…

  19. Motivational Interviewing for Incarcerated Adolescents: Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Reducing Alcohol and Marijuana Use After Release*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L. A. R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Monti, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents was evaluated. Method: Adolescents (N = 162, 84% male; M = 17.10 years old) were randomly assigned to receive motivational interviewing or relaxation training, with follow-up assessment 3 months after release. Results: Compared with those who received relaxation training, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of alcohol and marijuana use at follow-up, with some evidence for moderating effects of depression. At low levels of depression, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of use. Adolescents who received relaxation training and who had high levels of depressive symptoms early in incarceration showed less use at follow-up than those low in depressive symptoms who received relaxation training. Conclusions: This brief motivational interviewing intervention during incarceration reduces alcohol and marijuana use after release. In addition, depressive symptoms early in incarceration should be considered in treating these adolescents, but more work is needed to extend follow-up period and account for the impact of depression on outcomes. PMID:21513687

  20. A longitudinal study of the effects of coping motives, negative affect and drinking level on drinking problems among college students.

    PubMed

    Armeli, Stephen; Dranoff, Erik; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Carolyn R; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    We examined among college students the interactive effects of drinking to cope (DTC) motivation, anxiety and depression symptoms, and drinking level in predicting drinking-related problems (DRPs). Using an Internet-based survey, participants (N = 844, 53% women) first reported on their drinking motives and monthly for up to three months, they reported on their drinking level, anxiety, depression, and DRPs. We found a three-way interaction between DTC motivation and average levels of drinking and anxiety (but not depression) in predicting DRPs. Specifically, among individuals with stronger DTC motives, higher mean levels of anxiety were associated with a stronger positive association between mean drinking levels and DRPs. We did not find three-way interactions in the models examining monthly changes in anxiety, depression, and drinking in predicting monthly DRPs. However, individuals high in DTC motivation showed a stronger positive association between changes in drinking level and DRPs. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms related to attention-allocation and self-control resource depletion. PMID:24552203

  1. European economies in crisis: A multifractal analysis of disruptive economic events and the effects of financial assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the complexity of rare economic events in troubled European economies. The economic crisis initiated at the end of 2009, forced a number of European economies to request financial assistance from world organizations. By employing the stock market index as a leading indicator of the economic activity, we test whether the financial assistance programs altered the statistical properties of the index. The effects of major financial program agreements on the economies can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the agreement. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties for all periods under investigation. In two of the three investigated economies, financial assistance along with governments’ initiatives appear to have altered the statistical properties of the stock market indexes increasing the width of the multifractal spectra and thus the complexity of the market.

  2. Effects of individually motivating smoking cessation in male blue collar workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H. )

    1990-11-01

    Adverse demonstrable health effects linked to the individual's smoking were shown to 2,689 American workers to motivate cessation during routine examinations to detect asbestosis. This intervention was evaluated six to 25 months later by a mailed questionnaire and by telephone to non-responders. Results were compared to yearly quit rates of 2.5 percent to 5 percent for 736 workers who were ex-smokers at the initial examination. Of the 504 men who responded by mail, 29.8 percent had quit smoking, 35.9 percent had cut down from a mean of 28 to 13 cigarettes per day, and 34.3 percent were smoking as before. Subsequent follow-up at one year showed that 25.6 percent remained quit, and that 23 percent of those who cut down had quit, for an overall quit rate of 34 percent. Of 101 non-responders contacted by telephone, 17 percent had quit and 53 percent had reduced smoking. In both samples, those who quit were more likely to have had lower alveolar carbon monoxide (COa) levels, to be older, and to have had asbestosis. Responders by mail were the same age as non-responders but had smoked longer, had higher prevalences of asbestosis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and higher COa. Demonstration of the adverse personal effects of smoking appear to have contributed to the quit rates or reduced smoking rates in 65 percent of the responding workers.

  3. Effects of individually motivating smoking cessation in male blue collar workers.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1990-11-01

    Adverse demonstrable health effects linked to the individual's smoking were shown to 2,689 American workers to motivate cessation during routine examinations to detect asbestosis. This intervention was evaluated six to 25 months later by a mailed questionnaire and by telephone to non-responders. Results were compared to yearly quit rates of 2.5 percent to 5 percent for 736 workers who were ex-smokers at the initial examination. Of the 504 men who responded by mail, 29.8 percent had quit smoking, 35.9 percent had cut down from a mean of 28 to 13 cigarettes per day, and 34.3 percent were smoking as before. Subsequent follow-up at one year showed that 25.6 percent remained quit, and that 23 percent of those who cut down had quit, for an overall quit rate of 34 percent. Of 101 non-responders contacted by telephone, 17 percent had quit and 53 percent had reduced smoking. In both samples, those who quit were more likely to have had lower alveolar carbon monoxide (COa) levels, to be older, and to have had asbestosis. Responders by mail were the same age as non-responders but had smoked longer, had higher prevalences of asbestosis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and higher COa. Demonstration of the adverse personal effects of smoking appear to have contributed to the quit rates or reduced smoking rates in 65 percent of the responding workers. PMID:2240300

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Approaches for Motivating Activity in Sedentary Adults: Results of Project STRIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Mary Ann; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Gordon, Adam J.; Reiser, Lorraine M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non face-to-face interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary adults. The study took place in Providence, Rhode Island between the years 2000 and 2004. Methods 239 participants were randomized to: Phone, Print, or a contact control. Phone and Print groups were mailed regular surveys regarding their level of physical activity, motivational readiness and self-efficacy. Surveys were scanned by a computer expert system to generate feedback reports. Phone group participants received feedback by telephone. Print group participants received feedback by mail. The contact control group received mailings unrelated to physical activity. Intervention costs were assessed prospectively, from a payer perspective. Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Recall. Ambulatory health service use was assessed via monthly surveys. Results The Print intervention was more economically efficient than the Phone intervention in engaging participants in a more active lifestyle. Conclusion The Print intervention provides an efficient approach to increasing physical activity. Research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in a more diverse population, within the context of the health service delivery system, and over a longer period of time. PMID:17573103

  5. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in Decreasing Hospital Readmission in Adults With Heart Failure and Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Barbara; Masterson Creber, Ruth; Hill, Julia; Chittams, Jesse; Hoke, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Hospitalizations are common in heart failure (HF). Multimorbidity, defined as ≥2 comorbid conditions, drives many readmissions. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in decreasing these hospital readmissions. We enrolled 100 hospitalized HF patients into a randomized controlled trial, randomizing in a 2:1 ratio: intervention (n = 70) and control (n = 30). The intervention group received MI tailored to reports of self-care during one home visit and three to four follow-up phone calls. After 3 months, 34 participants had at least one hospital readmission. The proportion of patients readmitted for a condition unrelated to HF was lower in the intervention (7.1%) compared with the control group (30%, p = .003). Significant predictors of a non-HF readmission were intervention group, age, diabetes, and hemoglobin. Together, these variables explained 35% of the variance in multimorbidity readmissions. These preliminary results are promising in suggesting that MI may be an effective method of decreasing multimorbidity hospital readmissions in HF patients. PMID:26743119

  6. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  7. Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Computer Science Education: Impact on Educational Effectiveness and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastergiou, Marina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of a computer game for learning computer memory concepts, which was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of the Greek high school Computer Science (CS) curriculum, as compared to a similar application, encompassing identical…

  8. Effect of a Sport Education Program on Motivation for Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a high school sport education curriculum program on students' motivation for physical education and leisure-time physical activity. Method: Participants were 568 high school students enrolled in the required physical education programs at 2 schools, 1 taught using sport education…

  9. Feedback Effects on Performance, Motivation and Mood: Are They Moderated by the Learner's Self-Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baadte, Christiane; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the assumption that the effectiveness of feedback with regard to performance, motivation, and affect is moderated by the learners' self-concept. A total of 72 sixth-graders completed a web-based interactive learning program. Half of the sample received feedback and the other half received no feedback. Differential feedback…

  10. Effects of Providing a Rationale for Learning a Lesson on Students' Motivation and Learning in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Tae Seob

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether providing a rationale for learning a particular lesson influences students' motivation and learning in online learning environments. A mixed-method design was used to investigate the effects of two types of rationales (former student vs. instructor rationales) presented in an online introductory educational psychology…

  11. Linear Text vs. Non-Linear Hypertext in Handheld Computers: Effects on Declarative and Structural Knowledge, and Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Chanhee; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared linear text-based and non-linear hypertext-based instruction in a handheld computer regarding effects on two different levels of knowledge (declarative and structural knowledge) and learner motivation. Forty four participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: linear text, hierarchical hypertext,…

  12. Negative Effects of Reward on Intrinsic Motivation--A Limited Phenomenon: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Prior meta analyses by J. Cameron and other researchers suggested that the negative effects of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation were limited and avoidable. E. Deci and others (2001) suggested that the analyses were flawed. This commentary makes the case that there is no inherent negative property of reward. (SLD)

  13. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method.…

  14. Effects of an Emotion Control Treatment on Academic Emotions, Motivation and Achievement in an Online Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ChanMin; Hodges, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    We designed and developed an emotion control treatment and investigated its effects on college students' academic emotions, motivation, and achievement in an online remedial mathematics course. The treatment group showed more positive emotions of enjoyment and pride than the control group. The treatment group also showed a higher level of…

  15. Educating At-Risk Urban African American Children: The Effects of School Climate on Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…

  16. The Effect of Motivating Operations on the Transfer from Tacts to Mands for Children Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Elizabeth T.; Buchmeier, Amanda L.; Klatt, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of motivating operations (MO) on the emergence of a mand following tact training. Two children with autism were taught to tact a high-preferred (HP) edible identified through a preference assessment. The children were then tested to see if a mand for the HP edible emerged under deprivation (24+ h) and pre-session…

  17. The Effects of the Type of Skill Test, Choice, and Gender on the Situational Motivation of Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd; Wilkinson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of (a) skill test type, (b) choices, and (c) gender on the situational motivation profiles of adolescents during skill testing in physical education. Participants were 507 students (53% male) aged 12-16 years (M = 13.87; SD = 0.94) attending a suburban junior high school in a western state in…

  18. An Experimental Study on the Effects of a Simulation Game on Students' Clinical Cognitive Skills and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dankbaar, Mary E. W.; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E. H.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Schuit, Stephanie C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a…

  19. The Effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on the Intrinsic Motivation of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amis, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…

  20. Feedback Providing Improvement Strategies and Reflection on Feedback Use: Effects on Students' Writing Motivation, Process, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…

  1. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  2. Manipulating the Behavior-Altering Effect of the Motivating Operation: Examination of the Influence on Challenging Behavior during Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure…

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Science-Enrichment Programs on Adolescents' Science Motivation and Confidence: The Splashdown Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Jayne E.; Mares, Kenneth R.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of summer science-enrichment programs on high-school students' science motivation and confidence was evaluated in a 7-month period following program completion. The programs took place on a college campus. The splashdown effect was defined as program-related changes the program graduates recognized in themselves that became apparent to…

  4. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  5. An Examination of the Effect of Customized Reading Modules on Diverse Secondary Students' Reading Comprehension and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua A.; Russell, Roxanne L.; Irving, Miles A.

    2012-01-01

    This research sought to add to a body of knowledge that is severely underrepresented in the scientific literature, the effects of technological tools on reading comprehension and reading motivation in diverse secondary students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program across a 5-month…

  6. Management Development Training; Multiple Measurement of Its Effect When Used to Increase the Impact of a Long Term Motivational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camealy, John Bremer

    This field investigation applied multiple measures to determine effects of management development training when used to increase the benefits from a long term motivational program. Two experimental groups and a control group were used. Instruments applied included the Miner Sentence Completion Scale, the Leadership Opinion Questionnaire (LOQ), and…

  7. The Effects of Reading from the Screen on the Reading Motivation Levels of Elementary 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydemir, Zeynep; Ozturk, Ergun

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of reading from the screen on elementary 5th grade students' reading motivation levels. It used the randomized control-group pretest-posttest model, which is a true experimental design. The study group consisted of 60 students, 30 experimental and 30 control, who were attending the 5th grade of a public…

  8. College Attendance by Working Adults and Its Effects on the Educational Motivations of Their Children. Occasional Papers 11.2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Eric

    The effects of college attendance by working adults on educational motivations of their children were studied. A total of 740 parents in the Detroit area who attended a college program combining in-home televised instruction with weekend decentralized seminars were surveyed along with 211 of their children and 75 respondents from Kansas City. Many…

  9. An Initial Study of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Motivation to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaaban, Kassim

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Jigsaw II cooperative learning (CL) model and whole class instruction in improving learners' reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and motivation to read. Forty-four grade five English as a foreign language learners participated in the study, and a posttest-only control group experimental design…

  10. The Effects of GIS on Students' Academic Achievement and Motivation in Seventh-Grade Social Studies Lessons in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the academic achievement and motivation of seventh-grade students. The study used a quasi-experimental design and a set of social studies lessons. The study was conducted over the 2006-2007 academic year on the students of a primary school at Ankara, Turkey's…

  11. Motivated explanation.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of "motivated thinking," its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or "epistemic" criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, "directional" motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that "real life" explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  12. Motivated explanation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  13. Motivation of dairy farmers to improve mastitis management.

    PubMed

    Valeeva, N I; Lam, T J G M; Hogeveen, H

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to explore different motivating factors and to quantify their importance in decisions of farmers on improving mastitis management, 2) to evaluate different quality payment schemes as extra incentive mechanisms for farmers, and 3) to link the motivating factors to farmer characteristics. Data on characteristics of farmers were obtained through a traditional paper-based questionnaire (n = 100). Data on the factors motivating farmers to improve mastitis management were collected in a computer-interactive mode. Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to investigate perceptions of farmers of the importance of factors. Factors that are internal to the farm performance and the individual farmer provided more motivation than external factors implying esteem and awareness of the whole dairy sector performance. Internal nonmonetary factors relating to internal esteem and taking pleasure in healthy animals on the farm were equally motivating as monetary factors affecting farm economic performance. The identified difference in perceptions of farmers of importance of extra financial incentive based on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) depending on whether farmers think in terms of quality premium or penalty for a lower and a higher BMSCC, respectively, suggested that farmers are expected to be more motivated by a price decrease for milk with a greater BMSCC than by a price increase for milk with a lower BMSCC. In this respect, quality penalties were found to be more effective in motivating farmers than quality premiums. Two-stage cluster analysis of individual perceptions resulted in 3 distinct clusters according to motivation of farmers: premium- or penalty-oriented motivation, motivation to have an efficient (well-organized) farm that easily complies with regulatory requirements, and basic economic motivation. The obtained results highlight possible areas of improvement in incentive and educational programs aimed at improving mastitis management

  14. Motivational deficits after brain injury: effects of bromocriptine in 11 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J H; al-Adawi, S; Morgan, J; Greenwood, R J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that treatment with bromocriptine would ameliorate deficits in clinical motivation, responsiveness to reward, and frontal cognitive function after brain injury. METHOD: An open trial in six men and five women who had had either traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid haemorrhage between two months and five years previously. After repeated baseline assessments, bromocriptine was given in gradually increasing doses. Assessments were repeated at increasing doses, during maintenance, and after withdrawal. Novel structured instruments for quantifying motivation were developed; measures of anxiety and depression, and cognitive tests sensitive to motivation or frontal lobe involvement were also given. RESULTS: Bromocriptine treatment was followed by improved scores on all measures other than mood. Improvement was maintained after bromocriptine withdrawal in eight of the patients. CONCLUSION: Poor motivation in patients with brain injury may result from dysfunction in the mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic circuitry, giving rise to associated deficiencies in reward responsiveness and frontal cognitive function. PMID:8774407

  15. What Effect Did the Global Financial Crisis Have Upon Youth Wellbeing? Evidence From Four Australian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  16. What effect did the global financial crisis have upon youth wellbeing? Evidence from four Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Philip D; Jerrim, John; Anders, Jake

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has suggested significant negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on mental health and wellbeing. In this article, the authors suggest that the developmental period of late adolescence may be at particular risk of economic downturns. Harmonizing 4 longitudinal cohorts of Australian youth (N = 38,017), we estimate the impact of the GFC on 1 general and 11 domain specific measures of wellbeing at age 19 and 22. Significant differences in wellbeing in most life domains were found, suggesting that wellbeing is susceptible to economic shocks. Given that the GFC in Australia was relatively mild, the finding of clear negative effects across 2 ages is of international concern. PMID:26854968

  17. The Effect of Time Pressure on Risky Financial Decisions from Description and Decisions from Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wegier, Pete; Spaniol, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Time pressure has been found to impact decision making in various ways, but studies on the effects time pressure in risky financial gambles have been largely limited to description-based decision tasks and to the gain domain. We present two experiments that investigated the effect of time pressure on decisions from description and decisions from experience, across both gain and loss domains. In description-based choice, time pressure decreased risk seeking for losses, whereas for gains there was a trend in the opposite direction. In experience-based choice, no impact of time pressure was observed on risk-taking, suggesting that time constraints may not alter attitudes towards risk when outcomes are learned through experience. PMID:25885034

  18. The effect of need supportive text messages on motivation and physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Few short messaging service (SMS) studies to support behaviour change have used a theoretical underpinning. Using a self-determination theory perspective, we explored the effects of need supportive (NS) SMS on physical activity in 65 (BMI = 24.06 kg/m(2), SD = 5.49; M = 25.76 years, SD = 10.23) insufficiently active individuals embarking on an existing exercise programme. For 10 weeks participants were randomised to an intervention group (NS) or control group (neutral). SMS were sent twice weekly, randomly, via an online SMS service. Mixed design ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses of measures taken at baseline, mid and post intervention revealed increased levels of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction in the intervention group post intervention. Both groups reported increases in intrinsic motivation from pre to post intervention. Moderate intensity physical activity was greater in the intervention than the control group at 4-month post intervention with control group returning to baseline levels. Findings provide preliminary causal evidence to support the use of NS SMS to optimise physical activity behaviour change in individuals who are insufficiently active. PMID:26915963

  19. Comparing the effectiveness of monetary versus moral motives in environmental campaigning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolderdijk, J. W.; Steg, L.; Geller, E. S.; Lehman, P. K.; Postmes, T.

    2013-04-01

    Environmental campaigns often promote energy conservation by appealing to economic (for example, lower electricity bills) rather than biospheric concerns (for example, reduced carbon emissions), assuming that people are primarily motivated by economic self-interest. However, people also care about maintaining a favourable view of themselves (they want to maintain a `positive self-concept'), and may prefer to see themselves as `green' rather than `greedy'. Consequently, people may find economic appeals less attractive than biospheric appeals. Across two studies, participants indicated feeling better about biospheric (`Want to protect the environment? Check your car's tire pressure') than economic (`Want to save money? Check your car's tire pressure') tyre-check appeals. In a field experiment, we found that an economic tyre-check appeal (`Do you care about your finances? Get a free tire check') elicited significantly less compliance than parallel biospheric and neutral appeals. Together, these studies discredit the conventional wisdom that appealing to economic self-interest is the best way to secure behaviour change. At least in some cases, our studies suggest, this strategy is not effective.

  20. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in Promoting Hand Hygiene of Nursing Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Poursharifi, Hamid; Rahbarimanesh, Ali akbar; koochak, Hamid Emadi; Najafi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Motivational interviewing (M.I.) is an option for modifying an individual's behavior. It is used as an educational method in recent years. The aim of our study was to indicate whether or not education, using lecture alone and lecture with M.I., would affect the performance of nursing personnel regarding their hand hygiene. If so, which of these two methods were most effective for this purpose? Methods: This was an interventional study conducted in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran. The study population consisted of all nursing personnel in the hospital. Considering the responsibilities of different nurses and their educational status, we divided them into three classes. The participants of each class were randomly assigned to either the control or experiment groups training lecture alone or lecture with M.I., respectively. We used Independent-t, Paired-t, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests for analysis. Results: Education using lecture alone improved the hand hygiene performance of nursing personnel only in the first and third classes (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Similarly, lecture combined with M.I. improved the hand hygiene performance of personnel in the first and third classes (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). The latter method was more effective compared to lecture alone in the first and third classes (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions: Education based on lecturing improves hand hygiene performance among nursing personnel. It will be more effective if combined with M.I. PMID:23671777

  1. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  2. Children's Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  3. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  4. What is this Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  5. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  6. The role of self-efficacy and motivation to explain the effect of motivational interviewing time on changes in risky sexual behavior among people living with HIV: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Chariyeva, Zulfiya; Golin, Carol E; Earp, Jo Anne; Maman, Suzanne; Suchindran, Chirayath; Zimmer, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the amount of Motivational Interviewing (MI) needed to reduce risky sexual behavior among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) or the roles self-efficacy and motivation to practice safer sex play. Among 183 PLWHA who received safer sex MI and were surveyed every 4 months over a 12 month period, we used hierarchical negative binomial regression models to examine the association between amount of counseling time and sexual risk behavior. We performed mediation analysis to evaluate whether changes in self-efficacy and motivation explained this association. This study found that as MI time and number of provided sessions increased, participants' sexual risk behavior decreased. The effect of MI time and number of sessions on sexual behavior was mediated by self-efficacy but not by motivation to practice safer sex. PMID:22228069

  7. Is Trust for Sale? The Effectiveness of Financial Compensation for Repairing Competence- versus Integrity-Based Trust Violations

    PubMed Central

    Haesevoets, Tessa; Reinders Folmer, Chris; Van Hiel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of financial compensation as a means for addressing trust violations, the question whether (more) money can indeed buy trust back remains largely unexplored. In the present research, we focus on the role of violation type and compensation size. The results of a scenario study and a laboratory experiment show that financial compensation can effectively promote the restoration of trust for transgressions that indicate a lack of competence. Conversely, for transgressions which signal a lack of integrity, financial compensation is not an effective tool to repair trust. Moreover, our findings indicate that for both violation types, overcompensation has no positive effects on top of the impact of equal compensation. These findings therefore show that when it comes to trust, money cannot buy everything. PMID:26714025

  8. Presenting practice financial information.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance. PMID:17974087

  9. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  10. Effect of Non Financial Incentives on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools--Survey of Kisii Sub County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Asiago Lenah; Okibo, Walter; Nyang'au, Andrew; Ondima, Cleophas

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a major challenge among employees in many organizations. The purpose of this research project is to assess the effect of non-financial incentives on job satisfaction of teachers in public secondary schools of Kisii Sub County in the Republic of Kenya. The specific objectives for the study include: to assess the effect of…

  11. 30 CFR 1243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... solvency for a bond posted before the effective date of this rule? 1243.12 Section 1243.12 Mineral... May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective date of this rule? If you appealed an order before June 14, 1999 and you submitted an ONRR-specified...

  12. Bridging the gap: leveraging business intelligence tools in support of patient safety and financial effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Langman, Matthew K; Tanaka, David; McCall, Jonathan; Ahmad, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is increasingly dependent upon information technology (IT), but the accumulation of data has outpaced our capacity to use it to improve operating efficiency, clinical quality, and financial effectiveness. Moreover, hospitals have lagged in adopting thoughtful analytic approaches that would allow operational leaders and providers to capitalize upon existing data stores. In this manuscript, we propose a fundamental re-evaluation of strategic IT investments in healthcare, with the goal of increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and improving outcomes through the targeted application of health analytics. We also present three case studies that illustrate the use of health analytics to leverage pre-existing data resources to support improvements in patient safety and quality of care, to increase the accuracy of billing and collection, and support emerging health issues. We believe that such active investment in health analytics will prove essential to realizing the full promise of investments in electronic clinical systems. PMID:20190055

  13. Bridging the gap: leveraging business intelligence tools in support of patient safety and financial effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Langman, Matthew K; Tanaka, David; McCall, Jonathan; Ahmad, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare is increasingly dependent upon information technology (IT), but the accumulation of data has outpaced our capacity to use it to improve operating efficiency, clinical quality, and financial effectiveness. Moreover, hospitals have lagged in adopting thoughtful analytic approaches that would allow operational leaders and providers to capitalize upon existing data stores. In this manuscript, we propose a fundamental re-evaluation of strategic IT investments in healthcare, with the goal of increasing efficiency, reducing costs, and improving outcomes through the targeted application of health analytics. We also present three case studies that illustrate the use of health analytics to leverage pre-existing data resources to support improvements in patient safety and quality of care, to increase the accuracy of billing and collection, and support emerging health issues. We believe that such active investment in health analytics will prove essential to realizing the full promise of investments in electronic clinical systems. PMID:20190055

  14. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:24841178

  15. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  16. What motivates children's behavior and emotion? Joint effects of perceived control and autonomy in the academic domain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, B C; Skinner, E A; Connell, J P

    1993-10-01

    This study examined the contribution of perceived control and autonomy to children's self-reported behavior and emotion in the classroom (N = 246 children ages 8-10 years). Multiple regression analyses revealed unique effects of autonomy over and above the strong effects of perceived control. In addition, both sets of perceptions (and their interaction) were found to distinguish children who were active but emotionally disaffected from those who were active and emotionally positive. Specific predictions were also tested regarding the effects of (a) control attributions to 5 causes and (b) 4 reasons for task involvement that differed in degree of autonomy on children's active (vs. passive) behavior and 4 kinds of emotions: boredom, distress, anger, and positive emotions. Implications of the findings for theories of children's motivation are discussed, as well as for diagnostic strategies to identify children at risk for motivational problems PMID:8229650

  17. Quantitative measurement of the contagion effect between US and Chinese stock market during the financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Bangzheng; Yu, Jiang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the quantitative measurement of contagion effect between US and Chinese stock market during the financial crisis by combining multifractal volatility (MFV) with the copula method. At first, we employ MFV to filter volatility of the two markets due to the existence of heteroskedasticity. Then we use an improved time-varying Clayton copula to estimate the dynamic lower tail dependence (lower Kendall's τ). After determining crisis and non-crisis periods by Markov regime switching model, we find that the statistical characteristics of lower Kendall's τ during crisis and non-crisis periods are obviously different. Time-varying lower Kendall's τ of the crisis period is about 1.87 times that of in non-crisis period on average, indicating that the contagion effect increased about 87% during the crisis period. It is very drastic that the fluctuations of lower tail dependence during crisis period, so the static measurement of contagion effect may not provide effective suggestions for investors. Thus, we propose a dynamic method to measure the strength of contagion effect.

  18. Strength of fertility motivation: its effects on contraceptive use in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D; Thapa, S; De Silva, V

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka's Rural Family Planning Survey (RFPS) was done between August of 1985 and February of 1986 by the Family Planning Association with the aid of Family Health International. A 2-stage stratified random sample design was used with probability proportional to size. 3253 interviews took place with currently married women age 20-44. The sample covered 30 rural villages but is not representative of rural Sri Lanka. The use of traditional and modern contraceptive methods is the dependent variable. Traditional methods include the "safe period method" and withdrawal. Sterilized women were excluded. The main independent variable is strength of fertility motivation. The mean desired family size is shown by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics for nonpregnant, fecund, currently married women age 20-44 who report relative preference intensity. Desired family size increases with the duration of marriage, age, and the number of living children. Desired family size is lower for more educated women. Contraceptive usage rates are shown for broad groups of methods. Overall use does not vary much by age, marital duration, number of children living, or age at 1st marriage. The more educated women have higher usage rates of traditional methods as do the more wealthy. Use of modern temporary methods goes down as wealth and education increase. For 5 of the 8 independent variables, there seems to be a "trade-off" between modern temporary methods and traditional methods. 2 alternative logistic models are included, based on relative preference intensity. Estimates of the probability of using contraception by each independent variable shown, the number of living children tends to increase contraceptive use up to about 4 and to decrease it at higher numbers, and age at 1st marriage has a slight negative effect on the use of contraception. PMID:12342629

  19. Effectiveness of spirometry as a motivational tool for smoking cessation: a clinical trial, the ESPIMOAT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    awareness of the effect of smoking among smokers who are asymptomatic or have few symptoms and make them decide to quit. Specifically, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease it might increase levels of motivation to quit smoking in early stages of the disease. If this strategy were to be effective, it could be included in the health promotion activities offered in primary care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01821885 PMID:24308728

  20. The Effect of Applying Podcast Multimedia Teaching System on Motivational Achievement and Learning Among the Boy Students

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Ali Yazdanpanah; Siamian, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional education classes are no more effective because they are tied to a particular place and time. Podcast complete the defection of other educational resources. In this study we aimed to address whether utilizing podcast multimedia training system has an effect on the motivational achievement and students learning of the Arabic course in high school. Methods: In this practical-purposed, descriptive and quasi-experimental study, pre- and post-test method in control and experiment groups was used. Researchers used simple random sampling method to form the groups. Results: The results showed the normal distribution of data according to the value of z (0.09) in the pre- and post-tests in both control and experiment groups. Therefore, the data distribution was normal (P>0.925). Significant differences between experimental and control groups in terms of academic level were not observed in the pre-test. There was no significant difference between the motivational achievement of education in post-test of control and experiment group (p>0.89). Conclusion: The results showed that teaching with podcast multimedia systems significantly increased learning of Arabic in the high school level. But of motivation reinforcement between traditional method and system for multimedia podcasts, showed no significant differences. Each variety of multimedia techniques can be beneficial for a specific course. Therefore, more studies on the effectiveness of podcast method in different courses to determine its effects are necessary. PMID:25870488

  1. The Effect of International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence on U. S. Accounting Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Homer L.; Waldrup, Bobby E.; Shea, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Major changes are coming to U.S. financial accounting and accounting education as U. S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards (IFRS) converge within the next few years. In 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) published a proposed "road map" for the potential…

  2. Simulating the Effects of Financial Aid Packages on College Student Stopout, Reenrollment Spells, and Graduation Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact that different financial aid packages have on student stopout, reenrollment, and graduation probabilities. The authors simulate how various financial aid packaging regimes affect the occurrence and timing of these events. Their findings indicate that the number and duration of enrollment and stopout spells affect…

  3. The Effectiveness of Youth Financial Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Martha Henn

    2009-01-01

    In the current financial crisis, children and youth are uniquely impacted by household finance complexities. Moments of financial trouble are teachable opportunities for children and youth to learn about personal finance and to improve their own money management skills. However, comprehensive strategies for educating them about personal finance…

  4. Effect of Personal Financial Knowledge on College Students' Credit Card Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Cliff A.; Sharpe, Deanna L.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of survey data collected from 6,520 students at a large Midwestern University affirmed that financial knowledge is a significant factor in the credit card decisions of college students but not entirely in expected ways. Results of a double hurdle analysis indicated that students with relatively higher levels of financial knowledge were…

  5. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  6. The effect of classroom instruction, attitudes towards science and motivation on students' views of uncertainty in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Meadow

    This study examined developmental and gender differences in Grade 5 and 9 students' views of uncertainty in science and the effect of classroom instruction on attitudes towards science, and motivation. Study 1 examined views of uncertainty in science when students were taught science using constructivist pedagogy. A total of 33 Grade 5 (n = 17, 12 boys, 5 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 16, 8 boys, 8 girls) students were interviewed about the ideas they had about uncertainty in their own experiments (i.e., practical science) and in professional science activities (i.e., formal science). Analysis found an interaction between grade and gender in the number of categories of uncertainty identified for both practical and formal science. Additionally, in formal science, there was a developmental shift from dualism (i.e., science is a collection of basic facts that are the result of straightforward procedures) to multiplism (i.e., there is more than one answer or perspective on scientific knowledge) from Grade 5 to Grade 9. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the understanding uncertainty in practical and formal science. Study 2 compared the attitudes and motivation towards science and motivation of students in constructivist and traditional classrooms. Scores on the measures were also compared to students' views of uncertainty for constructivist-taught students. A total of 28 students in Grade 5 (n = 13, 11 boys, 2 girls) and Grade 9 (n = 15, 6 boys, 9 girls), from traditional science classrooms and the 33 constructivist students from Study 1 participated. Regardless of classroom instruction, fifth graders reported more positive attitudes towards science than ninth graders. Students from the constructivist classrooms reported more intrinsic motivation than students from the traditional classrooms. Constructivist students' views of uncertainty in formal and practical science did not correlate with their attitudes towards science and motivation.

  7. Motivator-manager.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs. PMID:22276390

  8. The Effects of Web-Based Reading Curriculum on Children's Reading Performance and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Juanita McLean; Hilliard, Veleshia Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the benefits of using a Web-based reading curriculum program featuring music and video, on struggling readers' performance and motivation. A sample of 36 third grade students from low socioeconomic backgrounds was randomly assigned to receive Web-based or traditional reading instruction. Analyses of performance indicated…

  9. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  10. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  11. Effects of Teaching Strategies on Student Motivation to Learn in High School Mathematics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toles, Ann

    2010-01-01

    To succeed in an increasing technological and global society, students need to develop strong mathematical and problem-solving skills. This qualitative grounded theory study examined student perceptions of the ways in which teaching strategies in high school mathematics classes affect student motivation to learn the subject. Study participants…

  12. Involuntary Mental Time Travel and Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Situational Intrinsic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2010-01-01

    Recent cognitive psychological research has argued that involuntary mental time travel is an important individual difference variable that has the potential to affect an individual's motivation. However, this issue has not been empirically investigated in educational settings such as teacher education. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the…

  13. The Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Response to Cameron (2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.; Koestner, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Replies to commentary by J. Cameron asserting that the negative results of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation are limited and avoidable. Suggests that the most recent meta analysis by Cameron and others shares methodological weaknesses with an earlier analysis, lacking ecological validity. (SLD)

  14. Learner Characteristics and Motivation: How to Achieve Efficient and Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Catherine Marie Fraser

    2015-01-01

    During the Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Conference 2014, a workshop was held three consecutive times as part of the Pedagogical Speed Dating sessions to introduce experienced college/university faculty and instructional designers to an approach to instructional design that is based on increasing motivation. The purpose of…

  15. Effects of High School Teacher Perception on Latino Student Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Justin

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino population increases nationally, educators must develop the work ethic among their Latino students to meet the requirements for student achievement. This case study examined if teachers' perceptions of the Latino population affected the academic motivation of their Latino students at a low-income, primarily Latino high school in…

  16. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry Instruction on the Motivation of Different Learning Styles Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Chung; Cheng, Su-Fey

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate 8th graders with different learning styles their motivation outcomes after implementing 10 weeks (40 hours) inquiry-based teaching. Two hundreds and fifty four 8th graders were involved in experimental group, this group of students experienced inquiry instruction. Two hundreds and thirty two 8th graders…

  17. Animated Pedagogical Agents Effects on Enhancing Student Motivation and Learning in a Science Inquiry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meij, Hans; van der Meij, Jan; Harmsen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and testing of a motivational animated pedagogical agent (APA) in an inquiry learning environment on kinematics. The aim of including the APA was to enhance students' perceptions of task relevance and self-efficacy. Given the under-representation of girls in science classrooms, special attention was given to…

  18. The Effect of an Augmented Reality Enhanced Mathematics Lesson on Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…

  19. Effect of a Significant Other on Client Change Talk in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apodaca, Timothy R.; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Jackson, Kristina M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine significant-other (SO) and therapist behaviors as predictors of client change language within motivational interviewing (MI) sessions. Method: Participants from an emergency department received a single session of MI that included SO participation (N = 157). Sessions were coded using therapy process coding systems. Sessions…

  20. "Discover, Understand, Implement, and Transfer": Effectiveness of an Intervention Programme to Motivate Students for Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schütte, Kerstin; Köller, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on how best to satisfy modern societies' needs for skilled labour in the field of science. The present study evaluated an intervention programme designed to increase secondary school students' motivation to pursue a science career. Students from 3 schools of the highest educational track participated for up to 2…

  1. The Effects of Out-of-Class Support on Student Satisfaction and Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adam C.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined how out-of-class support (OCS) affects student satisfaction and motivation to learn. Students (N =594) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions manipulating a highly supportive, moderately supportive, or nonsupportive teacher following a hypothetically stressful situation. Significant and meaningful main…

  2. The Effects of Blended Learning on the Intrinsic Motivation of Thai EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sucaromana, Usaporn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the results of blended learning with face-to-face learning among university students studying English as a foreign language. The participants were separated by gender, and the following variables, intrinsic motivation for learning English, attitudes towards English as a subject, and satisfaction with the…

  3. Effect of Student Feedback on the Motivation of Indian University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar; Chakraborty, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the motivation of the teachers of higher education towards students' feedback policy of National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by Internal Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) for different Universities. By the help of questionnaires, the data were gathered, which were earlier sent to the…

  4. The Beneficial Effects of Non-Received Choice: A Study on Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Annika; Meyer-Ahrens, Inga; Wilde, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found conflicting evidence in studies where students participate in the selection of their course topics in educational settings. Katz and Assor (2007), for example, have argued that the increase in student motivation is probably not due to the mere act of choosing, but to the value of the options with respect to personal…

  5. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom: Effects of Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs, Motivation, and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Hartzell, Stephanie A.; Greene, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships of teachers' epistemological beliefs, motivation, and goal orientation to their instructional practices that foster student creativity were examined. Teachers' perceived instructional practices that facilitate the development of multiple perspectives in problem solving, transfer, task commitment, creative skill use, and…

  6. Impact and the Art of Motivation Maintenance: The Effects of Contact with Beneficiaries on Persistence Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Adam M.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Grace; Cottone, Keenan; Lapedis, David; Lee, Karen

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that employees are willing to maintain their motivation when their work is relationally designed to provide opportunities for respectful contact with the beneficiaries of their efforts. In Experiment 1, a longitudinal field experiment in a fundraising organization, callers in an intervention group briefly interacted with a…

  7. Exploring the Motivations for Punishment: Framing and Country-Level Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Jonathan E.; McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the motives underpinning punishment is crucial for understanding its evolved function. In principle, punishment of distributional inequality could be motivated by the desire to reciprocate losses ('revenge') or by the desire to reduce payoff asymmetries between the punisher and the target ('inequality aversion'). By separating these two possible motivations, recent work suggests that punishment is more likely to be motivated by disadvantageous inequality aversion than by a desire for revenge. Nevertheless, these findings have not consistently replicated across different studies. Here, we suggest that considering country of origin—previously overlooked as a possible source of variation in responses—is important for understanding when and why individuals punish one another. We conducted a two-player stealing game with punishment, using data from 2,400 subjects recruited from the USA and India. US-based subjects punished in response to losses and disadvantageous inequality, but seldom invested in antisocial punishment (defined here as punishment of non-stealing partners). India-based subjects, on the other hand, punished at higher levels than US-based subjects and, so long as they did not experience disadvantageous inequality, punished stealing and non-stealing partners indiscriminately. Nevertheless, as in the USA, when stealing resulted in disadvantageous inequality, India-based subjects punished stealing partners more than non-stealing partners. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in punitive behavior varies across societies, and support the idea that punishment might sometimes function to improve relative status, rather than to enforce cooperation. PMID:27487269

  8. The Effects of Motivational Instruction on College Students' Performance on Low-Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Borden, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Assessments of student learning outcomes (SLO) have been widely used in higher education for accreditation, accountability, and strategic planning purposes. Although important to institutions, the assessment results typically bear no consequence for individual students. It is important to clarify the relationship between motivation and test…

  9. Hope in Adolescent Careers: Mediating Effects of Work Motivation on Career Outcomes in Swiss Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valero, Domingo; Hirschi, Andreas; Strauss, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    Being hopeful is critical for individuals who are engaged in vocational pursuits. However, the empirical research examining how and why hope is related to work and career outcomes remains sparse. We evaluate a model that proposes that dispositional hope affects job performance and turnover intentions through increased work motivation in terms of…

  10. Effects of Within-Class Ability Grouping on Social Interaction, Achievement, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…

  11. Using Value-Added Models to Measure Teacher Effects on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik A.; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Value-added (VA) models measure teacher contributions to student learning and are increasingly employed in educational reform efforts. Using data from 35 seventh-grade teachers and 2,026 students across seven schools, we employ VA methods to measure teacher contributions to students' motivational orientations (mastery and performance achievement…

  12. The Effect of the Use of Interactive Whiteboard on Students' Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozerbas, Mehmet Arif

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how the use of smart board affects the motivation levels of students. This research was carried out with true experimental group and a control group. The sample of the study consists of 50 sophomore students, studying at the Department of Classroom Teaching of the Elementary Education Division at Gazi…

  13. The Effect of Microscale Chemistry Experimentation on Students' Attitude and Motivation towards Chemistry Practical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Mashita; Mohamed, Norita; Ismail, Zurida Hj

    2007-01-01

    Microscale chemistry is an approach to conducting chemistry practicals which can help overcome increased concerns about environmental pollution problems as well as rising laboratory costs. It is accomplished by using miniature labware and significantly reduced amounts of chemicals. This paper reports on students' attitudes and motivation towards…

  14. The Effect of Portfolio Assessment on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Hosna; Ghabanchi, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    This study highlighted the humanistic-transformational perspectives via portfolio assessment which offers a conceptual framework for teaching and assessment. More specifically, it attempted to explore the effectof portfolio assessment on EFL learners'reading comprehension ability and motivation in the context of Iran. It adopted the…

  15. Effects of Faculty Motivation in Distributive Education Environments at Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Marlon R.

    This research utilizes a survey to gather data about faculty motivation toward distributive education (DE), focusing on the three innermost rings of Don Olcott's Institutional Support Framework: faculty; promotion and tenure, compensation, training, and release time; and faculty senate, deans, president/provost, and chairs. The sample for the…

  16. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  17. Exploring the Motivations for Punishment: Framing and Country-Level Effects.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan E; McAuliffe, Katherine; Raihani, Nichola J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the motives underpinning punishment is crucial for understanding its evolved function. In principle, punishment of distributional inequality could be motivated by the desire to reciprocate losses ('revenge') or by the desire to reduce payoff asymmetries between the punisher and the target ('inequality aversion'). By separating these two possible motivations, recent work suggests that punishment is more likely to be motivated by disadvantageous inequality aversion than by a desire for revenge. Nevertheless, these findings have not consistently replicated across different studies. Here, we suggest that considering country of origin-previously overlooked as a possible source of variation in responses-is important for understanding when and why individuals punish one another. We conducted a two-player stealing game with punishment, using data from 2,400 subjects recruited from the USA and India. US-based subjects punished in response to losses and disadvantageous inequality, but seldom invested in antisocial punishment (defined here as punishment of non-stealing partners). India-based subjects, on the other hand, punished at higher levels than US-based subjects and, so long as they did not experience disadvantageous inequality, punished stealing and non-stealing partners indiscriminately. Nevertheless, as in the USA, when stealing resulted in disadvantageous inequality, India-based subjects punished stealing partners more than non-stealing partners. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in punitive behavior varies across societies, and support the idea that punishment might sometimes function to improve relative status, rather than to enforce cooperation. PMID:27487269

  18. Student-Oriented versus Teacher-Centred: The Effect of Learning at Workstations about Birds and Bird Flight on Cognitive Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Heike; Bogner, Franz X.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated cognitive and motivational effects of two educational interventions, a conventional versus a student-oriented approach. We monitored the impact on the cognitive achievement outcome and the motivation of students. Both approaches dealt with the subject of birds and bird flight; the student-oriented approach consisted of a…

  19. Can Motivation Normalize Working Memory and Task Persistence in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? The Effects of Money and Computer-Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; van der Oord, Saskia; Wiers, Reinout W.; Prins, Pier J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Visual-spatial "Working Memory" (WM) is the most impaired executive function in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Some suggest that deficits in executive functioning are caused by motivational deficits. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of motivation on the visual-spatial WM of children with-…

  20. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  1. Doing Good Is a Hustle, Too: Effects of Motives To Impression Manage, Communication Style, and Licensing on the Reputation of the Public Relations Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallot, Lynne M.

    A study tested effects of motives, communication style, and licensing (whether the practitioner is licensed or not) on public relations practitioners' reputations. Impression management theory suggests that perceived motives and self-interests may explain the poor reputation sometimes attributed to public relations practitioners. Subjects, 585…

  2. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  3. The painful effects of the financial crisis on Spanish health care.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Xavier; Moreno, Pedro; López-Soto, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Spain has an advanced, integrated health care system that has achieved remarkable results, including substantially improved health outcomes, over a relatively short time. Measures introduced by central and regional governments to combat the financial crisis may be severely affecting the health sector, with proposed changes potentially threatening the principles of equity and social cohesion underlying the welfare state. This article examines recent developments in Spanish health care, focusing on the austerity measures introduced since 2010. In Spain, as in other countries, evaluation of health care changes is difficult due to the paucity of data and because the effects of measures often lag well behind their introduction, meaning the full effects of changes on access to care or health outcomes only become apparent years later. However, some effects are already clear. With exceptions, Spain has not used the crisis as an opportunity to increase efficiency and quality, rationalize and reorganize health services, increase productivity, and regain public trust. We argue that immediate health care cuts may not be the best long-term answer and suggest evidence-driven interventions that involve the portfolio of free services and the private sector, while ensuring that the most vulnerable are protected. PMID:24684083

  4. Financial market volatility and contagion effect: A copula-multifractal volatility approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wang; Wei, Yu; Lang, Qiaoqi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Maojuan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach based on the multifractal volatility method (MFV) to study the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets. From recent studies, which reveal that multifractal characteristics exist in both developed and emerging financial markets, according to the econophysics literature we could draw conclusions as follows: Firstly, we estimate volatility using the multifractal volatility method, and find out that the MFV method performs best among other volatility models, such as GARCH-type and realized volatility models. Secondly, we analyze the tail dependence structure between the U.S. and Chinese stock market. The estimated static copula results for the entire period show that the SJC copula performs best, indicating asymmetric characteristics of the tail dependence structure. The estimated dynamic copula results show that the time-varying t copula achieves the best performance, which means the symmetry dynamic t copula is also a good choice, for it is easy to estimate and is able to depict both the upper and lower tail dependence structure. Finally, with the results of the previous two steps, we analyze the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets during the subprime mortgage crisis. The empirical results show that the subprime mortgage crisis started in the U.S. and that its stock market has had an obvious contagion effect on the Chinese stock market. Our empirical results should/might be useful for investors allocating their portfolios.

  5. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Photovoltaics: An Analysis of Changes in Market Forecasts from 2008 to 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, J. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Jennings, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    To examine how the financial crisis has impacted expectations of photovoltaic production, demand and pricing over the next several years, we surveyed the market forecasts of industry analysts that had issued projections in 2008 and 2009. We find that the financial crisis has had a significant impact on the PV industry, primarily through increasing the cost and reducing the availability of investment into the sector. These effects have been more immediately experienced by PV installations than by production facilities, due to the different types and duration of investments, and thus PV demand has been reduced by a greater proportion than PV production. By reducing demand more than production, the financial crisis has accelerated previously expected PV overcapacity and resulting price declines.

  6. The Irony of Open Access: An Examination of a New York State Financial Aid Policy and Its Effect on Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baksh-Jarrett, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Open access institutions have achieved the goal of providing higher education to all who seek it. To compete in a global economy, these higher educational institutions must do more than open the door; they must ensure that admitted students succeed. This study examined effects of New York State's financial aid policy that requires…

  7. The Effects of Financial Stress on the Academic Achievement of Young Adolescents from Farm and Nonfarm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Lempers, Dania S.; Netusil, Anton

    Financial stress brought about by economic changes in farm communities affects the academic achievement of young adolescents. This effect is mediated by the social support of parents and degree of dissonance in young adolescents relationships with parents. Young adolescents, mothers, and fathers from 105 farm and nonfarm families participated in…

  8. 30 CFR 243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective date of this rule? 243.12 Section 243.12 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-MINERALS...

  9. Staying Motivated and Avoiding Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2007-01-01

    Personal motivation is critical to effective teaching. This article explores the complexity of motivation and its application to teaching. It also discusses the nine principles for sustaining motivation and preempting burnout: (1) Respond to the symptoms; (2) Know the critical distinction; (3) Do not treat your car better than yourself; (4) Have a…

  10. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate. PMID:10244538

  11. An experimental study on the effects of a simulation game on students' clinical cognitive skills and motivation.

    PubMed

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E H; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G; van Saase, Jan L C M; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2016-08-01

    Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a control group working on an e-module; a cases group, combining the e-module with low-fidelity text-based patient cases, and a game group, combining the e-module with a high-fidelity simulation game with the same cases. Participants completed questionnaires on cognitive load and motivation. After a 4-week study period, blinded assessors rated students' cognitive emergency care skills in two mannequin-based scenarios. In total 61 students participated and were assessed; 16 control group students, 20 cases students and 25 game students. Learning time was 2 h longer for the cases and game groups than for the control group. Acquired cognitive skills did not differ between groups. The game group experienced higher intrinsic and germane cognitive load than the cases group (p = 0.03 and 0.01) and felt more engaged (p < 0.001). Students did not profit from working on open cases (in adjunct to an e-module), which nonetheless challenged them to study longer. The e-module appeared to be very effective, while the high-fidelity game, although engaging, probably distracted students and impeded learning. Medical educators designing motivating and effective skills training for novices should align case complexity and fidelity with students' proficiency level. The relation between case-fidelity, motivation and skills development is an important field for further study. PMID:26433730

  12. Effects and Mechanisms of 3α,5α,-THP on Emotion, Motivation, and Reward Functions Involving Pregnane Xenobiotic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Paris, J. J.; Walf, A. A.; Rusconi, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Progestogens [progesterone (P4) and its products] play fundamental roles in the development and/or function of the central nervous system during pregnancy. We, and others, have investigated the role of pregnane neurosteroids for a plethora of functional effects beyond their pro-gestational processes. Emerging findings regarding the effects, mechanisms, and sources of neurosteroids have challenged traditional dogma about steroid action. How the P4 metabolite and neurosteroid, 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), influences cellular functions and behavioral processes involved in emotion/affect, motivation, and reward, is the focus of the present review. To further understand these processes, we have utilized an animal model assessing the effects, mechanisms, and sources of 3α,5α-THP. In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), 3α,5α-THP has actions to facilitate affective, and motivated, social behaviors through non-traditional targets, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine receptors. 3α,5α-THP levels in the midbrain VTA both facilitate, and/or are enhanced by, affective and social behavior. The pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR) mediates the production of, and/or metabolism to, various neurobiological factors. PXR is localized to the midbrain VTA of rats. The role of PXR to influence 3α,5α-THP production from central biosynthesis, and/or metabolism of peripheral P4, in the VTA, as well as its role to facilitate, or be increased by, affective/social behaviors is under investigation. Investigating novel behavioral functions of 3α,5α-THP extends our knowledge of the neurobiology of progestogens, relevant for affective/social behaviors, and their connections to systems that regulate affect and motivated processes, such as those important for stress regulation and neuropsychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, drug dependence). Thus, further understanding of 3α,5α-THP’s role and mechanisms to enhance affective and motivated processes is

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Management Tools Used by Financial Officers in Public Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Grant Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation set out to identify effective qualitative and quantitative management tools used by financial officers (CFOs) in carrying out their management functions of planning, decision making, organizing, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading and controlling at a public research university. In addition, impediments to the use of…

  14. A Focus Group Assessment to Determine Motivations, Barriers and Effectiveness of a University-Based Worksite Wellness Program

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores university employee perceptions and under­standing about its Worksite Health Promotion Program (WHPP). The WHPP included a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA), biometric screening, publicity for on-campus health programs and facilities, and health coaching. Methods: A qualitative design was used based on a grounded theory ap­proach. Four 90 minutes focus groups with 6-8 participants in each were conducted within a two 2 week period among employees, representing fac­ulty/participants, fac­ulty/nonparticipants, staff/participants, and staff/nonparticipants. Responses to questions about motivations, barriers, and perceived health benefits that impacted participation in the WHPP were digi­tally recorded, transcribed and coded for themes. Results: Incentives effectively motivated participation. Biometric screening had the largest impact on behavior change, followed by the information learned from the HRA. However, despite two-thirds of the employees partici­pating in the pro­gram, lack of a full understanding of WHPP benefits and services lowered partici­pation in follow-up services and supplemental pro­grams. Conclusions: Biometric screening and HRAs effectively motivate program par­ticipation. Communication of benefits and services are important when providing WHPPs. PMID:24688965

  15. Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Wirtshafter, David; Stratford, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Microinjections of the inhibitory GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol into the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) have been reported to induce large increases in food intake, but the effect of these injections on motivational processes is less clear. In the current study, bilateral injections of saline, muscimol (50 ng/side) or D-amphetamine (10 μg/side) were made into the AcbSh of rats trained to lever press on a progressive ratio schedule for food reward. Injections of both muscimol and amphetamine were found to produce a large increase in the breaking point relative to saline injections. This result suggests that inactivation of the AcbSh does not simply drive ingestive behavior, but also affects motivational processes assessed by the progressive ratio schedule. Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh. PMID:20598739

  16. Playing in parallel: the effects of multiplayer modes in active video game on motivation and physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Crouse, Julia

    2013-06-01

    Although multiplayer modes are common among contemporary video games, the bulk of game research focuses on the single-player mode. To fill the gap in the literature, the current study investigated the effects of different multiplayer modes on enjoyment, future play motivation, and the actual physical activity intensity in an active video game. One hundred sixty-two participants participated in a one-factor between-subject laboratory experiment with three conditions: (a) single player: play against self pretest score; (b) cooperation with another player in the same physical space; (c) parallel competition with another player in separated physical spaces. We found that parallel competition in separate physical spaces was the optimal mode, since it resulted in both high enjoyment and future play motivation and high physical intensity. Implications for future research on multiplayer mode and play space as well as active video game-based physical activity interventions are discussed. PMID:23509986

  17. Loneliness and Facebook motives in adolescence: a longitudinal inquiry into directionality of effect.

    PubMed

    Teppers, Eveline; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Goossens, Luc

    2014-07-01

    The increasing popularity of Facebook among adolescents has stimulated research to investigate the relationship between Facebook use and loneliness, which is particularly prevalent in adolescence. The aim of the present study was to improve our understanding of the relationship between Facebook use and loneliness. Specifically, we examined how Facebook motives and two relationship-specific forms of adolescent loneliness are associated longitudinally. Cross-lagged analysis based on data from 256 adolescents (64% girls, M(age) = 15.88 years) revealed that peer-related loneliness was related over time to using Facebook for social skills compensation, reducing feelings of loneliness, and having interpersonal contact. Facebook use for making new friends reduced peer-related loneliness over time, whereas Facebook use for social skills compensation increased peer-related loneliness over time. Hence, depending on adolescents' Facebook motives, either the displacement or the stimulation hypothesis is supported. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24321573

  18. Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Young, Allison J.

    This study examines individual and classroom-level differences in motivation and strategy usage in sixth- and seventh-grade middle school science. Results suggest that students who experience academic difficulties differ from both high achieving and special education students on measures of self-efficacy, goal orientation, expectancy, value, and self-concept of ability in science, with students who experience academic difficulties occasionally demonstrating less adaptive patterns of motivation and cognition than special education students in science. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine between-classroom differences in learning-focused goal orientation. Findings indicate that students who have science teachers that use ability-focused instructional practices (e.g., pointing out the best students as an example to others) are less learning focused, and exhibit a diminished relation between self-concept of ability and being learning focused in science. Implications for science education reform are discussed.Received: 13 September 1993; Revised: 28 March 1994;

  19. Effects of formal and informal support structures on the motivation of Native American students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Metz, Anneke M; Cech, Erin A; Babcock, Tracy; Smith, Jessi L

    2011-07-01

    Native Americans have traditionally been underrepresented in nursing. The authors surveyed 19 undergraduate nursing students participating in a university sponsored Native American nursing student support program and examined which social support factors influenced the students' success. Using validated quantitative measures from social psychology, the authors found that overall perceived social support, as well as support from the university sponsored program, positively influenced Native American students' identification with nursing, their interest in nursing, their perception of the value of nursing, and their motivation to continue pursuing nursing as a career. Conversely, perceptions of unfairness due to racial bias within the major negatively affected students' perception of the value of nursing, as well as their motivation to pursue a nursing career. PMID:21524022

  20. Effects of classrooms' architecture on academic performance in view of telic versus paratelic motivation: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This mini literature review analyzes research papers from many countries that directly or indirectly test how classrooms' architecture influences academic performance. These papers evaluate and explain specific characteristics of classrooms, with an emphasis on how they affect learning processes and learning outcomes. Factors such as acoustics, light, color, temperature, and seat arrangement are scrutinized to determine whether and by how much they improve or hinder students' academic performance in classrooms. Apter's (1982, 1984, 2014) reversal theory of telic versus paratelic motivation is presented and used to explain these findings. The results show preference for a learning environment that cues a telic motivation state in the students. Therefore, classroom features should not be distracting or arousing. Moreover, it appears the most influential factors affecting the learning process are noise, temperature and seat arrangement. In addition, there is no current agreement on how some particular physical characteristics of classrooms affect learning outcomes. More research is needed to establish stronger conclusions and recommendations. PMID:26089812

  1. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2), Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001). After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35) (P < 0.001). Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27) in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32) (P < 0.001). By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004). Conclusions Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training. PMID:26539284

  2. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors. PMID:24829734

  3. Effects of attention manipulations on motivated attention to feared and nonfeared negative distracters in spider fear

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background When people view emotional and neutral pictures, the emotional pictures capture more attention than do neutral pictures. In support, studies with event-related potentials have shown that the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) to emotional versus neutral pictures are enhanced when pictures are attended. However, this motivated attention decreases when voluntary attention is directed away from the pictures. Most previous studies included only generally emotional pictures of either negative or positive valence. Because people with spider fear report intense fear of spiders, we examined whether directing attention away from emotional pictures at fixation decreases motivated attention less strongly for spiders than for generally negative distracters. Results We recorded event-related potentials from 128 channels to study whether manipulations of attention (i.e., spatial attention and perceptual load) decrease the EPN and the LPP to emotional distracters less strongly for spiders than for fear-irrelevant negative pictures in people with spider fear. Results confirmed that the EPN and the LPP to spiders (vs. neutral pictures) were particularly enhanced in participants with spider fear compared to participants without spider fear. When attention was directed away from the pictures, the EPN and the LPP to spiders (vs. neutral pictures) decreased similarly in fearful and nonfearful participants. Further, in fearful participants, the decrease in the EPN and the LPP was similar for spiders and for fear-irrelevant negative pictures. Conclusions Our findings suggest that for people with spider fear, directing attention away from emotional pictures at fixation decreases motivated attention to these distracters similarly for spiders as for fear-irrelevant negative pictures. These findings imply that attention to spiders in spider fear does not exceed the level of attention expected from the spider pictures’ high arousal and negative

  4. Inverted-U shaped effects of D1 dopamine receptor stimulation in the medial preoptic nucleus on sexually motivated song in male European starlings.

    PubMed

    Riters, Lauren V; Pawlisch, Benjamin A; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A

    2014-02-01

    Past studies in songbirds have highlighted a central role for the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) in context-appropriate vocal communication. During the breeding season, male songbirds sing primarily to attract females (sexually motivated song) and to repel competitors (agonistically motivated song). Past data have linked dopamine and D1 dopamine receptors in the mPOA to sexually motivated but not agonistically motivated song; however, direct effects of dopamine receptor manipulations in the mPOA on song have not been experimentally tested. Here, we tested the hypothesis that D1 receptor stimulation in the mPOA selectively influences sexually motivated male song, and the possibility that the effects of D1 receptor agonism differ at low and high doses. In a first study, breeding-condition male European starlings received infusions of saline or a single dose of the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 on separate test days into the mPOA or hypothalamic control areas. Stimulation of D1 receptors in the mPOA triggered sexually motivated but not agonistically motivated song. A second study showed inverted-U shaped dose-response effects of the agonist, such that low levels of sexually motivated song were observed at low and high levels of D1 receptor activation. A third study showed that the effects of the D1 receptor agonist were blocked by the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. These findings suggest that an optimal level of D1 receptor stimulation in the mPOA is needed to facilitate sexually motivated vocal production. The results support a central, context-specific role for the mPOA in vocal communication, and more broadly demonstrate a complex, modulatory influence of D1 receptors in the mPOA on sexually motivated behavior. PMID:24528137

  5. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  6. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults’ Parental Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the “liking” of infants, the second and third components entail the “wanting” of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  7. The Mediating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation to Learn on the Relationship between Student´s Autonomy Support and Vitality and Deep Learning.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Juan L; León, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Self-determination theory has shown that autonomy support in the classroom is associated with an increase of students' intrinsic motivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is related with positive outcomes. This study examines the relationships between autonomy support, intrinsic motivation to learn and two motivational consequences, deep learning and vitality. Specifically, the hypotheses were that autonomy support predicts the two types of consequences, and that autonomy support directly and indirectly predicts the vitality and the deep learning through intrinsic motivation to learn. Participants were 276 undergraduate students. The mean age was 21.80 years (SD = 2.94). Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between variables and delta method was used to analyze the mediating effect of intrinsic motivation to learn. Results indicated that student perception of autonomy support had a positive effect on deep learning and vitality (p < .001). In addition, these associations were mediated by intrinsic motivation to learn. These findings suggest that teachers are key elements in generating of autonomy support environment to promote intrinsic motivation, deep learning, and vitality in classroom. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:27425178

  8. 'Roid rage in rats? Testosterone effects on aggressive motivation, impulsivity and tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I; Armstrong, Abigail; Fridkin, Vlad; Shah, Vivek; Najafi, Allison; Jakowec, Michael

    2013-02-17

    In humans and animals, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase aggression, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. AAS may increase the motivation to fight. Alternatively, AAS may increase impulsive behavior, consistent with the popular image of 'roid rage. To test this, adolescent male rats were treated chronically with testosterone (7.5mg/kg) or vehicle and tested for aggressive motivation and impulsivity. Rats were trained to respond on a nose-poke on a 10 min fixed-interval schedule for the opportunity to fight in their home cage with an unfamiliar rat. Although testosterone increased aggression (6.3±1.3 fights/5 min vs 2.4±0.8 for controls, p<0.05), there was no difference in operant responding (28.4±1.6 nose-pokes/10 min for testosterone, 32.4±7.0 for vehicle). This suggests that testosterone does not enhance motivation for aggression. To test for impulsivity, rats were trained to respond for food in a delay-discounting procedure. In an operant chamber, one lever delivered one food pellet immediately, the other lever gave 4 pellets after a delay (0, 15, 30 or 45 s). In testosterone- and vehicle-treated rats, body weights and food intake did not differ. However, testosterone-treated rats chose the larger, delayed reward more often (4.5±0.7 times in 10 trials with 45 s delay) than vehicle controls (2.5±0.5 times, p<0.05), consistent with a reduction in impulsive choice. Thus, although chronic high-dose testosterone enhances aggression, this does not include an increase in impulsive behavior or motivation to fight. This is further supported by measurement of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by Western immunoblot analysis in brain regions important for motivation (nucleus accumbens, Acb) and executive function (medial prefrontal cortex, PFC). There were no differences in TH between testosterone- and vehicle-treated rats in Acb or PFC. However, testosterone significantly reduced TH (to 76.9±3.1% of controls, p<0.05) in the caudate-putamen, a

  9. ‘Roid rage in rats? Testosterone effects on aggressive motivation, impulsivity and tyrosine hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.; Armstrong, Abigail; Fridkin, Vlad; Shah, Vivek; Najafi, Allison; Jakowec, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In humans and animals, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase aggression, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. AAS may increase the motivation to fight. Alternatively, AAS may increase impulsive behavior, consistent with the popular image of ‘roid rage. To test this, adolescent male rats were treated chronically with testosterone (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle and tested for aggressive motivation and impulsivity. Rats were trained to respond on a nose-poke on a 10 min fixed-interval schedule for the opportunity to fight in their home cage with an unfamiliar rat. Although testosterone increased aggression (6.3±1.3 fights/5 min vs 2.4±0.8 for controls, p<0.05), there was no difference in operant responding (28.4±1.6 nose-pokes/ 10 min for testosterone, 32.4±7.0 for vehicle). This suggests that testosterone does not enhance motivation for aggression. To test for impulsivity, rats were trained to respond for food in a delay-discounting procedure. In an operant chamber, one lever delivered one food pellet immediately, the other lever gave 4 pellets after a delay (0, 15, 30 or 45 s). In testosterone- and vehicle-treated rats, body weights and food intake did not differ. However, testosterone-treated rats chose the larger, delayed reward more often (4.5±0.7 times in 10 trials with 45 s delay) than vehicle controls (2.5±0.5 times, p<0.05), consistent with a reduction in impulsive choice. Thus, although chronic high-dose testosterone enhances aggression, this does not include an increase in impulsive behavior or motivation to fight. This is further supported by measurement of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by Western immunoblot analysis in brain regions important for motivation (nucleus accumbens, Acb) and executive function (medial prefrontal cortex, PFC). There were no differences in TH between testosterone- and vehicle-treated rats in Acb or PFC. However, testosterone significantly reduced TH (to 76.9±3.1% of controls, p<0.05) in the caudate-putamen, a

  10. Does legal education have undermining effects on law students? Evaluating changes in motivation, values, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Krieger, Lawrence S

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated changes in subjective well-being (SWB), motivation, and values occurring over the law-student career. In study 1, law students began with levels of SWB higher than a comparison sample of undergraduates, but by the end of the first year their SWB had plummeted. These changes were correlated with the sample-wide decreases in intrinsic motivation over the first year, and were also correlated with increases in appearance values and decreases in community service values. Those with the most intrinsic motivations attained the highest grades, but, ironically, high grades in turn predicted shifts in career preferences towards "lucrative" and higher-stress law careers, and away from "service"-oriented and potentially more satisfying law careers. The declines persisted over the second and third years of law school. In study 2, the basic effects were replicated for a different sample of first-year students at a different law school. Implications for legal education and the legal profession are discussed. PMID:15048864

  11. The effects of reality-based television programming on diet and exercise motivation and self-efficacy in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Robin L; Thomas, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in social cognitive theory, this research examines the effects of reality entertainment programming and embedded commercials on viewers' perceived motivations and efficacy to exercise and consume a healthy diet as well as on food preference. In a 3 (program type) × 2 (advertisement type) study design, 253 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to watch an episode of a health-oriented reality program, a non-heath-oriented reality program, or a health-themed sitcom in which commercials for either healthy or unhealthy foods were embedded. Results indicated that perceived realism of the health-oriented reality program generated greater confidence to eat more healthily and exercise, as well as greater motivation to exercise. Additionally, program viewing differentially affected motivations to eat healthily and to exercise, but only when type of advertisement (high vs. low calorie food ads) was taken into consideration. Finally, women who watched the health-oriented reality program were more likely to choose a healthy snack at the conclusion of the experiment than those exposed to other programs, thus supporting the assertion that reality programming may potentiate positive health behaviors. The role of the embedded advertisements in altering the interpretation and health impact of the programming is also discussed. PMID:23046177

  12. A business case for HIT adoption: effects of "meaningful use" EHR financial incentives on clinic revenue.

    PubMed

    Behkami, Nima A; Dorr, David A; Morrice, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe a framework that allows decision makers to efficiently evaluate factors that affect Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and test suitable interventions; specifically financial incentives. The United States healthcare delivery system is experiencing a transformation to improve population health. There is strong agreement that "meaningful use" of Health Information Technology (HIT) is a major enabler in this effort. However it's also understood that the high cost of implementing an EHR is an obstacle for adoption. To help understand these complexities we developed a simulation model designed to capture the dynamic nature of policy interventions that affect the adoption of EHR. We found that "Effective" use of HIT approaches break-even-point and larger clinic revenue many times faster that "average" or "poor" use of HIT. This study uses a systems perspective to the evaluate EHR adoption process through the "meaningful use" redesign as proposed in the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act 2009 in the United States healthcare industry by utilizing the System Dynamics methodology and Scenario Analysis. PMID:20841792

  13. Coupled effects of market impact and asymmetric sensitivity in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Li-Xin; Xu, Wen-Juan; Ren, Fei; Shi, Yong-Dong

    2013-05-01

    By incorporating market impact and asymmetric sensitivity into the evolutionary minority game, we study the coevolutionary dynamics of stock prices and investment strategies in financial markets. Both the stock price movement and the investors’ global behavior are found to be closely related to the phase region they fall into. Within the region where the market impact is small, investors’ asymmetric response to gains and losses leads to the occurrence of herd behavior, when all the investors are prone to behave similarly in an extreme way and large price fluctuations occur. A linear relation between the standard deviation of stock price changes and the mean value of strategies is found. With full market impact, the investors tend to self-segregate into opposing groups and the introduction of asymmetric sensitivity leads to the disappearance of dominant strategies. Compared with the situations in the stock market with little market impact, the stock price fluctuations are suppressed and an efficient market occurs. Theoretical analyses indicate that the mechanism of phase transition from clustering to self-segregation in the present model is similar to that in the majority-minority game and the occurrence and disappearance of efficient markets are related to the competition between the trend-following and the trend-aversion forces. The clustering of the strategies in the present model results from the majority-wins effect and the wealth-driven mechanism makes the market become predictable.

  14. The Effect of Financial Compensation on Health Outcomes following Musculoskeletal Injury: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Darnel F.; Casey, Petrina P.; Cameron, Ian D.; Harris, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science) for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury. PMID:25680118

  15. The Effects of Perceived Career Plateau on Employees' Attitudes: Moderating Effects of Career Motivation and Perceived Supervisor Support with Korean Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ji-hyun; Tak, Jinkook

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relation of perceived career plateau to job satisfaction and organizational commitment and the moderating effects of career motivation and perceived supervisor support on the relationships between perceived career plateau and the two dependent variables. Data are collected from 209 white-collar employees who are more than…

  16. Integrating Financial Education into School Curricula: Giving America's Youth the Educational Foundation for Making Effective Financial Decisions throughout Their Lives by Teaching Financial Concepts as Part of Math and Reading Curricula in Elementary, Middle, and High Schools. A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Financial Education (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This report presents a distinguished panel's findings on financial education in the U.S. In May 2002, the Secretaries of the Departments of Treasury and Education invited representatives from national youth education groups to consider the opportunities and challenges that arise when financial education is integrated into core curricula.…

  17. Dopamine and light: dissecting effects on mood and motivational states in women with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Elizabeth I.; Park, Sarah; Rot, Marije aan het; Sancton, Kimberley; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.; Boivin, Diane B.; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that bright light can improve mood, the neurobiology remains poorly understood. Some evidence implicates the catecholamines. In the present study, we measured the effects of transiently decreasing dopamine (DA) synthesis on mood and motivational states in healthy women with mild seasonal mood changes who were tested in either bright or dim light. Methods On 2 test days, participants slept overnight in a light-controlled room. On the morning of each session, half of the participants awoke to gradual increases of bright light, up to 3000 lux, and half to dim light (10 lux). For all participants, DA was reduced on 1 of the test days using the acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method; on the other day, they ingested a nutritionally balanced control mixture (BAL). Beginning 4 hours postingestion, participants completed subjective mood questionnaires, psychological tests and a progressive ratio breakpoint task during which they worked for successive units of $5. Results Thirty-two women participated in our study. The APTD lowered mood, agreeableness, energy and the willingness to work for monetary reward. The effects on energy and motivation were independent of light, while the effects on mood and agreeableness were seen in the dim condition only, being prevented by bright light. Limitations Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion might affect systems other than DA. The sample size was small. Conclusion These results suggest that increased DA function may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of light, while adding to the evidence that the neurobiology of mood and motivational states can be dissociated. PMID:23735584

  18. Motivation for hay: effects of a pelleted diet on behavior and physiology of horses.

    PubMed

    Elia, Jamie B; Erb, Hollis N; Houpt, Katherine Albro

    2010-12-01

    The natural diet of free-ranging horses is grass, which is typically high in fiber and calorically dilute, however diets for high performance domestic horses are often low in fiber and calorically dense. The aim of the study was to determine the motivation of horses for hay when fed a low roughage diet. Their motivation could be used to determine if low roughage diets compromise the welfare of horses. Eight mares were fed two different diets in counterbalanced order: ad libitum orchard grass hay; a complete pelleted feed (pellets). Each trial lasted three weeks, with a one-week transition period between diets. To determine the motivation of horses for fiber they were taught to press a panel to obtain a food reward. The fixed ratio (FR) was increased using a progressive ratio ((1,2,4,7,11…) technique. When fed pellets, the horses worked for a median FR of 1 (Range=1-497) to attain pellets, and when fed hay, they worked for a median FR of 25.5 (4-497) to attain pellets. When fed hay, the horses worked for a median FR of 0 (0-0) to attain hay, and when fed pellets, they worked for a FR of 13 (2-79) to attain hay. These results indicate a greater motivation for hay, a high fiber diet, when fed a low fiber diet. The horses spent 10 (5-19.4)% of their time during a 24-hour period eating pellets compared to 61.5 (29-76) % of their time eating hay. Horses spent 58% of their time standing when fed the pellets and only 37% of their time standing when fed hay. Searching behavior (i.e. sifting through wood shaving bedding for food particles) took up 11.5 (1.4-32) % of the horse's day when fed pellets, but only 1.2 (0-3.5) % of the daily time budget when fed hay. Horses chew more times when eating a hay diet (43,476chews/day) than when eating a pellet diet (10,036chews/day). Fecal pH was lower in horses fed the pelleted diet. PMID:20869976

  19. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  20. Effects of Performance-Based Financial Incentives on Work Performance: A Study of Technical-Level Employees in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Dabere, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of performance-based financial incentives on work performance. The study hypothesized that the design features of performance-based financial incentive schemes themselves may influence individuals' work performance. For the study, survey methodology was used and 93 technical-level employees…

  1. The effects of hospital-physician integration strategies on hospital financial performance.

    PubMed Central

    Goes, J B; Zhan, C

    1995-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION. This study investigated the longitudinal relations between hospital financial performance outcomes and three hospital-physician integration strategies: physician involvement in hospital governance, hospital ownership by physicians, and the integration of hospital-physician financial relationships. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Using secondary data from the State of California, integration strategies in approximately 300 California short-term acute care hospitals were tracked over a ten-year period (1981-1990). STUDY DESIGN. The study used an archival design. Hospital performance was measured on three dimensions: operational profitability, occupancy, and costs. Thirteen control variables were used in the analyses: market competition, affluence, and rurality; hospital ownership; teaching costs and intensity; multihospital system membership; hospital size; outpatient service mix; patient volume case mix; Medicare and Medicaid intensity; and managed care intensity. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION. Financial and utilization data were obtained from the State of California, which requires annual hospital reports. A series of longitudinal regressions tested the hypotheses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Considerable variation was found in the popularity of the three strategies and their ability to predict hospital performance outcomes. Physician involvement in hospital governance increased modestly from 1981-1990, while ownership and financial integration declined significantly. Physician governance was associated with greater occupancy and higher operating margins, while financial integration was related to lower hospital operating costs. Direct physician ownership, particularly in small hospitals, was associated with lower operating margins and higher costs. Subsample analyses indicate that implementation of the Medicare prospective payment system in 1983 had a major impact on these relationships, especially on the benefits of financial integration. CONCLUSIONS. The

  2. Workplace Financial Education Facilitates Improvement in Personal Financial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawitz, Aimee D.; Cohart, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Based on the life-cycle theory of consumption, this quasi-experimental study of 995 employees examined changes in financial behaviors following employee-needs-driven workplace financial education. Repeated-measures ANOVA compared participants and non-participants on perceived financial wellness and savings ratios; main effects indicated that both…

  3. Financial Stress and Financial Counseling: Helping College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Sonya L.; Canale, Anthony; Fernatt, Fred; Stutz, Kristen; Tibbetts, Racquel

    2015-01-01

    This study had two distinct purposes. First, to determine the predictors of financial stress among college students who sought free peer-based financial counseling from a large Midwestern university (N = 675). Secondly, to determine the effectiveness of the particular financial counseling center from a subsample of those who sought help (N = 97).…

  4. Management styles and motivation.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  5. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief introduction, five reports, books, and articles that examine the issues of engendering, maintaining, or regaining student motivation are summarized. While some offer specific strategies that can be used at the classroom level, others address issues beyond the classroom, recognizing that schoolwide policies and practices can also…

  6. The financial crisis and the expected effects on vaccinations in Europe: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Maltezou, Helena C; Lionis, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Starting in 2008 several European countries experienced a financial crisis. Historically, diseases whose prevention and treatment depend highly on the continuity of healthcare re-emerge during political and financial crises. Evidence suggests that the current financial crisis has had an impact on the health and welfare of Europeans and that population health status and morbidity as well as mortality patterns may change in the coming years. At the same time decisions about expenditure for health services may impact the ability of public health providers to respond. It is expected that the current crisis will further exacerbate socioeconomic and health inequalities and novel vulnerable groups will emerge in addition to existing ones. We review the available evidence and discuss how the current crisis may have an impact on vaccine-preventable diseases and influence vaccination coverage rates in Europe. PMID:25739315

  7. Expectancies for the Effectiveness of Different Tobacco Interventions Account for Racial and Gender Differences in Motivation to Quit and Abstinence Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Stevens, Erin N.; Trent, Lindsay R.; Clark, C. Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. Results: African Americans’ stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women’s stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Conclusions: Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. PMID:24719492

  8. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  9. Financial management of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Speranzo, A J

    1984-05-01

    The effect of hospital reimbursement systems on the financial management of hospitals is briefly discussed, and the organization of hospital financial operations is reviewed. The implementation of Medicare prospective pricing will change the way in which hospital finances are managed. Health-care managers will be concerned with the profitability of product lines, or diagnosis-related groups, in future strategic planning efforts. The hospital's finance department consists of several traditional areas that exist in almost all financial organizations. The functions and interactions of these various areas are discussed in light of previous and current hospital reimbursement strategies. Staffing of the finance department and the duties of the hospital's chief financial officer are also described. The prospective pricing system of hospital reimbursement and increasing pressure from the business community to stem the rising costs of health care will produce changes in the medical and financial operations of the hospital industry over the next decade. PMID:6375357

  10. Prefrontal cortical effects on aversively motivated instrumental conditioning in rats: some ontogenic considerations.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J F

    1979-01-01

    During the last 20 years, an emerging body of data has delineated critical variables controlling the acquisition and retention of aversive experiences across ages. Focusing an the rat as subject organism, the behavioral literature on task- and age-specific findings is reviewed. Response inhibitory deficits in younger subjects are related to augmentation of stimulus control through discrimination training and reinstatement of components of original learning. Somewhat parallel and complementary to studies of behavioral development, advances in the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of cortical functions have indicated the critical role of the prefrontal cortex in acquisition and retention of aversively motivated instrumental responses. Several studies of prefrontal damage administered at varying ages reveal the importance of neural development in both performance deficits as well as recovery of function. These preliminary experiments are discussed in light of constraints from appropriate cortical influences in consideration of the ontogeny of fear. PMID:547702

  11. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  12. Examining the Moderating Effect of Appearance Impression Motivation on the Relationship between Perceived Physical Appearance and Social Physique Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorose, Anthony J.; Hollembeak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the conceptual importance of impression motivation in predicting social anxiety (Leary & Kowalski, 1995; Schlenker & Leary, 1982), no research has tested the link between impression motivation specifically regarding one's physical appearance (appearance impression motivation, or AIM) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this…

  13. Online Investment Education: Listening to Learners to Develop an Effective Financial Literacy Program for Farm Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara; Porter, Nancy M.; Pankow, Debra; Schuchardt, Jane; Johnson, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A needs assessment was conducted for the adaptation of an existing online Cooperative Extension investment course for use by farm households. The theoretical model was Social Marketing Theory. Data about financial attitudes, practices, and learning preferences of farm households were collected through a telephone survey of 300 farm households and…

  14. The Effect of Proposed Reagan Administration Cuts on University of Delaware Financial Aid Programs. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Douglas S.

    Proposed budget cuts by the Reagan Administration that will directly affect the financial aid programs at the University of Delaware are examined, along with the anticipated impacts of the cuts. The programs specifically slated for reduction in both funds and the number of students who will be eligible to participate in 1981-82 include the…

  15. The Effects of Financial Aid Education on College Aspirations of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Access to college for low-income, first-generation students is frequently hindered by a lack of knowledge and awareness of the college-related resources and opportunities available to them, including financial aid. Low-income students and their families are more likely to lack pertinent information about the college process and funding…

  16. Collaboration for the Effective and Efficient Management of School Financial Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Govindasamy, Vanitha

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the collaborative relationship between principals and School Governing Bodies (SGBs), and how this impacts on the management of financial resources in public schools. In South Africa, educational trends such as decentralisation, the shift of responsibility in roles, community involvement, building of partnerships and…

  17. The Effects of Student Financial Contributions toward Their Post-Secondary Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Eva Marie

    2016-01-01

    The college student population in USA is predicted to increase from 13 million to 21 million between 2003-2015 (Strom & Storm, 2004). This increase along with the exponentially increasing cost of post-secondary education has caused an increase in the financial burden placed on students. Between 2000 and 2012, the two major post-secondary…

  18. Teacher Retention: Estimating and Understanding the Effects of Financial Incentives in Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulbeck, Eleanor Spindler

    2011-01-01

    Extensive teacher mobility can undermine policy efforts to develop a high-quality workforce. As one response, policymakers have increasingly championed financial incentives as a way to retain teachers. In January, 2006, Denver Public School District, the Denver Classroom Teachers' Association, and Denver voters approved and funded one of the most…

  19. Effects of Participation in a Simulation Game on Marketing Students' Numeracy and Financial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Ross; Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The need to endow marketing graduates with skills relevant to employability grows ever more important. Marketing math and elementary financial understanding are essential employability skills, particularly given the contemporary emphasis on marketing metrics, but the evidence is that marketing graduates are often relatively weak in such skills.…

  20. Motivation matters: differing effects of pre-goal and post-goal emotions on attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robin L; Van Damme, Ilse; Levine, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    People often show enhanced memory for information that is central to emotional events and impaired memory for peripheral details. The intensity of arousal elicited by an emotional event is commonly held to be the mechanism underlying memory narrowing, with the implication that all sources of emotional arousal should have comparable effects. Discrete emotions differ in their effects on memory, however, with some emotions broadening rather than narrowing the range of information attended to and remembered. Thus, features of emotion other than arousal appear to play a critical role in memory narrowing. We review theory and research on emotional memory narrowing and argue that motivation matters. Recent evidence suggests that emotions experienced prior to goal attainment or loss lead to memory narrowing whereas emotions experienced after goal attainment or loss broaden the range of information encoded in memory. The motivational component of emotion is an important but understudied feature that can help to clarify the conditions under which emotions enhance and impair attention and memory. PMID:23162490