Science.gov

Sample records for motor abilities physical

  1. Specifically designed physical exercise programs improve children's motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Chiodera, P; Volta, E; Gobbi, G; Milioli, M A; Mirandola, P; Bonetti, A; Delsignore, R; Bernasconi, S; Anedda, A; Vitale, M

    2008-04-01

    Physical activity in schools is declining in many countries and inactivity in childhood has become a recognized risk factor. Data from a program of professionally guided physical exercise in primary school children were collected before and after the academic year of training. Four thousand five hundred children (6-10 years) were enrolled, and conditional and coordinative motor abilities (speed, trunk flexibility, long jumping, somersault, Harre circuit test) were measured. Anthropometric measurements were focused on body mass index (BMI), weight and height. Females never showed a significant variation of BMI, whereas males in the first and fourth grades showed significant differences. On the contrary, when considering the motor abilities studied, all the comparisons were highly significant. At the end of training, both males and females did better than at the beginning, and males were constantly faster than females. Our data, generated on a large number of children, show that professionally guided programs of physical education in the primary school lead to significant progresses in the development of conditional and coordinative abilities, without altering BMI values, thus not interfering with the balanced progression of body weight and height. PMID:17490452

  2. The Effect of Perceptually Oriented Physical Education on Perceptual Motor Ability and Academic Ability of Kindergarten and First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert G.

    The effects of a perceptually oriented physical education program (PPE) on perceptual-motor ability and academic ability were studied using kindergarten and first-grade children. The four groups of kindergarten children varied the number of periods of PPE per week which then met--0, 1, 2, and 3 times per week. The four groups of first-grade…

  3. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  4. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  5. Relationships between gross- and fine motor functions, cognitive abilities, and self-regulatory aspects of students with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    This article reports research on self-regulatory aspects (i.e., goal-setting, self-efficacy and self-evaluation) of secondary and post-secondary students with congenital motor disabilities, who performed a ball-throwing-at-a-target task. Participants were divided into four subgroups presenting distinct combinations of motor and cognitive abilities (i.e., normal cognitive development and mild physical disabilities, normal cognitive development and severe physical disabilities, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and mild physical disabilities, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and severe physical disabilities). Results showed that students presenting mild motor disabilities exhibited a positive self-concept and self-regulation profile, irrespective of their cognitive functioning. Students with considerable motor disabilities, but without cognitive challenges, presented a negative, though realistic self-concept and self-regulation profile. Finally, students with considerable motor disabilities and mild-to-moderate cognitive disabilities showed a positive, though unrealistic, self-regulation profile. The nature of the diverse relationship of motor and cognitive (dis)abilities to specific self-regulatory aspects are discussed, and important instructional implications are mentioned. PMID:26519661

  6. Differences Between Actual Motor Ability and Physical Self-Concept (Perceived Motor Performance/Body Image) of Fifth-Grade Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Robert; Kirk, Pamela

    Differences between high and low perceived physical self-concept and actual motor performance of 120 fifth grade boys were investigated. Self-concept was measured by the Physical Self-Concept Scale. Motor proficiency was measured by a four-item advanced agility/coordination test battery: hand-eye coordination; foot-eye coordination; whole body…

  7. Temporal structure of motor variability is dynamically regulated and predicts motor learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Howard G; Miyamoto, Yohsuke R; Castro, Luis Nicolas Gonzalez; Ölveczky, Bence P; Smith, Maurice A

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in motor learning ability are widely acknowledged, yet little is known about the factors that underlie them. Here we explore whether movement-to-movement variability in motor output, a ubiquitous if often unwanted characteristic of motor performance, predicts motor learning ability. Surprisingly, we found that higher levels of task-relevant motor variability predicted faster learning both across individuals and across tasks in two different paradigms, one relying on reward-based learning to shape specific arm movement trajectories and the other relying on error-based learning to adapt movements in novel physical environments. We proceeded to show that training can reshape the temporal structure of motor variability, aligning it with the trained task to improve learning. These results provide experimental support for the importance of action exploration, a key idea from reinforcement learning theory, showing that motor variability facilitates motor learning in humans and that our nervous systems actively regulate it to improve learning. PMID:24413700

  8. Gross motor abilities in children with Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dusing, Stacey C; Thorpe, Deborah; Rosenberg, Angela; Mercer, Vicki; Escolar, Maria L

    2006-11-01

    Hurler syndrome is the most severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. There is a paucity of literature reporting the gross motor abilities of children with untreated Hurler syndrome. The purpose of this case series is to describe the gross motor abilities of one male and three female children (mean age 11.4mo [SD 3.1]; range 9.5-16mo) diagnosed with Hurler syndrome. The children were assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition. Gross motor delays were present in all four children at the time of assessment, and were most evident in locomotor abilities for three of the children. All four children had range of motion limitations at multiple joints. This case series provides evidence for early gross motor delays in this population, as well as evidence for specific gross motor abilities of children with untreated Hurler syndrome. It is recommended that children diagnosed with Hurler syndrome be referred to physical therapy services upon diagnosis and that physical therapists be part of the interdisciplinary team involved in the care of children with Hurler syndrome. PMID:17044963

  9. Motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities and visual-motor integration abilities of Chinese learning children by employing the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Hammill, Pearson, & Voress, 1993), in which both abilities are measured in a single test. A total of 72 native Chinese learners of age 5 participated in this study. The findings indicated that the Chinese learners scored much higher in the visual-motor integration tasks than in motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks. The results support the theory of autonomous systems of motor-reduced visual perception and visual-motor integration and query current beliefs about the prior development of the former to the latter for the Chinese learners. To account for the Chinese participants' superior performance in visual-motor integration tasks over motor-reduced visual perceptual tasks, the visual-spatial properties of Chinese characters, general handwriting theories, the motor control theory and the psychogeometric theory of Chinese character-writing are referred to. The significance of the findings is then discussed. PMID:22663773

  10. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  11. [Visual perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities--a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Werpup-Stüwe, Lina; Petermann, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The results of many studies show visual perceptual deficits in children with low motor abilities. This study aims to indicate the correlation between visual-perceptual and motor abilities. The correlation of visual-perceptual and motor abilities of 41 children is measured by using the German versions of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception--Adolescent and Adult (DTVP-A) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition (M-ABC-2). The visual-perceptual abilities of children with low motor abilities (n=21) are also compared to the visual-perceptual abilities of children with normal motor abilities (the control group, n=20). High correlations between the visual-perceptual and motor abilities are found. The perceptual abilities of the groups differ significantly. Nearly half of the children with low motor abilities show visual-perceptual deficits. Visual perceptual abilities of children suffering coordination disorders should always be assessed. The DTVP-A is useful, because it provides the possibilities to compare motor-reduced visual-perceptual abilities and visualmotor integration abilities and to estimate the deficit's degree. PMID:26493482

  12. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  13. Latent Structure of Motor Abilities in Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vatroslav, Horvat

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical and practical knowledge which have so far been acquired through work with pre-school children pointed to the conclusion that the structures of the latent dimensions of the motor abilities differ greatly from such a structure, in pre-school children and adults alike. Establishing the latent structure of the motor abilities in…

  14. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  15. Error Argumentation Enhance Adaptability in Adults With Low Motor Ability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Bo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The authors focused on young adults with varying degrees of motor difficulties and examined their adaptability in a visuomotor adaptation task where the visual feedback of participants' movement error was presented with either 1:1 ratio (i.e., regular feedback schedule) or 1:2 ratio (i.e., enhanced feedback schedule). Within-subject design was used with two feedback schedules counter-balanced and separated for 10 days. Results revealed that participants with greater motor difficulties showed less adaptability than those with normal motor abilities in the regular feedback schedule; however, all participants demonstrated similar level of adaptability in the enhanced feedback schedule. The results suggest that error argumentation enhances adaptability in adults with low motor ability. PMID:26672393

  16. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  17. Rhythm and Motor Ability in Developmentally Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between a developmentally disabled child's ability to perform (a) a simple rhythmic task, and (b) a series of gross and fine motor tasks. The subjects of this study were 77 boys aged 65 months (5.416 years) to 174 months (14.5 years). All were classified as educable mentally retarded,…

  18. Optimization of a motor learning attention-directing strategy based on an individual's motor imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Hirai, Masahiro; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning performance has been shown to be affected by various cognitive factors such as the focus of attention and motor imagery ability. Most previous studies on motor learning have shown that directing the attention of participants externally, such as on the outcome of an assigned body movement, can be more effective than directing their attention internally, such as on body movement itself. However, to the best of our knowledge, no findings have been reported on the effect of the focus of attention selected according to the motor imagery ability of an individual on motor learning performance. We measured individual motor imagery ability assessed by the Movement Imagery Questionnaire and classified the participants into kinesthetic-dominant (n = 12) and visual-dominant (n = 8) groups based on the questionnaire score. Subsequently, the participants performed a motor learning task such as tracing a trajectory using visuomotor rotation. When the participants were required to direct their attention internally, the after-effects of the learning task in the kinesthetic-dominant group were significantly greater than those in the visual-dominant group. Conversely, when the participants were required to direct their attention externally, the after-effects of the visual-dominant group were significantly greater than those of the kinesthetic-dominant group. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the size of after-effects and the modality-dominance of motor imagery. These results suggest that a suitable attention strategy based on the intrinsic motor imagery ability of an individual can improve performance during motor learning tasks. PMID:26466828

  19. Motor abilities in dance structure performance in female students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko; Kaliterna, Andreja

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the relation between motor abilities and performance in folk dances originating from the island of Hvar and modern social dances. Two groups of variables were used in a sample of 78 female students of the Teacher Training College from Split: 7 motor variables as a battery of predictors, and performance evaluation of 4 dances (2 folk dances, i.e. ciciliona and pasavijen, and 2 social dances, i.e. cha-cha-cha and rock-'n'-roll) as criterion variables. Canonical correlation analysis between the groups of variables yielded two canonical correlations of 0.94 and 0.73, with a level of significance of p<0.001. The first canonical correlation was based on marked determination of coordination and ciciliona dance, and the second one on explosive strength of the running type with below-average coordination and the cha-cha-cha, rock-'n'-roll and pasavijen dances. Regression analysis indicated the battery of motor variables used to be a good predictor of performance in all study dances, with multiple correlation of 0.93 in ciciliona, 0.84 in pasavijen, 0.75 in rock-'n'-roll and 0.73 in cha-cha-cha. In ciciliona and pasavijen, the latent dance structure is predominantly explained by coordination, in rock-'n'-roll by explosive strength, and in cha-cha-cha by explosive strength and speed. Discriminative analysis revealed the general dance performance to mostly depend on coordination, then on explosive strength, and to a lesser extent on speed (movement frequency). Dance is an irreplaceable educational tool in kinesiologic education of female students, among others for its considerable contribution to the development and maintenance of basic motor abilities. PMID:16848148

  20. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  1. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities. PMID:26504335

  2. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  3. Motor abilities at belly dance in elementary female schoolers.

    PubMed

    Mihaljević, Dodi; Srhoj, Ljerka; Katić, Ratko

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation between motor abilities and belly dance performance in elementary school fifth- and sixth-grade female students. A battery of 19 motor tests was used in a sample of 96 students twice, i.e. at the beginning (initial measurement) and at the end (final measurement) of the academic year. On initial measurement, five factors were isolated by the motor space factor analysis: first factor of muscular-aerobic endurance; second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of foot and hand movement, and agility; third factor integrating explosive strength of the arms with speed and body coordination; fourth factor defined by flexibility (muscle tone regulation); and fifth factor integrating explosive strength of legs with equilibrium. On final measurement, five factors were isolated as well: first factor as a general one integrating coordination abilities, explosive strength of legs and flexibility; second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs; third factor defined by rhythm coordination accompanied by flexibility; fourth factor predominantly defined by equilibrium (accompanied by explosive strength of throwing type and speed); and fifth factor predominantly defined by static strength of arms and legs (accompanied by arm movement frequency). On initial measurement, fourth factor responsible for muscle tone regulation and second factor integrating the strength of legs, coordination of movement frequency of arms and legs, and agility were found to be the best predictors of belly dance performance. In this setting, the tests of forward bow (flexibility) and sit-ups (repetitive strength of abdominal musculature) proved superior in differentiating high performance students and those less successful in belly dance. On final measurement, third factor named rhythm coordination (accompanied by muscle tone regulation) and second factor defined by repetitive strength of the trunk and legs were the best

  4. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  5. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  6. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:26691581

  7. Motor planning ability is not related to lesion side or functional manual ability in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, E V; Pearse, J E; Eyre, J A; Basu, A P

    2013-11-01

    Optimal task performance requires anticipatory planning to select the most appropriate movement strategy. There is conflicting evidence for hemispheric specialisation of motor planning, with some suggesting left hemisphere dominance, claiming that children with right hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are therefore disproportionally affected. An alternative view is that there is a positive relationship between functional ability (rather than side of lesion) and motor planning skill. We aimed to compare children with right and left HCP on motor planning ability and to explore its relationship with functional manual ability. Participants were 76 children with HCP (40 left HCP; 30 female), aged 4-15 years (Mean 9.09, SD 2.94). Motor planning was assessed using a measure of end-state comfort, which involved turning a hexagonal handle 180° without readjusting grasp. This is difficult, or in some cases impossible, to achieve unless an appropriate initial grasp is adopted. Children completed 24 turns (12 clockwise), which were video recorded for offline scoring. Functional manual ability was assessed with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, completed by parents. Contrary to the existing literature, no differences were observed between right and left HCP. However, a significant interaction between direction of turn and side of hemiplegia indicated a preferential bias for turns in the medial direction, consistent with the "medial over lateral advantage". There was no relationship between functional ability and motor planning. Therefore, motor planning may not be a priority for therapeutic intervention to improve functional ability in HCP. PMID:23995565

  8. Neural compensation mechanisms to regulate motor output during physical fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-06-13

    Central fatigue refers to a progressive decline in the ability to activate muscles voluntarily. Although the neural mechanisms of central inhibition of the motor area during physical fatigue have been widely investigated, mechanisms supporting motor output during fatigue remain to be clarified. In this study, the compensation mechanisms to regulate physical fatigue were examined using a 160-channel whole-head-type magnetoencephalographic (MEG) system. The study group consisted of nine right-handed healthy participants. After enrollment, participants performed a fatigue-inducing physical task session in which they performed repetitive grips of the right hand at maximal voluntary contraction levels every second. Before and after the session, imagery of maximum grips of the right hand was performed for evaluation with MEG. Although beta-band event-related desynchronization (ERD) level of the motor movement-evoked magnetic field in the left sensorimotor area showed a trend toward reduction after the fatigue session, the ERD level of the motor movement-evoked magnetic field in the right sensorimotor area was increased after the session. The ERD level in the prefrontal area was increased after the fatigue-inducing session. The ERD level in the left sensorimotor area was positively associated with that in the right sensorimotor area after the fatigue-inducing task session. In addition, ERD levels in the left and right sensorimotor areas had trends toward positive correlations with that in the prefrontal area. These results suggest that the ipsilateral sensorimotor and prefrontal areas are brain regions associated with compensation mechanisms to support motor output under the condition of physical fatigue. PMID:21550592

  9. Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyek, Nady; Champely, Stéphane; Collet, Christian; Fargier, Patrick; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of a relationship between mental rotation (MR) and motor processes in children and adults. However, there is no direct evidence that MR ability is a reliable predictor of success for motor performance. After completion of a MR test, the motor performance of 7- to 8-year-old and 11- to 12-year-old children was…

  10. Motor Ability and Weight Status Are Determinants of Out-of-School Activity Participation for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Lee, Velma Y. L.; Chan, Nerita N. C.; Chan, Rachel S. H.; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with…

  11. Interlimb Coordination: An Important Facet of Gross-Motor Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbio, Tatiana; Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila

    2009-01-01

    Motor development attains landmark significance during early childhood. Although early childhood educators may be familiar with the gross-motor skill category, the subcategory of interlimb coordination needs greater attention than it typically receives from teachers of young children. Interlimb coordination primarily involves movements requiring…

  12. Motor Abilities in Autism: A Review Using a Computational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Emma; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Altered motor behaviour is commonly reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the aetiology remains unclear. Here, we have taken a computational approach in order to break down motor control into different components and review the functioning of each process. Our findings suggest abnormalities in two areas--poor integration of information for…

  13. Effects of A School-Based Intervention on BMI and Motor Abilities in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Christine; Koch, Benjamin; Falkowski, Gisa; Jouck, Stefanie; Christ, Hildegard; Stauenmaier, Kathrin; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Predel, Hans-Georg

    2005-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT) project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI) and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS) and control schools (CS) either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05). The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001). For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020). All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p ≤ 0.001), adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified. Key Points School-based prevention improves motor abilities in primary school children. The incidence of obesity is not influenced by school-based intervention. To prevent obesity in early childhood the measures have to be intensified and parents should be included. PMID:24453534

  14. Motor abilities of children and adolescents with a psychiatric condition: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Damme, Tine Van; Simons, Johan; Sabbe, Bernard; van West, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize research regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents who suffer from a common psychiatric condition. METHODS: In order to outline the current knowledge regarding the motor abilities of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and depression, a comprehensive systematic literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ERIC databases. The databases were searched for relevant English language articles published between January 1990 and April 2014. Only studies that conducted a quantitative evaluation of motor ability and concerned individuals aged 0-18 years were included. A separate search was conducted for each disorder (ASD, ADHD, DBD, depression) in conjunction with each of the following keywords: (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement skill(s), (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement abilities, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement impairment, (psycho/perceptuo) motor/movement problem(s), motor function, motor coordination, motor performance, motor deficit(s). To detect supplementary relevant literature, the reference lists of the retrieved articles were examined. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 51 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In total, 28 studies were included that examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ASD. All studies indicated that they performed below average on various standardized motor assessment instruments. The overall prevalence rate for impairment in motor abilities ranged from 33% to 100%. Twenty-seven studies examined the motor abilities of children and adolescents with ADHD. Depending on the type of motor assessment tool and the cut-off points used by different researchers, prevalence rates of impairment in motor abilities are highly variable and ranged from 8% to 73%. Remarkably, there is a paucity of research addressing the motor abilities of individuals with DBD or depression

  15. Effect of physical therapy frequency on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to investigate the effect of physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 161 children with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for children with physical disabilities in South Korea. Gross Motor Function Measure data were collected according to physical therapy frequency based on neurodevelopmental therapy for a period of 1 year. [Results] The correlation between physical therapy frequency and Gross Motor Function Measure scores for crawling and kneeling, standing, walking, running and jumping, and rolling, and the Gross Motor Function Measure total score was significant. The differences in gross motor function according to physical therapy frequency were significant for crawling, kneeling, standing, and Gross Motor Function Measure total score. The differences in gross motor function according to frequency of physical therapy were significant for standing in Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. [Conclusion] Intensive physical therapy was more effective for improving gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In particular, crawling and kneeling, and standing ability showed greater increases with intensive physical therapy. PMID:27390440

  16. Physical exercise speeds up motor timing

    PubMed Central

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Wittmann, Marc; Mierau, Andreas; Polikanova, Irina; Strüder, Heiko K.; Tonevitsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine effect of physical exercise on motor timing: personal, maximum and “once per second” tapping. The acute effect was examined by comparing the baseline tapping with that after acute exercise in 9 amateur athletes, 8 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 elite biathletes. Then the baseline tapping was compared among athletes of different sports and professional levels (15 elite biathletes, 27 elite cross-country skiers, 15 elite synchronous swimmers and 9 amateur wrestlers) with a control group (44 non-athletes) not involved in regular exercise to examine the sport-specific or long-term effects. Maximum and “once per second” tapping speed increased after acute physical exercise and were also faster in elite athletes compared to controls during the baseline condition. However, personal tapping tempo was not affected by exercise. In addition, physical exercise had no effects on the variability of the intertap interval. The accuracy of “once per second” tapping differentiates controls and amateur wrestlers from elite synchronous swimmers and skiers suggesting sport-specific adaptations to play a role. It is concluded that acute physical exercise selectively speeds up motor timing but does not affect its variability and accuracy, and this speeding-up is suggested to transfer into a long-term effect in elite athletes. PMID:24062707

  17. Review of Motor Development, Perceptual-Motor and Physical Fitness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundschuh, Ernest; And Others

    Tests of motor development, perceptual-motor coordination, and physical fitness, for the retarded and non-retarded, are reviewed regarding their usage and administration. The tests reviewed are the: Denver Developmental Screening Test, Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Dayton Sensory Motor Awareness Survey, Minnetonka Physical Performance…

  18. Condition and Co-Ordination Abilities in Motor Performance of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzbarska, Ingrid; Piatkowska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess motor performance of pre-school children and the hierarchy of motor and physical variables. Material and methods: A group of 64 boys and 60 girls aged 5-6 years were subjected to 7 motor tests measuring the condition and co-ordination features. The results were subjected to cluster analysis in order to establish the hierarchy…

  19. Motor Planning Abilities in Deaf and Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The motor planning skills in freehand drawing and in limb, hand, and body positions of deaf (N=45) and hearing (N=45) children were compared. Although younger deaf children were superior to hearing children in drawing and hand positioning, no significant differences were found between the groups in later childhood. (Author/CB)

  20. Central inhibition regulates motor output during physical fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Shigihara, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-09-15

    Central fatigue refers to a progressive decline in the ability to activate muscles voluntarily. Although the existence of central inhibition of the motor area via visual feedback during physical fatigue was noted in a behavioral study, neural evidence has not been presented. The central mechanism to regulate physical fatigue was examined using a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) system. The study group consisted of eight healthy participants. They were randomly assigned to two groups in a crossover fashion to perform fatigue-inducing physical task sessions, in which they performed repetitive grips of a dominant hand at maximal voluntary contraction levels every second without using Ramachandran's mirror box to see the dominant hand or with using the mirror box to see the mirror reflection of the non-dominant hand to perceive that the fatigued dominant hand was not fatigued. Before and after each session, imagery of maximum grips of the dominant hand was performed for the evaluation with MEG. Beta-band event-related desynchronization (ERD) level of motor readiness magnetic field in the sensorimotor area in the contralateral hemisphere to the handgrips was not altered after the fatigue-inducing session without or with the mirror box. In contrast, the ERD level of motor movement-evoked magnetic field in the contralateral sensorimotor area was reduced after the fatigue-inducing session without the mirror box, although it was not altered after the session with the mirror box. We identified neural evidence of the central inhibition and showed that the visual feedback system is involved in the central mechanism regulating motor output. PMID:21803341

  1. The Relationship between 200 m Performance and Selected Anthropometric Variables and Motor Abilities in Male Sprinters.

    PubMed

    Maćkala, Krzysztof; Michalski, Ryszard; Čoh, Milan; Rausavljević, Nikola

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was the investigation of the relationship between 200 m performance and motor abilities and anthropometric characteristics of different level of male sprinters (200 m performance 23.80 ± 2.16 s--the best results 21.40 s). The physical fitness measures included: 50 m from standing and flying start, standing long jump (SLJ) standing five jump (SFJ), double and single leg countermovement jumps CMJ), flexibility (sit and reach) and 4 kg shot put throwing (over head). The Spearman correlation coefficient was applied to verify the association. The results demonstrated strong relationships (p < 0.05) between 200 m performance and experience (age) and body mass (r = 0.85, r = -0.80 respectively) As for the motor abilities strong relationship exists between 200 m and time of 150 m, 50 m from standing and flying start and CMJ on single leg. Vertical jumping displayed stronger relationship with 200 m performance that horizontal one. From a practical point of view this is very important notice. PMID:26434013

  2. Motor Abilities of Children Diagnosed with Fragile X Syndrome with and without Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingerevich, C.; Greiss-Hess, L.; Lemons-Chitwood, K.; Harris, S. W.; Hessl, D.; Cook, K.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggested that children diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often meet criteria for autism or PDD. This study describes the fine motor abilities of children diagnosed with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder, and compares the motor scores of those groups controlling for cognitive level. Method:…

  3. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  4. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  5. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  6. Making a Difference? Education and "Ability" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper brings a speculative, sociological perspective to the nature of "ability" in physical education (PE) and asks why this aspect of embodiment, with notable exceptions, has received so little critical attention in the professional discourse of PE and associated research in recent years. It is suggested that thinking about "ability" has…

  7. Does sleep promote motor learning? Implications for physical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Siengsukon, Catherine F; Boyd, Lara A

    2009-04-01

    Sleep following motor skill practice has repeatedly been demonstrated to enhance motor skill learning off-line (continued overnight improvements in motor skill that are not associated with additional physical practice) for young people who are healthy. Mounting evidence suggests that older people who are healthy fail to demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor learning. However, little is known regarding the influence of sleep on motor skill enhancement following damage to the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that individuals with brain damage, particularly following stroke, do benefit from sleep to promote off-line motor skill learning. Because rehabilitation following stroke requires learning new, and re-learning old, motor skills, awareness that individuals with stroke benefit from a period of sleep following motor skill practice to enhance skill learning could affect physical therapist practice. The objective of this article is to present the evidence demonstrating sleep-dependent off-line motor learning in young people who are healthy and the variables that may influence this beneficial sleep-dependent skill enhancement. In young people who are healthy, these variables include the stages of memory formation, the type of memory, the type of instruction provided (implicit versus explicit learning), and the task utilized. The neural mechanisms thought to be associated with sleep-dependent off-line motor learning also are considered. Research examining whether older adults who are healthy show the same benefits of sleep as do younger adults is discussed. The data suggest that older adults who are healthy do not benefit from sleep to promote off-line skill enhancement. A possible explanation for the apparent lack of sleep-dependent off-line motor learning by older adults who are healthy is presented. Last, emerging evidence showing that individuals with chronic stroke demonstrate sleep-dependent off-line motor skill learning and some of the possible mechanisms

  8. Autism Severity and Motor Abilities Correlates of Imitation Situations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ilanit, Tzaig; Itzchak, Esther Ben

    2010-01-01

    Impaired performance in a range of imitation tasks has been described in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and several underlying mechanism have been suggested. This study examined whether imitation abilities are related to autism severity and to motor skills. Furthermore, the performance of children with ASD in four imitation…

  9. Motor ability and inhibitory processes in children with ADHD: a neuroelectric study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Shih, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children. PMID:23798594

  10. Patterned-String Tasks: Relation between Fine Motor Skills and Visual-Spatial Abilities in Parrots

    PubMed Central

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    String-pulling and patterned-string tasks are often used to analyse perceptual and cognitive abilities in animals. In addition, the paradigm can be used to test the interrelation between visual-spatial and motor performance. Two Australian parrot species, the galah (Eolophus roseicapilla) and the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), forage on the ground, but only the galah uses its feet to manipulate food. I used a set of string pulling and patterned-string tasks to test whether usage of the feet during foraging is a prerequisite for solving the vertical string pulling problem. Indeed, the two species used techniques that clearly differed in the extent of beak-foot coordination but did not differ in terms of their success in solving the string pulling task. However, when the visual-spatial skills of the subjects were tested, the galahs outperformed the cockatiels. This supports the hypothesis that the fine motor skills needed for advanced beak-foot coordination may be interrelated with certain visual-spatial abilities needed for solving patterned-string tasks. This pattern was also found within each of the two species on the individual level: higher motor abilities positively correlated with performance in patterned-string tasks. This is the first evidence of an interrelation between visual-spatial and motor abilities in non-mammalian animals. PMID:24376885

  11. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  12. Gender Differences in Musical Aptitude, Rhythmic Ability and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Karadimou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vasilios

    2005-01-01

    Most of the preschool curricula involve integrated movement activities that combine music, rhythm and locomotor skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether there are any differences between boys and girls at the age of five concerning their musical aptitude, rhythmic ability and performance in gross motor skills. Ninety-five…

  13. Lead exposure and visual-motor abilities in children from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Roy, Ananya; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Gopalakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure poses a major environmental hazard in India, but little information is available on the impact of lead exposure on visuo-motor development in Indian children. We hypothesize that higher blood lead levels are associated with poorer visual-motor, visual-spatial and fine motor functioning among children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 814 school children, aged 3-7 years. Lead in whole blood was measured using the LeadCare Analyzer. The Wide Range of Visual Motor Abilities Test (WRAVMA) was administered to each child by trained examiners. The mean blood lead level was 11.4±5.3 μg/dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother's education level, father's education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 μg/dL was associated with a decrease of 2.6 points (95% CI: -4.5 to -0.7, P=0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: -5.1 to -0.7, P=0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-linearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration. PMID:21510976

  14. Physical context management for a motor vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Forsythe, James C.; Lippitt, Carl E.; Lippitt, legal representative, Lois Diane

    2009-10-27

    Computer software for and a method of enhancing safety for an operator of a motor vehicle comprising employing a plurality of sensors of vehicle and operator conditions, matching collective output from the sensors against a plurality of known dangerous conditions, and preventing certain activity of the operator if a known dangerous condition is detected.

  15. Damage to Fronto-Parietal Networks Impairs Motor Imagery Ability after Stroke: A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Kristine M.; Van Bladel, Anke; Vanhoonacker, Ann C. L.; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental practice with motor imagery has been shown to promote motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects and patients. Although lesions of the common motor imagery and motor execution neural network are expected to impair motor imagery ability, functional equivalence appears to be at least partially preserved in stroke patients. Aim: To identify brain regions that are mandatory for preserved motor imagery ability after stroke. Method: Thirty-seven patients with hemiplegia after a first time stroke participated. Motor imagery ability was measured using a Motor Imagery questionnaire and temporal congruence test. A voxelwise lesion symptom mapping approach was used to identify neural correlates of motor imagery in this cohort within the first year post-stroke. Results: Poor motor imagery vividness was associated with lesions in the left putamen, left ventral premotor cortex and long association fibers linking parieto-occipital regions with the dorsolateral premotor and prefrontal areas. Poor temporal congruence was otherwise linked to lesions in the more rostrally located white matter of the superior corona radiata. Conclusion: This voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study confirms the association between white matter tract lesions and impaired motor imagery ability, thus emphasizing the importance of an intact fronto-parietal network for motor imagery. Our results further highlight the crucial role of the basal ganglia and premotor cortex when performing motor imagery tasks. PMID:26869894

  16. Effect of the Level of Coordinated Motor Abilities on Performance in Junior Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Jaworski, Janusz; Lyakh, Vladimir; Krawczyk, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects’ competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions. The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time. PMID:23486723

  17. Effect of the level of coordinated motor abilities on performance in junior judokas.

    PubMed

    Lech, Grzegorz; Jaworski, Janusz; Lyakh, Vladimir; Krawczyk, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify coordinated motor abilities that affect fighting methods and performance in junior judokas. Subjects were selected for the study in consideration of their age, competition experience, body mass and prior sports level. Subjects' competition history was taken into consideration when analysing the effectiveness of current fight actions, and individual sports level was determined with consideration to rank in the analysed competitions. The study sought to determine the level of coordinated motor abilities of competitors. The scope of this analysis covered the following aspects: kinaesthetic differentiation, movement frequency, simple and selective reaction time (evoked by a visual or auditory stimulus), spatial orientation, visual-motor coordination, rhythmization, speed, accuracy and precision of movements and the ability to adapt movements and balance. A set of computer tests was employed for the analysis of all of the coordination abilities, while balance examinations were based on the Flamingo Balance Test. Finally, all relationships were determined based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. It was observed that the activity of the contestants during the fight correlated with the ability to differentiate movements and speed, accuracy and precision of movement, whereas the achievement level during competition was connected with reaction time. PMID:23486723

  18. "Please Mr. Hay, What Are My Poss(Abilities)?": Legitimation of Ability through Physical Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Peter J.; Lisahunter

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides two vignettes that draw on data from projects that interrogate how a student can be positioned by practices within physical education (PE) and directed by the PE teacher in relation to their valued or legitimated ability. Through the use of Pierre Bourdieu's conceptual tools of field, habitus and capital we investigate the…

  19. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals. PMID:25747573

  20. What is Recognised as Ability in Physical Education? A Systematic Appraisal of How Ability and Ability Differences Are Socially Constructed within Mainstream Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Littlefair, David; Barlow-Meade, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In sport, schools and physical education (PE) ability has invariably been understood as an inherent and relatively immutable capacity, amendable to varying degrees by interventions such as training regimes and education. Differences in achievement are assumed to be an inevitable consequence of natural variations in ability and an indication of…

  1. A Multivariate Model of Determinants of Change in Gross-Motor Abilities and Engagement in Self-Care and Play of Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa A.; Palisano, Robert J.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate model of determinants of change in gross-motor ability and engagement in self-care and play provides physical and occupational therapists a framework for decisions on interventions and supports for young children with cerebral palsy and their families. Aspects of the child, family ecology, and rehabilitation and community services…

  2. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities. PMID:25060548

  3. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through two years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first two years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. PMID:24615961

  4. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  5. The role of rotational hand movements and general motor ability in children’s mental rotation performance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Petra; Kellner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mental rotation of visual images of body parts and abstract shapes can be influenced by simultaneous motor activity. Children in particular have a strong coupling between motor and cognitive processes. We investigated the influence of a rotational hand movement performed by rotating a knob on mental rotation performance in primary school-age children (N = 83; age range: 7.0–8.3 and 9.0–10.11 years). In addition, we assessed the role of motor ability in this relationship. Boys in the 7- to 8-year-old group were faster when mentally and manually rotating in the same direction than in the opposite direction. For girls and older children this effect was not found. A positive relationship was found between motor ability and accuracy on the mental rotation task: stronger motor ability related to improved mental rotation performance. In both age groups, children with more advanced motor abilities were more likely to adopt motor processes to solve mental rotation tasks if the mental rotation task was primed by a motor task. Our evidence supports the idea that an overlap between motor and visual cognitive processes in children is influenced by motor ability. PMID:26236262

  6. Motor imagery ability in children with congenital hemiplegia: effect of lesion side and functional level.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right hemiplegia (R-HEMI; N=21), left hemiplegia (L-HEMI; N=19) and comparisons (N=21). All groups conformed to biomechanical limitations of the task, supporting the use of motor imagery, and all showed the expected response-time trade-off for angle. The general slowing of responses in the HEMI groups did not reach significance compared to their peers. The L-HEMI group were less accurate than the comparison group while the R-HEMI group were more variable in their performance. These results appeared to be linked to functional level. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite, children were classified as low or normal functioning - of the seven classified as low function, six were in the L-HEMI group. Accuracy was lower in the low function subgroup, but this failed to reach significance with an adjusted critical value. However, there was a strong correlation between function level and mean accuracy. This indicates that motor imagery performance may be more closely linked to function level than to the neural hemisphere that has been damaged in cases of congenital hemiplegia. Function level may be linked to the site or extent of neural damage or the level of cortical reorganisation experienced and more attention should be paid to neural factors in future research. PMID:21131176

  7. Deficits in motor abilities for multi-finger force control in hemiparetic stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Woo-Sub; Koh, Kyung; Yoon, BumChul; Damiano, Diane L; Shim, Jae Kun

    2016-08-01

    The ability to control redundant motor effectors is one of hallmarks in human motor control, and the topic has been studied extensively over several decades since the initial inquiries proposed by Nicholi Bernstein. However, our understanding of the influence of stroke on the control of redundant motor systems is very limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stroke-related constraints on multi-finger force control abilities in a visuomotor task. Impaired (IH) and less-impaired hands (LH) of 19 hemiparetic stroke survivors and 19 age-matched control subjects were examined. Each hand repeatedly produced isometric forces to match a target force of 5 N shown on a computer screen using all four fingers. The hierarchical variability decomposition (HVD) model was used to separate force-matching errors (motor performance) into task-relevant measures (accuracy, steadiness, and reproducibility). Task-irrelevant sources of variability in individual finger force profiles within and between trials (flexibility and multiformity) were also quantified. The IH in the stroke survivors showed deficits in motor performance attributed mainly to lower accuracy and reproducibility as compared to control hands (p < 0.05). The LH in stroke survivors showed lower reproducibility and both hands in stroke also had higher multiformity than the control hands (p < 0.05). The findings from our HVD model suggest that accuracy, reproducibility, and multiformity were mainly impaired during force-matching task in the stroke survivors. The specific motor deficits identified through the HVD model with the new conceptual framework may be considered as critical factors for scientific investigation on stroke and evidence-based rehabilitation of this population. PMID:27071926

  8. Sleep and Motor Learning: Implications for Physical Rehabilitation After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gudberg, Christel; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganization in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care. PMID:26635718

  9. Assessing motor imagery ability in younger and older adults by combining measures of vividness, controllability and timing of motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Saimpont, Arnaud; Malouin, Francine; Tousignant, Béatrice; Jackson, Philip L

    2015-02-01

    With the population aging, a large number of patients undergoing rehabilitation are older than 60 years. Also, since the use of motor imagery (MI) training in rehabilitation is becoming more popular, it is important to gain a better knowledge about the age-related changes in MI ability. The main goal of this study was to compare MI ability in younger and older adults as well as to propose a new procedure for testing this ability. Thirty healthy young subjects (mean age: 22.9±2.7 years) and 28 healthy elderly subjects (mean age: 72.4±5.5 years) participated in the experiment. They were administered three tests aimed at assessing three dimensions of MI: (1) the kinesthetic and visual imagery questionnaire (KVIQ) to assess MI vividness; (2) a finger-thumb opposition task to assess MI controllability; and (3) a chronometric task to assess the timing of MI. On average, the younger and older groups showed similar results on the KVIQ and the chronometric task, but the younger group was more accurate at the finger-thumb opposition task. Interestingly, there was a large variability in the performance within both groups, emphasizing the importance of considering each person individually regarding MI ability, whatever his age. Finally, we propose two indexes of MI ability to identify the potential of persons to engage in MI training programs. Future studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these MI indexes and define inclusion/exclusion thresholds for their use as a screening tool in both younger and older adults. PMID:25481412

  10. Comorbidity of Physical and Motor Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Michael L.; Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Autism and the related pervasive developmental disorders are a heavily researched group of neurodevelopmental conditions. In addition to core symptoms, there are a number of other physical and motor conditions that co-occur at high rates. This paper provides a review of factors and behaviors that correlate highly with disorders on the autism…

  11. The influence of task paradigm on motor imagery ability in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G D; Wilson, P H; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2015-12-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have difficulty imagining movements such that they conform to the customary temporal constraints of real performance. We examined whether this ability is influenced by the choice of task used to elicit motor imagery (MI). Performance of typically developing (TD) (n=30) and children with DCD (n=30) was compared on two tasks: the Visually Guided Pointing Task (VGPT) and the Computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (C-VRFT). Since the VGPT places higher demands on executive functions like working memory but requires less spatial planning, we reasoned that the C-VRFT would provide a purer measure of motor imagery (or simulation). Based on our earlier work, we predicted that imagery deficits in DCD would more likely manifest on the C-VRFT. Results showed high correlations between tasks in terms of executed and imagined movement time suggest that both tasks measure MI ability. However, group differences were more pronounced in the imagined condition of the radial Fitts' task. Taken together, the more spatially complex C-VRFT appears to be a more sensitive measure of motor imagery, better discriminating between DCD and TD. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26319360

  12. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

  13. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  14. Footedness Is Associated with Self-reported Sporting Performance and Motor Abilities in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300) associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062), Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592) showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies. PMID:27559326

  15. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  16. Prediction of performance on the RCMP physical ability requirement evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, H I; Wood, T M; Campagna, P

    1999-08-01

    The Royal Canadian Mounted Police use the Physical Ability Requirement Evaluation (PARE) for screening applicants. The purposes of this investigation were to identify those field tests of physical fitness that were associated with PARE performance and determine which most accurately classified successful and unsuccessful PARE performers. The participants were 27 female and 21 male volunteers. Testing included measures of aerobic power, anaerobic power, agility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition. Multiple regression analysis revealed a three-variable model for males (70-lb bench press, standing long jump, and agility) explaining 79% of the variability in PARE time, whereas a one-variable model (agility) explained 43% of the variability for females. Analysis of the classification accuracy of the males' data was prohibited because 91% of the males passed the PARE. Classification accuracy of the females' data, using logistic regression, produced a two-variable model (agility, 1.5-mile endurance run) with 93% overall classification accuracy. PMID:10457510

  17. Levels on the Playing Field: The Social Construction of Physical "Ability" in the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Penney, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper develops an analysis of how "educability" and "physical ability" are socially configured through the practices of physical education (PE) in schools. We pursue this interest as part of a broader project, shared by many in the wider community of social science researchers in PE, to better understand how "knowledge of the…

  18. Bimanual simultaneous motor performance and impaired ability to shift attention in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Horstink, M W; Berger, H J; van Spaendonck, K P; van den Bercken, J H; Cools, A R

    1990-01-01

    The ability to share time and to shift attention between bimanual simultaneous motor tasks were studied in 18 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 19 age- and intelligence-matched controls. The task consisted of drawing triangles with the dominant hand and squeezing a rubber bulb with the nondominant hand. Motor performance was measured using the variables: amplitude of squeezing, frequency of squeezing and velocity of drawing triangles. After eliminating variance due to baseline differences in single-handed performance, the bimanual simultaneous performance of PD and controls turned out to be similar to the frequency of squeezing and the velocity of drawing triangles. The amplitude of squeezing, however, differed between the two groups: it was significantly reduced in PD. Arguably the disturbance in the bimanual performance of PD patients was not due to a disorder of time sharing, but to a decreased ability to shift attention from the visually cued task to the non visually cued task. The results agree with current evidence that PD patients are more impaired when they have to rely upon internal control for the regulation of shifting attention than when external cues are available. Images PMID:2213046

  19. Effect of kinesio tape application on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor ability: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Vered, Elisha; Sender, Iris; Galinka, Tal; Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Ratmansky, Motti; Treger, Iuly

    2016-09-01

    The aim of our single-group pre-post design pilot study was to evaluate the short-term effect of kinesio taping (KT) application on pain and motor ability of hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) patients. Eleven poststroke patients with HSP hospitalized in the Department of Neurology C, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Raanana, Israel, received a KT application in addition to their usual rehabilitation protocol. KT, consisting of one to three strips according to a predefined algorithm, was applied to the painful shoulder region. A 10 cm Visual Analog Scale of shoulder pain at rest and at arm movement, active and passive pain-free abduction range of motion, Box & Blocks, and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity motor assessment were performed before treatment and 24 h after wearing the KT. After applying the KT, there was no significant change in any variables. Short-term KT application, used in our study, produced no change in shoulder pain, range of motion, or ability of upper limb in HSP patients. Additional studies should evaluate the effect of long-term application and different types of KT applications on HSP. PMID:27075946

  20. Relationships between visual-motor and cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Di Blasi, Francesco D; Elia, Flaviana; Buono, Serafino; Ramakers, Ger J A; Di Nuovo, Santo F

    2007-06-01

    The neurobiological hypothesis supports the relevance of studying visual-perceptual and visual-motor skills in relation to cognitive abilities in intellectual disabilities because the defective intellectual functioning in intellectual disabilities is not restricted to higher cognitive functions but also to more basic functions. The sample was 102 children 6 to 16 years old and with different severities of intellectual disabilities. Children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception, and data were also analysed according to the presence or absence of organic anomalies, which are etiologically relevant for mental disabilities. Children with intellectual disabilities had deficits in perceptual organisation which correlated with the severity of intellectual disabilities. Higher correlations between the spatial subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children suggested that the spatial skills and cognitive performance may have a similar basis in information processing. Need to differentiate protocols for rehabilitation and intervention for recovery of perceptual abilities from general programs of cognitive stimulations is suggested. PMID:17688131

  1. Impact of motor abilities on belly dance performance in female high school students.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Ljerka; Mihaljević, Dodi; Jukić, Josefina

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relation of motor abilities and belly dance performance in female high school students, 1st to 4th graders aged 15-18 years. A battery of 19 motor tests were used and nine belly dance elements evaluated in the study sample that included 148 students aged 15-16 (1st and 2nd graders) and 123 students aged 17-18 (3rd and 4th graders). Factor analysis of the motor space isolated six factors in either study group: in 1st and 2nd graders, the first factor integrated coordination, trunk strength, aerobic and muscle endurance, and speed of lower extremity movements; second factor defined explosive strength; third factor defined flexibility; fourth factor defined rhythm coordination; fifth factor defined equilibrium; and sixth factor defined back musculature strength; in 3rd and 4th graders, the first factor integrated coordination and lower extremity explosive strength; second factor defined flexibility; third factor integrated trunk strength and aerobic-muscular endurance; fourth factor defined equilibrium; fifth factor defined rhythm coordination; and sixth factor defined lower extremity strength. Factor analysis of the scores allocated to particular belly dance elements isolated only one factor as a factor of the general specific ability for belly dance performance. Regression analysis in the latent space indicated the factor of flexibility, which is responsible for muscle tone regulation, to be the best predictor of belly dance performance in 1st and 2nd graders. In 3rd and 4th graders, the factor of rhythm coordination was found to be superior in predicting belly dance performance, followed by the factor of trunk strength and aerobic-muscular endurance, the factor integrating coordination and lower extremity strength, and factor of equilibrium. PMID:18982759

  2. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or

  3. Olivocerebellar modulation of motor cortex ability to generate vibrissal movements in rat

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Eric J; Sugihara, Izumi; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    The vibrissal movements known as whisking are generated in a pulsatile, or non-continuous, fashion and comprise sequences of brief regularly spaced movements. These rhythmic timing sequences imply the existence of periodically issued motor commands. As inferior olivary (IO) neurones generate periodic synchronous discharges that could provide the underlying timing signal, this possibility was tested by determining whether the olivocerebellar system modulates motor cortex (MCtx)-triggered whisker movements in rats. Trains of current pulses were applied to MCtx, and the resulting whisker movements were recorded using a high speed video camera. The evoked movement patterns demonstrated properties consistent with the existence of an oscillatory motor driving rhythm. In particular, movement amplitude showed a bell-shaped dependence on stimulus frequency, with a peak at 11.5 ± 2.3 Hz. Moreover, movement trajectories showed harmonic and subharmonic entrainment patterns within specific stimulus frequency ranges. By contrast, movements evoked by facial nerve stimulation showed no such frequency-dependent properties. To test whether the IO was the oscillator in question, IO neuronal properties were modified in vivo by intra-IO picrotoxin injection, which enhances synchronous oscillatory IO activity and reduces its natural frequency. The ensuing changes in the evoked whisker patterns were consistent with these pharmacological effects. Furthermore, in cerebellectomized rats, oscillatory modulation of MCtx-evoked movements was greatly reduced, and intra-IO picrotoxin injections did not affect the evoked movement patterns. Additionally, multielectrode recording of Purkinje cell complex spikes showed a temporal correlation of olivocerebellar activity during MCtx stimulus trains to evoked movement patterns. In sum, the results indicate that MCtx's ability to generate movements is modulated by an oscillatory signal arising in the olivocerebellar system. PMID:16357010

  4. Olivocerebellar modulation of motor cortex ability to generate vibrissal movements in rat.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J; Sugihara, Izumi; Llinás, Rodolfo

    2006-02-15

    The vibrissal movements known as whisking are generated in a pulsatile, or non-continuous, fashion and comprise sequences of brief regularly spaced movements. These rhythmic timing sequences imply the existence of periodically issued motor commands. As inferior olivary (IO) neurones generate periodic synchronous discharges that could provide the underlying timing signal, this possibility was tested by determining whether the olivocerebellar system modulates motor cortex (MCtx)-triggered whisker movements in rats. Trains of current pulses were applied to MCtx, and the resulting whisker movements were recorded using a high speed video camera. The evoked movement patterns demonstrated properties consistent with the existence of an oscillatory motor driving rhythm. In particular, movement amplitude showed a bell-shaped dependence on stimulus frequency, with a peak at 11.5+/-2.3 Hz. Moreover, movement trajectories showed harmonic and subharmonic entrainment patterns within specific stimulus frequency ranges. By contrast, movements evoked by facial nerve stimulation showed no such frequency-dependent properties. To test whether the IO was the oscillator in question, IO neuronal properties were modified in vivo by intra-IO picrotoxin injection, which enhances synchronous oscillatory IO activity and reduces its natural frequency. The ensuing changes in the evoked whisker patterns were consistent with these pharmacological effects. Furthermore, in cerebellectomized rats, oscillatory modulation of MCtx-evoked movements was greatly reduced, and intra-IO picrotoxin injections did not affect the evoked movement patterns. Additionally, multielectrode recording of Purkinje cell complex spikes showed a temporal correlation of olivocerebellar activity during MCtx stimulus trains to evoked movement patterns. In sum, the results indicate that MCtx's ability to generate movements is modulated by an oscillatory signal arising in the olivocerebellar system. PMID:16357010

  5. Sensory Motor Inhibition as a Prerequisite for Theory-of-Mind: A Comparison of Clinical and Normal Preschoolers Differing in Sensory Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasiotis, Athanasios; Kiessling, Florian; Winter, Vera; Hofer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    After distinguishing between neocortical abilities for executive control and subcortical sensory motor skills for proprioceptive and vestibular integration, we compare a sample of 116 normal preschoolers with a sample of 31 preschoolers receiving occupational therapeutical treatment. This is done in an experimental design controlled for age (mean:…

  6. Towards Cognitive Coherence In Physics Learning: Image-ability Of Undergraduate Solid State Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2010-07-01

    Based on the famous work of K. Lynch [7] on image-ability of a cityscape, recently a city of physics analogy has been proposed by A.E. Tabor et al.[8] to enhance the cognitive coherence of physics as a subject. The idea of both Lynch and A. abor. et al. is being extended in this paper to image-ability of an undergraduate Solid State Physics course to bring forth cognitive coherence of the subject in a global manner. In this paper an image-ability map of the course is presented both in a pictorial and tabular format with recognition of sections of the syllabus as districts and sub districts. Further in each district and sub district, key concepts as land marks, variables involved as nodes, key physical equations as paths and limits on variables as edges or boundaries are identified through peer discussion among a group of teachers who are teaching this course for the last couple of years. This exercise has helped not only in mental mapping of the subject but focusing on hitherto isolated and advanced topics provided in the syllabus as leading to a very different mental recreational spots in the cityscape of undergraduate Solid State Physics.

  7. Developing Motor and Tactical Skills in K-2 Physical Education: Let the Games Begin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslin, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Most motor development experts, teacher educators, and physical educators agree that the development of fundamental motor skills ought to be the focus of primary level (K-2nd grade) physical education. Given the limited number of days allocated for physical education in most elementary schools, ensuring that all students learn 200 or more…

  8. Effects of Plymetrics Training and Weight Training on selected Motor Ability Components among University Male Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam

    2012-11-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.

  9. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  10. Relationships between Task-Oriented Postural Control and Motor Ability in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Long, I-Man; Liu, Mei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been characterized by greater postural sway in quiet stance and insufficient motor ability. However, there is a lack of studies to explore the properties of dynamic postural sway, especially under conditions of task-oriented movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between…

  11. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  12. The resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 boosts motor coordination and physical strength.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hea-Jong; Sharma, Satya Priya; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Baek, So-Hyeon; Hong, Seong-Tshool

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of current genetic modifications in crops is to boost agricultural production or to develop GM crops with an improved nutrient profile by introducing a new trait to the plants. A GM crop surpassing the ability of the introduced genetic characteristics has not been developed yet. Here, we show that the resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526, a GM crop, has unexpectedly high beneficial health effects surpassing the introduced genetic characteristic of resveratrol synthetic ability. The synergistic effect of its innate and transgenic properties not only ameliorates age-related deterioration but also boosts motor coordination and physical strength during the aging process. The gene expression profiling analyses by DNA chip showed that the gene expression pattern of mice fed resveratrol-enriched rice DJ526 was very different from mice fed either resveratrol or Dongjin rice alone, respectively, modifying expression of genes related to aging regulation, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix, neurogenesis, or secretion. PMID:27044601

  13. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  14. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation. PMID:24452767

  15. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. PMID:24681309

  16. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  17. How Fine Motor Skills Influence the Assessment of High Abilities and Underachievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    Previously, fine motor skills have been of little or no interest to giftedness research. New lines of thought have been advanced that imply that fine motor skills can be of significance in the identification of gifted persons as well as gifted underachievers. This would also have consequences for the diagnostic process underlying identification.…

  18. Integrating Motor-Learning Concepts into Physical Education: Using Guided Discovery to Address NASPE Standard 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Jeansonne, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    K-12 students enter physical education with many naive conceptions or misconceptions of how motor skills are acquired. One goal of physical education is to teach concepts that will help students learn and perform motor skills, but many practitioners don't know how to provide experiences that will teach students to apply their knowledge…

  19. A Comparison of the Motor Ability of 8 and 9 Year Old Primary School Children in Hamburg, Melbourne and Cape Town--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Jurgen; Saunders, John; Bressan, Liz; Erhorn, Jan; Wirszing, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An increasing worldwide concern about a decline in the quality of the motor ability of children was the motivation for this exploratory comparative study. It involves a comparison of the motor ability of children aged 8 and 9 years from Hamburg (n = 774), Melbourne (n = 141) and Cape Town (n = 81). Since each of these global cities represents a…

  20. Physical activity, motor function, and white matter hyperintensity burden in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyun; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Leurgans, Sue E.; Turner, Arlener D.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.; Buchman, Aron S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Methods: Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Results: Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = −0.304, slope = −0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = −1.793, slope = −0.241) activity. Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. PMID:25762710

  1. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-07-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  2. Assessment of the Relationship between Physical Working Conditions and Different Levels of Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p<0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  3. Chronic α-Tocopherol Increases Central Monoamines Synthesis and Improves Cognitive and Motor Abilities in Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases. PMID:26414867

  4. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  5. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  6. Systematic review of the relationship between habitual physical activity and motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Keawutan, Piyapa; Bell, Kristie; Davies, Peter S W; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-06-01

    Habitual physical activity (HPA) has many benefits for general health. Motor capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) can impact on their HPA. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the relationship between HPA and motor capacity in children with CP aged 3-12 years for all gross motor functional abilities (GMFCS I-V) compared to typically developing children. Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science from 1989 to November, 2013) were searched using keywords "children with cerebral palsy", "physical activity", "motor capacity" and "motor function" including their synonyms and MesH terms. Studies were included if they (i) were conducted in children with CP aged between 3 and 12 years, (ii) assessed HPA or time spent sedentary, (iii) assessed motor capacity in order to evaluate the relationship between HPA and motor capacity. All articles retrieved were reviewed by two independent reviewers and discussed until they reached consensus. Study quality of reporting was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Search results identified 864 articles but after review of the title and abstract only 21 articles warranted closer consideration. Ten articles met the strict inclusion criteria as nine articles did not assess HPA and two were conference abstracts. Study quality assessment (STROBE) found nine articles were good quality (≥ 60%) and one was poor quality (55.9%). Participants were mean age 8.4 (SD=2.1) years (range 2-17 years) and included children at all GMFCS levels (3 studies), while seven studies only recruited GMFCS level I-III. HPA measurements were either subjective (Activity Scale for Kids, Dutch Questionnaire of Participation in physical activity and assessment of participation in physical education at school and regular physical activity in leisure time) or objective (StepWatch(®) and ActiGraph(®)7164). Nine studies

  7. Motor Development and Skill Analysis. Connections to Elementary Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Dan; Morrison, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Drawing upon stages of motor development and elements of biomechanics, the authors used anatomical planes as a frame of reference to determine movement patterns and assess readiness to perform movement skills. The combination of determining readiness and analyzing skill enables the teacher to plan proper motor skill activities. (MT)

  8. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  9. Assessment of Perceptual-Motor Abilities of Healthy Rural Elderly Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowatt, Marilyn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Steadiness, reaction time, anticipation timing, and finger dexterity of healthy rural older adults were assessed to discover if norms should be set for perceptual motor tasks based on age. Guidelines for assessment of fine manipulative performances of the elderly are proposed. (DF)

  10. Stability of Caregiver-Reported Manual Ability and Gross Motor Function Classifications of Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Carlin, John; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To examine the stability of caregiver-reported classifications of function of children with cerebral palsy (CP) measured 12 months apart. Method: Participants were 86 children (50 males, 36 females) with CP of all motor types and severities who were recruited into a population-based longitudinal study. Children were aged 11 years 8 months (SD…

  11. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  12. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  13. The Association between Motor Skill Competence and Physical Fitness in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David; Langendorfer, Stephen; Roberton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between competence in three fundamental motor skills (throwing, kicking, and jumping) and six measures of health-related physical fitness in young adults (ages 18-25). We assessed motor skill competence using product scores of maximum kicking and throwing speed and maximum jumping distance. A factor analysis indicated…

  14. The relationship between visuospatial ability and perceptual motor function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Richards, M; Cote, L J; Stern, Y

    1993-04-01

    To assess the contribution of visuoperceptual function to complex visuomotor responding in Parkinson's disease, 14 patients with idiopathic PD and 12 normal controls matched for age, education and general intellectual function were administered a visual tracing task. No difference was found between the groups on two visuoperceptual tests, the Benton Line Orientation test and a test of trajectory judgement. However, patients were significantly impaired in tracing a sawtooth design when two consecutive angles of the sawtooth were occluded. This impairment occurred in reproducing the basic form of the stimulus and not with accuracy of fine detail. These results suggest higher-order perceptual motor dysfunction independent of any breakdown in basic visuoperceptual processing or loss of fine motor control. It is concluded that Parkinsonian patients are unable to use sensory information accurately to plan and execute complex or new movements. PMID:8482961

  15. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  16. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS) and manual ability (MACS) in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Katharina Delhusen; Arner, Marianne; Hägglund, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP) for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%). There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p < 0.001). The reverse association was generally found in children with spastic diplegia (p < 0.001). Children with dyskinetic CP had large limitations in both gross motor function and manual ability, with no significant discrepancy between GMFCS and MACS levels. Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice. PMID:17584944

  17. Exercise can improve physical self perceptions in adolescents with low motor competence.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Fleur; Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Hands, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 10) ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13 week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination. PMID:25543182

  18. Physical Properties Determining Self-Organization of Motors and Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, Thomas; Nédélec, François; Leibler, Stanislas; Karsenti, Eric

    2001-05-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules and their associated motor proteins can be organized into various large-scale patterns. Using a simplified experimental system combined with computer simulations, we examined how the concentrations and kinetic parameters of the motors contribute to their collective behavior. We observed self-organization of generic steady-state structures such as asters, vortices, and a network of interconnected poles. We identified parameter combinations that determine the generation of each of these structures. In general, this approach may become useful for correlating the morphogenetic phenomena taking place in a biological system with the biophysical characteristics of its constituents.

  19. Setting and Within-Class Ability Grouping: A Survey of Practices in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun; Penney, Dawn; Allin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom and internationally, the practice of separating pupils by ability endures as a characteristic feature of mathematics and science classrooms. Although there is extensive international research literature on ability grouping within classroom-based subjects, limited research exists in the context of physical education (PE).…

  20. A Study of the Effect Introductory Physical Science Produces in Students' Abilities in Selected Areas of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Harold Frederick, Jr.

    This study, conducted at Northeast Catholic High School for Boys in Philadelphia, was designed to determine if a significant difference existed between ninth-grade students experienced in Introductory Physical Science and ninth-grade students experienced in conventional General Science in ability to manipulate basic physics laboratory equipment,…

  1. The influence of playing a non-reward game on motor ability and executive function in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Araújo Lima, Alisson Menezes; Cordeiro Hirata, Fabiana de Campos; Sales de Bruin, Gabriela; Salani Mota, Rosa Maria; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales de

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of playing games on executive function and motor ability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Consecutive cases with PD were studied with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Mini-Mental State examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Stroop test, finger tapping and 14-meter walk test. After randomization, patients performed a game of dominoes and were tested before and after experiment being further categorized as control, winners or non-winners. Forty patients, 27 male (67.5%), aged 48 to 84 years (63.2 ± 8.5), Hoehn & Yahr I to III were included. Twenty-eight (70%) presented depressive symptoms (BDI > 10). Groups (Control N = 13; Winners = 14 and Non-winners = 13) were not different regarding age, disease duration, age at onset, BMI, MMSE scores, depressive symptoms, levodopa dose, and previous practice of games. Winners presented significantly better results on executive function (Stroop test, p = 0.002) and on motor activity (Finger tapping, p = 0.01). Non-winners showed a trend of better performance in the 14-meter-walk test. This study shows that the practice of a non-reward game acutely improved memory and motor skills in PD. Our results suggest a role for the reward system in the modulation of the dopaminergic function of the basal ganglia in these patients. PMID:22530266

  2. Principles of Motor Development for Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Katherine Thomas; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Four principles are drawn from approximately 100 years of research in the area of motor development. The principles are (1) children are not miniature adults, (2) boys and girls (children) are more alike than different, (3) good things are earned, and (4) no body (nobody) is perfect. Five sections of this article introduce some of the major…

  3. Have infant gross motor abilities changed in 20 years? A re-evaluation of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale normative values

    PubMed Central

    Darrah, Johanna; Bartlett, Doreen; Maguire, Thomas O; Avison, William R; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the original normative data of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) (n=2202) collected 20 years ago with a contemporary sample of Canadian infants. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study of 650 Canadian infants (338 males, 312 females; mean age 30.9wks [SD 15.5], range 2wks–18mo) assessed once on the AIMS. Assessments were stratified by age, and infants proportionally represented the ethnic diversity of Canada. Logistic regression was used to place AIMS items on an age scale representing the age at which 50% of the infants passed an item on the contemporary data set and the original data set. Forty-three items met the criterion for stable regression results in both data sets. Results The correlation coefficient between the age locations of items on the original and contemporary data sets was 0.99. The mean age difference between item locations was 0.7 weeks. Age values from the original data set when converted to the contemporary scale differed by less than 1 week. Interpretation The sequence and age at emergence of AIMS items has remained similar over 20 years and current normative values remain valid. Concern that the ‘back to sleep’ campaign has influenced the age at emergence of gross motor abilities is not supported. PMID:24684556

  4. 12-Mo Intervention of Physical Exercise Improved Work Ability, Especially in Subjects with Low Baseline Work Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kettunen, Oili; Vuorimaa, Timo; Vasankari, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study’s objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy working adults. Methods: The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men) were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men) in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent). Results: During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016) and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p < 0.0001, in both), while WAI and CRF decreased in the control group (ANCOVA using age, sex and BMI as covariates, for WAI, p = 0.013 and for CRF, p = 0.008). The changes in WAI and CRF between the exercise group and control group were significantly different during the intervention (baseline vs. 12-months, p = 0.028 and p = 0.007) and after the follow-up (p = 0.001 and p = 0.040), respectively. A light positive correlation between the changes in WAI and in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01) existed. WAI improvement was the highest (13%, p < 0.0001) in the subgroup having poor/moderate WAI at baseline (ANCOVA, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The improvement of WAI associated with CRF. These results suggest that a physical exercise intervention may improve work ability. PMID:24714059

  5. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  6. Developmental and physical-fitness associations with gross motor coordination problems in Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Bustamante Valdívia, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Freitas, Duarte; Tani, Go; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José António Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the developmental characteristics (biological maturation and body size) associated with gross motor coordination problems in 5193 Peruvian children (2787 girls) aged 6-14 years from different geographical locations, and to investigate how the probability that children suffer with gross motor coordination problems varies with physical fitness. Children with gross motor coordination problems were more likely to have lower flexibility and explosive strength levels, having adjusted for age, sex, maturation and study site. Older children were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems, as were those with greater body mass index. However, more mature children were less likely to have gross motor coordination problems, although children who live at sea level or at high altitude were more likely to suffer from gross motor coordination problems than children living in the jungle. Our results provide evidence that children and adolescents with lower physical fitness are more likely to have gross motor coordination difficulties. The identification of youths with gross motor coordination problems and providing them with effective intervention programs is an important priority in order to overcome such developmental problems, and help to improve their general health status. PMID:26871464

  7. Enhancing Direct Instruction on Introductory Physics for Supporting Students' Mental-Modeling Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansyur, Jusman; Darsikin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design for introductory physics that integrates previous research results of physics problem-solving and the use of external representation into direct instruction (DI). The research is a part of research in obtaining an established instructional design to support mental-modeling ability. By integrating with…

  8. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  9. Tips and Techniques: Ability Grouping and Performance Evaluation in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Equal Educational Opportunity Section.

    This monograph presents a discussion of the problems involved in implementing sex-fair coeducational classes in physical education. Suggestions, which grew out of a symposium on coeducational physical education, are offered on procedures that may be used for ability grouping, such as what type of test(s) are appropriate and when to use single or…

  10. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  11. A Developmental Perspective on the Role of Motor Skill Competence in Physical Activity: An Emergent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Roberton, Mary Ann; Rudisill, Mary E.; Garcia, Clersida; Garcia, Luis E.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant attention has been paid to promoting the importance of physical activity in children, adolescents, and adults, we do not currently understand how to promote sustained physical activity levels throughout the lifespan. We contend that previous research has failed to consider the dynamic and synergistic role that motor skill…

  12. I Have Students with Physical and Motor Problems: How Can an APE, OT, or PT Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman-French, Lisa; Candler, Catherine; French, Ron; Hamilton, Merry Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Majority of students with mental and/or motor impairments are frequently placed in general physical education classes. However, these students often are unable to attain the expected outcomes in these general settings. Based on the experience of the authors, general physical educators often attempt to modify their goals, objectives, teaching…

  13. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cusso, Melanie E; Donald, Kenneth J; Khoo, Tien K

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts." Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated in PD. PMID:27583249

  14. Probation Officer Physical Abilities Report. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    A study examined the physical ability requirements for entry-level probation officers in the California. The study, which was undertaken at the request of the California Board of Corrections, had the following objectives: statewide job analysis of the requirements of three entry-level positions in county agencies--corrections officer, probation…

  15. Corrections Officer Physical Abilities Report. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    A study examined the physical ability requirements for entry-level corrections officers in the California. The study, which was undertaken at the request of the California Board of Corrections, had the following objectives: statewide job analysis of the requirements of three entry-level positions in county agencies--corrections officer, probation…

  16. Design and Reflection Help Students Develop Scientific Abilities: Learning in Introductory Physics Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Karelina, Anna; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Rosengrant, David; Jordan, Rebecca; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2010-01-01

    Design activities, when embedded in an inquiry cycle and appropriately scaffolded and supplemented with reflection, can promote the development of the habits of mind (scientific abilities) that are an important part of scientific practice. Through the Investigative Science Learning Environment ("ISLE"), students construct physics knowledge by…

  17. Inclusion and Participation in Everyday School Life: Experiences of Children with Physical (Dis)Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbjørnslett, Mona; Engelsrud, Gunn Helene; Helseth, Sølvi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the school experiences of children with physical (dis)abilities. Based on 39 interviews with 15 Norwegian children, participation in everyday school life is introduced as a central theme and divided into three sub-themes: community and independence; adequate help and influence in the classroom; and influence in planning and…

  18. Robust, superamphiphobic fabric with multiple self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongxia; Zhou, Hua; Gestos, Adrian; Fang, Jian; Lin, Tong

    2013-10-23

    Superamphiphobic coatings with excellent repellency to low surface tension liquids and multiple self-healing abilities are very useful for practical applications, but remain challenging to realize. Previous papers on self-healing superamphiphobic coatings have demonstrated limited liquid repellency with single self-healing ability against either physical or chemical damage. Herein, we describe a superamphiphobic fabric that has remarkable multi-self-healing ability against both physical and chemical damages. The superamphiphobicity was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique. Fabric after coating treatment showed exceptional liquid-repellency to low surface tension liquids including ethanol. The fabric coating was also durable to withstand 200 cycles of laundries and 5000 cycles of Martindale abrasion without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. This highly robust, superamphiphobic fabric may find applications for the development of "smart" functional textiles for various applications. PMID:24073919

  19. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by physical similarity with an observed hand action.

    PubMed

    Désy, Marie-Christine; Théoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS is preferentially activated by passive observation of hand actions that are similar or dissimilar to self in terms of sex and skin color. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus muscle while participants viewed videos depicting index finger movements made by female or male participants with black or white skin color. Forty-eight participants equally distributed in terms of sex and skin color participated in the study. Results show an interaction between self-attributes and physical attributes of the observed hand in the right motor cortex of female participants, where corticospinal excitability is increased during observation of hand actions in a different skin color than that of the observer. Our data show that specific physical properties of an observed action modulate motor cortex excitability and we hypothesize that in-group/out-group membership and self-related processes underlie these effects. PMID:17912350

  20. Physical Verbalization: A Motor-Language Based Developmental Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Norma D.

    Physical Verbalization (PV) is a program designed to encourage language/speech development by combining movement with appropriate verbal patterns. Using the normal developmental stages of listening/watching, imitating, and initiating, the program allows the child to "play" with standard English in a nonthreatening and rhythmic fashion and to be…

  1. Physical and motor skill training for children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kimiyasu; Kobayashi, Kando

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of using special training machines for children with intellectual disabilities to strengthen their body's inner muscles and improve their ability to maintain standing posture and improve walking movement. The participants were 23 high school age boys with intellectual disabilities who had difficulties expressing greetings, and needed to be led by the hand when walking. Four special training machines were used for walking movements, for standing and walking balance, for leg-hip extension, and for ipsilateral movement in a sitting position. Each participant underwent 30 min. of training once a week over a 3-mo. period during school time. Body control ability required to perform each training exercise was improved over the training period. A significant improvement was observed in the 50-m dash, mean 10-m walk time, and 10-m obstacle course walk. The hip joint split angle showed a significant increase. Legal guardians all reported their child had "improved and/or progressed" for each of the targeted movements. PMID:21667765

  2. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  3. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning with Animated Physical Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; Eielts, Charly; Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the learning task. We investigated (N = 74), through the use…

  4. Modified Delphi Investigation of Motor Development and Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan; Metcalf, Amanda; Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As the scope of motor development and learning knowledge has successfully broadened over the years, there is an increased need to identify the content and learning experiences that are essential in preparing preservice physical educators. The purpose of this study was to generate expert consensus regarding the most critical motor…

  5. THE EFFECT OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING OF GROSS MOTOR SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OXENDINE, JOSEPH B.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SCHEDULES OF MENTAL AND PHYSICAL PRACTICE ON THE LEARNING AND RETENTION OF THREE MOTOR TASKS--USING THE PURSUIT ROTOR AND LEARNING THE SOCCER KICK, AND JUMP SHOT. THREE SEPARATE EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED IN THREE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS USING 80, 72, AND 60 SEVENTH GRADE BOYS AS…

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GLASSOW, RUTH B.; AND OTHERS

    CHILDREN IN THE FIRST, THIRD, AND FIFTH GRADES IN A SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL WERE EXPOSED TO AN EXPERIMENTALLY DEVELOPED PROGRAM OF MOTOR ACTIVITIES AS PART OF A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM DESIGNED TO CHALLENGE A CHILD. PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN THE STANDING BROAD JUMP, THE 30-YARD DASH, THE OVER ARM THROW, THE PULL-UP, AND SHUTTLE RUN WERE…

  7. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  8. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  9. Characterizing skill acquisition through motor imagery with no prior physical practice.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; MacKenzie, Laura A; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor learning depends upon plasticity in neural networks involved in the planning and execution of movement. Physical practice (PP) is the primary means of motor learning, but it can be augmented with nonphysical forms of practice including motor imagery (MI)-the mental rehearsal of movement. It is unknown if MI alone, without prior PP of a movement, can produce robust learning. Here the authors used an implicit sequence learning task to explore motor learning via MI alone or PP. Participants underwent implicit sequence learning training via MI (n = 31) or PP (n = 33). Posttraining reaction time was faster for implicit versus random sequences for both the MI group (M = 583 ± 84 ms; 632 ± 86 ms, d = 0.59) and PP group (M = 532 ± 73 ms; 589 ± 70 ms, d = 0.80), demonstrating that MI without PP facilitated skill acquisition. Relative to MI alone, PP led to reduced reaction time for both random (d = 0.65) and implicit sequences (d = 0.55) consistent with a nonspecific motor benefit favoring PP over MI. These results have broad implication for theories of MI and support the use of MI as a form of practice to acquire implicit motor skills. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389615

  10. The ability of 6- to 8-year-old children to use motor imagery in a goal-directed pointing task.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Steffie; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that motor imagery ability develops gradually between 5 and 12 years of age, but ambiguity remains over the precise developmental course before 9 years. Hence, we determined the age-related differences in the use of motor imagery by children on the mental chronometry paradigm. In addition, we examined whether the use of motor imagery is related to cognitive and hand abilities. To this end, we compared duration of actual pointing and imagined pointing on a radial Fitts' task in 82 children (three age groups; 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds). In line with previous studies, we found an age-related increase in temporal congruence between actual and imagined pointing and compliance with Fitts' law. Importantly, however, we showed that only a limited number of 7- and 8-year-olds were actually using motor imagery to perform the imagined pointing task, whereas the 6-year-olds did not employ motor imagery to perform the task. The current results extend previous research by establishing that the age of onset to use motor imagery in the mental chronometry paradigm is not prior to 7 years. PMID:26163179

  11. Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

  12. An Operational Model of Motor Skill Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Victor E. D.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to diagnose motor skills is important for physical educators. The paper discusses processes critical in motor skill diagnosis, proposing an operational model of motor skill development diagnosis for teacher educators and practitioners. The model provides a foundation upon which to build instructional strategies for developing…

  13. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  14. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-01

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F 0 F 1-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C 2 (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  15. Inter-Relationships of Functional Status in Cerebral Palsy: Analyzing Gross Motor Function, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification Systems in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Ho, Nhan Thi; Dodge, Nancy; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Slaughter, Jaime; Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Ray D.; Rosenbaum, Peter; Lenski, Madeleine; Messaros, Bridget M.; Vanderbeek, Suzette B.; Deroos, Steven; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationships among the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Using questionnaires describing each scale, mothers reported GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels in 222…

  16. Differentiating technical skill and motor abilities in selected and non-selected 3-5 year old team-sports players.

    PubMed

    Archer, David T; Drysdale, Kristian; Bradley, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the difference in 22 3-5year old boys selected to an advanced or non-advanced group on an English community-based professional club training program. Time to complete 15m linear sprint and 15m zig-zag agility tests, with and without a ball, were used to assess the children's technical skill and motor ability. Age and body mass of both groups were the same, whereas height was greater and BMI was lower in the selected group (p<0.01). Linear sprint times without and with the ball were 3.98±0.35 and 4.44±0.36s, respectively for the selected and corresponding times were 4.64±1.04 and 11.2±5.37s for the non-selected (p<0.01, ES 0.8, 1.8). Similar results were found when a change of movement was included, both with and without the ball. A model of selection indicated that performance in an agility test with the ball and height had the greatest discriminatory power and explained 95.5% of between group variance. Selected players performed significantly better in tests when ball control was required. These findings suggest that technical proficiency and physical differences may influence team selection in three to five year old children. PMID:26904973

  17. Beyond age and gender: Relationships between cortical and subcortical brain volume and cognitive-motor abilities in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Pangelinan, Melissa M.; Zhang, Guangyu; VanMeter, John W.; Clark, Jane E.; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Haufler, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive and motor functions are interrelated and may rely on the development of the same cortical and subcortical neural structures. However, no study to date has examined the relationships between brain volume, cognitive ability, and motor ability in typically developing children. The NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development consists of a large, longitudinal database of structural MRI and performance measures from a battery of neuropsychological assessments from typically developing children. This dataset provides a unique opportunity to examine relationships between the brain and cognitive-motor abilities. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from 172 children between the ages of 6 to 13 years with up to 2 measurement occasions (initial testing and 2-year follow-up). Linear mixed effects modeling was employed to account for age and gender effects on the development of specific cortical and subcortical volumes as well as behavioral performance measures of interest. Above and beyond the effects of age and gender, significant relationships were found between general cognitive ability (IQ) and the volume of subcortical brain structures (cerebellum and caudate) as well as spatial working memory and the putamen. In addition, IQ was found to be related to global and frontal gray matter volume as well as parietal gray and white matter. At the behavioral level, general cognitive ability was also found to be related to visuomotor ability (pegboard) and executive function (spatial working memory). These results support the notion that cognition and motor skills may be fundamentally interrelated at both the levels of behavior and brain structure. PMID:21078402

  18. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  19. Physical activity, functional ability, and disease activity in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gueddari, S; Amine, B; Rostom, S; Badri, D; Mawani, N; Ezzahri, M; Moussa, F; Shyen, S; Abouqal, R; Chkirat, B; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic condition known to cause pain-related complications in youth and affect children's physical functioning. There is no data in Arabic children with JIA about the impact of illness upon their physical activity. The objective of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with JIA compared with a healthy population and to examine associations between PA, functional ability, and disease activity. Our study included patients with JIA and group control aged between 8 and 17 years. The diagnosis was used according to the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria 2001. Sociodemographic data and clinical features were collected. Physical activity level and energy expenditure were assessed with a 1-day activity diary and the metabolic equivalent (MET), respectively. Functional ability was assessed with the Moroccan version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ). Disease activity was measured using the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS). Fifty patients and 50 controls were included (mean ± SD age 11.5 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 3.8 years, respectively; p = 0.49) with masculine predominance n = 30 (59.6 %) and n = 29 (58 %), respectively (p = 0.26). The median disease duration was 4.3 years (2-5). The median analog scale (VAS) pain was 20 (10-40). Fourteen patients (28 %) had an active disease. Patient population consisted in majority of oligoarticular arthritis (28 %), 14 patients. The mean of energy expenditure and physical activity were significantly higher in the JIA group. The JIA group spent more time in bed and less time on moderate to vigorous PA than the control group. There is no significant relationship between PA, functional ability, and disease activity. Our study suggests that children and adolescents with JIA have low PA levels and are at risk of losing the benefits of PA. Low PA is not related to

  20. Grounding Early Intervention: Physical Therapy Cannot Just Be About Motor Skills Anymore

    PubMed Central

    Harbourne, Regina T.; Dusing, Stacey C.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article provides support for 4 interrelated tenets: grounded perceptual-motor experience within cultural and social contexts forms cognition; exploration through early behaviors, such as object interaction, sitting, and locomotion, broadly facilitates development; infants and children with limited exploration are at risk for global developmental impairments; and early interventions targeting exploratory behaviors may be feasible and effective at advancing a range of abilities across developmental domains and time. These tenets emphasize that through the promotion of early perceptual-motor behaviors, broader, more global developmental advancements can be facilitated and future delays can be minimized across domains for infants and children with special needs. Researchers, educators, and clinicians should build on these tenets to further demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted early interventions. The goals of these interventions should be not only to advance targeted perceptual-motor skills in the moment but also to more broadly advance future abilities and meet the early intervention goal of maximizing children's learning potential. PMID:23001524

  1. The Effects of Basic Gymnastics Training Integrated with Physical Education Courses on Selected Motor Performance Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpkaya, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of gymnastics training integrated with physical education courses on selected motor performance variables in seven year old girls. Subjects were divided into two groups: (1) control group (N=15, X=7.56 plus or minus 0.46 year old); (2) gymnastics group (N=16, X=7.60 plus or minus 0.50 year…

  2. The impact of aesthetic evaluation and physical ability on dance perception.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers' esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet. PMID:21960969

  3. The Impact of Aesthetic Evaluation and Physical Ability on Dance Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Kirsch, Louise; Ticini, Luca F.; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attracts attention from neuroscientists and artists interested in the neural underpinnings of esthetic experience. Though less studied than the neuroaesthetics of visual art, dance neuroaesthetics is a particularly rich subfield to explore, as it is informed not only by research on the neurobiology of aesthetics, but also by an extensive literature on how action experience shapes perception. Moreover, it is ideally suited to explore the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience, which posits that activation within sensorimotor areas of the brain, known as the action observation network (AON), is a critical element of the esthetic response. In the present study, we address how observers’ esthetic evaluation of dance is related to their perceived physical ability to reproduce the movements they watch. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating how much they liked and how well they thought they could physically replicate a range of dance movements performed by professional ballet dancers. We used parametric analyses to evaluate brain regions that tracked with degree of liking and perceived physical ability. The findings reveal strongest activation of occipitotemporal and parietal portions of the AON when participants view movements they rate as both esthetically pleasing and difficult to reproduce. As such, these findings begin to illuminate how the embodied simulation account of esthetic experience might apply to watching dance, and provide preliminary evidence as to why some people find enjoyment in an evening at the ballet. PMID:21960969

  4. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  5. Investigating the Spatial Abilities of Students Taking Physics in Community College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossu, M. R.; Cid, X.; Lopez, R.

    2010-10-01

    Two independent tests that involve spatial visualization abilities, the PFT (Paper Folding Test) and the MRT (Mental Rotation Test) were given to different sections of introductory level physics students. The results show a strong correlation between the results of the two tests regardless of the different level of mathematics used in instruction (algebra or calculus). A statistically significant difference was found for both tests between the summer semester students (mostly 4-year university students) and the fall semester students (mostly community college students). No correlation was found between the PFT or MRT and FCI (Force Concept Inventory).

  6. Physical qualification of drivers; medical examination; certificate. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    This document updates and simplifies the medical examination form that is currently used to determine the physical qualification of commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers operating in interstate commerce. The FMCSA takes this action in response to numerous requests from medical examiners to update and simplify the medical examination form that is currently used. This action is intended to reduce the incidence of errors on such forms and to provide more uniform medical examinations of CMV drivers engaged in interstate commerce. The current Federal physical qualification standards tested by medical examiners and recorded on the form will not be revised in this rulemaking. PMID:11503655

  7. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start" guidelines…

  8. Effects of Increased Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Marks in Physical Education: An Intervention Study in School Years 1 through 9 in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericsson, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that some children do not participate in sport or exercise because they did not establish early coordination and basic motor skills while at school. Basic motor skills form significant parts of the goals for students to achieve in the Swedish school subject Physical Education and Health (PEH). Aims: The aim was to…

  9. Relationships between physical activity and motor skills in middle school children.

    PubMed

    Reed, Julian A; Metzker, Andrea; Phillips, D Allen

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity measured as pedometer steps and performance on three motor skill tests. A secondary purpose was to determine if middle school children are meeting the recommendation for the number of daily steps. A sample (n =217) of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students participated. Each subject wore a Digi-Walker pedometer for three consecutive days. Subjects additionally recorded their pedometer steps in two 45 min.-physical education classes. There were strong significant correlations between daily steps taken by boys and girls, pedometer steps during physical education class and the AAHPERD Passing Test and the Bass Stick Balance. Similar correlations were weaker for the Side-Step Agility Test. Multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to examine variability of the three skills test by sex and year in school. Differences between students in Grades 7 and 8 on the AAHPERD Passing Test were significant. In addition, significant differences between daily pedometer steps and steps during physical education between Grades 6 and 7 were observed. Boys and girls had similar means on the AAHPERD Passing Test and Bass Stick Balance Test, but not on the Side-Step Agility Test. Scores on the three movement skills tested in this study were not strongly related to physical activity of the entire sample. Steps taken by middle school children appear not to be related to these measures of motor skills. PMID:15560336

  10. Friction drive of an SAW motor. Part IV: physics of contact.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

    2008-10-01

    A procedure for modeling the frictional heating and electricity of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is proposed. The frictional heat is developed during friction drive when sliding occurs at the frictional interface; the heat is conducted into the solids, resulting in an increase in temperature. The spatial distribution of the heat source was associated with the contact pressure distribution, and the heat conduction from the heat source was formulated. Owing to the piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity of the stator used in the present study, the elastic deformation and temperature increase produce the electric fields. The electric fields in the stator were determined with respect to each cause. Electric discontinuity at the boundary between the stator and the slider, moreover, produces electrostatic force, which was calculated using a Maxwell stress tensor. All the analyses revealed the underlying physical fields in addition to the mechanical fields of the SAW motor. By the use of those analytical methods, the frictional properties of the SAW motor were discussed. We pointed out that another physical phenomenoniquestcontact electrificationiquestcould arise at the contact interface. The electrostatic force due to contact electrification had sufficient strength to change the friction property, which corresponded to the variation of the friction coefficient from 0.1 to 1. PMID:18986875

  11. Applying Motor-Control Theory to Physical Therapy Practice: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Mary T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This case report describes the application of an integrated, systems-based theory of motor control to physical therapy practice. Client Description: The patient was a 5-year-old boy with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy who was entering kindergarten. Parent concerns related to the child's safety in playground activities such as playing on the slide. Interventions: Motor-control theory, including factors related to the task, the environment, and the individual, was used to guide and direct physical therapy management related to the patient goal of safely and effectively climbing the ladder to the playground slide. Patient Outcomes: When the child entered kindergarten, he was able to safely ascend the ladder to the playground slide, using a modified movement pattern, when distractions were minimized. However, attentional issues continued to affect task execution when other children were present. Implications: This case report demonstrates a means by which current knowledge and theory can be integrated into clinical practice. Future Directions: Applying motor-control theory to this case led to the development of clinical questions for future research. PMID:22654241

  12. A model of motor performance during surface penetration: From physics to voluntary control

    PubMed Central

    Klatzky, Roberta L.; Gershon, Pnina; Shivaprabhu, Vikas; Lee, Randy; Wu, Bing; Stetten, George; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The act of puncturing a surface with a hand-held tool is a ubiquitous but complex motor behavior that requires precise force control to avoid potentially severe consequences. We present a detailed model of puncture over a time-course of approximately 1000 ms, which is fit to kinematic data from individual punctures, obtained via a simulation with high-fidelity force feedback. The model describes puncture as proceeding from purely physically determined interactions between the surface and tool, through decline of force due to biomechanical viscosity, to cortically mediated voluntary control. When fit to the data, it yields parameters for the inertial mass of the tool/person coupling, time-characteristic of force decline, onset of active braking, stopping time and distance, and late oscillatory behavior, all of which the analysis relates to physical variables manipulated in the simulation. While the present data characterize distinct phases of motor performance in a group of healthy young adults, the approach could potentially be extended to quantify the performance of individuals from other populations, e.g., with sensory-motor impairments. Applications to surgical force-control devices are also considered. PMID:23873494

  13. The Influence of a Physical Ability Intervention Program on Improved Running Time and Increased Sport Motivation among Jerusalem Schoolchildren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Siman-Tov; Bronner, Shmuel

    1988-01-01

    Eighth graders from five Jerusalem schools participated in physical ability intervention program which involved periodic and progressive increase of physical effort of students in physical education classes. Test group improved running time and had better sport motivation than did control group. Found gender differences and influence of sexual…

  14. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N = 2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

  15. Neurophysiological correlates of visuo-motor learning through mental and physical practice.

    PubMed

    Allami, Nadia; Brovelli, Andrea; Hamzaoui, El Mehdi; Regragui, Fakhita; Paulignan, Yves; Boussaoud, Driss

    2014-03-01

    We have previously shown that mental rehearsal can replace up to 75% of physical practice for learning a visuomotor task (Allami, Paulignan, Brovelli, & Boussaoud, (2008). Experimental Brain Research, 184, 105-113). Presumably, mental rehearsal must induce brain changes that facilitate motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by recording scalp electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in two groups of subjects. In one group, subjects executed a reach to grasp task for 240 trials. In the second group, subjects learned the task through a combination of mental rehearsal for the initial 180 trials followed by the execution of 60 trials. Thus, one group physically executed the task for 240 trials, the other only for 60 trials. Amplitudes and latencies of event-related potentials (ERPs) were compared across groups at different stages during learning. We found that ERP activity increases dramatically with training and reaches the same amplitude over the premotor regions in the two groups, despite large differences in physically executed trials. These findings suggest that during mental rehearsal, neuronal changes occur in the motor networks that make physical practice after mental rehearsal more effective in configuring functional networks for skilful behaviour. PMID:24388796

  16. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network. PMID:26063908

  17. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-15

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C{sub 2} (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  18. Practical Management Concerns regarding the Use of Health-Related, Motor and Skill Tests to Achieve Sex-Fair Ability Groupings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Janet

    There are many advantages and disadvantages of ability tests for sex-fairness. Several types of assessment criteria for sex-fair ability grouping could be used in fitness-related activities in the curriculum. Health-related physical fitness tests, designed to measure an individual's health fitness and provide for individual improvement, are not…

  19. Motor performance of tongue with a computer-integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xueliang; Johnson-Long, Ashley N.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Shinohara, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor performance of tongue, using Tongue Drive System, to hand operation for relatively complex tasks under different levels of background physical exertion. Thirteen young able-bodied adults performed tasks that tested the accuracy and variability in tracking a sinusoidal waveform, and the performance in playing two video games that require accurate and rapid movements with cognitive processing using tongue and hand under two levels of background physical exertion. Results show additional background physical activity did not influence rapid and accurate displacement motor performance, but compromised the slow waveform tracking and shooting performances in both hand and tongue. Slow waveform tracking performance by the tongue was compromised with an additional motor or cognitive task, but with an additional motor task only for the hand. Practitioner Summary We investigated the influence of task complexity and background physical exertion on the motor performance of tongue and hand. Results indicate the task performance degrades with an additional concurrent task or physical exertion due to the limited attentional resources available for handling both the motor task and background exertion. PMID:24003900

  20. Effectiveness of motor practice in lucid dreams: a comparison with physical and mental practice.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Motor practice in lucid dreams is a form of mental rehearsal where the dreamer can consciously rehearse motor skills in the dream state while being physically asleep. A previous pilot study showed that practice in lucid dreams can improve subsequent performance. This study aimed to replicate those findings with a different task (finger-tapping) and compare the effectiveness of lucid dream practice (LDP) not only to physical but also to mental practice (MP) in wakefulness. An online experiment was completed by 68 participants within four groups: LDP group, MP group, physical practice (PP) group and control (no practice) group. Pre-test was accomplished in the evening, post-test in the next morning, while the practice was done during the night. All three practice groups significantly improved their performance from pre-test to post-test, but no significant improvements were observed for the control group. Subjective sleep quality was not affected by night practice. This study thus corroborates the previous findings that practice in lucid dreams is effective in improving performance. Its effects seem to be similar to actual PP and MP in wakefulness. Future studies should establish reliable techniques for lucid dream induction and verify the effects of LDP in sleep laboratory conditions. PMID:25846062

  1. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  2. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelopmental therapy was applied. The Pediatric Balance Scale test and standing and gait items of the Gross Motor Function Measure were evaluated before and after intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale scores statistically significantly increased after the intervention. The control group showed no statistically significant difference in either score after the intervention. [Conclusion] Concentric and eccentric control exercise therapy in children with spastic hemiplegia can be effective in improving gross motor function and balance ability, and can be used to solve functional problems in a paretic leg. PMID:27512281

  3. The Relationship between Chinese High School Students' Implicit Theories of Ability in Sports and Perceived Enjoyment in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    According to theory, students' implicit theories of ability can affect their motivation and engagement in physical education (PE). Limited research has been conducted to examine the relationships between implicit theories of ability and motivation and engagement among K-12 students in PE. Our study examined the relationship between implicit…

  4. Effects of Enriched Physical and Social Environments on Motor Performance, Associative Learning, and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Madroñal, Noelia; López-Aracil, Cristina; Rangel, Alejandra; del Río, José A.; Delgado-García, José M.; Gruart, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the motor abilities and associative learning capabilities of adult mice placed in different enriched environments. Three-month-old animals were maintained for a month alone (AL), alone in a physically enriched environment (PHY), and, finally, in groups in the absence (SO) or presence (SOPHY) of an enriched environment. The animals' capabilities were subsequently checked in the rotarod test, and for classical and instrumental learning. The PHY and SOPHY groups presented better performances in the rotarod test and in the acquisition of the instrumental learning task. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed for classical eyeblink conditioning. The four groups presented similar increases in the strength of field EPSPs (fEPSPs) evoked at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse across classical conditioning sessions, with no significant differences between groups. These trained animals were pulse-injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine hippocampal neurogenesis. No significant differences were found in the number of NeuN/BrdU double-labeled neurons. We repeated the same BrdU study in one-month-old mice raised for an additional month in the above-mentioned four different environments. These animals were not submitted to rotarod or conditioned tests. Non-trained PHY and SOPHY groups presented more neurogenesis than the other two groups. Thus, neurogenesis seems to be related to physical enrichment at early ages, but not to learning acquisition in adult mice. PMID:20559565

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Description of Oral Motor, Articulatory, Short-Term Memory, Grammatical, and Semantic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marianne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The communication skills of 8 children (ages 4 to 9) with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS) were assessed and compared with non-FAS children matched for ethnic background, living situation, and nonverbal cognitive ability. FAS children showed abnormalities of the speech mechanism and inconsistent articulation, comprehension, and grammatical abilities.…

  6. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Visual-Motor Experiences in the Development of the Ability to Conserve Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey Ann Briggs

    Based on the work of Bruner, Piaget and others that indicates that the child's attention to misleading visual clues is an important factor in his lack of ability to conserve, this study is an attempt to demonstrate the effects of instruction in drawing two-dimensional figures on the ability of children (22 kindergarten children from middle class…

  7. Nitric Oxide and the Biological Cascades Underlying Increased Neurogenesis, Enhanced Learning Ability, and Academic Ability as an Effect of Increased Bouts of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    HUNT, SAMUEL J.; NAVALTA, JAMES W.

    2012-01-01

    The consummate principle underlying all physiological research is corporeal adaptation at every level of the organism observed. With respect to humans, the body learns to function based on the external stimuli from the environment, beginning in the womb, throughout the developmental stages of life. Nitric Oxide (NO) appears to be the governor of the plasticity of several systems in mammals implicit in their proper development. It is the purpose of this review to describe the physiological pathways that lead to plasticity of not only the vasculature but also of the brain and how physical activity plays a key role in those alterations by initiating the mechanism that triggers NO production. Further, this review hopes to show a connection between these changes and learning, comprising both motor learning and cognitive learning. This review will show how NO plays a significant role in vascularization and neurogenesis, necessary to enhance the mind-body connection and comprehensive physical performance and adaptation. It is our belief that this review effectively demonstrates, using a multidisciplinary approach, the causal mechanisms underlying the increases in neurogenesis as related to improved learning and academic performance as a result of adequate bouts of physical activity of a vigorous nature. PMID:27182387

  8. Investigation of Problem Solving Ability of Students in School of Physical Education and Sports (Kafkas University Sample)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmutlu, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the problem solving abilities of School of Physical Education and Sports students. To achieve this aim, in the academic year 2013-2014, a research group did a study of 433 students of the School of Physical Education and Sports, Kafkas University. This sample consisted of 184 female and 249 male students.…

  9. The Influence of Friendships and Friendship-Making Ability in Physical Activity Participation in Chiang Mai, Thailand High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Taylor, Jerry; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Novilla, Lelinneth M.

    2005-01-01

    Unfortunately, the influence of friendships is a neglected area of investigation in studies of youth physical activity. This study investigated the degree to which three friendship variables (ability to make friends, level of involvement with friends, perceived friends' involvement in exercise/physical activity) was associated with physical…

  10. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  11. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M.; Sussman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    motor skill ability seen in the older age group regardless of treatment group. Interaction effects were seen for the walking, running, and jumping dimension of the GMFM with the naïve boys scoring higher in the younger group and boys on corticosteroid therapy scoring higher in the older group. The TMT of climb 4-stairs demonstrated a significant treatment effect with the boys on corticosteroid therapy climbing stairs faster than those who were naïve, regardless of age. Examination of individual items within the upper level GMFM dimensions revealed select motor skills are more informative of disease progression than others; indicating their potential to be sensitive indicators of alterations in disease progression and intervention efficacy. Analysis of the relationship between muscle group strength and motor skill performance revealed differences in use patterns in the corticosteroid versus naïve boys. Conclusion: Significant muscle weakness is apparent in young boys with DMD regardless of corticosteroid treatment; however, older boys on corticosteroid therapy tend to have greater retention of muscle strength and motor skill ability than those who are naive. Quantification of muscle strength via isokinetic dynamometry is feasible and sensitive to the variable rates of disease progression in lower extremity muscle groups, but possibly most informative are the subtle changes in the performance characteristics of select motor skills. Further analysis of longitudinal data from this study will explore the influence of corticosteroid therapy on muscle strength and further clarify its impact on motor performance. PMID:27500011

  12. Providing Interactive Access to Cave Geology for All Students, Regardless of Physical Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, C. `; Stredney, D.; Hittle, B.; Irving, K.; Toomey, R. S., III; Lemon, N. N.; Price, A.; Kerwin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on an identified need to accommodate students with mobility impairments in field-based instructional experiences, this presentation will discuss current efforts to promote participation, broaden diversity, and impart a historical perspective in the geosciences through the use of an interactive virtual environment. Developed through the integration of emerging simulation technologies, this prototypical virtual environment is created from LIDAR data of the Historic Tour route of Mammoth Cave National Park. The educational objectives of the simulation focus on four primary locations within the tour route that provide evidence of the hydrologic impact on the cave and karst formation. The overall objective is to provide a rich experience of a geological field-based learning for all students, regardless of their physical abilities. Employing a virtual environment that interchangeably uses two and three-dimensional representation of geoscience content, this synthetic field-based cave and karst module will provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness in engaging the student community, and its efficacy in the curriculum when used as an alternative representation of a traditional field experience. The expected outcome is that based on the level of interactivity, the simulated environment will provide adequate pedagogical representation for content transfer without the need for physical experience in the uncontrolled field environment. Additionally, creating such an environment will impact all able-bodied students by providing supplemental resources that can both precede a traditional field experience and allow for students to re-examine a field site long after a the field experience, in both current formal and informal educational settings.

  13. Effects of cognitive function on gait and dual tasking abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease suffering from motor response fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Meir; Dagan, Yaacov; Gurevich, Tanya; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cognitive loading aggravates the gait impairments that are typically seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). To better understand the relationship between cognition and gait in PD, we evaluated 30 subjects with PD who suffer from motor response fluctuations. The subjects were clinically and cognitively assessed using standard clinical (e.g., Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) and cognitive tests while in the "ON" period of the medication cycle. In addition, the subjects wore force-sensitive insoles to quantify the timing of the gait cycles during 80-m walks at a self-selected, comfortable pace during three randomly presented gait conditions: (1) usual-walking, (2) dual tasking (DT), performing serial 3 subtractions (DT_S3), and (3) DT_S7. Stride length, gait speed, gait variability and bilateral coordination of gait were affected by DT, compared to the usual-walking (P < 0.001) as was gait asymmetry (P = 0.024). Stepwise regression analyses showed that a subset of the cognitive performance scores accounted for the changes seen in the gait parameters during DT, e.g., set shifting capabilities as expressed by the Trial Making Test Scores (P < 0.001). Affect (e.g., anxiety) was not associated with DT-related gait changes. For most gait features, DT had a large impact on the DT_S3 condition with only minimal additional effect in the DT_S7 condition. These results demonstrate that the complex cognitive-motor interplay in the control of gait in patients with PD who suffer from motor response fluctuations has a profound and marked effect during DT conditions on gait variability, asymmetry and bilateral coordination, even in the "ON" state when patients are likely to be most active, mobile and vulnerable to the negative effects of dual tasking. PMID:21063692

  14. Relationship Between ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Physical Abilities in Polish Athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Mazur-RóŻycka, Joanna; Michalski, Radoslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between α-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and physical abilities of male athletes performing various sports (volleyball, ice hockey, canoeing, swimming). One hundred eighty-five subjects were recruited for the study. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and power output in countermovement jump and spike jump (SPJ) and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups. The R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 was typed using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that RR genotype carriers develop greater power output in SPJ than RX and XX individuals (44.6 ± 11.1, 42.6 ± 11.0, and 38.4 ± 7.9 W·kg(-1) for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively) and height of jump in SPJ (0.537 ± 0.075, 0.523 ± 0.072, and 0.498 ± 0.053 m for RR, RX, and XX genotypes, respectively). Muscle strength did not differ between genotype groups. This suggests that the ACTN3 gene has a greater impact on determining dynamic movements than influencing static muscle strength. PMID:25734782

  15. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills. PMID:26798046

  16. A meta-analysis of sex differences in physical ability: revised estimates and strategies for reducing differences in selection contexts.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Reeves, Cody J; Mount, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    Despite the wide use of physical ability tests for selection and placement decisions in physically demanding occupations, research has suggested that there are substantial male-female differences on the scores of such tests, contributing to adverse impact. In this study, we present updated, revised meta-analytic estimates of sex differences in physical abilities and test 3 moderators of these differences-selection system design, specificity of measurement, and training-in order to provide insight into possible methods of reducing sex differences on physical ability test scores. Findings revealed that males score substantially better on muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests but that there are no meaningful sex differences on movement quality tests. These estimates differ in several ways from past estimates. Results showed that sex differences are similar across selection systems that emphasize basic ability tests versus job simulations. Results also showed that sex differences are smaller for narrow dimensions of muscular strength and that there is substantial variance in the sex differences in muscular strength across different body regions. Finally, we found that training led to greater increases in performance for women than for men on both muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance tests. However, training reduced the male-female differences on muscular strengths tests only modestly and actually increased male-female differences on cardiovascular endurance. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on physical ability testing and adverse impact, as well as the practical implications of the results. PMID:23731029

  17. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cusso, Melanie E.; Donald, Kenneth J.; Khoo, Tien K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms “Parkinson’s,” “Parkinson,” and “Parkinsonism” in conjunction with “exercise,” “physical activity,” “physiotherapy,” “occupational therapy,” “physical therapy,” “rehabilitation,” “dance,” and “martial arts.” Twenty studies matched inclusion criteria of having 10 or more participants with diagnosed idiopathic PD participating in the intervention as well as having to evaluate the effects of physical activity on NMS in PD as controlled, randomized intervention studies. The outcomes of interest were NMS, including depression, cognition, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, and sleep. Risk of bias in the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias. Comparability of the various intervention methods, however, was challenging due to demographic variability and methodological differences. Nevertheless, physical activity can positively impact the global NMS burden including depression, apathy, fatigue, day time sleepiness, sleep, and cognition, thus supporting its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions such as PD. It is recommended that further adequately powered studies are conducted to assess the therapeutic role of physical activity on both motor and non-motor aspects of PD. These studies should be optimally designed to assess non-motor elements of disease using instruments validated

  18. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb. PMID:26854561

  19. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tie-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

  20. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. PMID:27188530

  1. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  2. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  3. Improvement of Spatial Ability Using Innovative Tools: Alternative View Screen and Physical Model Rotator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Brad L.; Towle, Erick; Onyancha, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Spatial ability, which is positively correlated with retention and achievement in engineering, mathematics, and science disciplines, has been shown to improve over the course of a Computer-Aided Design course or through targeted training. However, which type of training provides the most beneficial improvements to spatial ability and whether other…

  4. [Diagnosis and certification of the ability of epileptic patients to drive motor vehicles: cases consulted by the author].

    PubMed

    Sińczuk-Walczak, Halina; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent diagnostic problem. It is also difficult to certify whether an epileptic patient is able to drive a motor vehicle. With the advent of efficient anti-epileptic treatment, a general practice of refusing epileptic patients driving license should be seriously reconsidered. However, the matter should be given careful consideration not to jeopardize public safety and patients' rights. The aim of the study was to highlight the problems encountered in rediagnosing and certifying people with diagnosed epilepsy or pseudoepileptic seizures. The authors discuss the diagnosis and certification procedures in persons with epileptic seizures after severe craniocerebral trauma. They also analyze a case of diagnosed epilepsy suggesting the syncope in a patient with cardiac defect; a case of psychogenous pseudoepileptic seizures and the course of the disease in a patient with febrile convulsions in childhood. The problems result from the fact that reliable medical histories are not available and thus the retroassessment of the clinical picture of epileptic seizures is not possible. Missing results of timely laboratory tests (EEG, ECG) and diagnostic errors concerning earlier episodes, especially epilepsy diagnosed inconsiderately, are additional obstacles. PMID:12577810

  5. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  6. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  7. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  8. The Relationship among Motor Proficiency, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the motor skills and physical fitness of school-age children (6-12 years) with visual impairments (VI; n = 60) and sighted children (n = 60). The relationships between the performance parameters and the children's body composition are investigated as well as the role of the severity of the impairment. The degree of VI did not…

  9. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bihemispheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for determining diffusivity measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient’s lesion) and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS + PT/OT) showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%), while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065) were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than the CST

  10. Structural white matter changes in descending motor tracts correlate with improvements in motor impairment after undergoing a treatment course of tDCS and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Motor impairment after stroke has been related to the structural and functional integrity of corticospinal tracts including multisynaptic motor fibers and tracts such as the cortico-rubral-spinal and the cortico-tegmental-spinal tract. Furthermore, studies have shown that the concurrent use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with peripheral sensorimotor activities can improve motor impairment. We examined microstructural effects of concurrent non-invasive bihemispheric stimulation and physical/occupational therapy for 10 days on the structural components of the CST as well as other descending motor tracts which will be referred to here as alternate motor fibers (aMF). In this pilot study, ten chronic patients with a uni-hemispheric stroke underwent Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessments (UE-FM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for determining diffusivity measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) before and after treatment in a section of the CST and aMF that spanned between the lower end of the internal capsule (below each patient's lesion) and the upper pons region on the affected and unaffected hemisphere. The treated group (tDCS + PT/OT) showed significant increases in the proportional UE-FM scores (+21%; SD 10%), while no significant changes were observed in an untreated comparison group. Significant increases in FA (+0.007; SD 0.0065) were found in the ipsilesional aMF in the treated group while no significant changes were found in the contralesional aMF, in either CST, or in any tracts in the untreated group. The FA changes in the ipsilesional aMF significantly correlated with the proportional change in the UE-FM (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). The increase in FA might indicate an increase in motor fiber alignment, myelination, and overall fiber integrity. Crossed and uncrossed fibers from multiple cortical regions might be one reason why the aMF fiber system showed more plastic structural changes that correlate with motor improvements than the CST

  11. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors. PMID:26691744

  12. Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukaryotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Novel efforts have been made to utilize some uni-cellular organisms as “micro-transporters”. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In this review we critically examine the current status of our understanding, expose the limitations of the existing methods, mention open challenging questions and speculate on the possible future directions of research in this interdisciplinary area where physics meets not only chemistry and biology but also (nano-)technology.

  13. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

  14. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  15. Participation in physical play and leisure: developing a theory- and evidence-based intervention for children with motor impairments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with motor impairments (e.g. difficulties with motor control, muscle tone or balance) experience significant difficulties in participating in physical play and leisure. Current interventions are often poorly defined, lack explicit hypotheses about why or how they might work, and have insufficient evidence about effectiveness. This project will identify (i) the 'key ingredients' of an effective intervention to increase participation in physical play and leisure in children with motor impairments; and (ii) how these ingredients can be combined in a feasible and acceptable intervention. Methods/Design The project draws on the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the UK Medical Research Council guidance for developing 'complex interventions'. There will be five steps: 1) identifying biomedical, personal and environmental factors proposed to predict children's participation in physical play and leisure; 2) developing an explicit model of the key predictors; 3) selecting intervention strategies to target the predictors, and specifying the pathways to change; 4) operationalising the strategies in a feasible and acceptable intervention; and 5) modelling the intervention processes and outcomes within single cases. Discussion The primary output from this project will be a detailed protocol for an intervention. The intervention, if subsequently found to be effective, will support children with motor difficulties to attain life-long well-being and participation in society. The project will also be an exemplar of methodology for a systematic development of non-drug interventions for children. PMID:22061203

  16. The Effects of SPARK Physical Education Program on Fundamental Motor Skills in 4-6 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Akbari, Hakimeh; Haji-Hosseini, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SPARK Physical Education (PE) program on fundamental motor skills in 4-6 year children. SPARK (Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids) is an evidence based PE program designed in order to promote the lifelong wellbeing. Methods In total, 90 children aged 4 to 6 years were selected randomly. The children were allocated into 3 groups with separate PE programs: 1-SPARK, 2-Gymnastics and 3-Routine activity. Using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), a pretest was done in all groups. Afterwards, SPARK and Gym PE programs were performed for 8 weeks and 3 sessions each week. The third group used to do the routine physical education program in their daycare. After 8 weeks (24 sessions), the post tests were done for all groups with the same scoring system as the pretest. Findings The results showed that the SPARK program had a higher efficacy on the promotion of the fundamental motor skills comparing to the routine physical education programs or gymnastics PE group. Conclusion SPARK can be used as an appropriate alternative in order to promote the children's motor skills. PMID:23724186

  17. Relations among Beliefs about Epistemology, Ability Conceptions, and Achievement in High School Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ken Lodewyk

    2009-01-01

    While the critical role of knowledge in physical education performance is well-documented, there is little research into the role that students' beliefs about what knowing is and how they come to know relate to their achievement in physical education. The purpose of this study was to discover relations between beliefs about epistemology, ability…

  18. Computer work and self-reported variables on anthropometrics, computer usage, work ability, productivity, pain, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer users often report musculoskeletal complaints and pain in the upper extremities and the neck-shoulder region. However, recent epidemiological studies do not report a relationship between the extent of computer use and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). The aim of this study was to conduct an explorative analysis on short and long-term pain complaints and work-related variables in a cohort of Danish computer users. Methods A structured web-based questionnaire including questions related to musculoskeletal pain, anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, health-related parameters, lifestyle variables as well as physical activity during leisure time was designed. Six hundred and ninety office workers completed the questionnaire responding to an announcement posted in a union magazine. The questionnaire outcomes, i.e., pain intensity, duration and locations as well as anthropometrics, work-related variables, work ability, productivity, and level of physical activity, were stratified by gender and correlations were obtained. Results Women reported higher pain intensity, longer pain duration as well as more locations with pain than men (P < 0.05). In parallel, women scored poorer work ability and ability to fulfil the requirements on productivity than men (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlations were found between pain intensity and pain duration for the forearm, elbow, neck and shoulder (P < 0.001). Moderate negative correlations were seen between pain intensity and work ability/productivity (P < 0.001). Conclusions The present results provide new key information on pain characteristics in office workers. The differences in pain characteristics, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration and more pain locations as well as poorer work ability reported by women workers relate to their higher risk of contracting WMSD. Overall, this investigation confirmed the complex interplay between anthropometrics, work ability

  19. Investigation of student ability to relate measurements of physical quantities made in different inertial reference frames*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    1999-05-01

    The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington has been examining student understanding of relative motion in one and two dimensions. We have found that many students in introductory physics treat some vector quantities as being frame-independent or have difficulty in transforming these quantities from one frame to another. Evidence will be presented from results of interviews and written questions. * This work has been funded in part by NSF Grants DUE 9354501 and DUE 9727648, which include support from other Divisions of EHR and the Physics Division of MPS.

  20. Review of Physics Related Research and Development Activities in Nondestructive Characterization of Solid Rocket Motor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Lee H.

    1998-10-01

    The perception that solid rocket motors (srm) are of relatively simple mechanical construction with a long history in private, military, and NASA applications may lead some to believe that little is left to be done in terms of basic and applied research and development in support of this technology. The fact is that srm?s are very complicated primarily because of the complexity of the materials from which they are built. The reliability and performance of srm?s are determined by the ballistic and mechanical properties of each individual material component, and by the manufacturing processes that conjoin these materials. In order to insure reliability and good performance, there are on-going materials research and development activities in the srm community. Included are activities involving the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods used for materials and processes characterization. Typical applications include: detection and characterization of defects in fiber reinforced composite materials, detection of weak bonds and debonds, verification of surface cleanliness prior to bonding, characterization of aging materials and bondlines, measurement of elastic properties in filled polymeric materials, monitoring of cure in polymeric materials, and measurement of film or coating thicknesses. NDE methods and physics principles upon which they are based will be described. Challenges and future research and development directions will be identified.

  1. "A Clear and Obvious "Ability" to "Perform Physical Activity"": Revisiting Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Talent in PE and Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croston, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper examines physical education (PE) teachers' perceptions of talent in PE and sport within the context of English policy, where the process of identifying talent has been formalised and supported through specific resources (YST 2009). English policy has merged educational and sporting targets, which has resulted in a shift in…

  2. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  3. Increased resting state connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after transcranial direct current stimulation with physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the brain using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during motor rehabilitation can improve the recovery of movements in individuals with stroke. However, the neural substrates that underlie the clinical improvements are not well understood. In this proof-of-principle open-label pilot study, five individuals with stroke received 10 sessions of tDCS while undergoing usual care physical/occupational therapy for the arm and hand. Motor impairment as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment was significantly reduced after the intervention. Resting state fMRI connectivity increased between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the neural underpinnings of tDCS coupled with rehabilitation exercises, may be mediated by interactions between motor and premotor cortex. The latter, of which has been shown to play an important role in the recovery of movements post-stroke. Our data suggest premotor cortex could be tested as a target region for non-invasive brain-stimulation to enhance connectivity between regions that might be beneficial for stroke motor recovery. PMID:26980052

  4. Increased resting state connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after transcranial direct current stimulation with physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joyce L; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the brain using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during motor rehabilitation can improve the recovery of movements in individuals with stroke. However, the neural substrates that underlie the clinical improvements are not well understood. In this proof-of-principle open-label pilot study, five individuals with stroke received 10 sessions of tDCS while undergoing usual care physical/occupational therapy for the arm and hand. Motor impairment as indexed by the Upper Extremity Fugl Meyer assessment was significantly reduced after the intervention. Resting state fMRI connectivity increased between ipsilesional motor cortex and contralesional premotor cortex after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the neural underpinnings of tDCS coupled with rehabilitation exercises, may be mediated by interactions between motor and premotor cortex. The latter, of which has been shown to play an important role in the recovery of movements post-stroke. Our data suggest premotor cortex could be tested as a target region for non-invasive brain-stimulation to enhance connectivity between regions that might be beneficial for stroke motor recovery. PMID:26980052

  5. Relationships Between Goal Orientation, Motivational Climate and Perceived Ability with Intrinsic Motivation and Performance in Physical Education University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen

    The purposes of the present investigation were to study the relationships between goal orientation, motivational climate and perceived ability with intrinsic motivation, behavioral patterns and performance. One hundred and sixty three males and females students from physical education classes selected and completed the Task and Ego Orientation, Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport and Perceived Ability questionnaires. The results of structural equation models (SEM) and correlation coefficients showed that there are significant correlations between ego-orientation, task-orientation and mastery climate with intrinsic motivation (R = 0.58,X2 = 103.72, p< 0.0001) and between intrinsic motivation with trend, effort and performance (R = 0.42, X2 = 37.85, p< 0.0001). In conclusion, to increase trend and effort of students in sport classes their achievement goal orientations should to considered and increasing the intrinsic motivation, perceived ability and mastery climate have a facilitative role.

  6. Motor Coordination Difficulties and Physical Fitness of Extremely-Low-Birthweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Yvonne R.; Danks, Marcella; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Gray, Peter H.; Cooper, David; Poulsen, Leith; Watter, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    Motor coordination difficulties and poor fitness exist in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) population. This study investigated the relative impact of motor coordination on the fitness of ELBW children aged 11 to 13 years. One hundred and nine children were recruited to the study: 54 ELBW participants (mean age at assessment 12y 6mo; 31 male,…

  7. A Strategy for Embedding Functional Motor and Early Numeracy Skill Instruction into Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…

  8. Continuous exposure to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor to mature dopaminergic transplants impairs the graft's ability to improve spontaneous motor behavior in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Winkler, C; Georgievska, B; Carlsson, T; Lacar, B; Kirik, D

    2006-08-11

    Functional recovery following intrastriatal transplantation of fetal dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease is, at least in part, dependent on the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons and the degree of graft-derived dopaminergic reinnervation of the host striatum. In the present study, we analyzed whether continuous exposure of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to mature dopaminergic grafts could further boost the functional outcome of widespread intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts. Rats with dopamine-denervating lesions received multiple intrastriatal transplants of fetal dopaminergic cells and graft-induced behavioral effects were analyzed in drug-induced and spontaneous motor behaviors. At three months after grafting, animals received intrastriatal injections of recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding for either human GDNF or the green fluorescent protein. Continuous exposure of GDNF to the grafts did not boost the functional recovery beyond what was observed in the control animals. Rather, in some of the spontaneous motor behaviors, animals in the GDNF-group showed deterioration as compared with control animals, and this negative effect of GDNF was associated with a down-regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme. Based on these and our earlier results, we propose that intrastriatal administration of GDNF at the time of or shortly after grafting is highly effective in initially promoting the cell survival and fiber outgrowth from the grafts. However, once the grafts are mature, GDNF's ability to boost dopaminergic neurotransmission follows the same dynamics as for the native nigral dopaminergic neurons, which appears to be dependent on the concentration of GDNF. Since rather low doses of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor at nanogram levels appear to saturate these effects, it may be critical to adjust GDNF levels using tightly regulated gene expression systems. PMID:16697115

  9. Differences in Personality, Attitude, and Cognitive Abilities Found Among Biological, Physical Science and Non Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dale

    Historically, few women pursue studies or careers in science. In an effort to determine factors that relate to a scientific career choice, this research examines differences between sexes and among majors in 180 males and females in biological, physical science, and nonscience college majors. Nonscience majors mostly included female language…

  10. Validating Functional Measures of Physical Ability for Aging People with Intellectual Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Joyce R.; Costello, Ellen; Birkmeier, Marisa C.; Richards, Maggie; Alexander, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the aging population without intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), few standardized performance measures exist to assess physical function and risk for adverse outcomes such as nonfatal, unintentional injuries. We modified 3 selected standardized performance tools in the areas of general fitness (2-Minute Walk Test), balance…

  11. Scientific Reasoning Abilities of Nonscience Majors in Physics-Based Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on…

  12. Investigating Middle School Students' Ability to Develop Energy as a Framework for Analyzing Simple Physical Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadouris, Nicos; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether it is possible for 12-year-old students to develop a qualitative conceptualization of energy and four associate features (forms of energy, transfer processes, conservation, and degradation) as a framework for constructing interpretive accounts for the operation of physical phenomena (specifically, for changes taking place…

  13. Masseter muscle tension, chewing ability, and selected parameters of physical fitness in elderly care home residents in Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gaszynska, Ewelina; Godala, Malgorzata; Szatko, Franciszek; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintaining good physical fitness and oral function in old age is an important element of good quality of life. Disability-related impairment of oral function contributes to a deterioration of the diet of older people and to the reduction of their social activity. Objectives Investigate the association between masseter muscle tension, dental status, and physical fitness parameters. Materials and methods Two hundred fifty-nine elderly care home residents (97 men, 162 women; mean age, 75.3±8.9 years) were involved in this cross-sectional study. Their chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, self-reported chewing ability, number of present and functional teeth, and number of posterior tooth pairs. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. To assess physical fitness, hand grip strength and the timed up-and-go test were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index and body cell mass index (BCMI), calculated on the basis of electrical bioimpedance measurements. Medical records were used to collect information on systemic diseases and the number of prescribed medications. Subjects were also evaluated for their ability to perform ten activities of daily living. Results Ninety-seven percent of the subjects suffered from systemic diseases. The three most prevalent illnesses were cardiac/circulatory 64.5%, musculoskeletal 37.3%, and endocrine/metabolic/nutritional 29.3%. Of the participants, 1.5% were underweight and more than one third (34.4%) were overweight. Malnutrition (BCMI below normal) was found in almost half (45.2%) of the subjects. Only 5.8% had a sufficient number of functional natural teeth. Statistically significant correlations were found between palpation of masseter muscle tension and perceived chewing ability, number of present teeth, number of functional teeth, number of posterior tooth pairs, timed up-and-go, hand grip strength, body mass

  14. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  15. A Kinect-based system for physical rehabilitation: a pilot study for young adults with motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Huang, Jun-Da

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of rehabilitating two young adults with motor impairments using a Kinect-based system in a public school setting. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their motivation for physical rehabilitation, thus improving exercise performance during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21784612

  16. Intervention activities to improve the reasoning ability of students at risk in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a number of activities we have begun using in interventions targeting students who are at risk in introductory college physics courses. Some are adaptations of the work of others with pre-high school children, including Philip Adey in Great Britain (Cognitive Acceleration though Science Education), Reuven Feuerstein in Israel (Instrumental Enrichment), and Kurtz and Karplus in the U. S. in the 70’s (Numerical Relationships). We have also added some other activities, including Sudoku strategy development.

  17. Automatically Characterizing Sensory-Motor Patterns Underlying Reach-to-Grasp Movements on a Physical Depth Inversion Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jillian; Majmudar, Ushma V.; Ravaliya, Jay H.; Papathomas, Thomas V.; Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, movement variability has been of great interest to motor control physiologists as it constitutes a physical, quantifiable form of sensory feedback to aid in planning, updating, and executing complex actions. In marked contrast, the psychological and psychiatric arenas mainly rely on verbal descriptions and interpretations of behavior via observation. Consequently, a large gap exists between the body's manifestations of mental states and their descriptions, creating a disembodied approach in the psychological and neural sciences: contributions of the peripheral nervous system to central control, executive functions, and decision-making processes are poorly understood. How do we shift from a psychological, theorizing approach to characterize complex behaviors more objectively? We introduce a novel, objective, statistical framework, and visuomotor control paradigm to help characterize the stochastic signatures of minute fluctuations in overt movements during a visuomotor task. We also quantify a new class of covert movements that spontaneously occur without instruction. These are largely beneath awareness, but inevitably present in all behaviors. The inclusion of these motions in our analyses introduces a new paradigm in sensory-motor integration. As it turns out, these movements, often overlooked as motor noise, contain valuable information that contributes to the emergence of different kinesthetic percepts. We apply these new methods to help better understand perception-action loops. To investigate how perceptual inputs affect reach behavior, we use a depth inversion illusion (DII): the same physical stimulus produces two distinct depth percepts that are nearly orthogonal, enabling a robust comparison of competing percepts. We find that the moment-by-moment empirically estimated motor output variability can inform us of the participants' perceptual states, detecting physiologically relevant signals from the peripheral nervous system that reveal internal

  18. Effect on development of proportional reasoning skill of physical experience and cognitive abilities associated with prefrontal lobe activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lawson, Anton E.; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Young-Shin

    2000-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that maturing prefrontal lobes play a role in the development of proportional reasoning skill because the prefrontal lobes are involved in the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and the representation of task-relevant information. The hypothesis that reasoning development is in part dependent upon physical experience was also tested. Students (all males) who failed to solve a diagnostic proportions task were administered several tests of prefrontal lobe functions. The students were then randomly assigned to manipulative or verbal tutoring groups. Both groups received a series of individual testing, tutoring and testing sessions on proportional reasoning. As predicted, performance on the prefrontal lobe tasks (measures of inhibiting ability, planning ability, dissembedding ability, and working memory capacity) significantly predicted performance on proportional reasoning tasks following tutoring. Students' computational skills were not a significant predictor. Also, the manipulative group's proportional reasoning performance was significantly higher than that of the verbal tutoring group. Therefore, the present results provide support for the hypothesis that maturing prefrontal lobes and physical experience play roles in the development of proportional reasoning skill.

  19. Teaching and Assessing Manipulative Motor Skills in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This article provides new ways to teach and assess motor skills in various lifetime sports such as tennis, golf, badminton, and other sports that students are likely to play as adults by focusing on five basic biomechanical principles.

  20. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  1. Team-Teaching in Physical Education for Promoting Coordinative Motor Skills in Children: The More You Invest the More You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardaglio, Giulia; Marasso, Danilo; Magno, Francesca; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Ciairano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard physical education (PE) programs and the team-teaching methodology have rarely been evaluated to investigate their real efficacy in changing children's motor skills. Aims: The aims of this study are two-fold: The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a PE program for improving coordinative motor skills in the team…

  2. Scientific reasoning abilities of nonscience majors in physics-based courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. Christopher; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2012-06-01

    We have found that non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors taking either a conceptual physics or astronomy course at two regional comprehensive institutions score significantly lower preinstruction on the Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR) in comparison to national average STEM majors. Based on LCTSR score, the majority of non-STEM students can be classified as either concrete operational or transitional reasoners in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, whereas in the STEM population formal operational reasoners are far more prevalent. In particular, non-STEM students demonstrate significant difficulty with proportional and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Prescores on the LCTSR are correlated with normalized learning gains on various concept inventories. The correlation is strongest for content that can be categorized as mostly theoretical, meaning a lack of directly observable exemplars, and weakest for content categorized as mostly descriptive, where directly observable exemplars are abundant. Although the implementation of research-verified, interactive engagement pedagogy can lead to gains in content knowledge, significant gains in theoretical content (such as force and energy) are more difficult with non-STEM students. We also observe no significant gains on the LCTSR without explicit instruction in scientific reasoning patterns. These results further demonstrate that differences in student populations are important when comparing normalized gains on concept inventories, and the achievement of significant gains in scientific reasoning requires a reevaluation of the traditional approach to physics for non-STEM students.

  3. Physical stability of drugs after storage above and below the glass transition temperature: Relationship to glass-forming ability

    PubMed Central

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Alzghoul, Ahmad; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous materials are inherently unstable and tend to crystallize upon storage. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the physical stability and inherent crystallization tendency of drugs are related to their glass-forming ability (GFA), the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermodynamic factors. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to produce the amorphous state of 52 drugs [18 compounds crystallized upon heating (Class II) and 34 remained in the amorphous state (Class III)] and to perform in situ storage for the amorphous material for 12 h at temperatures 20 °C above or below the Tg. A computational model based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was developed to predict the structure-property relationships. All drugs maintained their Class when stored at 20 °C below the Tg. Fourteen of the Class II compounds crystallized when stored above the Tg whereas all except one of the Class III compounds remained amorphous. These results were only related to the glass-forming ability and no relationship to e.g. thermodynamic factors was found. The experimental data were used for computational modeling and a classification model was developed that correctly predicted the physical stability above the Tg. The use of a large dataset revealed that molecular features related to aromaticity and π–π interactions reduce the inherent physical stability of amorphous drugs. PMID:26341321

  4. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  5. Licence to be active: parental concerns and 10–11-year-old children's ability to be independently physically active

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Thompson, Janice L.; Page, Angie S.; Brockman, Rowan; Cartwright, Kim; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity independent of adult supervision is an important component of youth physical activity. This study examined parental attitudes to independent activity, factors that limit licence to be independently active and parental strategies to facilitate independent activity. Methods In-depth phone interviews were conducted with 24 parents (4 males) of 10–11-year-old children recruited from six primary schools in Bristol. Results Parents perceived that a lack of appropriate spaces in which to be active, safety, traffic, the proximity of friends and older children affected children's ability to be independently physically active. The final year of primary school was perceived as a period when children should be afforded increased licence. Parents managed physical activity licence by placing time limits on activity, restricting activity to close to home, only allowing activity in groups or under adult supervision. Conclusions Strategies are needed to build children's licence to be independently active; this could be achieved by developing parental self-efficacy to allow children to be active and developing structures such as safe routes to parks and safer play areas. Future programmes could make use of traffic-calming programmes as catalysts for safe independent physical activity. PMID:19505927

  6. Physically scarce (vs. enriched) environments decrease the ability to tell lies successfully.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Khambatta, Poruz; Carney, Dana R

    2015-10-01

    The successful detection of deception is of critical importance to adaptive social relationships and organizations, and perhaps even national security. However, research in forensic, legal, and social psychology demonstrates that people are generally very successful deceivers. The goal of the current research was to test an intervention with the potential to decrease the likelihood of successful deception. We applied findings in the architectural, engineering, and environmental sciences that has demonstrated that enriched environments (vs. scarce ones) promote the experience of comfort, positive emotion, feelings of power and control, and increase productivity. We hypothesized that sparse, impoverished, scarcely endowed environments (vs. enriched ones) would decrease the ability to lie successfully by making liars feel uncomfortable and powerless. Study 1 examined archival footage of an international sample of criminal suspects (N = 59), including innocent relatives (n = 33) and convicted murderers (n = 26) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing person. Liars in scarce environments (vs. enriched) were significantly more likely to reveal their lies through behavioral cues to deception. Study 2 (N = 79) demonstrated that the discomfort and subsequent powerlessness caused by scarce (vs. enriched) environments lead people to reveal behavioral cues to deception. Liars in scarce environments also experienced greater neuroendocrine stress reactivity and were more accurately detected by a sample of 66 naïve observers (Study 3). Taken together, data suggest that scarce environments increase difficulty, and decrease success, of deception. Further, we make available videotaped stimuli of Study 2 liars and truth-tellers. PMID:26301794

  7. The Dynamics of Microtubule/Motor-Protein Assemblies in Biology and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Many important processes in the cell are mediated by stiff microtubule polymers and the active motor proteins moving on them. This includes the transport of subcellular structures (nuclei, chromosomes, organelles) and the self-assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle. Little is understood of these processes, but they present fascinating problems in fluid-structure interactions. Microtubules and motor proteins are also the building blocks of new biosynthetic active suspensions driven by motor-protein activity. These reduced systems can be probed—and modeled—more easily than can the fully biological ones and demonstrate their own aspects of self-assembly and complex dynamics. I review recent work modeling such systems as fluid-structure interaction problems and as multiscale complex fluids.

  8. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  9. The natural physical alternative to cognitive theories of motor behaviour: an invitation for interdisciplinary research in sports science?

    PubMed

    Davids, K; Handford, C; Williams, M

    1994-12-01

    This review examines the viability of the natural physical alternative to traditional cognitive modelling of the sport performer. It is concluded that the natural physical perspective offers an attractive framework for the study of movement control and co-ordination in sport, but, at present, does not seem capable of superseding cognitive explanations. As a consequence of the nature of the questions they are asking, natural physical theorists offer a significant avenue for interdisciplinary research in sports science. Significant differences in the philosophy underpinning both theoretical views are acknowledged, but growing support for an integrated approach to motor control is highlighted. A major task for sports scientists may be to verify empirically the nature of an integrated model of the sport performer. PMID:7853448

  10. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…