Science.gov

Sample records for motorist aid systems

  1. The Impact of Emerging Electronic Highway Control Systems on Motorist Information Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchingson, R. Dale; Dudek, Conrad L.

    1974-01-01

    Advanced forms of electronic and computerized control systems are being developed to optimize traffic flow in and between cities. Modern technology permits communication of real-time information via signs and auditory messages and allows motorists to plan ahead for safer and more efficient travel. This paper describes an on-going research program for defining drivers' information needs and behavior in response to various message types and modes of presentation. Human engineer design criteria for real-time displays will be investigated in the laboratory and in research vehicles with field testing in actual city corridors. The results will be incorporated into a design handbook for use by sign design engineers.

  2. 40 CFR 51.362 - Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motorist compliance enforcement program oversight. 51.362 Section 51.362 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Inspection/Maintenance Program Requirements §...

  3. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  4. The use of a quasi-naturalistic riding method to investigate bicyclists' behaviors when motorists pass.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Chun-Chia; Lai, Ching-Huei; Doong, Ji-Liang; Jeng, Ming-Chang

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how motorized vehicle-related factors, road-related factors, and bicyclist-related factors influenced motorists' decisions about initial passing distances and bicyclists' behaviors after the motorists started to pass. A quasi-naturalistic riding method was used for thirty-four participating bicyclists riding an instrumented bicycle in real traffic. The study included 1380 incidents of left-side passing by motorists and revealed that the factors studied influenced both the motorists' initial passing distance and the bicyclists' position (lateral distance from the passing motorists), wheel angle, and speed control behaviors while the motorists passed. Some factors were related to the motorized vehicles; for example, the initial passing distance and the mean lateral distances were smaller when motorcycles passed than when cars and small trucks passed. The bicyclists demonstrated weaker lateral stability when they were passed by buses. In addition, a longer passing time caused the bicyclists to demonstrate cautious but less stable riding behaviors. For road-related factors, a clear and longitudinal solid line separation helped to maintain a greater lateral distance between motorists and bicyclists and assist the bicyclists in riding out of the motorists' path, maintaining a low speed, and remaining stable. Moreover, when bicyclists avoided road surface hazards, they reduced the initial passing distances that the motorists had chosen. Considering bicyclist-related factors, the motorists selected a greater initial passing distance for female bicyclists. There were also gender differences related to the bicyclists' lateral control, and differences in road use experience may explain this gender difference. Furthermore, the bicyclists' wheel angle, speed, and speed variation affected the motorists' initial passing distance. The present study demonstrated that the quasi-naturalistic riding method is capable of collecting rich data

  5. Aided targeting system simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demaio, Joe; Becker, Curtis

    1994-01-01

    Simulation research was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility on the effectiveness and ease of use of three targeting systems. A manual system required the aviator to scan a target array area with a simulated second generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, locate and categorize targets, and construct a target hand-off list. The interface between the aviator and the system was like that of an advanced scout helicopter (manual mode). Two aided systems detected and categorized targets automatically. One system used only the FLIR sensor and the second used FLIR fused with Longbow radar. The interface for both was like that of an advanced scout helicopter aided mode. Exposure time while performing the task was reduced substantially with the aided systems, with no loss of target hand-off list accuracy. The fused sensor system showed lower time to construct the target hand-off list and a slightly lower false alarm rate than the other systems. A number of issues regarding system sensitivity and criterion, and operator interface design are discussed.

  6. Computer aided coordinate measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, J. W.

    Sikorsky's computer-aided inspection system and equipment utilized to assure that manufactured parts meet drawing tolerance specifications are discussed. An overview of the system is given, and the software is described, including the monitor console routine and commands and the language commands. The system's three coordinate measuring machines are discussed, and the part inspection methods are described in stepwise fashion. System benefits and time savings items are detailed, including quick and accurate measurement of parts difficult to inspect by conventional methods, significant reduction in inspection time, a consistent baseline that highlights variances, and the use of personnel with lower skill levels to effectively inspect critical parts.

  7. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  8. Aids and the nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.L. ); Levy, R.M. ); Bredesen, D.E. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease.

  9. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  10. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  11. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  12. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  13. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  14. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  15. Direction discriminating hearing aid system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Lin, H. C.; Ward, G.

    1991-01-01

    A visual display was developed for people with substantial hearing loss in either one or both ears. The system consists of three discreet units; an eyeglass assembly for the visual display of the origin or direction of sounds; a stationary general purpose noise alarm; and a noise seeker wand.

  16. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  17. AIDS Infects Education Systems in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2005-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic raging across sub-Saharan Africa does not stop with personal carnage. It also threatens whole systems, including what is arguably the most critical for the region's future--education. Where rates of HIV infection are high, as they are in much of southern and eastern Africa, experts warn, the effects on social stability and…

  18. Stranded Motorist Deaths in Harris County, Texas: A Deadly Game of Highway Roulette.

    PubMed

    Drake, Stacy A; Hendrix, Chandra L; Garza, Robin; Godwin, Kyler M

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recognize that nonintentional injuries are a leading cause of death and disability. Current literature identifies risk factors and prevention strategies for motor vehicle crashes and auto-pedestrian incidents. However, scant literature provides prevention strategies for the stranded motorist (SM). The SM is defined as any occupant of a vehicle that is stopped in or on the side of a road. The purpose of this case report was to identify and describe the circumstances of SM death. Death data were identified from the medicolegal death investigation agency. Between 2004 and 2014, Harris County, Texas, had 46 SM deaths, and of those deaths, 74% occurred while outside the vehicle, and most motorists become stranded because of mechanical issues (67%). An outcome of the report was a public service announcement aimed at primary injury prevention. The medicolegal death investigation agency changed how they categorize the SM. PMID:26133518

  19. Expert system aid for military finance

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.D.; Emrich, M.L.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Meador, M.

    1987-09-14

    Historically, budget preparation processes have been difficult to accomplish. Errors and inconsistencies cause problems for the analyst during budget review. This paper discusses the development and testing of an expert system to aid budget preparation. The prototyping tool, its capabilities, and their application are discussed. Shown are the pilot testing procedures and their role in system development. Current status and enhancements (including software updates and future testing) are also presented. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A rule based computer aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1986-01-01

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) system is presented which supports the iterative process of design, the dimensional continuity between mating parts, and the hierarchical structure of the parts in their assembled configuration. Prolog, an interactive logic programming language, is used to represent and interpret the data base. The solid geometry representing the parts is defined in parameterized form using the swept volume method. The system is demonstrated with a design of a spring piston.

  1. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  2. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  3. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  4. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  5. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  6. Adaptive environment classification system for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Luc; Giguère, Christian; Gueaieb, Wail; Aboulnasr, Tyseer; Othman, Hisham

    2010-05-01

    An adaptive sound classification framework is proposed for hearing aid applications. The long-term goal is to develop fully trainable instruments in which both the acoustical environments encountered in daily life and the hearing aid settings preferred by the user in each environmental class could be learned. Two adaptive classifiers are described, one based on minimum distance clustering and one on Bayesian classification. Through unsupervised learning, the adaptive systems allow classes to split or merge based on changes in the ongoing acoustical environments. Performance was evaluated using real-world sounds from a wide range of acoustical environments. The systems were first initialized using two classes, speech and noise, followed by a testing period when a third class, music, was introduced. Both systems were successful in detecting the presence of an additional class and estimating its underlying parameters, reaching a testing accuracy close to the target rates obtained from best-case scenarios derived from non-adaptive supervised versions of the classifiers (about 3% lower performance). The adaptive Bayesian classifier resulted in a 4% higher overall accuracy upon splitting adaptation than the minimum distance classifier. Merging accuracy was found to be the same in the two systems and within 1%-2% of the best-case supervised versions. PMID:21117761

  7. Computer aided system engineering for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racheli, Ugo

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  8. The CSS Guide to Implementing Financial Aid Data Processing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, William D.; And Others

    The College Scholarship Service guide to implementing financial aid data processing systems is presented, based on conferences that promoted information exchange between data processing and financial aid administrators. The following topics are addressed: long-range planning, the rationale and organizational basis for financial aid, specific…

  9. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  10. Mammographic computer-aided detection systems.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    While mammography is regarded as the best means available to screen for breast cancer, reading mammograms is a tedious, error-prone task. Given the repetitiveness of the process and the fact that less than 1% of mammograms in the average screening population contain cancer, it's no wonder that a significant number of breast cancers--about 28%--are missed by radiologists. The fact that human error is such a significant obstacle makes mammography screening an ideal application for computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. CAD systems serve as a "second pair of eyes" to ensure that radiologists don't miss a suspect area on an image. They analyze patterns on a digitized mammographic image, identify regions that may contain an abnormality indicating cancer, and mark these regions. The marks are then inspected and classified by a radiologist. But CAD systems provide no diagnosis of any kind--it's up to the radiologist to analyze the marked area and decide if it shows cancer. In this Evaluation, we describe the challenges posed by screening mammography, the operating principles and overall efficacy of CAD systems, and the characteristics to consider when purchasing a system. We also compare the performance of two commercially available systems, iCAD's MammoReader and R2's ImageChecker. Because the two systems offer comparable sensitivity, our judgments are based on other performance characteristics, including their ease of use, the number of false marks they produce, the degree to which they can integrate with hospital information systems, and their processing speed. PMID:12760158

  11. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  12. AUV-aided Seafloor Geodetic Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Fujita, M.; Colombo, O. L.; Sato, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Zheng, H.; Nagahashi, K.

    2007-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and seafloor platform to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and seafloor platform make it possible to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Trial model of the on-board and the seafloor units were finished. Space-saving design for the on-board unit, which controls both acoustic ranging system and GPS, was one of big issues to be overcome. We reviewed the current system configuration and made it simple. It was miniaturized, and then it was put into two cylinders. The cylinder No.1 contains the PHINS (IXSEA), an inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyroscope technology. Another one, the cylinder No.2, contains the SF-2050M (NAVCOM Technology) GPS receiver and the acoustic ranging units. The original chassis of the SF-2050M was removed to minimize the volume of the unit and then only the electrical boards of the GPS receiver was installed into the cylinder No.2. There is no commercialized GPS antenna that can receive both L1 and L2 signals and has pressure capability of 2,000 m depth in the sea. Then we developed the pressure housing for the GPS antenna. The small size antenna corresponding to the L1 and L2 signals was installed in it. The transducer, for underwater acoustic ranging, employed on both the on-board and the seafloor units has been newly developed by Dr. Tom Ensign, Engineering acoustic Inc.. This transducer has a spherical

  13. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  14. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  15. New mechanization equations for aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Bjorkman, W. S.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    Inertial navigation equations are developed which use area navigation (RNAV) waypoints and runway references as coodinate centers. The formulation is designed for aided inertial navigation systems and gives a high numerical accuracy through all phases of flight. A new formulation of the error equations for inertial navigation systems is also presented. This new formulation reduces numerical calculations in the use of Kalman filters for aided inertial navigation systems.

  16. System integration of pattern recognition, adaptive aided, upper limb prostheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, J.; Freedy, A.; Solomonow, M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements for successful integration of a computer aided control system for multi degree of freedom artificial arms are discussed. Specifications are established for a system which shares control between a human amputee and an automatic control subsystem. The approach integrates the following subsystems: (1) myoelectric pattern recognition, (2) adaptive computer aiding; (3) local reflex control; (4) prosthetic sensory feedback; and (5) externally energized arm with the functions of prehension, wrist rotation, elbow extension and flexion and humeral rotation.

  17. An intelligent robotic aid system for human services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Bagchi, S.; Iskarous, M.; Pack, R. T.; Saad, A.

    1994-01-01

    The long term goal of our research at the Intelligent Robotic Laboratory at Vanderbilt University is to develop advanced intelligent robotic aid systems for human services. As a first step toward our goal, the current thrusts of our R&D are centered on the development of an intelligent robotic aid called the ISAC (Intelligent Soft Arm Control). In this paper, we describe the overall system architecture and current activities in intelligent control, adaptive/interactive control and task learning.

  18. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  19. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  20. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-05-03

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This system is defined as a Commercial-Off the-Shelf computer dispatching system providing both text and graphical display information while interfacing with the diverse reporting system within the Hanford Facility. This system also provided expansion capabilities to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center and provides back-up capabilities for the Plutonium Processing Facility.

  1. Computer-Aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1996-09-27

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol emergency response. This document outlines the negotiated requirements as agreed to by GTE Northwest during technical contract discussions. This system defines a commercial off-the-shelf computer dispatching system providing both test and graphic display information while interfacing with diverse alarm reporting system within the Hanford Site. This system provided expansion capability to integrate Hanford Fire and the Occurrence Notification Center. The system also provided back-up capability for the Plutonium Processing Facility (PFP).

  2. Computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisition/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined.

  3. Computer-Aided Communication Satellite System Analysis and Optimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagl, Thomas W.; And Others

    Various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. The rationale for selecting General Dynamics/Convair's Satellite Telecommunication Analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) in modified form to aid in the system costing and sensitivity analysis work in the Program on…

  4. A Complete Interactive Graphical Computer-Aided Instruction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Steven Selby

    The use of interactive graphics in computer-aided instruction systems is discussed with emphasis placed on two requirements of such a system. The first is the need to provide the teacher with a useful tool with which to design and modify teaching sessions tailored to the individual needs and capabilities of the students. The second is the…

  5. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  6. User interface for integrated computer aided design systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, James L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was the development of a user interface and other appropriate tools to be used in Computer Aided Design systems which can integrate a wide variety of independently developed design and analysis tools. The interface was intended for the integration of programs to be used in the conceptual design of aerospace systems. A user's manual is included.

  7. A Model for Intelligent Computer-Aided Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, Johan P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a model for intelligent computer-aided education systems that is based on cooperative learning, constructive problem-solving, object-oriented programming, interactive user interfaces, and expert system techniques. Future research is discussed, and a prototype for teaching mathematics to 10- to 12-year-old students is appended. (LRW)

  8. Aid For Simulating Digital Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Richard M.

    1991-01-01

    DIVERS translator is computer program to convert descriptions of digital flight-control systems (DFCS) into computer program. Language developed to represent design charts of DFCS. Translator converts DIVERS source code into easily transportable language, while minimizing probability that results are affected by interpretation of programmer. Final translated program used as standard of comparison to verify operation of actual flight-control systems. Applicable to simulation of other control systems; for example, electrical circuits and logic processes. Written in C.

  9. Space systems computer-aided design technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) system is described, together with planned capability increases in the IDEAS system. The system's disciplines consist of interactive graphics and interactive computing. A single user at an interactive terminal can create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of earth-orbiting satellites, which represents a timely and cost-effective method during the conceptual design phase where various missions and spacecraft options require evaluation. Spacecraft concepts evaluated include microwave radiometer satellites, communication satellite systems, solar-powered lasers, power platforms, and orbiting space stations.

  10. Interactive graphical computer-aided design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edge, T. M.

    1975-01-01

    System is used for design, layout, and modification of large-scale-integrated (LSI) metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) arrays. System is structured around small computer which provides real-time support for graphics storage display unit with keyboard, slave display unit, hard copy unit, and graphics tablet for designer/computer interface.

  11. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  12. Information and computer-aided system for structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrashevitch, Ju. G.; Nizametdinov, Sh. U.; Polkovnikov, A. V.; Rumjantzev, V. P.; Surina, O. N.; Kalinin, G. M.; Sidorenkov, A. V.; Strebkov, Ju. S.

    1992-09-01

    An information and computer-aided system for structural materials data has been developed to provide data for the fusion and fission reactor system design. It is designed for designers, industrial engineers, and material science specialists and provides a friendly interface in an interactive mode. The database for structural materials contains the master files: chemical composition, physical, mechanical, corrosion, technological properties, regulatory and technical documentation. The system is implemented on a PC/AT running the PS/2 operating system.

  13. Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roat, S. D.; Melsheimer, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a single input/single output feedback control system design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Uses a heat exchanger temperature control loop to illustrate the various applications of the program. (ML)

  14. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  15. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  16. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  17. Precision analysis of passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years BD (BeiDou positioning system), an active satellite navigation system, has been widely applied in geodetic survey, precise engineering survey and GNC (guide, navigation and control system) of weapons because of its reliability and availability. However, it has several problems on the accuracy, anti-interference and active-positioning. A passive BD aided pseudolites positioning system is introduced in details in this paper. The configuration and the operating principle of system are presented. In analyzing the precision of location, one of the crucial aspects to be studied is how to determine the arrangement of the pseudolites to get the good GDOP, which is discussed in the different arrangements of the pseudolites in this paper. The simulation results show that the VDOP (vertical dilution of precision) of BD is improved due to introducing the pseudolites. The experiments indicate the validity of the methods and the improvement of the positioning precision in the BD aided pseudolite system.

  18. Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

  19. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  20. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: A Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Novak, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of a computer-aided personalized system of instruction program in two undergraduate psychology courses. The computer presented short essay tests and arranged for students who had completed various assignments satisfactorily to help evaluate other students' mastery of those assignments. Student response generally was…

  1. Models of Human Information Requirements: "When Reasonable Aiding Systems Disagree"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft flight management and Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation are under development to maximize the economy of flight and to increase the capacity of the terminal area airspace while maintaining levels of flight safety equal to or better than current system performance. These goals are being realized by the introduction of flight management automation aiding and operations support systems on the flight deck and by new developments of ATC aiding systems that seek to optimize scheduling of aircraft while potentially reducing required separation and accounting for weather and wake vortex turbulence. Aiding systems on both the flight deck and the ground operate through algorithmic functions on models of the aircraft and of the airspace. These models may differ from each other as a result of variations in their models of the immediate environment. The resultant flight operations or ATC commands may differ in their response requirements (e.g. different preferred descent speeds or descent initiation points). The human operators in the system must then interact with the automation to reconcile differences and resolve conflicts. We have developed a model of human performance including cognitive functions (decision-making, rule-based reasoning, procedural interruption recovery and forgetting) that supports analysis of the information requirements for resolution of flight aiding and ATC conflicts. The model represents multiple individuals in the flight crew and in ATC. The model is supported in simulation on a Silicon Graphics' workstation using Allegro Lisp. Design guidelines for aviation automation aiding systems have been developed using the model's specification of information and team procedural requirements. Empirical data on flight deck operations from full-mission flight simulation are provided to support the model's predictions. The paper describes the model, its development and implementation, the simulation test of the model predictions, and the empirical

  2. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: a reflection.

    PubMed

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  3. Aid effectiveness in rebuilding the Afghan health system: A reflection

    PubMed Central

    Dalil, Suraya; Newbrander, William; Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Naeem, Ahmad Jan; Griffin, James; Salama, Peter; Momand, Faiz Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The Paris Declaration defined five components of aid effectiveness: ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and mutual accountability. Afghanistan, which has received a high level of donor aid for health since 2002, has seen significant improvements in health indicators, expanded access to health services and an increased range of services. Do the impressive health outcomes in this fragile state mean that aid has been effectively utilised? The factors that contributed to the success of the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH)-donor partnership include as follows: Ownership: a realistic role for the MOPH as the steward of the health sector that was clearly articulated to all stakeholders; Donor alignment: donor coordination and collaboration initiated by the MOPH; Joint decisions: participatory decision-making by the MOPH and donors, such as the major decision to use contracts with nongovernmental organisations for health service delivery; Managing for results: basing programmes on available evidence, supplementing that evidence where possible and performance monitoring of health-sector activities using multiple data sources; Reliable aid flows: the availability of sufficient donor funding for more than 10 years for MOPH priorities, such as the Basic Package of Health Services, and other programmes that boosted system development and capacity building; Human factors: these include a critical mass of individuals with the right experience and expertise being deployed at the right time and able to look beyond agency mandates and priorities to support sector reform and results. These factors, which made aid to Afghanistan effective, can be applied in other countries. PMID:24922192

  4. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    PubMed

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  5. A computer aided engineering tool for ECLS systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangham, Michal E.; Reuter, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Computer-Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis tool used by NASA for environmental control and life support system design studies is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single-phase active thermal control systems. The designer/analysis interface used is graphics-based, and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration. Data management functions are performed, and the program is translated into a format that is compatible with the solution routines.

  6. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-04-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  7. A noncontacting motion monitoring system for an astronaut translation aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a noncontacting motion sensing system designed to monitor the movement of a cart along a track in the low earth orbit space environment is described. The system uses Hall effect sensors to detect the position of small permanent magnets located along the track. The measurement criteria are described, the system design is discussed, and estimates of the system error are given. The system will be used on the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment scheduled for the STS37 flight in November 1990. It will allow the position, velocity, and acceleration of the cart to be determined as it moves along the track.

  8. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  9. Program Aids Design Of Fluid-Circulating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen; Dalee, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) program is interactive software tool for trade study and analysis, designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. Graphics-based command-driven software package provides user-friendly computing environment in which engineer analyzes performance and interface characteristics of ECLS/ATC system. Useful during all phases of spacecraft-design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight analysis of anomalies. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Expert systems to aid in wind farm operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schluter, L. L.; Nateghian, F.; Luger, G. F.

    1991-12-01

    An expert system is a knowledge-based program that provides solutions to problems in a specific domain by mimicking the behavior of a human expert. Expert systems can have several advantages over traditional programming methods; however, developing an expert system generally involves a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, careful investigation must be done to ensure that a problem is suited for an expert system application. This paper examines several areas where an expert system may help wind farm operators lower their operational costs. Justifications for using expert systems rather than traditional programming methods are given. This paper also discusses some of the design decisions that were made in developing an expert system for US Windpower that will aid in diagnosing wind turbine failures.

  11. Effect of image variation on computer-aided detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, S. P.; Maduskar, P.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Hogeweg, L.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    As the importance of Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems application is rising in medical imaging field due to the advantages they generate; it is essential to know their weaknesses and try to find a proper solution for them. A common possible practical problem that affects CAD systems performance is: dissimilar training and testing datasets declines the efficiency of CAD systems. In this paper normalizing images is proposed, three different normalization methods are applied on chest radiographs namely (1) Simple normalization (2) Local Normalization (3) Multi Band Local Normalization. The supervised lung segmentation CAD system performance is evaluated on normalized chest radiographs with these three different normalization methods in terms of Jaccard index. As a conclusion the normalization enhances the performance of CAD system and among these three normalization methods Local Normalization and Multi band Local normalization improve performance of CAD system more significantly than the simple normalization.

  12. Computer-aided reliability estimation. [for fault-tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-aided reliability estimation (CARE) programs are developed to improve the tools available for estimating the reliability of fault-tolerant systems. A description is presented of a program, called CARE II, which was developed after the first program reported by Mathur (1971). Attention is given to the CARE II reliability model, the CARE II coverage model, and CARE II limitations which are to be rectified in CARE III. It is pointed out that the present coverage model in CARE II is extremely versatile. The major limitation is related to the burden placed on the user to determine the basic parameters from which the coverage calculations are made.

  13. Application of expert systems in project management decision aiding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Regina; Shaffer, Steven; Stokes, James; Goldstein, David

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an expert systems-based project management decision aid to enhance the performance of NASA project managers was assessed. The research effort included extensive literature reviews in the areas of project management, project management decision aiding, expert systems technology, and human-computer interface engineering. Literature reviews were augmented by focused interviews with NASA managers. Time estimation for project scheduling was identified as the target activity for decision augmentation, and a design was developed for an Integrated NASA System for Intelligent Time Estimation (INSITE). The proposed INSITE design was judged feasible with a low level of risk. A partial proof-of-concept experiment was performed and was successful. Specific conclusions drawn from the research and analyses are included. The INSITE concept is potentially applicable in any management sphere, commercial or government, where time estimation is required for project scheduling. As project scheduling is a nearly universal management activity, the range of possibilities is considerable. The INSITE concept also holds potential for enhancing other management tasks, especially in areas such as cost estimation, where estimation-by-analogy is already a proven method.

  14. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  15. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  16. Computer-Aided Diagnostic System For Mass Survey Chest Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yoshizumi; Kinoshita, Yasuhiro; Emori, Yasufumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi

    1988-06-01

    In order to support screening of chest radiographs on mass survey, a computer-aided diagnostic system that automatically detects abnormality of candidate images using a digital image analysis technique has been developed. Extracting boundary lines of lung fields and examining their shapes allowed various kind of abnormalities to be detected. Correction and expansion were facilitated by describing the system control, image analysis control and judgement of abnormality in the rule type programing language. In the experiments using typical samples of student's radiograms, good results were obtained for the detection of abnormal shape of lung field, cardiac hypertrophy and scoliosis. As for the detection of diaphragmatic abnormality, relatively good results were obtained but further improvements will be necessary.

  17. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis system for lung tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a computerized system of tumor detection for lung cancer diagnosis. Through the ten years study, we developed some key algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis. The most important algorithm is a filter to detect suspicious shadows of tumor on a plain chest x-ray image. The filter is named directional contrast filter for nodule (DCF-N). The DCF-N is highly sensitive to ambiguous shadows such as malignant tumors. And we developed a rule- based system to eliminate false-positive shadows. In our study, the system was effective to eliminate shadows of blood vessels and ribs which were primary groups of false-positives. Our current research is focusing on the development of the automatic tumor detection system for lung cancer examination by using CT images. In this paper, we discuss whether the system for plain chest x-ray images can apply to spiral CT images within a malignant tumor, which are reconstructed at 2 mm or 5 mm slice thickness. About a trial case, although the DCF-N can detect the malignant tumor, some false-positives are also detected. As to the analysis of the shadows, which are detected by the DCF-N, the major false-positives are blood vessels shadows. Therefore, the rule to eliminate blood vessels shadows in the rule-base for plain x- ray images is also effective for the CT images.

  19. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-de-Gea, Juan Manuel; García-Mateos, Ginés; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Hernández-Hernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP) is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions. PMID:27372536

  20. Quicklist: The basis for a computer aided logic design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quicklist, a preprocessor for an existing wire list program that cuts the description of the wire list by about 67 percent over previous methods, is described. Quicklist uses two different methods to shorten the input data. The first of these is the use of parentheses to allow a compact way of describing signal names which increment (or decrement) by one, i.e., typical signal names in a bus. The other method used is the equal sign. Using this symbol in a signal list says that the rest of the signals on that chip are the same as those on the previous chip described. Quicklist is intended to be the basis of a computer aided logic design system.

  1. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    plate aperture produces diffraction patterns that change the shape of the focal blur pattern. When used as an aperture, the Fresnel zone plate produces multiple focal planes in the scene. The interference between the multiple focal planes produce changes in the aperture that can be observed both between the focal planes and beyond the most distant focal plane. The Fresnel zone plate aperture and lens may be designed to change in the focal blur pattern at greater depths, thereby improving measurement performance of the coded aperture system. This research provides an in-depth study of the Fresnel zone plate used as a coded aperture, and the performance improvement obtained by augmenting a single camera vision aided inertial navigation system with a Fresnel zone plate coded aperture. Design and analysis of a generalized coded aperture is presented and demonstrated, and special considerations for the Fresnel zone plate are given. Also techniques to determine a continuous depth measurement from a coded image are presented and evaluated through measurement. Finally the measurement results from different aperture configurations are statistically modeled and compared with a simulated vision aided navigation environment to predict the change in performance of a vision aided inertial navigation system when augmented with a coded aperture.

  2. Aiding the environment: the Australian Development Agency's experience of implementing an environmental management system

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, Meg . E-mail: meg.keen@anu.edu.au; Sullivan, Marjorie

    2005-08-15

    Aid agencies, like commercial businesses, are increasingly concerned with incorporating sound environmental management into their operations. Different approaches are being used to integrate sustainability into development assistance to ensure that environmental impacts are assessed and managed. One approach being used by AusAID, the Australian aid agency, is to implement an environmental management system (EMS) across program and project areas. This paper examines how AusAID has adapted the EMS approach to suit aid agency operations, and some of the lessons from the Australian experience.

  3. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  4. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Preliminary Specification of the Current System with Program Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current delivery systems of the Pell Grant program, the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program, and campus-based aid programs are provided. The relationship between features of the programs and delivery systems is also examined. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (SEOG) Program,…

  5. The Holistic Application of High Technology for Conversation, Writing, and Computer Access Aid Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Barry L.

    The principal thesis of this paper is that successful use of high technology for conversation, writing, and computer access aid systems requires a holistic perspective. A holistic approach is one in which all the components of the support system needed to use high technology effectively are in place. Recognizing that aid systems are tools helps…

  6. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  7. Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark A; Burda, Joshua E; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O'Shea, Timothy M; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S; Deming, Timothy J; Sofroniew, Michael V

    2016-04-14

    Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system. Astrocytic scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or ablating chronic astrocytic scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. By contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocytic scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth-supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to the prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  8. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  9. Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) as an Aid for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Gorgon, Liza; Jones, Karen; McSherry, Frances; Glover, Elbert D.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Jackson, Thomas; Williams, Jill; Murtaugh, Cristin; Montoya, Ivan; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the efficacy and safety of selegiline transdermal system (STS) and brief repeated behavioral intervention (BRBI) for smoking cessation in heavy smokers. We hypothesized that the quit rate of subjects who received STS and BRBI would be significantly greater than that of those who received placebo patch and BRBI. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study in which 246 men and women were randomized to receive either STS (n = 121) or placebo patch (n =125) for 9 weeks. Recruitment targeted heavy smokers, defined as individuals with self-reported use of ≥15 cigarettes/day in the 30 days prior to enrollment, who had smoked cigarettes for the past 5 years, and had an expired CO level ≥9 ppm during screening. Results: Although STS was well tolerated, the overall results indicated that STS with BRBI was not more effective than placebo plus BRBI for smoking cessation (p = .58). Conclusions: The results are discussed in relation to interventions for heavy smokers. Although 2 trials using oral selegiline both showed trends toward improved abstinence, these results indicate that STS with BRBI was not an effective aid for smoking cessation at the end of treatment (10 weeks), 14, or 26 weeks. PMID:21846661

  10. An Author Management System and Other Computer-Based Aids to ISD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, A. F.

    A brief review of some of the more important needs imposed by current and projected Department of Defense training problems is followed by descriptions of such automated aids as the LAMPS MARK III Weapons System and the Air Force's F-16 Instructional System Development (ISD) effort. These aids have been designed and developed in response to the…

  11. A novel AIDS/HIV intelligent medical consulting system based on expert systems

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs’ ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. Result: The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. Conclusion: AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical. PMID:24251290

  12. Don't Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The American student-aid system has long been based on a tacit promise to provide students with the means to complete their college education and ensure that money is not a barrier to getting a degree. Unfortunately, says the writer, student aid has become little more than a marketing mechanism that permits colleges to maximize tuition dollars…

  13. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  14. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Junyi Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  15. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  16. eWorkbook: A Computer Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Fuccella, Vittorio; Oliveto, Rocco

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment (CAA) tools are more and more widely adopted in academic environments mixed to other assessment means. In this article, we present a CAA Web application, named eWorkbook, which can be used for evaluating learner's knowledge by creating (the tutor) and taking (the learner) on-line tests based on multiple choice, multiple…

  17. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  18. The Early Days of Computer Aided Newspaper Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enlund, Nils; Andersin, Hans E.

    During the years 1970-1973, the Laboratory of Information Processing Science at the Helsinki Uni versity of Technology carried out the Computer Graph ics Pro ject (CGP). The activities foc us ed on the problems of producing news paper text, ad vert isements, and com plete pages using inter act ive computer graphics. The project and its commercial spin-off, Typlan, as well as the BUNPAPS continuation project 1973-1975, cre ated a num ber of innovative, pioneering solutions for computer aided news pap er production, laying the found at ion for the digitalization of media production.

  19. Expert Systems in Education and Training: Automated Job Aids or Sophisticated Instructional Media?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romiszowski, Alexander J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status and limitations of expert systems, and explores the possible applications of such systems in education and training. The use of expert systems as tutors, as job aids, and as a vehicle for students to develop their own expert systems on specific topics are discussed. (40 references) (CLB)

  20. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  1. Investment in HIV/AIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongbao; Souteyrand, Yves; Banda, Mazuwa A; Kaufman, Joan; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing debate about whether the scaled-up investment in HIV/AIDS programs is strengthening or weakening the fragile health systems of many developing countries. This article examines and assesses the evidence and proposes ways forward. Discussion Considerably increased resources have been brought into countries for HIV/AIDS programs by major Global Health Initiatives. Among the positive impacts are the increased awareness of and priority given to public health by governments. In addition, services to people living with HIV/AIDS have rapidly expanded. In many countries infrastructure and laboratories have been strengthened, and in some, primary health care services have been improved. The effect of AIDS on the health work force has been lessened by the provision of antiretroviral treatment to HIV-infected health care workers, by training, and, to an extent, by task-shifting. However, there are reports of concerns, too – among them, a temporal association between increasing AIDS funding and stagnant reproductive health funding, and accusations that scarce personnel are siphoned off from other health care services by offers of better-paying jobs in HIV/AIDS programs. Unfortunately, there is limited hard evidence of these health system impacts. Because service delivery for AIDS has not yet reached a level that could conceivably be considered "as close to Universal Access as possible," countries and development partners must maintain the momentum of investment in HIV/AIDS programs. At the same time, it should be recognized that global action for health is even more underfunded than is the response to the HIV epidemic. The real issue is therefore not whether to fund AIDS or health systems, but how to increase funding for both. Summary The evidence is mixed – mostly positive but some negative – as to the impact on health systems of the scaled-up responses to HIV/AIDS driven primarily by global health partnerships. Current scaled-up responses

  2. FBI fingerprint identification automation study: AIDS 3 evaluation report. Volume 5: Current system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulhall, B. D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, costs, organization and other characteristics of both the manual system and AIDS 2 were used to establish a baseline case. The results of the evaluation are to be used to determine the feasibility of the AIDS 3 System, as well as provide a basis for ranking alternative systems during the second phase of the JPL study. The results of the study were tabulated by subject, scope and methods, providing a descriptive, quantitative and qualitative analysis of the current operating systems employed by the FBI Identification Division.

  3. Computer-aided designing of automatic process control systems for thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    The structure of modern microprocessor systems for automated control of technological processes at cogeneration stations is considered. Methods for computer-aided designing of the lower (sensors and actuators) and upper (cabinets of computerized automation equipment) levels of an automated process control system are proposed. The composition of project documents, the structures of a project database and database of a computer-aided design system, and the way they interact with one another in the course of developing the project of an automated process control system are described. Elements of the interface between a design engineer and computer program are shown.

  4. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  6. [Systems analytical investigation of the effect of countermeasures against the AIDS epidemic among homosexuals].

    PubMed

    Morio, S; Soda, K; Hashimoto, S; Fukutomi, K; Nakayama, H

    1991-12-01

    In Japan, the AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) epidemic among haemophiliacs has been the most urgent issue, because of the large number of haemophiliacs with AIDS. However, after governmental approval of the production of heated coagulating agents in 1985 and 1986, the prime object of prevention against the AIDS epidemic shifted from transmission through coagulation agents to that through sexual contacts. In order to investigate the most appropriate countermeasures against the AIDS epidemic among homosexuals in Japan, the numbers of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-infected cases and AIDS cases in the future were estimated, and changes of the future numbers of HIV-infected persons and AIDS cases by behavior of homosexuals were compared using a systems analytical method. The methods of estimation and comparison are similar to those of R. M. Anderson and others, using numerical analysis of a mathematical model consisting of differential equations. They assumed a closed homosexual group whose members seldom have contact with members of other homosexual groups, but we assumed an open homosexual group whose members are being infected by other groups, because this assumption was more appropriate to the situation of homosexual society in Japan. The results showed that the prevalence number of HIV-infected cases would be about 1,800, that the prevalence number of AIDS cases would be about 100 among 100,000 homosexuals at 20 years after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, and that the most effective countermeasure was reducing the frequency of sexual contacts among members or taking prophylactic measures during sexual contacts. These prevalence numbers of HIV-infected cases and AIDS cases would be reduced to between 1/4 and 1/2 of the above-mentioned calculated values by promotion of that countermeasure. PMID:1779479

  7. The Microcomputer as an Aid in Teaching Dynamic Systems Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Describes the major aspects of a 20-lecture introductory course for environmental science students, showing how microcomputers can help teach dynamic systems concepts. Also discusses the continuous stirred tank reactor as a simple dynamic system, higher order systems, frequency response, nonlinear systems, and feedback control. (JN)

  8. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  9. A comparative study of the audiological outcomes with Retro-X (semi-implantable hearing aid system) and conventional open fitting hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, Minoo; Lenarz, Thomas; Stieve, Martin; Winter, Mark

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of hearing augmentation with the Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid to a conventional non-implantable open canal hearing aid using the same software technology (Titan-X, auric Hearing Systems, HiKaNo.:13.20.03.0047). Nineteen subjects (20 ears) with mild to moderate high-frequency sensory-neural hearing loss were included in this clinical study. All the subjects were first fitted with a conventional open canal hearing aid (Titan-X). After a period of 4-6 weeks audiological evaluations were performed using standardized speech tests in quiet and noise. Subjective evaluation was performed with the help of standardized questionnaires. After this phase the patients received the semi-implantable Retro-X device under local anaesthesia and 4 weeks later were fitted with a hearing module with the same software technology as the conventional Titan-X hearing aid. Four weeks following the first fitting the same audiological evaluations were performed under similar conditions and the patients were evaluated again using the same questionnaires in order to compare the results of the Retro-X semi-implantable system with the conventional open canal hearing aid. Audiological evaluations revealed better results with the semi-implantable Retro-X in the adaptive speech in noise test; however, the results of the monosyllabic word test in quiet were similar for the Retro-X and conventional open canal hearing aid. The patients subjectively preferred the improved wearing comfort of the semi-implantable device. The Retro-X semi-implantable hearing aid provides better speech perception in noise and higher wearing comfort in comparison to the conventional open canal hearing aids. Considering the simple implantation procedure under local anaesthesia with low complication rate, Retro-X is an alternative to the conventional open canal hearing aids in patients with mild to moderate high frequency sensory-neural hearing loss. PMID:18365229

  10. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  11. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  12. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  13. Two-dimensional layout computer-aided system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tong; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Xiong

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a computer software system for an often encountered 2D layout problem in the shipbuilding and manufacture industries. For an ordered set of irregular as well as rectangular pieces, the system produces rectangles called modules for the pieces at first, and then places these modules into given rectangular sheets of fixed dimensions such that the number of sheets used is minimized. The system also provides the user with an interaction procedure in order to make itself as flexible as possible. This system has been implemented on IBM PC/AT 486 and compatible computers and is supported by AutoCAD system.

  14. Nanostructured Delivery Systems: Augmenting the Delivery of Antiretroviral Drugs for Better Management of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S; Mustafa, Sanaul

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, HIV-1, the retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is globally one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, existing approaches for interventions are not able to suppress the progression of infection due to this virus. Of the many obstacles, viral entry into the mono-nuclear phagocyte system encompassing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells is a major concern. Viral infection is also responsible for the subsequent distribution of the virus into various tissues throughout the organism. Tremendous progress has been made during the past few years to diagnose and treat patients with HIV/AIDS infection, yet much remains to be done. Recommended treatment involves long-term and multiple drug therapy that causes severe side effects. With almost 12% of the world population suffering from HIV/AIDS, better management of this global threat is highly desired. Nanostructured delivery systems hold promise for improving the situation. Such systems can facilitate the uptake of antiretroviral drugs, causing a considerable improvement in HIV/AIDS therapy. Nanoscale systems have intriguing potential to drastically improve existing HIV/AIDS diagnosis and treatment platforms. Nanosystems constitute a wide range of systems varying from polymeric nanoparticles, to solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, micro- and nanoemulsions, dendrimers, and self-nanoemulsifying systems. Improved bioavailability, solubility, stability, and biocompatibility make them an ideal choice for delivery of antiretroviral drugs. The present review initially describes an updated bird's-eye view account of the literature. Then, we provide a relatively sententious overview on updated patents of recent nanostructured delivery systems for antiretroviral drugs. Finally, we discuss low-cost therapy (such as antioxidants and immune modulators) for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. PMID:26559551

  15. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Speech-to-Print Transcription System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Inst. for the Deaf, Rochester, NY.

    This final report describes the development and evaluation of C-Print, a system for transcription of computer-aided speech to print. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the 3-year federally supported project. Chapter 2 provides background information on current speech-to-print systems. Chapter 3 focuses on needed improvements in C-Print, especially…

  17. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  18. Functional Specifications for Computer Aided Training Systems Development and Management (CATSDM) Support Functions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; And Others

    This report provides a description of a Computer Aided Training System Development and Management (CATSDM) environment based on state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, and including recommendations for off the shelf systems to be utilized as a starting point in addressing the particular systematic training and instruction design and…

  19. Wireless Hearing Aid System Simulations using Advanced Design System™: A Behavioral Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Singh Rana, Ram; Bin, Tang; Liang, Zhang; Hari Krishna, Garg; De Yun, Wang

    2005-01-01

    The stringent requirements on size and power consumption constrain the conventional hearing aid devices from providing the patients an economic and user friendly solution, specifically for better noise cancellation. With the advancements in technologies such as integrated circuits design, wireless communications and digital signal processing techniques, the wireless hearing aids having multi-microphones, analog, digital and mixed signals and radio frequency signals processing circuits, DSP and programmable units seem to be promising to provide enhanced performance. The focus of this paper is about the system simulation of a typical wireless hearing aid using Agilent Advanced Design System™. The behavioral modeling features are exploited to enable the whole system simulations including electro-acoustic transducers. A few system level simulation results are included. PMID:17282359

  20. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  1. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  2. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories. PMID:26401425

  3. NIST System for Measuring the Directivity Index of Hearing Aids under Simulated Real-Ear Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Randall P

    2013-01-01

    The directivity index is a parameter that is commonly used to characterize the performance of directional hearing aids, and is determined from the measured directional response. Since this response is different for a hearing aid worn on a person as compared to when it is in a free field, directivity index measurements of hearing aids are usually done under simulated real-ear conditions. Details are provided regarding the NIST system for measuring the hearing aid directivity index under these conditions and how this system is used to implement a standardized procedure for performing such measurements. This procedure involves a sampling method that utilizes sound source locations distributed in a semi-aligned zone array on an imaginary spherical surface surrounding a standardized acoustical test manikin. The capabilities of the system were demonstrated over the frequency range of one-third-octave bands with center frequencies from 200 Hz to 8000 Hz through NIST participation in an interlaboratory comparison. This comparison was conducted between eight different laboratories of members of Working Group S3/WG48, Hearing Aids, established by Accredited Standards Committee S3, Bioacoustics, which is administered by the Acoustical Society of America and accredited by the American National Standards Institute. Directivity measurements were made for a total of six programmed memories in two different hearing aids and for the unaided manikin with the manikin right pinna accompanying the aids. Omnidirectional, cardioid, and bidirectional response patterns were measured. Results are presented comparing the NIST data with the reference values calculated from the data reported by all participating laboratories. PMID:26401425

  4. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  5. Computer aided analysis and optimization of mechanical system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose is to outline a computational approach to spatial dynamics of mechanical systems that substantially enlarges the scope of consideration to include flexible bodies, feedback control, hydraulics, and related interdisciplinary effects. Design sensitivity analysis and optimization is the ultimate goal. The approach to computer generation and solution of the system dynamic equations and graphical methods for creating animations as output is outlined.

  6. Web-Based Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Schnerch, Gabriel J.; Silva, Kathleen M.; Svenningsen, Louis; Lambert, Jody

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a proliferation of Web-based course-management systems designed to facilitate postsecondary teaching (for example, WebCT, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle). In general, these systems provide analogs for delivering lectures, holding class discussions, giving quizzes and examinations (typically multiple…

  7. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  8. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bifano, W.J.; DeLombard, R.; Ratajczak, A.F.; Scudder, L.R.

    1984-05-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PVpowered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  9. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  10. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  11. A Tone-Aided/Dual Vestigial Sideband (TA/DVSB) system for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Millar, Gilbert M.; Depaolo, Anthony D.

    1990-01-01

    Tone-aided modulation is one way of combatting the effects of multipath fading and Doppler frequency shifts. A new tone-aided modulation format for M-ary phase-shift keyed signals (MPSK) is discussed. A spectral null for the placement of the tone is created in the center of the MPSK signal by translating the upper sideband upwards in frequency by the same amount. The key element of the system is the algorithm for recombining the data sidebands in the receiver, a function that is performed by a specialized phase-locked loop (PLL). The system structure is discussed and simulation results showing the PLL acquisition performance are presented.

  12. Computer-aided communication satellite system analysis and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Morgan, N. H.; Morley, R. E.; Singh, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of the various published computer programs for fixed/broadcast communication satellite system synthesis and optimization are discussed. A satellite Telecommunication analysis and Modeling Program (STAMP) for costing and sensitivity analysis work in application of communication satellites to educational development is given. The modifications made to STAMP include: extension of the six beam capability to eight; addition of generation of multiple beams from a single reflector system with an array of feeds; an improved system costing to reflect the time value of money, growth in earth terminal population with time, and to account for various measures of system reliability; inclusion of a model for scintillation at microwave frequencies in the communication link loss model; and, an updated technological environment.

  13. Flight evaluation of differential GPS aided inertial navigation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Paielli, Russell A.; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.; Warner, David N., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms are described for integration of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data with Inertial Navigation System (INS) data to provide an integrated DGPS/INS navigation system. The objective is to establish the benefits that can be achieved through various levels of integration of DGPS with INS for precision navigation. An eight state Kalman filter integration was implemented in real-time on a twin turbo-prop transport aircraft to evaluate system performance during terminal approach and landing operations. A fully integrated DGPS/INS system is also presented which models accelerometer and rate-gyro measurement errors plus position, velocity, and attitude errors. The fully integrated system was implemented off-line using range-domain (seventeen-state) and position domain (fifteen-state) Kalman filters. Both filter integration approaches were evaluated using data collected during the flight test. Flight-test data consisted of measurements from a 5 channel Precision Code GPS receiver, a strap-down Inertial Navigation Unit (INU), and GPS satellite differential range corrections from a ground reference station. The aircraft was laser tracked to determine its true position. Results indicate that there is no significant improvement in positioning accuracy with the higher levels of DGPS/INS integration. All three systems provided high-frequency (e.g., 20 Hz) estimates of position and velocity. The fully integrated system provided estimates of inertial sensor errors which may be used to improve INS navigation accuracy should GPS become unavailable, and improved estimates of acceleration, attitude, and body rates which can be used for guidance and control. Precision Code DGPS/INS positioning accuracy (root-mean-square) was 1.0 m cross-track and 3.0 m vertical. (This AGARDograph was sponsored by the Guidance and Control Panel.)

  14. Computer aided differential diagnosis in emergency situations (CADDIES) system

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-03-01

    This report presents an idea for a portable computerized differential diagnosis tool that could be utilized by a health care provider during an emergency situation. This radio frequency, networked, menu driven system would analyze various patient assessment parameters and make recommendations regarding possible diagnoses/treatment options outside the scope of suspicion of the health care provider. This system would serve as a repository for initial epidemiological data and assist the health care provider with spotting emerging trends.

  15. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2001-06-05

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  16. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1999-10-26

    A computer system (1) for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area (814) and sample sequences in another area (816) on a display device (3).

  17. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, M.S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device. 27 figs.

  18. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    2003-08-19

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments may be improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  19. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.

    1998-08-18

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  20. Computer-aided visualization and analysis system for sequence evaluation

    DOEpatents

    Chee, Mark S.; Wang, Chunwei; Jevons, Luis C.; Bernhart, Derek H.; Lipshutz, Robert J.

    2004-05-11

    A computer system for analyzing nucleic acid sequences is provided. The computer system is used to perform multiple methods for determining unknown bases by analyzing the fluorescence intensities of hybridized nucleic acid probes. The results of individual experiments are improved by processing nucleic acid sequences together. Comparative analysis of multiple experiments is also provided by displaying reference sequences in one area and sample sequences in another area on a display device.

  1. Computer-aided prototype system for nose surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, T Y; Lin, C H; Lin, H Y

    2001-12-01

    Rhinoplasty, or surgery to reshape the nose, is one of the most common of all plastic-surgery procedures. Rhinoplasty can enhance a patient's appearance and self-confidence, may also correct a birth defect or injury, or help relieve some breathing problem. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional (3-D) surgical simulation system, which can assist surgeons in planning rhinoplasty procedures. This system employs computer graphics and image-processing techniques for the simulation of a rhinoplasty. Although the presented algorithms themselves are not new, the proposed system exploits the new idea to apply 3-D morphing for rhinoplasty, and simulation results are useful for the physicians. According to patients' expectation of what they would like their noses to look like, our system simulates expected results. Our tools provide quantitative measurements of a nose structure. Using these quantitative results, surgeons can arrange appropriate preoperative plans for patients. Finally, experimental results and experiences are reported to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed system. PMID:11759833

  2. A Computer-Aided Large Scale Pacemaker Surveillance System*

    PubMed Central

    Covvey, H.D.; MacGregor, D.C.; Noble, E.J.; Goldman, B.S.; Wigle, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Beginning in 1972 with a small PDP-8 based system, our Pacemaker Center has continued a commitment to the implementation of computer-based systems to reduce the cost and increase the safety of patient follow-up. Recently we brought into operation a new version of our patient surveillance system on our shared database management computer, the Sperry-Univac V-76. A complete set of optical mark readable forms has been developed to capture pacemaker data. A variety of operational support reports are produced. Pre-clinic and pre-telephone follow-up reports summarize patient status and serve as a basis for comparing the patient's current state to his history of encounters. Post-clinic and post-transtelephone reports document the encounter and are used as reports to the referring physician and for inclusion in the patient's chart. The surgical form set is used to generate a detailed operative note.

  3. Computer aided optimal design of compressed air energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, F. W.; Sharma, A.; Ragsdell, K. M.

    1980-07-01

    An automated procedure for the design of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The procedure relies upon modern nonlinear programming algorithms, decomposition theory, and numerical models of the various system components. Two modern optimization methods are employed; BIAS, a Method of Multipliers code and OPT, a Generalized Reduced Gradient code. The procedure is demonstrated by the design of a CAES facility employing the Media, Illinois Galesville aquifer as the reservoir. The methods employed produced significant reduction in capital and operating cost, and in number of aquifer wells required.

  4. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  5. A Computer-Based, Interactive Videodisc Job Aid and Expert System for Electron Beam Lithography Integration and Diagnostic Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kimberly

    This master's thesis describes the development of an expert system and interactive videodisc computer-based instructional job aid used for assisting in the integration of electron beam lithography devices. Comparable to all comprehensive training, expert system and job aid development require a criterion-referenced systems approach treatment to…

  6. A PC-aided optical foetal heart rate detection system.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Rami J; As'ad, Hala; Aldarawsheh, Amany; Al-Khdeirat, Rawan; Lwissy, Kaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Safe monitoring of foetal heart rate is a valuable tool for the healthy evolution and wellbeing of both foetus and mother. This paper presents a non-invasive optical technique that allows for foetal heart rate detection using a photovoltaic infrared (IR) detector placed on the mother's abdomen. The system presented here consists of a photoplethysmography (PPG) circuit, abdomen circuit and a personal computer equipped with MATLAB. A near IR beam having a wavelength of 880 nm is transmitted through the mother's abdomen and foetal tissue. The received abdominal signal that conveys information pertaining to the mother and foetal heart rate is sensed by a low noise photodetector. The PC receives the signal through the National Instrumentation Data Acquisition Card (NIDAQ). After synchronous detection of the abdominal and finger PPG signals, the designed MATLAB-based software saves, analyses and extracts information related to the foetal heart rate. Extraction is carried out using recursive least squares adaptive filtration. Measurements on eight pregnant women with gestational periods ranging from 35-39 weeks were performed using the proposed system and CTG. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.978 and a correlation confidence interval between 88-99.6%. The t test results in a p value of 0.034, which is less than 0.05. Low power, low cost, high signal-to-noise ratio, reduction of ambient light effect and ease of use are the main characteristics of the proposed system. PMID:24195701

  7. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  8. A study on spatial decision support systems for HIV/AIDS prevention based on COM GIS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Luo, Huasong; Peng, Shungyun; Xu, Quanli

    2007-06-01

    Based on the deeply analysis of the current status and the existing problems of GIS technology applications in Epidemiology, this paper has proposed the method and process for establishing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention by integrating the COM GIS, Spatial Database, GPS, Remote Sensing, and Communication technologies, as well as ASP and ActiveX software development technologies. One of the most important issues for constructing the spatial decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention is how to integrate the AIDS spreading models with GIS. The capabilities of GIS applications in the AIDS epidemic prevention have been described here in this paper firstly. Then some mature epidemic spreading models have also been discussed for extracting the computation parameters. Furthermore, a technical schema has been proposed for integrating the AIDS spreading models with GIS and relevant geospatial technologies, in which the GIS and model running platforms share a common spatial database and the computing results can be spatially visualized on Desktop or Web GIS clients. Finally, a complete solution for establishing the decision support systems of AIDS epidemic prevention has been offered in this paper based on the model integrating methods and ESRI COM GIS software packages. The general decision support systems are composed of data acquisition sub-systems, network communication sub-systems, model integrating sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial database sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information querying and statistical analysis sub-systems, AIDS epidemic dynamic surveillance sub-systems, AIDS epidemic information spatial analysis and decision support sub-systems, as well as AIDS epidemic information publishing sub-systems based on Web GIS.

  9. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  10. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  13. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874.3310 Section 874.3310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3310...

  14. Operation of a computer aided drafting system: improvements, results and hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Millaud, J.; Goulding, F.; Salz, P.; Shimada, K.

    1983-10-01

    A two workstation Computer Aided Drafting system has been in operation since September 1982 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering. Improvements made to the original hardware and software configuration are described. Benefits from this installation are reported and future developments are outlined.

  15. Colorado Community College System Financial Aid Services: Cost Analyses and Cost Efficiency Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Dale

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted in two phases. One, the Cost Analysis, reports on inventory and analysis of actual estimated costs for delivering financial aid services to students and potential students in thirteen Colorado Community College System (CCCS) community colleges in Fiscal Year 2003. Additionally, an assessment of services and functions is…

  16. COMPUTER-AIDED SYNTHESIS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND SLUDGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided design procedure for the preliminary synthesis of wastewater treatment and sludge disposal systems is developed. It selects the components in the wastewater treatment and sludge disposal trains from a list of candidate process units with fixed design characterist...

  17. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  18. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) and Farm Service Agency (FSA) are seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES). FSA and CCC procure various processed foods and commodities to be exported and donated for......

  19. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  20. Implementation and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Mandarin Phonemes Training System for Hearing-Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2005-01-01

    A computer-aided Mandarin phonemes training (CAMPT) system was developed and evaluated for training hearing-impaired students in their pronunciation of Mandarin phonemes. Deaf or hearing-impaired people have difficulty hearing their own voice, hence most of them cannot learn how to speak. Phonemes are the basis for learning to read and speak in…

  1. Development of a Computer-Aided Evaluation System for Vocational Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer-aided self-evaluation system for vocational education programs involves three stages: vital sign assessment, in-depth analysis, and program improvement planning. The six vital signs that give an overall picture of program quality are placement/continuing education, enrollment, employer satisfaction, student satisfaction, employability…

  2. Performance Measures in Courses Using Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, C. R.; Pear, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Archived data from four courses taught with computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI)--an online, self-paced, instructional program--were used to explore the relationship between objectively rescored final exam grades, peer reviewing, and progress rate--i.e., the rate at which students completed unit tests. There was a strong…

  3. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction for the Virtual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinser, W.; Pear, J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) and its implementations for both on-campus and off-campus teaching at the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student reactions, the use of data that are saved throughout the course, and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  4. Experience gained at ZAO Ural Turbine Works with the use of computer-aided design systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenko, V. V.; Valamin, A. E.; Shanturov, D. N.; Sokolov, E. V.; Toibich, S. V.; Glushchenko, A. N.

    2008-08-01

    The results of work accomplished in the field of computer-aided design at ZAO Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) are presented. A concept is described following which the tasks for a specialist’s workstations being developed at the UTZ are solved. Results from solution of problems with the use of modern numerical simulation computer programs for analyzing gas dynamic processes, casting, welding, and strength of complex structures are given. An example is given to show efficient use of a computer-aided design system for shifting an enterprise to a modern level of automation.

  5. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  6. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  7. SFO compensation by pilot-aided channel estimation for real-time DDO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rui; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique in the real-time direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). It has been verified that the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique can help to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) effect. The experimental results show that, based on the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique, even at a SFO of 170 ppm, a 16-QAM-OFDM signal can be successfully transmitted over 100-km SSMF under the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold with a bit error rate of 3.8×10-3. And the effect of up to ~25 ppm SFO can be negligible.

  8. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  9. HIV/AIDS and family support systems: A situation analysis of people living with HIV/AIDS in Lagos State.

    PubMed

    Oluwagbemiga, Adeyemi Ezekiel

    2007-11-01

    Current statistics about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria do not reveal the broader social and economic impacts of the disease on the family.The study therefore primarily aimed to address the socio-economic effects of HIV infection on individuals and their families.The study was carried out in Lagos State. In-depth interviews were employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the state, while four focus group discussions were conducted to elicit information from people affected by AIDS about the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on families in Nigeria. From the survey, among people living with HIV/AIDS, 66% of females and males were in the age group 21-40 years, while 10% were older people above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that as HIV/AIDS strikes at parents, grand parents are assuming responsibility for bringing up the children of the infected persons and the orphans of those killed by the virus. It was striking that some of the older caregivers could not meet the requirement of these children.They are often forced to work more than they would have, or borrow in order to cope with the needs of these extra mouths. Some of the infected people have sold their properties to enable them to cope with the economic effects of the virus, while their children have had to drop out of school, since they could not afford the school fees and other related expenses. It was suggested that PLWHA should be economically empowered with adequate medical treatment, in order to reduce the impact of the disease on the family. PMID:18185894

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  12. The Third Therapeutic System: Faith Healing Strategies in the Context of a Generalized AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Manglos, Nicolette D.; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences. PMID:21362615

  13. Sentinel: An Expert System Decision Aid For A Command, Control And Communications Operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobat, Daniel L.; Rogers, Steven K.; Cross, Stephen E.

    1986-03-01

    The growing complexity and quantity of information used in command, control and communications (C3) networks makes it essential to reduce the workload on the operators of these networks. SENTINEL is an expert system which functions as a decision aid for the strategic missile warning officer, using a simulation of a C3 network that involves multiple missile launches and up to 20 countries. In this research, a blackboard model expert system using rule bases and object oriented programming techniques was developed that permits SENTINEL to deal with uncertainty and offer several layers of explanation. SENTINEL deals with uncertainty by using Cohen's endorsement theory and the pattern recognition techniques of feature sets and prototypes. SENTINEL analyzes the causes of reported events into higher level, yet less precise forms to offer an abstract layer of explanation. The results are applicable to further expert system or decision aid development for C3 networks.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  15. Intelligent computer-aided diagnosis system for breast MRI combining kinetic and morphological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Lange, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    An intelligent medical systems based on a radial basis neural network is applied to the automatic classification of suspicious lesions in breast MRI and compared with two standard mammographic reading methods. Such systems represent an important component of future sophisticated computer-aided diagnosis systems and enable the extraction of spatial and temporal features of dynamic MRI data stemming from patients with confirmed lesion diagnosis. Intelligent medical systems combining both kinetics and lesions' morphology are expected to have substantial implications in healthcare politics by contributing to the diagnosis of indeterminate breast lesions by non-invasive imaging.

  16. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Specification of the Current System. Supplement II to the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current student financial aid system, with attention to the Pell Grant, Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL), and campus-based programs, are provided. The methodology used to develop the specifications is also described. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, the College Work Study…

  17. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  18. A vision-aided alignment datum system for coordinate measuring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Lin, G. C. I.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a CAD-based and vision-aided precision measurement system. A new coordinate system alignment technique for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) is described. This alignment technique involves a machine vision system with CAD-based planning and execution of inspection. The determination method for measuring datums for the coordinate measuring technique, using the AutoCAD development system, is described in more detail. To improve image quality in the machine vision system, a contrast enhancement technique is used on the image background to reduce image noise, and an on-line calibration technique is applied. Some systematic errors may be caused by imperfect geometric features in components during coordinate system alignment. This measurement system approach, with its new measuring coordinate alignment method, can be used for high-precision measurement to overcome such errors.

  19. Payload installation and deployment aid for space shuttle orbiter spacecraft remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, T. O.

    1982-01-01

    An aid concept known as the PIDA (Payload Installation and Deployment Aid) is presented as a way to assist the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) by relaxing the accuracy required during payload handling in the payload bay. The aid concept was designed and developed to move payloads through a prescribed path between the confined quarters of the payload bay and a position outside the critical maneuvering area of the Orbiter. An androgynous docking mechanism is used at the payload/PIDA interfaces for normal docking functions that also serves as the structural connection between the payload and the Orbiter, that is capable of being loosened to prevent transfer of loads between a stowed payload and the PIDA structure. A gearmotor driven drum/cable system is used in the docking mechanism in a unique manner to center the attenuator assembly, align the ring and guide assembly (docking interface) in roll, pitch, and yaw, and rigidize the mechanism at a nominal position. A description of the design requirements and the modes of operation of the various functions of the deployment and the docking mechanisms are covered.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  1. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  2. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-01

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission. PMID:25401902

  3. Biomedical Informatics for Computer-Aided Decision Support Systems: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Kon, Mark A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2013-01-01

    The volumes of current patient data as well as their complexity make clinical decision making more challenging than ever for physicians and other care givers. This situation calls for the use of biomedical informatics methods to process data and form recommendations and/or predictions to assist such decision makers. The design, implementation, and use of biomedical informatics systems in the form of computer-aided decision support have become essential and widely used over the last two decades. This paper provides a brief review of such systems, their application protocols and methodologies, and the future challenges and directions they suggest. PMID:23431259

  4. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  5. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  6. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  7. Companion cats and the social support systems of men with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Castelli, P; Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L

    2001-08-01

    60 male pet owners with AIDS were given a formal questionnaire including items related to demographic, lifestyle, and pet ownership, as well as the Comfort from Companion Animals Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The men lived in the San Francisco area and received assistance from Pets Are Wonderful Support (PAWS), a community organization, in caring for their companion dogs or cats. Participants were a convenience sample of pet owners who volunteered from among 500 PAWS clients and who do not necessarily represent a random sample of men with AIDS who keep companion animals. For these men, their comfort from companion animals was significantly associated with having cats but not dogs, closeness with friends, dissatisfaction with their practical support system, and listing pets as a source of support. Loneliness was negatively associated with having a large practical support network, scoring as healthy on the General Health Questionnaire, and living alone. For these male pet owners with AIDS, pet cats appeared to complement their supportive relationships with friends and family that were protective against loneliness. PMID:11729540

  8. Hearing loss and the central auditory system: Implications for hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisina, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    Hearing loss can result from disorders or damage to the ear (peripheral auditory system) or the brain (central auditory system). Here, the basic structure and function of the central auditory system will be highlighted as relevant to cases of permanent hearing loss where assistive devices (hearing aids) are called for. The parts of the brain used for hearing are altered in two basic ways in instances of hearing loss: (1) Damage to the ear can reduce the number and nature of input channels that the brainstem receives from the ear, causing plasticity of the central auditory system. This plasticity may partially compensate for the peripheral loss, or add new abnormalities such as distorted speech processing or tinnitus. (2) In some situations, damage to the brain can occur independently of the ear, as may occur in cases of head trauma, tumors or aging. Implications of deficits to the central auditory system for speech perception in noise, hearing aid use and future innovative circuit designs will be provided to set the stage for subsequent presentations in this special educational session. [Work supported by NIA-NIH Grant P01 AG09524 and the International Center for Hearing & Speech Research, Rochester, NY.

  9. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are

  10. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  11. Genalogical approaches to ethical implications of informational assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in business

    SciTech Connect

    Pharhizgar, K.D.; Lunce, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Development of knowledge-based technological acquisition techniques and customers` information profiles are known as assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in modern organizations. These systems have access through processing to both deep and broad domains of information in modern societies. Through these systems organizations and individuals can predict future trend probabilities and events concerning their customers. AIDSs are new techniques which produce new information which informants can use without the help of the knowledge sources because of the existence of highly sophisticated computerized networks. This paper has analyzed the danger and side effects of misuse of information through the illegal, unethical and immoral access to the data-base in an integrated and assimilative information system as described above. Cognivistic mapping, pragmatistic informational design gathering, and holistic classifiable and distributive techniques are potentially abusive systems whose outputs can be easily misused by businesses when researching the firm`s customers.

  12. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  13. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D.; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3′ UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  14. Computer-aided alignment of off-axis three-mirror imaging spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dun; Wang, Hong; Tian, Tie-yin

    2013-08-01

    The space camera is one of the most advanced optical equipments in obtaining earth surface information from space. With the development of the optical design, manufacture and alignment technology, the performance of the optical camera is moving forward quickly. In spaceto- ground remote sensing field, the resolution of ground remote sensing images have become higher and higher. Off-axis three-mirror system becomes an advanced optical system structure of space camera at present , because of its merits of large field, long focal length, no obstruction, high modulated transfer function, wide spectrum, good image quality, small cubage and light weight, etc. As it is difficult to align and test, the alignment of off-axis three mirror system is timeconsuming, so it is important and necessary of studying the computer-aided alignment of the complex optical system. Aiming at cutting the time of alignment, Computer-aided alignment technology is applied to this system. According to relation between fringe Zernike coefficient and Seidel aberration, wavefront aberration in the exit pupil of optical system is instead with fringe Zernike coefficient. A series of Zernike coefficient expressing the incorrect parameters of system are obtained by using multi-fields ZYGO interferometer auto-collimating interference test, which are transformed into geometric aberrations as the corrected object. Incorrect parameters of the system are determined by sensitivity matrix resulted from optical design software. These incorrect parameters are defined to be variables; the Zernike coefficient are defined to be the optimized target in merit function. The system is optimized by applying optical design software to receive the incorrect parameters result. Consequently, the adjusted result is brought into the optical design software to verify the right selection of incorrect parameters. The practical experiments are also given, result with RMS value lower than 0.04λ is acquired by using this

  15. A Student Response System in an Electronic Classroom: Technology Aids for Large Classroom Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ober, D.; Errington, P.; Islam, S.; Robertson, T.; Watson, J.

    1997-10-01

    In the fall of 1996, thirteen (13) classrooms on the Ball State campus were equipped with technological aids to enhance learning in large classrooms (for typically 100 students or larger). Each classroom was equipped with the following built-in equipment: computer, zip drive, laser disc player, VCR, LAN and Internet connection, TV monitors, and Elmo overhead camera with large-screen projection system. This past fall semester a student response system was added to a 108-seat classroom in the Physics and Astronomy department for use with large General Education courses. Each student seat was equipped with a hardwired hand-held unit possessing input capabilities and LCD feedback for the student. The introduction of the student response system was added in order enhance more active learning by students in the large classroom environment. Attendance, quizzes, hour exams, and in-class surveys are early uses for the system; initial reactions by student and faculty users will be given.

  16. In-flight angular alignment of inertial navigation systems by means of radio aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, W.

    1972-01-01

    The principles involved in the angular alignment of the inertial reference by nondirectional data from radio aids are developed and compared with conventional methods of alignment such as gyro-compassing and pendulous vertical determination. The specific problem is considered of the space shuttle reentry and a proposed technique for the alignment of the inertial reference system some time before landing. A description is given of the digital simulation of a transponder interrogation system and of its interaction with the inertial navigation system. Data from reentry simulations are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of in-flight inertial system alignment. Concluding remarks refer to other potential applications such as space shuttle orbit insertion and air navigation of conventional aircraft.

  17. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques. PMID:26371347

  18. Application of fuzzy logic in computer-aided design of digital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shragowitz, Eugene B.; Lee, Jun-Yong; Kang, Eric Q.

    1996-06-01

    Application of fuzzy logic structures in computer-aided design (CAD) of electronic systems substantially improves quality of design solutions by providing designers with flexibility in formulating goals and selecting trade-offs. In addition, the following aspects of a design process are positively impacted by application of fuzzy logic: utilization of domain knowledge, interpretation of uncertainties in design data, and adaptation of design algorithms. We successfully applied fuzzy logic structures in conjunction with constructive and iterative algorithms for selecting of design solutions for different stages of the design process. We also introduced a fuzzy logic software development tool to be used in CAD applications.

  19. Vector Observation-Aided/Attitude-Rate Estimation Using Global Positioning System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshman, Yaakov; Markley, F. Landis

    1997-01-01

    A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, D R; Jelovsek, F R

    1987-01-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology. PMID:3447888

  1. Pharmacokinetics and expert systems as aids for risk assessment in reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Jelovsek, F.R.

    1987-12-01

    A minimal approach to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology involves four components: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure characterization, and risk characterization. In practice, risk assessment in reproductive toxicology has been reduced to arbitrary safety factors or mathematical models of the dose-response relationship. These approaches obscure biological differences across species rather than using this important and frequently accessible information. Two approaches that are formally capable of using biologically relevant information (pharmacokinetics and expert system shells) are explored as aids to risk assessment in reproductive toxicology.

  2. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  3. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  4. Java interface to a computer-aided diagnosis system for acute pulmonary embolism using PIOPED findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, Erik D.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Gauger, Matthew; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

    1999-05-01

    An interface to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (PE) from PIOPED radiographic findings was developed. The interface is based on Internet technology which is user-friendly and available on a broad range of computing platforms. It was designed to be used as a research tool and as a data collection tool, allowing researchers to observe the behavior of a CAD system and to collect radiographic findings on ventilation-perfusion lung scans and chest radiographs. The interface collects findings from physicians in the PIOPED reporting format, processes those findings and presents them as inputs to an artificial neural network (ANN) previously trained on findings from 1,064 patients from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PIOPED) study. The likelihood of PE predicted by the ANN and by the physician using the system is then saved for later analysis.

  5. Cost justification for an interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Many factors influence the capital investment decision. System costs and benefits are weighed by methods of financial analysis to determine the advisability of an investment. Capital, expense, and benefits as related to Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) Systems are discussed and model calculations are included. An example is treated by the simple payback method and the more sophisticated methods of Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The NPV and IRR approaches include in the calculation the time value of money and provide a sounder foundation on which to base the purchase decision. It is hoped that an understanding of these techniques by technical personnel will make an optimum system purchase more likely.

  6. The development of expertise using an intelligent computer-aided training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1991-01-01

    An initial examination was conducted of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for use in industry. The ITS, developed by NASA, simulated a satellite deployment task. More specifically, the PD (Payload Assist Module Deployment)/ICAT (Intelligent Computer Aided Training) System simulated a nominal Payload Assist Module (PAM) deployment. The development of expertise on this task was examined using three Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) candidates who has no previous experience with this task. The results indicated that performance improved rapidly until Trial 5, followed by more gradual improvements through Trial 12. The performance dimensions measured included performance speed, actions completed, errors, help required, and display fields checked. Suggestions for further refining the software and for deciding when to expose trainees to more difficult task scenarios are discussed. Further, the results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the PD/ICAT system in training the nominal PAM deployment task and indicate the potential benefits of using ITS's for training other FDO tasks.

  7. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  8. Current State of an Intelligent System to Aid in Tephra Layer Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Hedgecock, S.; Bursik, M.; Rogova, G.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a computer based intelligent system to correlate tephra layers by using the lithologic, mineralogic, and geochemical characteristics of field samples, to aid geologists in interpreting eruption patterns of volcanic chains and fields. The intelligent system is used to define groups of tephra source vents by utilizing geochemical data, and to correlate tephra layers based on lithostratigraphic characteristics. Understanding the eruption history of a volcano from stratigraphic studies is important for forecasting future eruptive behavior and hazards. In volcanic chains and fields with a complex eruptive history and no central vent, determining the spatio- temporal eruption patterns is difficult. Sedimentologic and chemical variability, and sparse sampling often result in relatively large variances and imprecision in the dataset. Lithostratigraphic and geochemical interpretation also depends on ones' level of expertise and can be subjective. The processing of lithostratigraphic features is conducted by a hybrid classifier, composed of supervised artificial neural networks (ANNs) combined within the framework of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Since lithostratigraphic features vary with distance from source, hypothetical vent locations are determined by using expert domain knowledge and geostatistical methods. Geochemical data are processed by a suit of fuzzy k- means classifiers. Each fuzzy k-means classifier assigns observations to multiple clusters with various degrees, called membership coefficients. The assignment minimizes a function of the total distance between the centers of clusters and the individual geochemical data patterns weighed by the membership coefficients. Improved clustering results of geochemical data are achieved by the fusion of individual clustering results with an evidential combination method. Lithostratigraphic data from individual tephra beds of the North Mono eruption sequence are used to test the effectiveness of

  9. Basic plan and assessment of an information system designed to aid patient transfer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sano, M

    1987-01-01

    One of the important assignments in the planning of community medical care is to find an effective way of implementing the sharing of facilities together with their coordination. In particular, the establishment of a smooth and effective system co-ordinating facilities and functions of medical organizations, comprising clinics and hospitals of various levels, and the installation of an information system, designed to provide positive assistance in information control as well as in its operation, should be undertaken urgently. In this paper, we discuss the patient-transfer system, which is one of the facility-co-ordination-system for medical organizations, from the point of view of total community medical care. Specifically we describe the purpose, features and total structure of the patient-transfer system, and discuss the basic plan for an information system designed to aid patient transfer, from information control together with an advance assessment from the system-engineering point of view. This research has been promoted by the Aichi Medical Association committee for medical care system. The proposed system is planned to be operational in the near future. PMID:3441155

  10. Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of Model Equations on Interactions of the HIV/AIDS Virus and the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parumasur, N.; Willie, R.

    2008-09-01

    We consider a simple HIV/AIDs finite dimensional mathematical model on interactions of the blood cells, the HIV/AIDs virus and the immune system for consistence of the equations to the real biomedical situation that they model. A better understanding to a cure solution to the illness modeled by the finite dimensional equations is given. This is accomplished through rigorous mathematical analysis and is reinforced by numerical analysis of models developed for real life cases.

  11. Selecting and implementing an interactive Computer Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) system

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Success with Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing (CADD/M) depends upon management, users, and the system itself. If you are in a design and drafting environment, the thought of acquiring a CADD/M system will probably occur to you sometime in the very near future - if it hasn't already. Convincing yourself and your management of the benefits of such systems is but the first step. Evaluating and selecting one particular type of CADD/M system can turn out to be a complicated undertaking - not to mention somewhat frustrating. Procedures for selecting and successfully implementing a CADD/M system are outlined. INITIAL PREPARATION examines the techniques used to evaluate CADD/M systems including formation of an evaluation team, and application analysis. GRAPHICS EVALUATION describes the methods that can be used to test a CADD/M system, including benchmark drawings and specifications, human engineering considerations, and other evaluation criteria and general system configurations are also discussed. COMPUTER SYSTEM EVALUATION examines other factors in systems selection: programming, communications, documentation, and service. SYSTEM STARTUP addresses site preparation, people preparation, system acceptance, and operator, designer/drafter selection. Finally, operator, designer/drafter TRAINING and SYSTEM MANAGEMENT are discussed. This systematic approach wil help those contemplating the acquisition of CADD/M systems for their activities and will help minimize unplanned events and problem areas.Advanced planning in these areas is needed to ensure successful implementation of a CADD/M system. This in turn will lead to considerable cost savings and schedule improvements for an entire project, from initial design to final production. These are ambitious goals but easily realized if a logical and rational plan is adopted in the same manner as that used in a typical development program.

  12. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  13. Selection and implementation of a computer aided design and drafting (CAD/D) system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Faced with very heavy workloads and limited engineering and graphics personnel, Transco opted for a computer-aided design and drafting system that can produce intelligent drawings, which have associated data bases that can be integrated with other graphical and nongraphical data bases to form comprehensive sets of data for construction projects. Because so much time was being spent in all phases of materials and inventory control, Transco decided to integrate materials-management capabilities into the CAD/D system. When a specific item of material is requested on the graphics equipment, the request triggers production of both the drawing and a materials list. Transco plans to extend its computer applications into mapping tasks as well.

  14. Computer-aided design system with artificial intelligence for automatic dimensioning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.; Juricic, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the methodology applicable to automating computer drafting tasks of a Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) system. One of the main characteristics of these tasks is the need for interaction with geometric models and their features. The specific drafting task considered in this paper was dimensioning of a multiview drawing. The paper illustrates the approach used and describes the introduction of relevant knowledge base as well as implementation of an inference engine internal to the drafting system. A simple class of objects was used to illustrate in more details the methods involved. It is noted that developing this methodology may be of vital importance for further automation of the drafting and design process.

  15. Facility management of computer-aided design, drafting/manufacturing systems (CADD/M)

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.J.

    1980-09-23

    Interactive Computer-Aided Design Drafting/Manufacturing systems have been installed in thousands of companies, applying CADD/M capabilities to many applications. This has been done with varying degrees of success even among companies with identical applications. Investigation of individual companies reveals a gap between the capabilities of CADD/M systems and the actual usage by industry of those capabilities. This company usage often determines the degree of success or failure of an interactive graphics facility and is largely controlled by management. The responsibilities of the interactive graphics facility managemant team are explained in detail. Proper management of a CADD/M facility is more critical to the success or failure of the facility than any other factor.

  16. Shadow and feature recognition aids for rapid image geo-registration in UAV vision system architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Wolfgang; Kölsch, Mathias

    2009-05-01

    The problem of real-time image geo-referencing is encountered in all vision based cognitive systems. In this paper we present a model-image feedback approach to this problem and show how it can be applied to image exploitation from Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) vision systems. By calculating reference images from a known terrain database, using a novel ray trace algorithm, we are able to eliminate foreshortening, elevation, and lighting distortions, introduce registration aids and reduce the geo-referencing problem to a linear transformation search over the two dimensional image space. A method for shadow calculation that maintains real-time performance is also presented. The paper then discusses the implementation of our model-image feedback approach in the Perspective View Nascent Technology (PVNT) software package and provides sample results from UAV mission control and target mensuration experiments conducted at China Lake and Camp Roberts, California.

  17. Harnessing Polypharmacology with Computer-Aided Drug Design and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wathieu, Henri; Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2016-01-01

    The ascent of polypharmacology in drug development has many implications for disease therapy, most notably in the efforts of drug discovery, drug repositioning, precision medicine and combination therapy. The single- target approach to drug development has encountered difficulties in predicting drugs that are both clinically efficacious and avoid toxicity. By contrast, polypharmacology offers the possibility of a controlled distribution of effects on a biological system. This review addresses possibilities and bottlenecks in the efficient computational application of polypharmacology. The two major areas we address are the discovery and prediction of multiple protein targets using the tools of computer-aided drug design, and the use of these protein targets in predicting therapeutic potential in the context of biological networks. The successful application of polypharmacology to systems biology and pharmacology has the potential to markedly accelerate the pace of development of novel therapies for multiple diseases, and has implications for the intellectual property landscape, likely requiring targeted changes in patent law. PMID:26907947

  18. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described. PMID:1659710

  19. Evaluation of a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system. Part 2: Image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, S. F.; Cocking, S. J.

    1981-12-01

    The TV imagery from a computer aided X-ray fluorographic system has been digitally processed with an I2S model 70E image processor, controlled by a PDP 11/60 minicomputer. The image processor allowed valuable processing for detection of defects in cast components to be carried out at television frame rates. Summation of TV frames was used to reduce noise, and hence improve the thickness sensitivity of the system. A displaced differencing technique and interactive contrast enhancement were then used to improve the reliability of inspection by removing spurious blemishes and interferences lines, while simultaneously enhancing the visibility of real defects. The times required for these operations are given, and the benefits provided for X-ray fluorography are illustrated by the results from inspection of aero engine castings.

  20. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  1. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  2. Modern numerical techniques and software for photo- and thermoemission electron optical systems computer-aided design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrski, Mikhail A.; Andreev, Sergei V.; Gaidukova, Inna S.; Tarasov, Victor A.; Filachev, Anatoly M.

    1997-09-01

    The paper is devoted to software development for simulation, optimization, and computer-aided design of photo/thermo- emission electron optical systems and units. The first part of the paper presents the applied program package (APP) 'ELIMDYNAMICS\\ intended for computer-aided design of dynamic photo-emission image tubes with electro/magnetostatic focusing and deflection (streak tubes). The developed software allows highly precise computation of basic image quality characteristics both in static and streak modes. One of the main advantages of the new program version presented is that 'through' electron beam computation from the photocathode to image receiver is available with regard to dynamic aberrations caused by scattering fields located nearby the edges of deflecting plates. In the second part, the possibility is shown to generalize some numerical techniques being effectively applied in photo-emission imaging electron optics (namely, the (tau) -variation - and the first kind integral equations techniques) to simulation of the thermo-emission electron beam technology units. Functions of the new APP 'CHARGE' are presented, and some numerical aspects of the self-coordinated problem are discussed.

  3. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: performance improvement using a dual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Ge, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses on mammograms. In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a CAD system optimized with "average" masses with another CAD system optimized with subtle masses. The latter system is trained to provide high sensitivity in detecting subtle masses. For an unknown mammogram, the two systems are used in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A feed-forward backpropagation neural network trained to merge the scores of the two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers from the two systems makes the final decision in differentiation of true masses from normal tissue. A data set of 86 patients containing 172 mammograms with biopsy-proven masses was partitioned into a training set and an independent test set. This data set is referred to as the average data set. A second data set of 214 prior mammograms was used for training the second CAD system for detection of subtle masses. When the single CAD system trained on the average data set was applied to the test set, the Az for false positive (FP) classification was 0.81 and the FP rates were 2.1, 1.5 and 1.3 FPs/image at the case-based sensitivities of 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the Az was 0.85 and the FP rates were improved to 1.7, 1.2 and 0.8 FPs/image at the same case-based sensitivities. Our results indicate that the dual CAD system can improve the performance of mass detection on mammograms.

  4. Computer-aided modelling and analysis of PV systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  5. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission waypoints that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system.

  6. The servicing aid tool: A teleoperated robotics system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Keith W.; Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Eismann, Paul H.; Kowalski, Keith A.; Karlen, James P.

    1994-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated, force-reflecting manipulation system designed for use on the Space Shuttle. The system will assist Extravehicular Activity (EVA) servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The SAT stands out from other robotics development programs in that special attention was given to provide a low-cost, space-qualified design which can easily and inexpensively be reconfigured and/or enhanced through the addition of existing NASA funded technology as that technology matures. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research Corporation (RRC), the leading supplier of robotics systems to the NASA and university research community in the United States. Fairchild Space is the prime contractor and provides the control electronics, safety system, system integration, and qualification testing. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the shuttle payload bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm from Schilling Development, Inc. This work is being performed under contract to the Goddard Space Flight Center Code, Code 442, Hubble Space Telescope Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  7. Computer-Aided Modelling and Analysis of PV Systems: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Koukouvaos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Modern scientific advances have enabled remarkable efficacy for photovoltaic systems with regard to the exploitation of solar energy, boosting them into having a rapidly growing position among the systems developed for the production of renewable energy. However, in many cases the design, analysis, and control of photovoltaic systems are tasks which are quite complex and thus difficult to be carried out. In order to cope with this kind of problems, appropriate software tools have been developed either as standalone products or parts of general purpose software platforms used to model and simulate the generation, transmission, and distribution of solar energy. The utilization of this kind of software tools may be extremely helpful to the successful performance evaluation of energy systems with maximum accuracy and minimum cost in time and effort. The work presented in this paper aims on a first level at the performance analysis of various configurations of photovoltaic systems through computer-aided modelling. On a second level, it provides a comparative evaluation of the credibility of two of the most advanced graphical programming environments, namely, Simulink and LabVIEW, with regard to their application in photovoltaic systems. PMID:24772007

  8. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  9. Computer aided classification system for breast ultrasound based on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS).

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Chih; Chang, Ruey-Feng; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-11-01

    Clinically, the ultrasound findings are evaluated by its sonographic characteristics and then assigned to assessment categories according to the definitions of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) developed by the American College of Radiology. In this study, a computer-aided classification (CAC) system was proposed to classify the masses into assessment categories 3, 4 and 5, which simulated the clinical diagnosis of radiologists. Compared with current computer-aided diagnosis systems, the proposed CAC system classifies the indeterminate cases into BI-RADS category 4 for further diagnosis. Six hundred twenty-six cases were collected from three ultrasound systems and confirmed by pathology and retrospectively classified into categories 3, 4 and 5 by radiologists. The multinomial logistic regression model was trained as the CAC system for predicting the assessment category from the computerized BI-RADS features and from a set of machine-dependent factors. By using the machine-dependent factors to indicate the adopted ultrasound systems, the same regression model could be applied for the cases acquired from different ultrasound systems. A basic CAC system was trained by using the classification result of radiologists. A weighted CAC system, to improve the capacity of the basic CAC system in differentiating benign from malignant lesions, was trained by adding the pathologic result. Between the radiologists and the basic CAC system, a substantial agreement was indicated by Cohen's kappa statistic and the differences in either the performance indices or the A(Z) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were not statistically significant. For the weighted CAC system, the performance indices accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 73.00% (457 of 626), 98.17% (215 of 219), 59.46% (242 of 407), 56.58% (215 of 380) and 98.37% (242 of 246), respectively; the A(Z) was 0.94; and the

  10. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  12. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

  13. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  14. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  15. Transponder-Aided Joint Calibration and Synchronization Compensation for Distributed Radar Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results. PMID:25794158

  16. Pilot-symbols-aided cycle slip mitigation for DP-16QAM optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Guoyi; Xu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-23

    A pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU), which utilizes the time-division multiplexed pilot symbols that are transmitted with data, is proposed to do cycle slip detection and correction with the carrier phase estimation (CPE). Numerical simulations for 10 Gbaud dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) systems show that the block averaging quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning with PAPU greatly eliminates the performance degradation caused by cycle slips, maintains a low CS probability with less influence of filter length, and achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) performance below soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) limit 2 × 10⁻² at 15 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio with only 1.56% overhead and 6 MHz combined laser linewidth. PMID:24104108

  17. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  18. Error analysis for relay type satellite-aided search and rescue systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marini, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was made of the errors in the determination of the position of an emergency transmitter in a satellite aided search and rescue system. The satellite was assumed to be at a height of 820 km in a near circular near polar orbit. Short data spans of four minutes or less were used. The error sources considered were measurement noise, transmitter frequency drift, ionospheric effects and error in the assumed height of the transmitter. The errors were calculated for several different transmitter positions, data rates and data spans. The only transmitter frequency used was 406 MHz, but the results can be scaled to different frequencies. In a typical case, in which four Doppler measurements were taken over a span of two minutes, the position error was about 1.2 km.

  19. In situ tuning of omnidirectional microelectromechanical-systems microphones to improve performance fit in hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, Sang-Soo; Kim, Jeonghwan; Harrison, Jere C.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Chae, Junseok

    2008-09-01

    Hearing aids are not a one-size-fits-all solution to hearing problems; they must be uniquely tuned for each wearer. There are currently no low-cost and/or effective methods for in situ tuning. This paper describes a microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS)-based dual omnidirectional microphone that can be tuned by growing metallic nanostructures. The nanostructures are grown on integrated solid electrolyte layers on a suspended parylene diaphragm using an external bias and tune the MEMS microphones in situ thereby limiting mismatch. In our tests, this tuning improved the directivity index from 3.5 (fair directionality) to 4.6 dB (excellent directionality) in normal (room temperature) operating environments.

  20. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  1. Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Computer Aided Interactive Testing System (CAITS). Focus on the Trained Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    This report describes the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the Computer Aided Interactive Testing System (CAITS) and addresses the applicability of the system in the Naval Education and Training Command. In addition to an introduction (section one), the report contains four sections and three appendices. Section two describes…

  2. Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction: An Effective and Economical Method for Short- and Long-Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pear, Joseph J.; Kinsner, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a computer program based on Keller's Personalized System of Instruction that has been used for on-campus and off-campus teaching by the University of Manitoba. Highlights include electronic mail, student attitudes and roles, costs, suggestions for future research, and examples from computer-aided personalized system of instruction…

  3. Systems Approach to targeted and long-acting HIV/AIDS therapy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rodney J Y; Yu, Jesse; Li, Bowen; Kraft, John C; Freeling, Jennifer P; Koehn, Josefin; Shao, Jingwei

    2015-12-01

    Medication adherence and insufficient drug levels are central to HIV/AIDS disease progression. Recently, Fletcher et al. confirmed that HIV patients on oral antiretroviral therapy had lower intracellular drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. For instance, in the same patient, multiple lymph node drug concentrations were as much as 99 % lower than in blood. This study built upon our previous finding that HIV patients taking oral indinavir had 3-fold lower mononuclear cell drug concentrations in lymph nodes than in blood. As a result, an association between insufficient lymph node drug concentrations in cells and persistent viral replication has now been validated. Lymph node cells, particularly CD4 T lymphocytes, host HIV infection and persistence; CD4 T cell depletion in blood correlates with AIDS progression. With established drug targets to overcome drug insufficiency in lymphoid cells and tissues, we have developed and employed a "Systems Approach" to engineer multi-drug-incorporated particles for HIV treatment. The goal is to improve lymphatic HIV drug exposure to eliminate HIV drug insufficiency and disease progression. We found that nano-particulate drugs that absorb, transit, and retain in the lymphatic system after subcutaneous dosing improve intracellular lymphatic drug exposure and overcome HIV lymphatic drug insufficiency. The composition, physical properties, and stability of the drug nanoparticles contribute to the prolonged and enhanced drug exposure in lymphoid cells and tissues. In addition to overcoming lymphatic drug insufficiency and potentially reversing HIV infection, targeted drug nanoparticle properties may extend drug concentrations and enable the development of long-acting HIV drug therapy for enhanced patient compliance. PMID:26315144

  4. Accuracy evaluation of metal copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Sun; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) systems in comparison to casting method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten metal copings were fabricated by casting, computer-aided milling, and DMLS. Seven mesiodistal and labiolingual positions were then measured, and each of these were divided into the categories; marginal gap (MG), cervical gap (CG), axial wall at internal gap (AG), and incisal edge at internal gap (IG). Evaluation was performed by a silicone replica technique. A digital microscope was used for measurement of silicone layer. Statistical analyses included one-way and repeated measure ANOVA to test the difference between the fabrication methods and categories of measured points (α=.05), respectively. RESULTS The mean gap differed significantly with fabrication methods (P<.001). Casting produced the narrowest gap in each of the four measured positions, whereas CG, AG, and IG proved narrower in computer-aided milling than in DMLS. Thus, with the exception of MG, all positions exhibited a significant difference between computer-aided milling and DMLS (P<.05). CONCLUSION Although the gap was found to vary with fabrication methods, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings fabricated by computer-aided milling and DMLS fell within the range of clinical acceptance (<120 µm). However, the statistically significant difference to conventional casting indicates that the gaps in computer-aided milling and DMLS fabricated restorations still need to be further reduced. PMID:25932310

  5. The effects of global health initiatives on country health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control

    PubMed Central

    Biesma, Regien G; Brugha, Ruairí; Harmer, Andrew; Walsh, Aisling; Spicer, Neil; Walt, Gill

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews country-level evidence about the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs), which have had profound effects on recipient country health systems in middle and low income countries. We have selected three initiatives that account for an estimated two-thirds of external funding earmarked for HIV/AIDS control in resource-poor countries: the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Program (MAP) and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper draws on 31 original country-specific and cross-country articles and reports, based on country-level fieldwork conducted between 2002 and 2007. Positive effects have included a rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery, greater stakeholder participation, and channelling of funds to non-governmental stakeholders, mainly NGOs and faith-based bodies. Negative effects include distortion of recipient countries’ national policies, notably through distracting governments from coordinated efforts to strengthen health systems and re-verticalization of planning, management and monitoring and evaluation systems. Sub-national and district studies are needed to assess the degree to which GHIs are learning to align with and build the capacities of countries to respond to HIV/AIDS; whether marginalized populations access and benefit from GHI-funded programmes; and about the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability of the HIV and AIDS programmes funded by the GHIs. Three multi-country sets of evaluations, which will be reporting in 2009, will answer some of these questions. PMID:19491291

  6. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  7. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Lung Cancer: Challenges and Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    El-Baz, Ayman; Beache, Garth M.; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Suzuki, Kenji; Okada, Kazunori; Elnakib, Ahmed; Soliman, Ahmed; Abdollahi, Behnoush

    2013-01-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, the problem of lung cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for lung cancer is of great clinical importance and can increase the patient's chance of survival. For this reason, CAD systems for lung cancer have been investigated in a huge number of research studies. A typical CAD system for lung cancer diagnosis is composed of four main processing steps: segmentation of the lung fields, detection of nodules inside the lung fields, segmentation of the detected nodules, and diagnosis of the nodules as benign or malignant. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art techniques that have been developed to implement each of these CAD processing steps. For each technique, various aspects of technical issues, implemented methodologies, training and testing databases, and validation methods, as well as achieved performances, are described. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in each implementation step and outlines the strengths and drawbacks of the existing approaches for lung cancer CAD systems. PMID:23431282

  8. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  9. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  10. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  11. Computer-Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Programmer's Manual, Version 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) Version 5.0 Programmer's Manual provides the programmer and user with information regarding the internal structure of the CASE/A 5.0 software system. CASE/A 5.0 is a trade study tool that provides modeling/simulation capabilities for analyzing environmental control and life support systems and active thermal control systems. CASE/A has been successfully used in studies such as the evaluation of carbon dioxide removal in the space station. CASE/A modeling provides a graphical and command-driven interface for the user. This interface allows the user to construct a model by placing equipment components in a graphical layout of the system hardware, then connect the components via flow streams and define their operating parameters. Once the equipment is placed, the simulation time and other control parameters can be set to run the simulation based on the model constructed. After completion of the simulation, graphical plots or text files can be obtained for evaluation of the simulation results over time. Additionally, users have the capability to control the simulation and extract information at various times in the simulation (e.g., control equipment operating parameters over the simulation time or extract plot data) by using "User Operations (OPS) Code." This OPS code is written in FORTRAN with a canned set of utility subroutines for performing common tasks. CASE/A version 5.0 software runs under the VAX VMS(Trademark) environment. It utilizes the Tektronics 4014(Trademark) graphics display system and the VTIOO(Trademark) text manipulation/display system.

  12. Impact of Computer-Aided Detection Systems on Radiologist Accuracy With Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Elodia B.; Zhang, Zheng; Marques, Helga S.; Hendrick, R. Edward; Yaffe, Martin J.; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems on the performance of radiologists with digital mammograms acquired during the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS Only those DMIST cases with proven cancer status by biopsy or 1-year follow-up that had available digital images were included in this multireader, multicase ROC study. Two commercially available CAD systems for digital mammography were used: iCAD SecondLook, version 1.4; and R2 ImageChecker Cenova, version 1.0. Fourteen radiologists interpreted, without and with CAD, a set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the iCAD SecondLook system, and 15 radiologists interpreted a different set of 300 cases (150 cancer, 150 benign or normal) on the R2 ImageChecker Cenova system. RESULTS The average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.67–0.77) with the iCAD system (p = 0.07). Similarly, the average AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.76) without and 0.72 (95% CI 0.67–0.77) with the R2 system (p = 0.08). Sensitivity and specificity differences without and with CAD for both systems also were not significant. CONCLUSION Radiologists in our studies rarely changed their diagnostic decisions after the addition of CAD. The application of CAD had no statistically significant effect on radiologist AUC, sensitivity, or specificity performance with digital mammograms from DMIST. PMID:25247960

  13. A general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.

  14. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  15. A Comprehensive Computer-Aided Polyp Detection System for Colonoscopy Videos.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Nima; Gurudu, Suryakanth R; Liang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help colonoscopists reduce their polyp miss-rate, but existing CAD systems are handicapped by using either shape, texture, or temporal information for detecting polyps, achieving limited sensitivity and specificity. To overcome this limitation, our key contribution of this paper is to fuse all possible polyp features by exploiting the strengths of each feature while minimizing its weaknesses. Our new CAD system has two stages, where the first stage builds on the robustness of shape features to reliably generate a set of candidates with a high sensitivity, while the second stage utilizes the high discriminative power of the computationally expensive features to effectively reduce false positives. Specifically, we employ a unique edge classifier and an original voting scheme to capture geometric features of polyps in context and then harness the power of convolutional neural networks in a novel score fusion approach to extract and combine shape, color, texture, and temporal information of the candidates. Our experimental results based on FROC curves and a new analysis of polyp detection latency demonstrate a superiority over the state-of-the-art where our system yields a lower polyp detection latency and achieves a significantly higher sensitivity while generating dramatically fewer false positives. This performance improvement is attributed to our reliable candidate generation and effective false positive reduction methods. PMID:26221684

  16. Web-based computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system for bone age assessment (BAA) of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Uyeda, Joshua; Tsao, Sinchai; Ma, Kevin; Vachon, Linda A.; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2008-03-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on a left hand and wrist radiograph. The most commonly used standard: Greulich and Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas was developed 50 years ago and exclusively based on Caucasian population. Moreover, inter- & intra-observer discrepancies using this method create a need of an objective and automatic BAA method. A digital hand atlas (DHA) has been collected with 1,400 hand images of normal children from Asian, African American, Caucasian and Hispanic descends. Based on DHA, a fully automatic, objective computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method was developed and it was adapted to specific population. To bring DHA and CAD method to the clinical environment as a useful tool in assisting radiologist to achieve higher accuracy in BAA, a web-based system with direct connection to a clinical site is designed as a novel clinical implementation approach for online and real time BAA. The core of the system, a CAD server receives the image from clinical site, processes it by the CAD method and finally, generates report. A web service publishes the results and radiologists at the clinical site can review it online within minutes. This prototype can be easily extended to multiple clinical sites and will provide the foundation for broader use of the CAD system for BAA.

  17. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Giso; Guilmin, Gwénaël; Poppen, Frank; Vlaming, Marcel S. M. G.; Hohmann, Volker

    2009-12-01

    A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS) is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS). The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN). To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  18. A computer-aided MFCC-based HMM system for automatic auscultation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sunita; Wang, Ping; Sing Lim, Chu; Anantharaman, V

    2008-02-01

    Auscultation, the act of listening to the sounds of internal organs, is a valuable medical diagnostic tool. Auscultation methods provide the information about a vast variety of internal body sounds originated by various organs such as heart, lungs, bowel, vascular disorders, etc. In this study, a cardiac sound registration system has been designed incorporating functions such as heart signals segmentation, classification and characterization for automated identification and ease of interpretation by the users. Considering a synergy with the domain of speech analysis, the authors introduced Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) to extract representative features and develop hidden Markov model (HMM) for signal classification. This system was applied to 1381 data sets of real and simulated, normal and abnormal domains. Classification rates for normal and abnormal heart sounds were found to be 95.7% for continuous murmurs, 96.25% for systolic murmurs and 90% for diastolic murmurs by a probabilistic comparison approach. This implies a high potential for the system as a diagnostic aid for primary health-care sectors. PMID:18045582

  19. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Busgeeth, Karishma; Rivett, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Background South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. Results The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information. PMID:15239839

  20. A visual-aided wireless monitoring system design for total hip replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Gao, Jiyang; Su, Shaojie; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-04-01

    To improve the positioning accuracy of implants in Total Hip Replacement (THR) surgeries, a visual-aided wireless monitoring system for THR surgery is proposed in this paper. This system aims to measure and display the contact distribution and relative pose between femoral head and acetabulum prosthesis during the surgery to help surgeons obtain accurate position of implants. The system consists of two parts: the Sensors Array Measuring System (SAMS) and the display part. The SAMS is composed of a sensors array (including contact sensors and an image sensor), signal conditioning circuits, a low power microcontroller (MCU), and a low-power transceiver. The SAMS is designed to estimate the relative pose of femoral head component to acetabular component. The display part processes the data from sensors and demonstrates the contact distribution and the pose of the prothesis during the surgery in 3-D graphics. The two parts of the system communicate with each other on an RF link at the band of 400 MHz. The signal conditioning circuits have been designed and fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS process. Testing results show that the resolution of the signal conditioning circuits is 60.1 μ Vpp (1.35 g) with ±100 mVpp input. The chip can operate under 1.2-to-3.6 V supply voltage for single battery applications with 116-160 μ A current consumption. The system has been verified by the simulation with rotation quaternion and translation vector. The experimental results show that the contact distribution and relative pose of the two components could be measured and demonstrated in real time. The relative error of rotation is less than 8% and the actual relative error of translation is less than 10%. PMID:25879970

  1. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ulikpan, Anar; Mirzoev, Tolib; Jimenez, Eliana; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS) countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context. The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more effective development

  2. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants. PMID:26081484

  3. A computer aided diagnosis system for thyroid disease using extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Na; Ouyang, Ji-Hong; Chen, Hui-Ling; Liu, Da-You

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and efficient computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on principle component analysis (PCA) and extreme learning machine (ELM) to assist the task of thyroid disease diagnosis. The CAD system is comprised of three stages. Focusing on dimension reduction, the first stage applies PCA to construct the most discriminative new feature set. After then, the system switches to the second stage whose target is model construction. ELM classifier is explored to train an optimal predictive model whose parameters are optimized. As we known, the number of hidden neurons has an important role in the performance of ELM, so we propose an experimental method to hunt for the optimal value. Finally, the obtained optimal ELM model proceeds to perform the thyroid disease diagnosis tasks using the most discriminative new feature set and the optimal parameters. The effectiveness of the resultant CAD system (PCA-ELM) has been rigorously estimated on a thyroid disease dataset which is taken from UCI machine learning repository. We compare it with other related methods in terms of their classification accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that PCA-ELM outperforms other ones reported so far by 10-fold cross-validation method, with the mean accuracy of 97.73% and with the maximum accuracy of 98.1%. Besides, PCA-ELM performs much faster than support vector machines (SVM) based CAD system. Consequently, the proposed method PCA-ELM can be considered as a new powerful tools for diagnosing thyroid disease with excellent performance and less time. PMID:22327384

  4. Control of HIV/AIDS infection system with drug dosages design via robust H(∞) fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Assawinchaichote, Wudhichai

    2015-01-01

    The designing of H∞ fuzzy controller for HIV/AIDS infected dynamic system has been considered in this paper. With TS fuzzy model and LMIs approach, the proposed controller is obtained for such a system. A set of sufficient conditions of the H∞ controller is given to ensure the closed-loop system asymptotic stability and the prescribed H∞ performance level. Finally, the effectiveness of the fuzzy controller design approach is finally presented through the simulation results. PMID:26405968

  5. Computer Aided Detection System for Prediction of the Malaise during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fanizzi, Annarita; Corciulo, Roberto; Garuccio, Elena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Loizzo, Giuliana; Procaccini, Deni Aldo; Vernò, Lucia; Bellotti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of dialysis sessions is crucial as different stress factors can yield suffering or critical situations. Specialized personnel is usually required for the administration of this medical treatment; nevertheless, subjects whose clinical status can be considered stable require different monitoring strategies when compared with subjects with critical clinical conditions. In this case domiciliary treatment or monitoring can substantially improve the quality of life of patients undergoing dialysis. In this work, we present a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system for the telemonitoring of patients' clinical parameters. The CAD was mainly designed to predict the insurgence of critical events; it consisted of two Random Forest (RF) classifiers: the first one (RF1) predicting the onset of any malaise one hour after the treatment start and the second one (RF2) again two hours later. The developed system shows an accurate classification performance in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. The specificity in the identification of nonsymptomatic sessions and the sensitivity in the identification of symptomatic sessions for RF2 are equal to 86.60% and 71.40%, respectively, thus suggesting the CAD as an effective tool to support expert nephrologists in telemonitoring the patients. PMID:27042200

  6. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS. PMID:26736524

  7. Alternative Delivery Systems for the Computer-Aided Instruction Study Management System (CAISMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievergelt, Jurg; And Others

    The Computer-Assisted Instruction Study Management System (CAISMS) was developed and implemented on the PLATO system to monitor and guide student study of text materials. It administers assignments, gives quizzes, and automatically keeps track of a student's progress. This report describes CAISMS and several hypothetical implementations of CAISMS…

  8. Two Adults with Multiple Disabilities Use a Computer-Aided Telephone System to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  9. 78 FR 16481 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) Completion Study... with a disability, such as a reader or print magnifier, who needs assistance to review the comments or... Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in...

  10. The national- and international-wide prospects of future improvements of position location and time synchronization systems and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Balyasnikov, Boris N.; Korniyenko, Vladimir V.; Pushkina, Irina G.; Shebshayevich, Valentin S.; Denisov, Vladimir I.; Reutov, Alexander P.

    1990-01-01

    The concept being designed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (LSRRI) of united positioning and timing service on the basis of the utilization of long-range and global radionavigation and common time systems and aids for different users is described. The estimate of its utilization on the national as well as on international scale is given.

  11. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  12. Therapeutic imprinting of the immune system: towards a remission of AIDS in primates?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Our inability to cure HIV/AIDS is related to the ability of the virus to establish reservoirs during treatment. In order to develop new strategies, it is certainly essential that a suitable animal model be implemented. In the recent work of Shytaj et al., it has been possible to inhibit viral replication to levels below the assay detection limit in the macaque AIDS model. Moreover, different therapeutic regimens applied to the rhesus macaque AIDS model (herein reviewed), including ours, are starting to show the potential to induce, following therapy suspension, conditions reminiscent of a drug-free control of the infection. PMID:22978787

  13. A novel computer-aided lung nodule detection system for CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Maxine; Deklerck, Rudi; Jansen, Bart; Bister, Michel; Cornelis, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The paper presents a complete computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. A new mixed feature selection and classification methodology is applied for the first time on a difficult medical image analysis problem. Methods: The CAD system was trained and tested on images from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) on the National Cancer Institute website. The detection stage of the system consists of a nodule segmentation method based on nodule and vessel enhancement filters and a computed divergence feature to locate the centers of the nodule clusters. In the subsequent classification stage, invariant features, defined on a gauge coordinates system, are used to differentiate between real nodules and some forms of blood vessels that are easily generating false positive detections. The performance of the novel feature-selective classifier based on genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is compared with that of two other established classifiers, namely, support vector machines (SVMs) and fixed-topology neural networks. A set of 235 randomly selected cases from the LIDC database was used to train the CAD system. The system has been tested on 125 independent cases from the LIDC database. Results: The overall performance of the fixed-topology ANN classifier slightly exceeds that of the other classifiers, provided the number of internal ANN nodes is chosen well. Making educated guesses about the number of internal ANN nodes is not needed in the new feature-selective classifier, and therefore this classifier remains interesting due to its flexibility and adaptability to the complexity of the classification problem to be solved. Our fixed-topology ANN classifier with 11 hidden nodes reaches a detection sensitivity of 87.5% with an average of four false positives per scan, for nodules with diameter greater than or equal to 3 mm. Analysis of the false positive items

  14. Black-White Disparities in HIV/AIDS:The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Kim M.; Smoyer, Amy B.; Bray, Sarah J.; Mattocks, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    African Americans in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We focus in this paper on the structural and contextual sources of HIV/AIDS risk, and suggest that among the most important of these sources are drug policy and the corrections system. In particular, high rates of exposure to the corrections system (including incarceration, probation, and parole) spurred in large part by federal and state governments’ self-styled war on drugs in the United States, have disproportionately affected African Americans. We review a wide range of research literature to suggest how exposure to the corrections system may affect the HIV/AIDS related risks of drug users in general, and the disproportionate HIV risk faced by African Americans in particular. We then discuss the implications of the information reviewed for structural interventions to address African American HIV-related risk. Future research must further our understanding of the relations among drug policy, corrections, and race-based disparities in HIV/AIDS. PMID:16327113

  15. Evaluation of an adaptive directional system in a DSP hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Bentler, Ruth A; Tubbs, Jill L; Egge, Jessica L M; Flamme, Gregory A; Dittberner, Andrew B

    2004-06-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive directional microphone design, as implemented in the Phonak Claro behind-the-ear hearing aid, is evaluated. Participants were fit bilaterally and tested in 2 environments, an anechoic chamber and a moderately reverberant classroom, with the microphones in the fixed (cardioid) setting and the adaptive setting. Five speakers were placed between 110 degrees and 250 degrees azimuth around the listener. Speech-weighted noise was presented from those speakers at an overall level (OAL) of 65 dB (A). Noise was increased by 8 dB from 1 speaker at a time, using 2-s modulation and random assignment, while the output from the other speakers was reduced to maintain the constant OAL. Results of 2 speech perception tasks used as outcome measures indicated that the adaptive system was not able to follow the dominant noise source in the presence of lower level noise sources. Self-report measures obtained after blinded home trials were consistent with laboratory findings that the participants did not perceive this adaptive microphone design to be more effective than the default fixed-microphone option. PMID:15248806

  16. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  17. COMPUTER AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION - PARIS II (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method was designed to facilitate the replacement of environmentally objectionable industrial solvents by using computer aided methods to design benign replacement solvents or solvent mixtures. The method generates a short list of recommended replacement solvents or mixtures...

  18. Experiences in control system design aided by interactive computer programs: temperature control of the laser isotope separation vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Pittenger, L.C.; McDonald, J.S.; Cramer, P.G.; Herget, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A robust control system has been designed to regulate temperature in a vacuum vessel. The thermodynamic process is modeled by a set of nonlinear, implicit differential equations. The control design and analysis task exercised many of the computer-aided control systems design software packages, including MATLAB, DELIGHT, and LSAP. The working environment is a VAX computer. Advantages and limitations of the software and environment, and the impact on final controller design is discussed.

  19. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  20. A novel computer-aided detection system for pulmonary nodule identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hao; Li, Lihong; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Hao; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) of pulmonary nodules from computer tomography (CT) scans is critical for assisting radiologists to identify lung lesions at an early stage. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for CADe of lung nodules using a two-stage vector quantization (VQ) scheme. The first-stage VQ aims to extract lung from the chest volume, while the second-stage VQ is designed to extract initial nodule candidates (INCs) within the lung volume. Then rule-based expert filtering is employed to prune obvious FPs from INCs, and the commonly-used support vector machine (SVM) classifier is adopted to further reduce the FPs. The proposed system was validated on 100 CT scans randomly selected from the 262 scans that have at least one juxta-pleural nodule annotation in the publicly available database - Lung Image Database Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC-IDRI). The two-stage VQ only missed 2 out of the 207 nodules at agreement level 1, and the INCs detection for each scan took about 30 seconds in average. Expert filtering reduced FPs more than 18 times, while maintaining a sensitivity of 93.24%. As it is trivial to distinguish INCs attached to pleural wall versus not on wall, we investigated the feasibility of training different SVM classifiers to further reduce FPs from these two kinds of INCs. Experiment results indicated that SVM classification over the entire set of INCs was in favor of, where the optimal operating of our CADe system achieved a sensitivity of 89.4% at a specificity of 86.8%.

  1. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) Systems for Mammography and the Use of GRID in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauria, Adele

    It is well known that the most effective way to defeat breast cancer is early detection, as surgery and medical therapies are more efficient when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. The principal diagnostic technique for breast cancer detection is X-ray mammography. Screening programs have been introduced in many European countries to invite women to have periodic radiological breast examinations. In such screenings, radiologists are often required to examine large numbers of mammograms with a double reading, that is, two radiologists examine the images independently and then compare their results. In this way an increment in sensitivity (the rate of correctly identified images with a lesion) of up to 15% is obtained.1,2 In most radiological centres, it is a rarity to find two radiologists to examine each report. In recent years different Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems have been developed as a support to radiologists working in mammography: one may hope that the "second opinion" provided by CAD might represent a lower cost alternative to improve the diagnosis. At present, four CAD systems have obtained the FDA approval in the USA. † Studies3,4 show an increment in sensitivity when CAD systems are used. Freer and Ulissey in 2001 5 demonstrated that the use of a commercial CAD system (ImageChecker M1000, R2 Technology) increases the number of cancers detected up to 19.5% with little increment in recall rate. Ciatto et al.,5 in a study simulating a double reading with a commercial CAD system (SecondLook‡), showed a moderate increment in sensitivity while reducing specificity (the rate of correctly identified images without a lesion). Notwithstanding these optimistic results, there is an ongoing debate to define the advantages of the use of CAD as second reader: the main limits underlined, e.g., by Nishikawa6 are that retrospective studies are considered much too optimistic and that clinical studies must be performed to demonstrate a statistically

  2. Image-based retrieval system and computer-aided diagnosis system for renal cortical scintigraphy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumcuoğlu, Erkan; Nar, Fatih; Uğur, Omer; Bozkurt, M. Fani; Aslan, Mehmet

    2008-03-01

    Cortical renal (kidney) scintigraphy images are 2D images (256x256) acquired in three projection angles (posterior, right-posterior-oblique and left-posterior-oblique). These images are used by nuclear medicine specialists to examine the functional morphology of kidney parenchyma. The main visual features examined in reading the images are: size, location, shape and activity distribution (pixel intensity distribution within the boundary of each kidney). Among the above features, activity distribution (in finding scars if any) was found to have the least interobserver reproducibility. Therefore, in this study, we developed an image-based retrieval (IBR) and a computer-based diagnosis (CAD) system, focused on this feature in particular. The developed IBR and CAD algorithms start with automatic segmentation, boundary and landmark detection. Then, shape and activity distribution features are computed. Activity distribution feature is obtained using the acquired image and image set statistics of the normal patients. Active Shape Model (ASM) technique is used for more accurate kidney segmentation. In the training step of ASM, normal patient images are used. Retrieval performance is evaluated by calculating precision and recall. CAD performance is evaluated by specificity and sensitivity. To our knowledge, this paper is the first IBR or CAD system reported in the literature on renal cortical scintigraphy images.

  3. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  4. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  5. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  6. Integrated arterial and freeway operation control strategies for IVHS advanced traffic management systems. Summary report, September 1997--January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmassani, H.S.; Valdes, D.M.; Machemehl, R.B.; Tassoulas, J.; Williams, J.C.

    1998-10-01

    This study focuses on traffic congestion, primarily that occurring on freeway corridors in metropolitan areas. Lack of coordination in the operation of various components of the system is often a major source of inefficiency, resulting in greater delays to motorists than what might be achievable with the existing physical infrastructure.

  7. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    PubMed

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  8. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  9. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  10. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  11. CADIS: a kernel approach toward the development of intelligent data-management support for computer-aided design systems

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Design and development of CADIS (Computer Aided Design Information System) is presented. CADIS addresses the data-management needs of Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems by providing a system that overcomes the inherent problems found when using conventional data base management systems (DBMS). Limitations found with other research and development efforts marked for correction include: lack of flexibility in the supported CAD system, separation of the design interaction from data-base interaction, separation of knowledge-base issues from data-management issues, lack of a distinction between a DBMS' implementation of system policy, and a DBMS mechanism to support system policy. A four-level data-base architecture is defined for CADIS. An augmented entity-relationship model (AERM) is also defined that supports the CADIS architecture. This model includes structures developed to specifically overcome limitations found in the use of the more-traditional data model. A definition and manipulation language for the model are defined. Translation rules derived enable the AERM to be translated into an underlying data-base scheme. A proof-of-concept model is presented via the definition and implementation of a system tool, the SARA/IDEAS System Browser.

  12. Multilevel Drivers of HIV/AIDS among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Bridgette M.; Reason, Janaiya L.; Goodman, Bridget A.; Schensul, Jean J.; Guthrie, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Unequal HIV/AIDS distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems (GIS) mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. Objectives We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social- , and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Methods Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Results Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Further, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community’s racial composition. Discussion This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups, and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted United States urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. PMID:25738621

  13. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  14. A reconfigurable digital filterbank for hearing-aid systems with a variety of sound wave decomposition plans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Debao

    2013-06-01

    Current hearing-aid systems have fixed sound wave decomposition plans due to the use of fixed filterbanks, thus cannot provide enough flexibility for the compensation of different hearing impairment cases. In this paper, a reconfigurable filterbank that consists of a multiband-generation block and a subband-selection block is proposed. Different subbands can be produced according to the control parameters without changing the structure of the filterbank system. The use of interpolation, decimation, and frequency-response masking enables us to reduce the computational complexity by realizing the entire system with only three prototype filters. Reconfigurability of the proposed filterbank enables hearing-impaired people to customize hearing aids based on their own specific conditions to improve their hearing ability. We show, by means of examples, that the proposed filterbank can achieve a better matching to the audiogram and has smaller complexity compared with the fixed filterbank. The drawback of the proposed method is that the throughput delay is relatively long (>20 ms), which needs to be further reduced before it can be used in a real hearing-aid application. PMID:23335662

  15. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  16. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  17. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a surgically... ear canal. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a surgically... ear canal. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a surgically... ear canal. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a surgically... ear canal. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3950... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a surgically... ear canal. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The special control for this device is...

  2. Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…

  3. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  4. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…

  5. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  6. Development of a GPS-aided motion measurement, pointing, and stabilization system for a Synthetic Aperture Radar. [Global Positioning System (GPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J.R.; Kohler, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Motion Compensation System has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system includes a miniaturized high accuracy ring laser gyro inertial measurement unit, a three axis gimbal pointing and stabilization assembly, a differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation aiding system, and a pilot guidance system. The system provides several improvements over previous SNL motion compensation systems and is capable of antenna stabilization to less than 0.01 degrees RMS and absolute position measurement to less than 5.0 meters RMS. These accuracies have been demonstrated in recent flight testing aboard a DHC-6-300 Twin Otter'' aircraft.

  7. Quality assurance and training procedures for computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems in clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhimin; Summers, Ronald M; Paquerault, Sophie; Lo, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey; Armato, Samuel G; Freedman, Matthew T; Lin, Jesse; Lo, Shih-Chung Ben; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Fryd, David; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-07-01

    Computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) is increasingly used for decision support by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. However, there are no quality assurance (QA) requirements for CAD in clinical use at present. QA of CAD is important so that end users can be made aware of changes in CAD performance both due to intentional or unintentional causes. In addition, end-user training is critical to prevent improper use of CAD, which could potentially result in lower overall clinical performance. Research on QA of CAD and user training are limited to date. The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to these issues, inform the readers of the opinions of the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) CAD subcommittee, and thus stimulate further discussion in the CAD community on these topics. The recommendations in this paper are intended to be work items for AAPM task groups that will be formed to address QA and user training issues on CAD in the future. The work items may serve as a framework for the discussion and eventual design of detailed QA and training procedures for physicists and users of CAD. Some of the recommendations are considered by the subcommittee to be reasonably easy and practical and can be implemented immediately by the end users; others are considered to be "best practice" approaches, which may require significant effort, additional tools, and proper training to implement. The eventual standardization of the requirements of QA procedures for CAD will have to be determined through consensus from members of the CAD community, and user training may require support of professional societies. It is expected that high-quality CAD and proper use of CAD could allow these systems to achieve their true potential, thus benefiting both the patients and the clinicians, and may bring about more widespread clinical use of CAD for many other diseases and applications. It is hoped that the awareness of the need

  8. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D H; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E; Pingree, S; Chan, C L

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has been evaluated in a random-assignment study with over 200 men and women living with AIDS and HIV infection. When CHESS was placed in subjects' homes for 3-6 months, use of CHESS was extremely heavy, with the average subject using CHESS 138 times for 39 hours. Compared with a control group which did not receive CHESS, subjects who used CHESS reported significantly higher quality of life in several dimensions, including social support and cognitive functioning. Users also reported significant reductions in some types of health care costs, especially inpatient services (hospitalizations). All segments of the study population used and benefited from CHESS, including women, minorities and those subjects with lower levels of education. Thus, CHESS appears to be an effective means of delivering education and support to the diverse populations which are affected by AIDS and HIV infection. PMID:7949999

  9. Using computer aided system to determine the maximum depth of visualization of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslebu, G.; Adi, K.; Suryono

    2016-03-01

    In the service unit of radiology, ultrasound modality is widely used because it has advantages over other modalities, such as relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, does not use ionizing radiation, and portable. Until now, the method for determining the depth visualization on quality control program is through the visual observation of ultrasound image on the monitor. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer-aided system to determine maximum depth of visualization. Data acquisition was done by using B-Mode Diagnostic Ultrasound machine and Multi-purpose Multi-tissue Ultrasound Phantom model 040GSE. Phantom was scanned at fixed frequency of 1,8 MHz, 2,2 MHz, 3,6 MHz and 5,0 MHz with a gain variation of 30 dB, 45 dB, and 60 dB. Global thresholding and Euclidean distance method were used to determine maximum visualization depth. From this study, it is proved that the visualization depth using computer aided provide deeper visualization than visual interpretation. The differences between expert verification and the result of image processing are <6%. Thus, computer aided system can be used for the purpose of quality control in determining maximum visualization depth of B-Mode diagnostic ultrasound image.

  10. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    PubMed

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted. PMID:21082471

  11. Evaluation of a stand-alone computer-aided detection system for acute intra-cranial hemorrhage in emergency environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Brent; Brazaitis, Michael; Munter, Fletcher; Liu, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Acute intra-cranial hemorrhage (AIH) may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Successful management of AIH depends heavily on the speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Timely diagnosis in emergency environments in both civilian and military settings is difficult primarily due to severe time restraints and lack of resources. Often, diagnosis is performed by emergency physicians rather than trained radiologists. As a result, added support in the form of computer-aided detection (CAD) would greatly enhance the decision-making process and help in providing faster and more accurate diagnosis of AIH. This paper discusses the implementation of a CAD system in an emergency environment, and its efficacy in aiding in the detection of AIH.

  12. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  13. Integrated arterial and freeway operation control strategies for IVHS advanced traffic management systems: Research report. Report for August 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmassani, H.S.; Valdes, D.M.; Machemehl, R.B.; Tassoulas, J.; Williams, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    This main focus of this study is congestion, primarily that occurring on freeway corridors in metropolitan areas. Lack of coordination in the operation of various components of the system is often a major source of inefficiency, resulting in greater delays to motorists than what might be achievable with the existing physical infrastructure.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  15. Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-06-01

    To improve the outage performance of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system under the frequency offset between the sampling clocks in the transmitter and receiver, a pilot-aided sampling frequency offset (SFO) estimation and compensation scheme for the optical OFDM system with intensity-modulation and direct-detection (DD-OOFDM) is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental and simulated results show that the scheme can work effectively even with large sampling frequency offsets. In addition, it can achieve a good bit error rate (BER) performance without the sampling clock frequency synchronization in the receiver.

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  17. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  18. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  20. NEXUS/NASCAD- NASA ENGINEERING EXTENDIBLE UNIFIED SOFTWARE SYSTEM WITH NASA COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.

    1994-01-01

    NEXUS, the NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is a research set of computer programs designed to support the full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. This sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. NEXUS primarily addresses the process of prototype engineering, the task of getting a single or small number of copies of a product to work. Prototype engineering is a critical element of large scale industrial production. The time and cost needed to introduce a new product are heavily dependent on two factors: 1) how efficiently required product prototypes can be developed, and 2) how efficiently required production facilities, also a prototype engineering development, can be completed. NEXUS extendibility and unification are achieved by organizing the system as an arbitrarily large set of computer programs accessed in a common manner through a standard user interface. The NEXUS interface is a multipurpose interactive graphics interface called NASCAD (NASA Computer Aided Design). NASCAD can be used to build and display two and three-dimensional geometries, to annotate models with dimension lines, text strings, etc., and to store and retrieve design related information such as names, masses, and power requirements of components used in the design. From the user's standpoint, NASCAD allows the construction, viewing, modification, and other processing of data structures that represent the design. Four basic types of data structures are supported by NASCAD: 1) three-dimensional geometric models of the object being designed, 2) alphanumeric arrays to hold data ranging from numeric scalars to multidimensional arrays of numbers or characters, 3) tabular data sets that provide a relational data base capability, and 4) procedure definitions to combine groups of system commands or other user procedures to create more powerful functions. NASCAD has extensive abilities to

  1. A computer-aided design system geared toward conceptual design in a research environment. [for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    STACK S. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-aided design system has recently been developed specifically for the small research group environment. The system is implemented on a Prime 400 minicomputer linked with a CDC 6600 computer. The goal was to assign the minicomputer specific tasks, such as data input and graphics, thereby reserving the large mainframe computer for time-consuming analysis codes. The basic structure of the design system consists of GEMPAK, a computer code that generates detailed configuration geometry from a minimum of input; interface programs that reformat GEMPAK geometry for input to the analysis codes; and utility programs that simplify computer access and data interpretation. The working system has had a large positive impact on the quantity and quality of research performed by the originating group. This paper describes the system, the major factors that contributed to its particular form, and presents examples of its application.

  2. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  3. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  4. Computer-aided planning and surgical guiding system fabrication in premolar autotransplantation: a 12-month follow up.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Jansma, Johan; Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos

    2016-08-01

    This case report describes the autotransplantation of maxillary right second premolar into the contralateral position in a 14-year-old female using computerized tomographic data and a customized guiding system produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology. Using innovative surgical guides and keys with navigation features, modification of the recipient socket and handling of the transplant were facilitated without harming the periodontal membrane. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examination showed periodontal and pulp healing earlier than 6 months after surgery. PMID:26667222

  5. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  6. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  7. Overloaded Minimum Total Squared Correlation Signatures Based Pilot Aided System for MC-CDMA and STBC MC-CDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifianto, M. S.; Chekima, A.; Hamid, M. Y.; Barukang, L.; Viswacheda, D. V.

    This paper proposes multiple-access schemes based on Overloaded Minimum Total Squared Correlation (TSC) signatures, namely Pilot Aided Multi-Carrier Code-Division Multiple-Access (MC-CDMA) and Pilot Aided Space Time Block Codes (STBC) MC-CDMA. Since overloaded minimum TSC signatures were used as the spreading codes, a number of sub-channels in the MC-CDMA and STBC MC-CDMA schemes were not utilized for data transmission. These empty sub-channels can be exploited for comb-type pilot signaling. To maintain low system complexity, for the pilot sub-channels Least Square (LS) estimation was employed and for interpolating the characteristics of the data sub-channels linear interpolator was applied. The validity of the schemes is confirmed by comparing them with the original MC-CDMA method using Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes and also with Walsh-Hadamard based STBC MC-CDMA with block-type pilot. All systems use Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) in the MC-CDMA block at the receiver. The simulation result shows that although the spreading codes of interest are not fully orthogonal codes, for a low number of users the systems under investigation performed better than their Walsh-Hadamard based counterpart. This will be valuable for Wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) where the number of users is typically low.

  8. Robust computer-aided synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems with varying plant dynamics via AUTOCON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefkowitz, C. P.; Tekawy, J. A.; Pujara, P. K.; Safonov, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    AUTOCON is an automated computer-aided design tool for the synthesis and optimization of linear multivariable control systems based upon user-defined control parameter optimization. Violations in stability and performance requirements are computed from constraints on Single Input/Single Output (SISO) open- and closed-loop transfer function frequency responses, and from constraints on the singular-value frequency responses of Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) transfer functions, for all critical plant variations. Optimum nonlinear programming algorithms are used in the search for local constrained solutions in which violations in stability and performance are caused either to vanish or be minimized for a proper selection of the control parameters. Classical control system stability and performance design can, in this way, be combined with modern multivariable robustness methods to offer general frequency response loop-shaping via a computer-aided design tool. Complete Nichols, Nyquist, Bode, singular-value Bode magnitude and transient response plots are produced, including user-defined boundary responses. AUTOCON is used to synthesize and optimize the lateral/directional flight control system for a typical high-performance aircraft.

  9. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  10. A Decision Aid for Women Considering Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy for Operable Invasive Breast Cancer: Development and Protocol of a Phase II Evaluation Study (ANZ1301 DOMINO)

    PubMed Central

    Butow, Phyllis; Hutchings, Elizabeth; Douglas, Charles; Coll, Joseph R; Boyle, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant systemic therapy is offered to selected women with large and/or highly proliferative operable breast cancers. This option adds further complexity to an already complex breast cancer treatment decision tree. Patient decision aids are an established method of increasing patient involvement and knowledge while decreasing decisional conflict. There is currently no decision aid available for women considering neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Objective We aimed to develop a decision aid for women diagnosed with operable breast cancer and considered suitable for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and the protocol for a multicenter pre-post study evaluating the acceptability and feasibility of the decision aid. Methods The decision aid was developed through literature review, expert advisory panel, adherence to the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, and iterative review. The protocol for evaluation of the decision aid consists of the following: eligible women will undertake a series of questionnaires prior to and after using the decision aid. The primary endpoint is decision aid acceptability to patients and investigators and the feasibility of use. Secondary endpoints include change in decisional conflict, participant knowledge, and information involvement preference. Feasibility is defined as the proportion of eligible participants who use the decision aid to help inform their treatment decision. Results This study has recruited 29 out of a planned 50 participants at four Australian sites. A 12-month recruitment period is expected with a further 12-months follow-up. Conclusions The decision aid has the potential to allow patients with operable breast cancer, who have been offered neoadjuvant systemic therapy, decreased decisional conflict, and greater involvement in the decision. If this study finds that an online decision aid is feasible and acceptable, it will be made widely available for routine clinical practice. Trial Registration

  11. Intelligent computer aided training systems in the real world: Making the technology accessible to the educational mainstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Madeline

    1993-01-01

    Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.

  12. Optical domain scheme of pilot-tone-aided carrier phase recovery for Nyquist single-carrier optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaomin; Lin, Jiachuan; Su, Xiaofei; Xi, Lixia; Qiao, Yaojun; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2014-06-01

    We propose an optical domain pilot-aided carrier phase recovery (PA-CPR) scheme used in a single-carrier Nyquist system. A comprehensive mathematical description of the proposed PA-CPR scheme is presented. Optimal parameters for the system are obtained through optimizations. Furthermore, we propose the two-stage PA-CPR algorithm combinations which use the maximum likelihood or constellation transformation phase estimation as the second stage just after the pilot phase compensation. We also make the evaluation and comparison of the linewidth tolerance performances among the proposed two-stage PA-CPR algorithm combinations and other typical CPR algorithms in a 28-Gbaud Nyquist polarization-division multiplexed (PDM)-16QAM optical communication system. The calculation results show that the proposed two-stage PA-CPR algorithm combinations, which have lower complexities, show better performances than others.

  13. Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems. Program documentation. Volume 1: Software requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goltz, G.; Kaiser, L. M.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for designing and analyzing the performance of solar array/battery power systems for the U.S. Coast Guard Navigational Aids. This program is called the Design Synthesis/Performance Analysis (DSPA) Computer Program. The basic function of the Design Synthesis portion of the DSPA program is to evaluate functional and economic criteria to provide specifications for viable solar array/battery power systems. The basic function of the Performance Analysis portion of the DSPA program is to simulate the operation of solar array/battery power systems under specific loads and environmental conditions. This document establishes the software requirements for the DSPA computer program, discusses the processing that occurs within the program, and defines the necessary interfaces for operation.

  14. GPCALMA: implementation in Italian hospitals of a computer aided detection system for breast lesions by mammography examination.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Adele

    2009-06-01

    We describe the implementation in several Italian hospitals of a computer aided detection (CAD) system, named GPCALMA (grid platform for a computer aided library in mammography), for the automatic search of lesions in X-ray mammographies. GPCALMA has been under development since 1999 by a community of physicists of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN) in collaboration with radiologists. This CAD system was tested as a support to radiologists in reading mammographies. The main system components are: (i) the algorithms implemented for the analysis of digitized mammograms to recognize suspicious lesions, (ii) the database of digitized mammographic images, and (iii) the PC-based digitization and analysis workstation and its user interface. The distributed nature of data and resources and the prevalence of geographically remote users suggested the development of the system as a grid application: the design of this networked version is also reported. The paper describes the system architecture, the database of digitized mammographies, the clinical workstation and the medical applications carried out to characterize the system. A commercial CAD was evaluated in a comparison with GPCALMA by analysing the medical reports obtained with and without the two different CADs on the same dataset of images: with both CAD a statistically significant increase in sensitivity was obtained. The sensitivity in the detection of lesions obtained for microcalcification and masses was 96% and 80%, respectively. An analysis in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for massive lesion searches, achieving an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.783+/-0.008. Results show that the GPCALMA CAD is ready to be used in the radiological practice, both for screening mammography and clinical studies. GPCALMA is a starting point for the development of other medical imaging applications such as the CAD for the search of pulmonary nodules, currently under

  15. Computer aided reliability, availability, and safety modeling for fault-tolerant computer systems with commentary on the HARP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shooman, Martin L.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the most challenging reliability problems of our present decade involve complex distributed systems such as interconnected telephone switching computers, air traffic control centers, aircraft and space vehicles, and local area and wide area computer networks. In addition to the challenge of complexity, modern fault-tolerant computer systems require very high levels of reliability, e.g., avionic computers with MTTF goals of one billion hours. Most analysts find that it is too difficult to model such complex systems without computer aided design programs. In response to this need, NASA has developed a suite of computer aided reliability modeling programs beginning with CARE 3 and including a group of new programs such as: HARP, HARP-PC, Reliability Analysts Workbench (Combination of model solvers SURE, STEM, PAWS, and common front-end model ASSIST), and the Fault Tree Compiler. The HARP program is studied and how well the user can model systems using this program is investigated. One of the important objectives will be to study how user friendly this program is, e.g., how easy it is to model the system, provide the input information, and interpret the results. The experiences of the author and his graduate students who used HARP in two graduate courses are described. Some brief comparisons were made with the ARIES program which the students also used. Theoretical studies of the modeling techniques used in HARP are also included. Of course no answer can be any more accurate than the fidelity of the model, thus an Appendix is included which discusses modeling accuracy. A broad viewpoint is taken and all problems which occurred in the use of HARP are discussed. Such problems include: computer system problems, installation manual problems, user manual problems, program inconsistencies, program limitations, confusing notation, long run times, accuracy problems, etc.

  16. Compatibility and consistency in display-control systems - Implications for aircraft decision aid design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Anthony D.; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we contrast display-control movement relations defined in terms of stimulus-response (physical) compatibility with those defined by stimulus-cognitive compatibility, and we relate these findings to the issue of command versus status levels of decision aid support. A second issue addressed is the cost of inconsistency across multiple display-control mappings. Subjects performed a flight control task while responding to one to four analog indicators, formatted as either command or status displays. The results suggest that there is an advantage for the status format when subjects are required to verbally report the state of the indicator(s), but no advantage was found for either format when subjects were required to manually correct the indicated state. The data point to the importance of display-control consistency and suggest that it may even outweigh that of compatibility.

  17. Remote sensing-aided systems for snow qualification, evapotranspiration estimation, and their application in hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korram, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of general remote sensing-aided methodologies was studied to provide the estimates of several important inputs to water yield forecast models. These input parameters are snow area extent, snow water content, and evapotranspiration. The study area is Feather River Watershed (780,000 hectares), Northern California. The general approach involved a stepwise sequence of identification of the required information, sample design, measurement/estimation, and evaluation of results. All the relevent and available information types needed in the estimation process are being defined. These include Landsat, meteorological satellite, and aircraft imagery, topographic and geologic data, ground truth data, and climatic data from ground stations. A cost-effective multistage sampling approach was employed in quantification of all the required parameters. The physical and statistical models for both snow quantification and evapotranspiration estimation was developed. These models use the information obtained by aerial and ground data through appropriate statistical sampling design.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research. PMID:19910343

  19. Photonic-aided pre-coding QAM signal transmission in multi-antenna radio over fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Zhu, Ming; Xin, Xiangjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2015-11-01

    A novel method has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to provide photonic-aided pre-coding quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal transmission in multi-antenna radio over fiber system to increase the throughput. For downlink, two different multi-level amplitude-shift-keying (M-ASK) modulated signals, such as 4-ASK signals, are applied on two uncorrelated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators at central office. After photonic-aided pre-coding module and photo-detection process, the received M-ASK mm-waves from two remote access units (RAUs) can be synthesized to a M2-QAM signal in the proposed system. Regardless of forward error correction (FEC) coding overhead, the 4-Gb/s and 8-Gb/s 16-QAM mm-wave signals are obtained from two independent 2-Gb/s and 4-Gb/s 4-ASK 40-GHz channels, respectively. The experimental results show that a doubled bit rate of the original 4-ASK one can be achieved without additional digital signal processing (DSP) in small cell RAUs and mobile users.

  20. Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis. PMID:23317541

  1. A laboratory study on a capacitive displacement sensor as an implant microphone in totally implant cochlear hearing aid systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Guo, Jun; Megerian, Cliff A; Young, Darrin J; Ko, Wen H

    2007-01-01

    A totally implant cochlear hearing aids system, integrating an implant microphone, interface electronics, a speech processor, a stimulator, and cochlear electrodes, can overcome the uncomfortable, inconvenient, and stigma problems associated with the conventional and semi-implantable hearing aids. This paper presents a laboratory feasibility study on the use of an electret condenser microphone (ECM) displacement sensor, serving as an implant microphone, and combined with a spring coupler to directly sense the umbo acoustic vibration. The umbo vibration characteristics were extracted from literature to determine the coupler and sensor requirements. A laboratory model was built to simulate the vibration source and experimentally study the transmission coefficient. Experimental data demonstrate that by using a 5 N/m stiffness spring, the umbo vibration amplitude as high as 67% can be transmitted to the sensor. Measurement of the sensor system on the temporal bone was also made. The minimum detectable sound pressure level (SPL) at 1 kHz is 41 and 67 dB for laboratory and 38 and 64 dB for temporal bone measurement for 1 and 388 Hz bandwidth, respectively. Better performance was achieved in a higher frequency. Results and analysis of this study can be used as a guideline for the future design of displacement sensors as implant microphones. PMID:18003304

  2. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an Analgesic and Ergogenic Aid in Sport: A Systemic Review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2015-10-01

    Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors. PMID:26200194

  3. Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2015-06-01

    In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micronutrient therapy in combination with allopathic treatments can extend and improve the quality and quantity of life in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. HIV infection is thought to lead to augmented oxidative stress which may in turn lead to faster development of HIV disease. Hence, antioxidants might have a significant role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. An additional approach to treating HIV infection is fortifying the immune response of infected people. Immune modulators help to activate and boost the normal immune function. The present review first describes the boon of antioxidants (especially Vitamin A) and immune modulators (cytolin, resveratrol, murabutide, setarud, tucaresol, AVR118, Immunitin (HE2000), reticulose, and interleukin-7) in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Then, providing a comparatively succinct outline on updated patents study on antioxidants and immune modulators to treat HIV/AIDS will be discussed. PMID:25933975

  4. Weight and height of people living with HIV/AIDS attended by the Brazilian National Health System.

    PubMed

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann; Garcia, Vania Regina Salles; Trovões, Edina Aparecida Tramarin

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is related to morbidity and mortality and its monitoring is important in the maintenance of the health status. This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Brazilian National Health System in the Municipality of São Paulo. It describes anthropometrical characteristics: weight and height; indices of weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A), body mass index for age (BMI/A) and Z score for height and weight. The study includes 772 participants from all ages: children, adolescents, adults and elderly. The graphical analysis shows that in under-5s and in the 5 to 19 years old group, the W/H, the H/A and the BMI/A curves are similar to the reference population with an exception in the H/A for 5 to 19 years old group which is left-shifted (mean Z = -0.66). In the case of adults, graphics for the study population show median weight apparently lower than in the reference population for most age groups in the case of men, and when age is greater in women. The proportion of people over 20 years old with AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy is lower when coinfection is present (p < 0.001). The findings of the study showed that, for children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS, the average weight and height are lower than the values for non infected population. For adults and elderly, the weight average is lower than the reference population with a worsening among coinfected patients. This underscores the need to direct more effort in nutritional actions thus helping enhance the health status of this group. PMID:24896276

  5. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  6. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  8. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  9. Determination of the observation conditions of celestial bodies with the aid of the DISPO system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazakov, R. K.; Krivov, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    The interactive system for determining the observation conditions of celestial bodies is described. A system of programs was created containing a part of the DISPO Display Interative System of Orbit Planning. The system was used for calculating the observatiion characteristics of Halley's comet during its approach to Earth in 1985-86.

  10. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  11. High-performance computer aided detection system for polyp detection in CT colonography with fluid and fecal tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Kabadi, Suraj; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a feasible and minimally invasive method for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps has improved consistency and sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy interpretation and reduced interpretation burden. A CAD system typically consists of four stages: (1) image preprocessing including colon segmentation; (2) initial detection generation; (3) feature selection; and (4) detection classification. In our experience, three existing problems limit the performance of our current CAD system. First, highdensity orally administered contrast agents in fecal-tagging CTC have scatter effects on neighboring tissues. The scattering manifests itself as an artificial elevation in the observed CT attenuation values of the neighboring tissues. This pseudo-enhancement phenomenon presents a problem for the application of computer-aided polyp detection, especially when polyps are submerged in the contrast agents. Second, general kernel approach for surface curvature computation in the second stage of our CAD system could yield erroneous results for thin structures such as small (6-9 mm) polyps and for touching structures such as polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the sensitivity of polyp detection. The third problem is that more than 150 features are selected from each polyp candidate in the third stage of our CAD system. These high dimensional features make it difficult to learn a good decision boundary for detection classification and reduce the accuracy of predictions. Therefore, an improved CAD system for polyp detection in CTC data is proposed by introducing three new techniques. First, a scale-based scatter correction algorithm is applied to reduce pseudo-enhancement effects in the image pre-processing stage. Second, a cubic spline interpolation method is utilized to accurately estimate curvatures for initial detection generation. Third, a new dimensionality

  12. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  13. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  14. Visualization and Representation of Physical Systems: Wavemaker as an Aid to Conceptualizing Wave Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Whitney, Charles A.; Shore, Linda; Deutsch, Freeman

    1999-01-01

    Describes Wavemaker, a simulation environment developed to graphically reveal the behavior of periodic systems using a series of increasingly sophisticated visual tools. Results indicate that the software is helpful in connecting real to simulated systems. (Author/CCM)

  15. Computer-Aided Decisions in Human Services: Expert Systems and Multivariate Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicoly, Fiore

    1989-01-01

    This comparison of two approaches to the development of computerized supports for decision making--expert systems and multivariate models--focuses on computerized systems that assist professionals with tasks related to diagnosis or classification in human services. Validation of both expert systems and statistical models is emphasized. (39…

  16. Design Considerations in Development of Minicomputer-Based Computer Aided Instructional Hardware Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, C. H.

    A minicomputer-based computer-assisted instructional (CAI) system was designed at the University of Texas Medical Branch in an attempt to lower both the excessive hardware costs and the inordinate amount of time required for the preparation of each hour of instructional material associated with traditional CAI systems. A prototype system with an…

  17. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Aided Music-Learning System for the Hearing Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, H.-J.; Lay, Y.-L.; Liou, Y.-C.; Tsao, W.-Y.; Lin, C.-K.

    2007-01-01

    A computer-assisted music-learning system (CAMLS) has been developed to help the hearing impaired practice playing a musical melody. The music-learning performance is evaluated to test the usability of the system. This system can be a computer-supported learning tool for the hearing impaired to help them understand what pitch and tempo are, and…

  18. Two and three dimensional systems for computer aided geometric design of aircraft surface and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryeh, F.

    1982-01-01

    Three interactive software systems dealing with the computerized definition, storage and handling of aircraft geometric shapes and entities in a multidisciplinary design environment are presented. The systems are operated in an interactive fashion via use of low cost graphic display terminals driven by a remote computer in a time sharing mode. GEODEF is a system for interactive definition of complex aircraft surfaces, GEOBASE is a system for interrogation and manipulation of a computerized aircraft geometry data base, and DOG is a 3-D detailed structural and mechanical part definition system.

  19. Medical devices; ear, nose, and throat devices; classification of the transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2002-11-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system (TACHAS) into class II (special controls). Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance document that will serve as the special control for the device. The agency is taking this action in response to a petition submitted under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the amendments), the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990, and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA). The agency is classifying this device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:12422884

  20. Content Management System for Developing a Virtual Platform for Association of Women's Aid with Lack of Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Flores García, Alberto; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    In this paper we show a Virtual Platform for an Association of Women's Aid called Centro Integral de Ayuda a la Mujer (CIAM). After analyzing different Content Management Systems (CMS) and the benefits that its use would contribute to the development of the Virtual Platform, taking into account the needs and requirements set by CIAM, we have opted for the use of Joomla!. This free CMS, for its characteristics, is the most benefits provided us. The virtual platform design has been developed following customer specifications, to have understood the simplicity and easy handling of the resulting platform. This platform will be integrated into the Web portal that has the Amarex Association and it will be able to be administrates from the CIAM without specific knowledge of programming languages. If new services were necessary, they would be easily implemented, adding new modules and components to perform these services.

  1. ThE Alaska Native Tribal Health System Dental Health Aide Therapist as a dentist-centric model.

    PubMed

    Williard, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Differences in disease patterns and living circumstances should play no role in the quality of oral health care or in dentists' role in directing this care. Such differences, however, very likely suggest that the delivery model that works in many circumstances may not be best in all. The Alaska Tribal Health System Dental Health Aide Therapist (DHAT) model is one alternative whose potential is being evaluated. These teams are managed by dentists and have several features in common with general practice residency training programs. Alaska dentists supervising DHATs customize their practice protocols based on the skills of the therapists and the needs of the communities served. The emphasis of therapists is on prevention and basic oral health services, leaving the dentists to focus on higher level treatment that better uses the skills for which they have been trained. The characteristics of effective dentist team managers and the economic and social realities of this program are discussed. PMID:22856051

  2. Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Student Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains. Report to the Secretary of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powner, David A.

    To address system problems and other management weaknesses, in 1998 Congress created the Office of Federal Student Aid (FSA) within the Department of Education. This office adopted a new approach to systems integration using middleware (software that can allow an application to access data residing indifferent databases) and Extensible Markup…

  3. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  4. Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Schmeink, C

    2009-03-01

    The study examined the influence of different types of enhanced system support on user performance during the management of a central heating system. A computer-based simulation of a central heating system, called CHESS V2.0, was used to model different interface options, providing different support facilities to the user (e.g., historical, predictive, and instructional displays). Seventy-five participants took part in the study and completed a series of operational scenarios under different support conditions. The simulation environment allowed the collection of performance measures (e.g., energy consumption), information sampling, and system control behaviour. Subjective user evaluations of various aspects of the system were also measured. The results showed performance gains for predictive displays whereas no such benefits were observed for the other display types. The data also revealed that status and predictive displays were valued most highly by users. The implications of the findings for designers of central heating systems are discussed. PMID:18433730

  5. Research on computer-aided design of modern marine power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dongdong; Zeng, Fanming; Chen, Guojun

    2004-03-01

    To make the MPS (Marine Power System) design process more economical and easier, a new CAD scheme is brought forward which takes much advantage of VR (Virtual Reality) and AI (Artificial Intelligence) technologies. This CAD system can shorten the period of design and reduce the requirements on designers' experience in large scale. And some key issues like the selection of hardware and software of such a system are discussed.

  6. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  7. Preparing School Counseling Students to Aid Families: Integrating a Family Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paylo, Matthew John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the value of integrating family systems theory into a school counseling curriculum is explored. Some programs have historically placed school counselors in a difficult position by not adequately preparing them for the demands of incorporating family systems and community collaboration into clinical practice. The rationale for…

  8. An overview of the computer aided design system for drafting at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, B.E.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia Laboratories Livermore is converting the existing Computervision CADS system to a new hardware and software platform. This report describes the final configuration (after the conversion is completed) and the individual units comparing the system. A background describing the evolution of CADS at SNLL is appended.

  9. Run-D.M.C.: A Mnemonic Aid for Explaining Mass Transfer in Electrochemical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Deon T.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemistry is a significant area of analytical chemistry encompassing electrical measurements of chemical systems. The applications associated with electrochemistry appear in many aspects of everyday life: explaining how batteries work, how the human nervous system functions, and how metal corrosion occurs. The most common electrochemical…

  10. The large scale microelectronics Computer-Aided Design and Test (CADAT) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The CADAT system consists of a number of computer programs written in FORTRAN that provide the capability to simulate, lay out, analyze, and create the artwork for large scale microelectronics. The function of each software component of the system is described with references to specific documentation for each software component.

  11. Development of a computer-aided detection system for lung cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Sasaoka, Soichi; Natori, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a modified system for automatic detection of lung nodules by means of chest x ray image processing techniques. The objective of the system is to help radiologists to improve their accuracy in cancer detection. It is known from retrospective studies of chest x- ray images that radiologists fail to detect about 30 percent of lung cancer cases. A computerized method for detecting lung nodules would be very useful for decreasing the proportion of such oversights. Our proposed system consists of five sub-systems, for image input, lung region determination, nodule detection, rule-based false-positive elimination, and statistical false-positive elimination. In an experiment with the modified system, using 30 lung cancer cases and 78 normal control cases, we obtained figures of 73.3 percent and 89.7 percent for the sensitivity and specificity of the system, respectively. The system has been developed to run on the IBM* PS/55* and IBM RISC System/6000* (RS/6000), and we give the processing time for each platform.

  12. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Morris, Macdonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks.

  13. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  14. The Effect of Mini/Micro Processors on Computer-Aided Learning Systems at the CSUC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laurel Lee

    The software and courseware developed on the campuses of a big system such as The California State University and Colleges (CSUC) might be the nucleus of a computer network to deliver cost-effective lessons to the students on all campuses. This paper describes the methodology by which small Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) systems could be…

  15. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  16. Multicriteria decision-aid method to evaluate the performance of stormwater infiltration systems over the time.

    PubMed

    Moura, P; Barraud, S; Baptista, M B; Malard, F

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, stormwater infiltration systems are frequently used because of their ability to reduce flows and volumes in downstream sewers, decrease overflows in surface waters and make it possible to recharge groundwater. Moreover, they come in various forms with different uses. Despite these advantages the long term sustainability of these systems is questionable and their real performances have to be assessed taking into account various and sometimes conflicting aspects. To address this problem a decision support system is proposed. It is based on a multicriteria method built to help managers to evaluate the performance of an existing infiltration system at different stages of its lifespan and identify whether it performs correctly or not, according to environmental, socio-economic, technical and sanitary aspects. The paper presents successively: the performance indicators and the way they were built, the multicriteria method to identify if the system works properly and a case study. PMID:22105120

  17. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Murphy, J. P.; Swift, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System is being developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes. VIP employs a single video sensor to generate three-axis pointing error signals and to provide inputs for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals update the telescope's gyro stabilization system. The CRT display facilitates target acquisition and positioning of the telescope by a remote operator. The present paper describes the analysis, simulation, and hardware development of a prototype, advanced VIP system. An early model of the system utilizing a silicon-intensified target vidicon camera has flown on a balloon-borne telescope and is briefly described. The advanced system, which can employ either a vidicon camera or a charge-coupled device video sensor, has been tested using an analog/digital hybrid simulation. The advanced VIP hardware is described, and the simulation results presented.

  18. Knowledge-based computer system to aid in the histopathological diagnosis of breast disease.

    PubMed Central

    Heathfield, H; Bose, D; Kirkham, N

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge-based computer system, designed to assist pathologists in the histological diagnosis of breast disease, is described. This system represents knowledge in the form of "disease profiles" and uses a novel inference model based on the mathematical technique of hypergraphs. Its design overcomes many of the limitations of existing expert system technologies when applied to breast disease. In particular, the system can quickly focus on a differential problem and thus reduce the amount of data necessary to reach a conclusion. The system was tested on two sets of samples, consisting of 14 retrospective cases and five hypothetical cases of breast disease. Its recommendations were judged "correct" by the evaluating pathologist in 15 cases. This study shows the feasibility of providing "decision support" in histopathology. PMID:2066430

  19. A visual probe localization and calibration system for cost-effective computer-aided 3D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aziah; Logeswaran, Rajasvaran

    2007-08-01

    The 3D ultrasound systems produce much better reproductions than 2D ultrasound, but their prohibitively high cost deprives many less affluent organization this benefit. This paper proposes using the conventional 2D ultrasound equipment readily available in most hospitals, along with a single conventional digital camera, to construct 3D ultrasound images. The proposed system applies computer vision to extract position information of the ultrasound probe while the scanning takes place. The probe, calibrated in order to calculate the offset of the ultrasound scan from the position of the marker attached to it, is used to scan a number of geometrical objects. Using the proposed system, the 3D volumes of the objects were successfully reconstructed. The system was tested in clinical situations where human body parts were scanned. The results presented, and confirmed by medical staff, are very encouraging for cost-effective implementation of computer-aided 3D ultrasound using a simple setup with 2D ultrasound equipment and a conventional digital camera. PMID:17126314

  20. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917

  1. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features ([Formula: see text]). PMID:26158036

  2. Assistive control system using continuous myoelectric signal in robot-aided arm training for patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le

    2008-08-01

    In some stroke rehabilitation programs, robotic systems have been used to aid the patient to train. In this study, a myoelectrically controlled robotic system with 1 degree-of-freedom was developed to assist elbow training in a horizontal plane with intention involvement for people after stroke. The system could provide continuous assistance in extension torque, which was proportional to the amplitude of the subject's electromyographic (EMG) signal from the triceps, and could provide resistive torques during movement. This study investigated the system's effect on restoring the upper limb functions of eight subjects after chronic stroke in a twenty-session rehabilitation training program. In each session, there were 18 trials comprising different combinations of assistive and resistive torques and an evaluation trial. Each trial consisted of five cycles of repetitive elbow flexion and extension between 90 degrees and 0 degrees at a constant velocity of 10 degrees/s. With the assistive extension torque, subjects could reach a more extended position in the first session. After 20 sessions of training, there were statistically significant improvements in the modified Ashworth scale, Fugl-Meyer scale for shoulder and elbow, motor status scale, elbow extension range, muscle strength, and root mean square error between actual elbow angle and target angle. The results showed that the twenty-session training program improved upper limb functions. PMID:18701384

  3. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features (p<0.001). PMID:26158036

  4. Performance Enhancement of MC-CDMA System through Novel Sensitive Bit Algorithm Aided Turbo Multi User Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI. PMID:25714917

  5. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  6. Development of the on-line operator aid system OASYS using a rule-based expert system and fuzzy logic for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.H.; Kang, K.S.; Choi, S.S.; Kim, H.G.; Jeong, H.K.; Yi, C.U.

    1995-11-01

    The On-line Operator Aid SYStem (OASYS) has been developed to support the operator`s decision making process and to ensure the safety of a nuclear power plant by providing operators with proper guidelines in a timely manner, according to the plant operation mode. The OASYS consists of four systems such as a signal validation and management system (SVMS), a plant monitoring system (PMS), an alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), and a dynamic emergency procedure tracking system (DEPTS). The SVMS and the PMS help operators to maintain a plant in a condition to withstand the adverse events during a normal operation condition. The AFDS covers the abnormal events until it exceeds the limit range of reactor trip signals, while after a reactor trip, the DEPTS aids operators with proper guidelines so as to shut down safely. The OASYS uses a rule-based expert system and fuzzy logic. The rule-based expert system is used to classify the predefined events and track the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) through data processing, and the fuzzy logic is used to generate the conceptual high-level alarms for the prognostic diagnosis and to evaluate the qualitative fuzzy criteria used in the EOPs. Evaluation results show that the OASYS is capable of diagnosing plant abnormal conditions and providing operators appropriate guidelines with fast response time and consistency. The proposed system is implemented on a SUN-4/75 workstation using C language and Quintus prolog language. Currently, the OASYS is installed in the real-time full scope simulator for validation.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  8. CASE/A - COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS, ECLSS/ATCS SERIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, A.

    1994-01-01

    Design and analysis of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCS) for spacecraft missions requires powerful software that is flexible and responsive to the demands of particular projects. CASE/A is an interactive trade study and analysis tool designed to increase productivity during all phases of systems engineering. The graphics-based command-driven package provides a user-friendly environment in which the engineer can analyze the performance and interface characteristics of an ECLS/ATC system. The package is useful during all phases of a spacecraft design program, from initial conceptual design trade studies to the actual flight, including pre-flight prediction and in-flight anomaly analysis. The CASE/A program consists of three fundamental parts: 1) the schematic management system, 2) the database management system, and 3) the simulation control and execution system. The schematic management system allows the user to graphically construct a system model by arranging icons representing system components and connecting the components with physical fluid streams. Version 4.1 contains 51 fully coded and documented default component routines. New components can be added by the user through the "blackbox" component option. The database management system supports the storage and manipulation of component data, output data, and solution control data through interactive edit screens. The simulation control and execution system initiates and controls the iterative solution process, displaying time status and any necessary diagnostic messages. In addition to these primary functions, the program provides three other important functional areas: 1) model output management, 2) system utility commands, and 3) user operations logic capacity. The model output management system provides tabular and graphical output capability. Complete fluid constituent mass fraction and properties data (mass flow, pressure, temperature

  9. Dual system approach to computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Jun; Chan, H.-P.; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou Chuan; Ge Jun

    2006-11-15

    In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a computer-added detection (CAD) system optimized with ''average'' masses with another CAD system optimized with ''subtle'' masses. The two single CAD systems have similar image processing steps, which include prescreening, object segmentation, morphological and texture feature extraction, and false positive (FP) reduction by rule-based and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers. A feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network was trained to merge the scores from the LDA classifiers in the two single CAD systems and differentiate true masses from normal tissue. For an unknown test mammogram, the two single CAD systems are applied to the image in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A total of three data sets were used for training and testing the systems. The first data set of 230 current mammograms, referred to as the average mass set, was collected from 115 patients. We also collected 264 mammograms, referred to as the subtle mass set, which were one to two years prior to the current exam from these patients. Both the average and the subtle mass sets were partitioned into two independent data sets in a cross validation training and testing scheme. A third data set containing 65 cases with 260 normal mammograms was used to estimate the FP marker rates during testing. When the single CAD system trained on the average mass set was applied to the test set with average masses, the FP marker rates were 2.2, 1.8, and 1.5 per image at the case-based sensitivities of 90%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the FP marker rates were reduced to 1.2, 0.9, and 0.7 per image, respectively, at the same case-based sensitivities. Statistically significant (p<0.05) improvements on the free response receiver operating characteristic curves were observed when the dual system and the single system were compared

  10. Operator Station Design System - A computer aided design approach to work station layout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Operator Station Design System is resident in NASA's Johnson Space Center Spacecraft Design Division Performance Laboratory. It includes stand-alone minicomputer hardware and Panel Layout Automated Interactive Design and Crew Station Assessment of Reach software. The data base consists of the Shuttle Transportation System Orbiter Crew Compartment (in part), the Orbiter payload bay and remote manipulator (in part), and various anthropometric populations. The system is utilized to provide panel layouts, assess reach and vision, determine interference and fit problems early in the design phase, study design applications as a function of anthropometric and mission requirements, and to accomplish conceptual design to support advanced study efforts.

  11. Loosely Coupled GPS-Aided Inertial Navigation System for Range Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heatwole, Scott; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) aims to replace the human element of range safety operations, as well as reduce reliance on expensive, downrange assets for launches of expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). The system consists of multiple navigation sensors and flight computers that provide a highly reliable platform. It is designed to ensure that single-event failures in a flight computer or sensor will not bring down the whole system. The flight computer uses a rules-based structure derived from range safety requirements to make decisions whether or not to destroy the rocket.

  12. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  13. A performance evaluation postprocessor for computer-aided design and analysis of communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio at a point in a digital simulation of a communication system is described; the technique is essentially a digital realization of a technique proposed by Shepertycki (1964) for the evaluation of analog communication systems. Signals having lowpass or bandpass spectra may be used. Simulation results show the technique to be accurate over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios.

  14. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  15. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1996-11-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  16. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Lipshutz, R.J.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  17. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  18. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, E.A.; Morris, M.S.; Winkler, J.L.

    1999-01-05

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays is disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files to design and/or generate lithographic masks. 14 figs.

  19. Computer-aided engineering system for design of sequence arrays and lithographic masks

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Earl A.; Morris, MacDonald S.; Winkler, James L.

    1996-01-01

    An improved set of computer tools for forming arrays. According to one aspect of the invention, a computer system (100) is used to select probes and design the layout of an array of DNA or other polymers with certain beneficial characteristics. According to another aspect of the invention, a computer system uses chip design files (104) to design and/or generate lithographic masks (110).

  20. An expert system in C for computer-aided digital circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jorge S.

    1989-06-01

    This thesis effort documents the design, development, implementation, and test of an expert system which decomposes digital circuits into subproblems in order to detect wiring errors, which consist of improperly connected gates, missing connections, and violation of fanout or race conditions. Information needed to connect chips together is viewed as knowledge base information for the expert system. Information such type as number of pins, value of each pin (input, output, power, ground, clock), fanout for a particular type of chip are retrieved from a central database where they are represented. Implementation was done in the C programming language, which although is not design specially for dealing with problems in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) field could be used with success. An integration with a graphics package and a central database was achieved. Tests conducted with the system running in a personal computer Zenith 248 and compatible microcomputers under the Disk Operational System (DOS) version 3.2 proved the portability and efficiency of the expert system. A user's manual is included for the operation of the InterConnect Expert System (ICE).

  1. Imperfect in-vehicle collision avoidance warning systems can aid drivers.

    PubMed

    Maltz, Masha; Shinar, David

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an in-vehicle collision avoidance warning system (IVCAWS) on driver performance. A driving simulator was driven by 135 licensed drivers. Of these, 120 received alerts from the IVCAWS when their headway to a lead car was less than 2 s, and the other 15 (the control group) received no alerts. Drivers received varied alert interfaces: auditory, visual, and multimodal. The system had varied levels of reliability, determined by both false alarm rate and failure of the IVCAWS to alert to short headway. Results indicated that the IVCAWS led to safer (longer) headway maintenance. High false alarm rates induced drivers to slow down unnecessarily; large numbers of missed alerts did not have any significant impact on drivers. Driver acceptance of the system was mixed. Interface played a role in driver reliance on the system, with the multimodal interfaces generating least reliance. Actual or potential applications of this research include IVCAWS interface selection for greater system efficacy and user acceptance and the advisability of implementation, even of imperfect systems, for drivers who seek to maintain a safer headway. PMID:15359683

  2. Comparisons of Wilson-Fowler and Parametric Cubic Splines with the Curve-Fitting Algorithms of Several Computer-Aided Design Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.

  3. Applied, theoretical modeling of space-based assembly, using expert system architecture for computer-aided engineering tool development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Steven Douglas

    1992-01-01

    The challenges associated with constructing interplanetary spacecraft and space platforms in low earth orbit are such that it is imperative that comprehensive, preliminary process planning analyses be completed before committing funds for Phase B design (detail design, development). Phase A and 'pre-Phase A' design activities will commonly address engineering questions such as mission-design structural integrity, attitude control, thermal control, etc. But the questions of constructability, maintainability and reliability during the assembly phase usually go unaddressed until the more mature stages of design (or very often production) are reached. This is an unacceptable strategy for future space missions whether they be government or commercial ventures. After interviews with expert Aerospace and Construction industry planners a new methodology was formulated and a Blackboard Metaphor Knowledge-based Expert System synthesis model has been successfully developed which can decompose interplanetary vehicles into deliverable orbital subassemblies. Constraint propagation, including launch vehicle payload shroud envelope, is accomplished with heuristic and numerical algorithms including a unique adaptation of a reasoning technique used by Stanford researchers in terrestrial automated process planning. The model is a hybrid combination of rule and frame-based representations, designed to integrate into a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. Emphasis is placed on the actual joining, rendezvous, and refueling of the orbiting, dynamic spacecraft. Significant results of this new methodology upon a large Mars interplanetary spacecraft (736,000 kg) designed by Boeing, show high correlation to manual decomposition and planning analysis studies, but at a fraction of the time, and with little user interaction. Such Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools would greatly leverage the designers ability to assess constructability.

  4. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  5. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  6. Microcalcification detection based on wavelet domain hidden markov tree model: study for inclusion to computer aided diagnostic prompting system.

    PubMed

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Veni, Gopalkrishna

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov trees for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system. The system is designed for detecting clusters of microcalcifications. Their further discrimination as benign or malignant is to be done by radiologists. The model is used for segmenting images based on the maximum likelihood classifier enhanced by the weighting technique. Further classification incorporates spatial filtering for a single microcalcification (MC) and microcalcification cluster (MCC) detection. Contrast filtering applied for the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset prior to spatial filtering greatly improves the classification accuracy. For all MC clusters of 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database of Mammographic Image Analysis Society, 92.5%-100% of true positive cases can be detected under 2-3 false positives per image. For 150 cases of DDSM cases, the designed system is capable to detect up to 98% of true positives under 3.3% of false positive cases. PMID:17654922

  7. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Although decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively, block length effect impacts system performance and leads to the increasing of hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible DA-ML algorithm is proposed in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. We present a general cross phase modulation (XPM) model based on Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) method to describe XPM effects induced by OOK channels at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. Based on our model, the weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible DA-ML algorithm. Bit error ratio (BER) performance is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The results show that our flexible DA-ML algorithm has significant improvement in performance compared with the conventional DA-ML algorithm as block length is a fixed value. Compared with the conventional DA-ML with optimum block length, our flexible DA-ML can obtain better system performance. It means our flexible DA-ML algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than conventional DA-ML algorithm.

  8. Condensed summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding approach for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1997-03-01

    In March 1994, the US Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. The prioritization was with respect to 40 CFR Part 191.13(a) and 40 CFR part 268.6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for long-term isolation of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities), their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. SPM results were the basis for activities recommended to DOE/CAO in May 1995. SPM identified eight activities (less than 15% of the 58 proposed for consideration) predicted to be essential in addressing key regulatory issues. The SPM method proved useful for risk or performance-based prioritization in which options are interdependent and system behavior is nonlinear. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Microcalcification detection based on wavelet domain hidden Markov tree model: Study for inclusion to computer aided diagnostic prompting system

    SciTech Connect

    Regentova, Emma; Zhang Lei; Zheng Jun; Veni, Gopalkrishna

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the performance of statistical modeling of digital mammograms by means of wavelet domain hidden Markov trees for its inclusion to a computer-aided diagnostic prompting system. The system is designed for detecting clusters of microcalcifications. Their further discrimination as benign or malignant is to be done by radiologists. The model is used for segmenting images based on the maximum likelihood classifier enhanced by the weighting technique. Further classification incorporates spatial filtering for a single microcalcification (MC) and microcalcification cluster (MCC) detection. Contrast filtering applied for the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset prior to spatial filtering greatly improves the classification accuracy. For all MC clusters of 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database of Mammographic Image Analysis Society, 92.5%-100% of true positive cases can be detected under 2-3 false positives per image. For 150 cases of DDSM cases, the designed system is capable to detect up to 98% of true positives under 3.3% of false positive cases.

  10. An Intelligent computer-aided tutoring system for diagnosing anomalies of spacecraft in operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1993-01-01

    A new rule-based, expert system for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies is under development. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. Environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. When the user selects the novice mode, the system automatically gives detailed explanations and descriptions of terms and reasoning as the session progresses, in a sense teaching the user. As such it is an effective tutoring tool. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The system is available on-line and uses C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), an expert shell developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center AI Laboratory in Houston.

  11. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS). Phase 1: Users handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The EASY5 macro component models developed for the spacecraft power system simulation are described. A brief explanation about how to use the macro components with the EASY5 Standard Components to build a specific system is given through an example. The macro components are ordered according to the following functional group: converter power stage models, compensator models, current-feedback models, constant frequency control models, load models, solar array models, and shunt regulator models. Major equations, a circuit model, and a program listing are provided for each macro component.

  12. Determining the turnover time of groundwater systems with the aid of environmental tracers. 1. Models and their applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małoszewski, P.; Zuber, A.

    1982-06-01

    Three new lumped-parameter models have been developed for the interpretation of environmental radioisotope data in groundwater systems. Two of these models combine other simpler models, i.e. the piston flow model is combined either with the exponential model (exponential distribution of transit times) or with the linear model (linear distribution of transit times). The third model is based on a new solution to the dispersion equation which more adequately represents the real systems than the conventional solution generally applied so far. The applicability of models was tested by the reinterpretation of several known case studies (Modry Dul, Cheju Island, Rasche Spring and Grafendorf). It has been shown that two of these models, i.e. the exponential-piston flow model and the dispersive model give better fitting than other simpler models. Thus, the obtained values of turnover times are more reliable, whereas the additional fitting parameter gives some information about the structure of the system. In the examples considered, in spite of a lower number of fitting parameters, the new models gave practically the same fitting as the multiparameter finite state mixing-cell models. It has been shown that in the case of a constant tracer input a prior physical knowledge of the groundwater system is indispensable for determining the turnover time. The piston flow model commonly used for age determinations by the 14C method is an approximation applicable only in the cases of low dispersion. In some cases the stable-isotope method aids in the interpretation of systems containing mixed waters of different ages. However, when 14C method is used for mixed-water systems a serious mistake may arise by neglecting the different bicarbonate contents in particular water components.

  13. Performance evaluation using SYSTID time domain simulation. [computer-aid design and analysis for communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tranter, W. H.; Ziemer, R. E.; Fashano, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the SYSTID technique for performance evaluation of communication systems using time-domain computer simulation. An example program illustrates the language. The inclusion of both Gaussian and impulse noise models make accurate simulation possible in a wide variety of environments. A very flexible postprocessor makes possible accurate and efficient performance evaluation.

  14. Computer-Aided Systems Engineering for Flight Research Projects Using a Workgroup Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masahi

    2004-01-01

    An online systems engineering tool for flight research projects has been developed through the use of a workgroup database. Capabilities are implemented for typical flight research systems engineering needs in document library, configuration control, hazard analysis, hardware database, requirements management, action item tracking, project team information, and technical performance metrics. Repetitive tasks are automated to reduce workload and errors. Current data and documents are instantly available online and can be worked on collaboratively. Existing forms and conventional processes are used, rather than inventing or changing processes to fit the tool. An integrated tool set offers advantages by automatically cross-referencing data, minimizing redundant data entry, and reducing the number of programs that must be learned. With a simplified approach, significant improvements are attained over existing capabilities for minimal cost. By using a workgroup-level database platform, personnel most directly involved in the project can develop, modify, and maintain the system, thereby saving time and money. As a pilot project, the system has been used to support an in-house flight experiment. Options are proposed for developing and deploying this type of tool on a more extensive basis.

  15. Stop PC-aids from spreading through your PC—An early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Parashu R.; Manglik, A.

    1993-02-01

    A new software system is presented that runs in an IBM PC/DOS environment immediately after the booting up stage, and provides an effective early warning of an infection by a virus. The system identifies all the users of a PC by their names, passwords, and booking codes. An authentication program performs characteristic diagnostic tests for the presence of boot and file viruses in addition to ensuring that access is provided only to authorized users. A record of login-logout times and results of viral diagnostics is appended to a log file. If there was a viral infection during a user session, access is denied at the time of next login with a display of the report on the last session. Thus corrective measures are prompted not only on the infected fixed disk, but also on that unwary user's floppies. The system includes programs that facilitate recovery from infection by viruses that are unknown to existing commercial scanners and therapy programs at an installation. The system has been effective in keeping the size of the virus epidemic under control at an installation with a minimum sacrifice of the comforts that a PC/DOS combination offers.

  16. FORBEEF: A Forage-Livestock System Computer Model Used as a Teaching Aid for Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, W. C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of a computer simulation model of forage-beef production systems, which is intended to incorporate soil, forage, and animal decisions into an enterprise scenario. Produces a summary of forage production and livestock needs. Cites positive assessment of the program's value by participants in inservice training workshops.…

  17. 76 FR 46774 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Federal Student Aid Application File

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... (18-11-01), 64 Federal Register (FR) 30159-30161 (June 4, 1999), as corrected by 64 FR 72384, 72407 (December 27, 1999), as corrected by 65 FR 11294-11295 (March 2, 2000), as corrected by 66 FR 18758 (April 11, 2001), as altered by 74 FR 68802-68808 (December 29, 2009). This system of records...

  18. AESOP: A computer-aided design program for linear multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L. C.

    1982-01-01

    An interactive computer program (AESOP) which solves quadratic optimal control and is discussed. The program can also be used to perform system analysis calculations such as transient and frequency responses, controllability, observability, etc., in support of the control and filter design computations.

  19. Interactive and Multimedia Contents Associated with a System for Computer-Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Rui C.; Ferreira, Milton S.; Mendes, Ana G.; Eusébio, Augusto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a research study addressing the development, implementation, evaluation, and use of Interactive Modules for Online Training (MITO) of mathematics in higher education. This work was carried out in the context of the MITO project, which combined several features of the learning and management system Moodle, the computer-aided…

  20. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  1. The Complexities of Using Direct-Input Hearing Aids with FM Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Linda M.; McCaffrey, Helen A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews issues to be considered in the selection and monitoring of direct-input personal Frequency Modulation (FM) systems for individuals with hearing impairments. The article discusses boot configurations, signal options, ordering issues, and maintenance issues. (Author/JDD)

  2. A PC based computer program to aid the preparation of solvent systems for the HPLC.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N

    1991-01-01

    An interactive computer program, SOLCOMP, is developed which calculates the volumes of the components that are to be added to obtain either a fresh solvent mixture or a new solvent system from the old one of required composition. The code is implemented in MicroSoft FORTRAN and GWBASIC which runs on any IBM compatible PC under MSDOS environment. PMID:1914445

  3. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  4. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  5. Southwell's Relaxation Search in Computer Aided Advising: An Intelligent Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xueshu

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a microcomputer software system that enhances undergraduate students' interests in becoming engineering graduate students. The development of a database with information on engineering graduate programs is discussed, and a model that matches individual and institutional needs using Southwell's Relaxation…

  6. [Computer-aided implantology: Contribution of the Robodent(®) passive robotic system.

    PubMed

    Armand, S; Legac, O; Galibourg, A

    2013-08-01

    The use of the Robodent(®) passive robotic system improves the accuracy of implant placement and thus allows extending the field of indications for flapless surgical technique. Surgery can be performed with a greater operative safety and peroperative modification of the surgical protocol is possible. PMID:23916311

  7. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  8. A COMPUTER-ASSIST MATERIAL TRACKING SYSTEM AS A CRITICALITY SAFETY AID TO OPERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Claybourn, R V; Huang, S T

    2007-03-30

    In today's compliant-driven environment, fissionable material handlers are inundated with work control rules and procedures in carrying out nuclear operations. Historically, human errors are one of the key contributors of various criticality accidents. Since moving and handling fissionable materials are key components of their job functions, any means that can be provided to assist operators in facilitating fissionable material moves will help improve operational efficiency and enhance criticality safety implementation. From the criticality safety perspective, operational issues have been encountered in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) plutonium operations. Those issues included lack of adequate historical record keeping for the fissionable material stored in containers, a need for a better way of accommodating operations in a research and development setting, and better means of helping material handlers in carrying out various criticality safety controls. Through the years, effective means were implemented including better work control process, standardized criticality control conditions (SCCC) and relocation of criticality safety engineers to the plutonium facility. Another important measure taken was to develop a computer data acquisition system for criticality safety assessment, which is the subject of this paper. The purpose of the Criticality Special Support System (CSSS) is to integrate many of the proven operational support protocols into a software system to assist operators with assessing compliance to procedures during the handling and movement of fissionable materials. Many nuclear facilities utilize mass cards or a computer program to track fissionable material mass data in operations. Additional item specific data such as, the presence of moderators or close fitting reflectors, could be helpful to fissionable material handlers in assessing compliance to SCCC's. Computer-assist checking of a workstation material inventory against the

  9. Efficient health information management systems using wireless communications technology to aid disaster victims.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Yasuhiro; Ashida, Nobuyuki; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Sagawa, Setsuko; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2012-08-01

    Japan is an earthquake-prone country, and disasters have a devastating effect on the lives of residents in stricken areas. Shelters can be constructed in order to secure the physical safety of residents, but there are no such provisions for the shock of experiencing a disaster, losing property and friends, and transitioning to an unfamiliar life in a shelter, all of which can lead to mental disorders. Caretakers such as medical doctors and nurses who are dispatched to disaster sites also face difficulties in the disruption of communications and transportation, thus a system able to secure efficient health management in those facilities is also required. This paper proposes a health information management system that utilizes mobile phone cameras and mark-sensing cards to improve recovery conditions in disaster-stricken areas. PMID:21626399

  10. FMTUTOR: a computer-aided instructional system for teaching fetal monitor interpretation.

    PubMed

    Catanzarite, V A

    1987-05-01

    FMTUTOR is a computer program for instruction in the interpretation of fetal monitor recordings. The system runs on IBM-PC-compatible microcomputers and uses text and computer graphics to illustrate and reinforce important concepts. By means of a 2-hour introductory tutorial session and generation and guided interpretation of an unlimited variety of tracings, it simulates one-on-one instructor-student interactions and allows rapid accumulation of a store of information and experience in monitor tracing interpretation. FMTUTOR is currently used to teach third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of New Mexico. Acceptance has been enthusiastic, and development of more advanced instructional systems targeting nurses, residents, and obstetricians is underway. PMID:3555084

  11. A medieval metaphor to aid use of the Neuman systems model in simulation debriefing.

    PubMed

    McClure, Marilyn; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2012-10-01

    Patient simulation is an effective clinical nursing experience and debriefing is recognized as the most crucial phase for students to internalize learning. The Neuman systems model is an excellent organizing framework for simulation debriefing to maximize learning. However, due to the model's complexity, metaphor may be useful to help students to link simulation events with the model's concepts. A medieval metaphorical adaptation of the Neuman systems model was created as an educational debriefing tool to help students bridge this gap. Neuman's concepts are represented as medieval figures encountering and dealing with stressor dragons, with assistance (nursing intervention) as necessary. The companion questionnaire allows recording of student insights and becomes an evaluation tool for student comprehension. PMID:23087338

  12. Engineering constraints and computer-aided optimization of electrostatic lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Steen, H. W. G.; Barth, J. E.; Adriaanse, J. P.

    1990-12-01

    An optimization tool for the design of electrostatic lens systems with axial symmetry is presented. This tool is based on the second-order electrode method combined with a multivariable numerical optimization procedure. The second-order electrode method makes a cubic spline approximation to the axial potential for a given electrode shape. With the help of this approximation, a numerical optimization can be done. To demonstrate this optimization tool, a lens system for Auger analyses is optimized. It is shown that variations in the practical constraints imposed on the design, like maximum electrode potential or maximum lens diameter, have strong effects on the obtainable lens quality. It is concluded that a numerical optimization does not take over the lens designer's job, but allows him to thoroughly examine the optical consequences of engineering choices by finding the optimum design for each set of constraints.

  13. [New developments in hearing aid technology].

    PubMed

    Kompis, M

    2004-01-01

    The last decade has seen numerous and significant improvements in hearing aid technology. Digital hearing aids are becoming increasingly common and have already replaced a considerable portion of the hearing aids using the older analogue technology. Efficient noise reduction methods, most notably multi-microphone systems for hearing aids, can increase speech intelligibility in adverse listening situations and noisy environments. Accessories, such as e.g. wireless classroom communication systems (FM systems) and remote controls are becoming smaller and less visible. As a consequence of the increased complexity of modern hearing aids, however, hearing aid fitting has become considerably more complex. PMID:14997998

  14. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries.

  15. Summary of the systems prioritization method as a decision-aiding method for the waste isolation pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, D.M.; Prindle, N.H.; Lincoln, R.

    1996-12-01

    In March 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) implemented a performance-based decision-aiding method to assist in programmatic prioritization within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project with respect to applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance requirements in 40 CFR 191.13(a) (radionuclide containment requirements) and 40 CFR 268.6 (hazardous constituent concentration requirements). This method, the Systems Prioritization Method (SPM), was designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to: (1) identify programmatic options (activities) and their costs and durations; (2) analyze combinations of activities (activity sets) in terms of their predicted contribution to long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system; and (3) analyze cost, duration, and performance tradeoffs. The results of the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2) were the basis for recommendations to DOE/CAO in May 1995 for programmatic prioritization within the WIPP project. This paper presents a summary of the SPM implementation, key results, and lessons learned.

  16. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  17. An effective scheme of optical pilot aided carrier phase estimation for a time packing Nyquist optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dongwei; Tang, Xianfeng; Feng, Yiqiao; Li, Chengcheng; Lin, Jiachuan; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    An optical domain pilot aided carrier phase estimation (PA-CPE) scheme in a double-carrier time packing Nyquist system is proposed, in which the middle pilot can be used for carrier phase estimation in both side time packing signal channels. The proposed PA-CPE method can effectively overcome the scale of the inter-symbol interference (ISI) introduced by time packing, with the good characteristics of high phase noise tolerance and simple hardware complexity. The comprehensive mathematical descriptions of laser phase noise model and PA-CPE scheme are provided. The analyses show that the proposed PA-CPE can estimate the phase noise successfully despite ISI caused by time packing. In the double-carrier time packing Nyquist system mentioned above, using the proposed PA-CPE algorithm, the linewidth tolerance value of 6 × 10-5 can be reached with 1 dB OSNR penalty at the bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3 even though the compression factor α is as small as 0.625.

  18. Computer-aided multiple-head 3D printing system for printing of heterogeneous organ/tissue constructs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, much attention has focused on replacement or/and enhancement of biological tissues via the use of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with an architecture that mimics the tissue matrix, and with the desired three-dimensional (3D) external geometry. However, mimicking the heterogeneous tissues that most organs and tissues are formed of is challenging. Although multiple-head 3D printing systems have been proposed for fabricating heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds, to date only the simple exterior form has been realized. Here we describe a computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for this application. We aim to develop an algorithm to enable easy, intuitive design and fabrication of a heterogeneous cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with a free-form 3D geometry. The printing paths of the scaffold are automatically generated from the 3D CAD model, and the scaffold is then printed by dispensing four materials; i.e., a frame, two kinds of cell-laden hydrogel and a support. We demonstrated printing of heterogeneous tissue models formed of hydrogel scaffolds using this approach, including the outer ear, kidney and tooth tissue. These results indicate that this approach is particularly promising for tissue engineering and 3D printing applications to regenerate heterogeneous organs and tissues with tailored geometries to treat specific defects or injuries. PMID:26899876

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  20. An Intelligent Computer-aided Training System (CAT) for Diagnosing Adult Illiterates: Integrating NASA Technology into Workplace Literacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.

  1. Comparisons of Speech Recognition in Noise by Mildly-to-Moderately Hearing-Impaired Children Using Hearing Aids and FM Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, David B.

    1984-01-01

    The average FM advantage over a personal hearing aid was equivalent to a 15dB improvement signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N). The benefit offered by the FM system decreased as the environmental signal-to-noise-ratio increased but remained significant even at +15dB. Significant improvement was also found with directional as compared to omnidirectional…

  2. Voriconazole as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Schlamm, Haran T

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the triazole anti-fungal agent, voriconazole, as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in patients with advanced HIV infection. Patients with systemic P. marneffei infection were enrolled into a study of voriconazole for the treatment of less common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Patients were eligible for inclusion in the study on the basis that no anti-fungal agents have received regulatory approval specifically for P. marneffei infections. Patients were treated in the hospital setting with intravenous voriconazole (6 mg/kg every 12 hours on Day 1 and then 4 mg/kg every 12 hours for at least 3 days, after which patients could switch to oral therapy at 200 mg twice a day) or as outpatients with oral voriconazole (400 mg twice a day on Day 1 and then 200 mg twice a day) for a maximum of 12 weeks. Eleven patients received treatment with voriconazole. Two received short courses of intravenous therapy followed by the oral formulation; nine were treated with oral voriconazole only. At the end of therapy, eight of the nine evaluable patients had favorable response to therapy, based on mycological and clinical findings. There were no relapses of P. marneffei infection in the six patients who were seen at follow-up within 4 weeks of the end of therapy. Treatment with voriconazole was well tolerated, with no discontinuations caused by drug-related adverse events. The results of this study suggest that voriconazole is an effective, well-tolerated, and convenient option for the treatment of systemic infections with P. marneffei. PMID:17690411

  3. An Open Source Rapid Computer Aided Control System Design Toolchain Using Scilab, Scicos and RTAI Linux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchpan-Lerust-Juéry, L.

    2007-08-01

    Current and next generation on-board computer systems tend to implement real-time embedded control applications (e.g. Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (AOCS), Packet Utililization Standard (PUS), spacecraft autonomy . . . ) which must meet high standards of Reliability and Predictability as well as Safety. All these requirements require a considerable amount of effort and cost for Space Sofware Industry. This paper, in a first part, presents a free Open Source integrated solution to develop RTAI applications from analysis, design, simulation and direct implementation using code generation based on Open Source and in its second part summarises this suggested approach, its results and the conclusion for further work.

  4. Development, implementation and evaluation of satellite-aided agricultural monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. C.; Crist, E. P.; Metzler, M.; Nuesch, D.

    1982-01-01

    Research activities in support of AgRISTARS Inventory Technology Development Project in the use of aerospace remote sensing for agricultural inventory described include: (1) corn and soybean crop spectral temporal signature characterization; (2) efficient area estimation techniques development; and (3) advanced satellite and sensor system definition. Studies include a statistical evaluation of the impact of cultural and environmental factors on crop spectral profiles, the development and evaluation of an automatic crop area estimation procedure, and the joint use of SEASAT-SAR and LANDSAT MSS for crop inventory.

  5. Development, implementation and evaluation of satellite-aided agricultural monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicone, R. (Principal Investigator); Crist, E.; Metzler, M.; Parris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Research supporting the use of remote sensing for inventory and assessment of agricultural commodities is summarized. Three task areas are described: (1) corn and soybean crop spectral/temporal signature characterization; (2) efficient area estimation technology development; and (3) advanced satellite and sensor system definition. Studies include an assessment of alternative green measures from MSS variables; the evaluation of alternative methods for identifying, labeling or classification targets in an automobile procedural context; a comparison of MSS, the advanced very high resolution radiometer and the coastal zone color scanner, as well as a critical assessment of thematic mapper dimensionally and spectral structure.

  6. Displays. [three dimensional analog visual system for aiding pilot space perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation made to determine the depth cue of a head movement perspective and image intensity as a function of depth is summarized. The experiment was based on the use of a hybrid computer generated contact analog visual display in which various perceptual depth cues are included on a two dimensional CRT screen. The system's purpose was to impart information, in an integrated and visually compelling fashion, about the vehicle's position and orientation in space. Results show head movement gives a 40% improvement in depth discrimination when the display is between 40 and 100 cm from the subject; intensity variation resulted in as much improvement as head movement.

  7. Medical diagnosis imaging systems: image and signal processing applications aided by fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yutaka

    2010-04-01

    First, we describe an automated procedure for segmenting an MR image of a human brain based on fuzzy logic for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. The intensity thresholds for segmenting the whole brain of a subject are automatically determined by finding the peaks of the intensity histogram. After these thresholds are evaluated in a region growing, the whole brain can be identified. Next, we describe a procedure for decomposing the obtained whole brain into the left and right cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Our method then identified the whole brain, the left cerebral hemisphere, the right cerebral hemisphere, the cerebellum and the brain stem. Secondly, we describe a transskull sonography system that can visualize the shape of the skull and brain surface from any point to examine skull fracture and some brain diseases. We employ fuzzy signal processing to determine the skull and brain surface. The phantom model, the animal model with soft tissue, the animal model with brain tissue, and a human subjects' forehead is applied in our system. The all shapes of the skin surface, skull surface, skull bottom, and brain tissue surface are successfully determined.

  8. Thermodynamic optimization of the Li-Pb system aided by first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenyang; Guo, Cuiping; Li, Changrong; Du, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    The Li-Pb system was optimized using CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) method. The enthalpies of formation of eight intermetallic compounds Li4Pb (Li22Pb5), Li7Pb2, Li10Pb3, Li3Pb, Li8Pb3, Li5Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb at 0 K were calculated from first-principles calculations with DFT + GGA approximations. The liquid phase was treated as (Li,Li0.8Pb0.2,Pb) using an associated solution model because a short-range-order phenomenon was proven to exist in liquid. The solution phases fcc and bcc were described as (Li,Pb) with a simple substitutional model. The intermetallic compounds Li4Pb, Li3Pb and Li5Pb2 were treated as stoichiometric compounds. With certain solubility ranges, the intermetallic compounds Li7Pb2, αLiPb and βLiPb were modeled as Li7(Li,Pb)2, (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) and (Li,Pb)(Li,Pb) using the two-sublattice model. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters in the Li-Pb system was obtained in the present work.

  9. Porosity advisor - expert system used as aid in interpreting origin of porosity in carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W.L.; Anderson, J.; Wong, J.

    1989-03-01

    Porosity Advisor was developed to assist in interpreting the origin of porosity in carbonate rocks and to evaluate inexpensive rule-based expert-system shells in solving practical geological problems. The shells are programs that facilitate development of a knowledge base and an inference program to link rules and draw conclusions. The knowledge base consists of fact and rules. The facts include pore types and their relationships to matrix and cement. The rules relate these facts and, in turn, are used to make conclusions about the genesis of the pores. The genetic classification of P. Choquette and L. Pray is utilized to draw conclusions regarding process, direction, and timing of porosity development. The facts and rules of Porosity Advisor are derived from studies of Upper Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks in the Mid-Continent. Particular facts in this data base include type of pores, crosscutting relationships, geochemical parameters, association with megascopic, mappable features, and burial history. Facts and rules have different levels of significance because of imprecise measurement of facts and nonuniqueness of fact-rule relationships. Accordingly, confidence levels can be applied to both facts and rules. Some expert-system shells can read facts and rules from spreadsheet programs such as Lotus-1-2-3 and permit processing of large data sets. Programming options and tools such as these greatly facilitate the application and utility of these programs.

  10. Active imaging with the aids of polarization retrieve in turbid media system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qiangqiang; Sun, Yongxuan; Shen, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Gao, Jun; Guo, Zhongyi

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel active imaging based on the polarization retrieve (PR) method in turbid media system. In our simulations, the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm has been used to investigate the scattering process between the incident photons and the scattering particles, and the visually concordant object but with different polarization characteristics in different regions, has been selected as the original target that is placed in the turbid media. Under linearly and circularly polarized illuminations, the simulation results demonstrate that the corresponding polarization properties can provide additional information for the imaging, and the contrast of the polarization image can also be enhanced greatly compared to the simplex intensity image in the turbid media. Besides, the polarization image adjusted by the PR method can further enhance the visibility and contrast. In addition, by PR imaging method, with the increasing particles' size in Mie's scale, the visibility can be enhanced, because of the increased forward scattering effect. In general, in the same circumstance, the circular polarization images can offer a better contrast and visibility than that of linear ones. The results indicate that the PR imaging method is more applicable to the scattering media system with relatively larger particles such as aerosols, heavy fog, cumulus, and seawater, as well as to biological tissues and blood media.

  11. The adult literacy evaluator: An intelligent computer-aided training system for diagnosing adult illiterates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaden, David B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using ICAT system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) To develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and developmental phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. Examples of literacy events and situations being considered included interactions with environmental print (e.g., billboards, street signs, commercial marquees, storefront logos, etc.), functional literacy materials (e.g., newspapers, magazines, telephone books, bills, receipts, etc.) and employment related communication (i.e., job descriptions, application forms, technical manuals, memorandums, newsletters, etc.). Each of these situations and materials is being analyzed for its literacy requirements in terms of written display (i.e., knowledge of printed forms and conventions), meaning demands (i

  12. An expert system prototype for aiding in the development of software functional requirements for NASA Goddard's command management system: A case study and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay

    1986-01-01

    At NASA Goddard, the role of the command management system (CMS) is to transform general requests for spacecraft opeerations into detailed operational plans to be uplinked to the spacecraft. The CMS is part of the NASA Data System which entails the downlink of science and engineering data from NASA near-earth satellites to the user, and the uplink of command and control data to the spacecraft. Presently, it takes one to three years, with meetings once or twice a week, to determine functional requirements for CMS software design. As an alternative approach to the present technique of developing CMS software functional requirements, an expert system prototype was developed to aid in this function. Specifically, the knowledge base was formulated through interactions with domain experts, and was then linked to an existing expert system application generator called 'Knowledge Engineering System (Version 1.3).' Knowledge base development focused on four major steps: (1) develop the problem-oriented attribute hierachy; (2) determine the knowledge management approach; (3) encode the knowledge base; and (4) validate, test, certify, and evaluate the knowledge base and the expert system prototype as a whole. Backcasting was accomplished for validating and testing the expert system prototype. Knowledge refinement, evaluation, and implementation procedures of the expert system prototype were then transacted.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Management using Geographical Information System aided methods: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Debishree; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2014-11-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental challenges in developing countries. Many efforts to reduce and recover the wastes have been made, but still land disposal of solid wastes is the most popular one. Finding an environmentally sound landfill site is a challenging task. This paper addresses a mini review on various aspects of MSWM (suitable landfill site selection, route optimization and public acceptance) using the Geographical Information System (GIS) coupled with other tools. The salient features of each of the integrated tools with GIS are discussed in this paper. It is also addressed how GIS can help in optimizing routes for collection of solid wastes from transfer stations to disposal sites to reduce the overall cost of solid waste management. A detailed approach on performing a public acceptance study of a proposed landfill site is presented in this study. The study will help municipal authorities to identify the most effective method of MSWM. PMID:25352293

  14. A computer-aided diagnosis system for geriatrics assessment and frailty evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vairaktarakis, Charalampos; Tsiamis, Vasilis; Soursou, Georgia; Lekkas, Filippos; Nikolopoulou, Markella; Vasileiadou, Emmanouilia; Premtsis, Konstantinos; Alexiou, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    It is a common knowledge that frailty is a condition associated with getting older, and it has been considered as highly prevalent as far as falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality are concerned. At the present time a standardized definition has not yet been established. With that in mind and for frailty being of a vital importance as a term identifying geriatric symptoms, we pursued to embody the well-known 70-scale CSHA Frailty index of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging in a Clinical Decision Support System, after categorizing and expanding it. The proposed categorization in this chapter can be helpful for usage by patients and their relatives, care givers, and medical doctors. PMID:25417017

  15. Computer simulation to aid the risk assessment of wheelchair and special seating systems used in transport.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P D; Gibson, C; Wilcox, S J; Chong, A

    2009-01-01

    The crashworthiness of occupied proprietary wheelchairs, which are transported in motor vehicles, is currently assessed by physical crash testing in accordance with ISO 7176-19. If such wheelchairs are modified to meet the needs of the occupant, e.g. the addition of special seating, environmental control systems or life support equipment, then those making the modifications take on the manufacturer's responsibilities, one of these being the assessment of the modified wheelchair's ability to withstand vehicle crash forces. Destructively testing bespoke wheelchair designs is not practical so, currently, the transport-related risk is assessed using best engineering judgement. To improve this process virtual crash testing of the wheelchair and occupant was used. A modified crash criteria from ISO 7176-19 is proposed to enable assessment of the wheelchair's crashworthiness and provide the clinical engineer with an informed judgement of how both wheelchair alone and occupant and wheelchair together will behave in a crash. PMID:19848858

  16. Use of a DBMS (data base management system) to aid in the software conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, A.F.; Bryant, R.A.; Buhrmaster, M.A.; Christian, J.L.; Hume, R.

    1987-02-01

    Procedures are described that provide for the automated conversion of a screen library containing over a thousand screen display definitions to a new screen definition software package. The first step is to extract the screen definition information from the original screen package. This information is then loaded into a data base management system (DBMS). The information is manipulated as necessary and output in a format that can be utilized by the new screen package. A major benefit of the procedures developed is that a DBMS allows bulk updates of multiple screen definitions to be performed. Both the source and target screen packages provide only for the updating of individual screens. Although the procedures described apply to the problem of converting screen definitions for a specific application using the two specific screen definition software packages, the flexibility inherent in a DBMS allows its use in solving many such complex problems. The concept can be modified to allow possibilities limited only by the creativity of the DBMS users and the information contained in the data base.

  17. Disseminated BK type polyomavirus infection in an AIDS patient associated with central nervous system disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vallbracht, A.; Löhler, J.; Gossmann, J.; Glück, T.; Petersen, D.; Gerth, H. J.; Gencic, M.; Dörries, K.

    1993-01-01

    A 27-year-old man with hemophilia type A and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed a subacute meningoencephalitis, associated with a normotensive internal hydrocephalus, 14 weeks before his death. From cerebrospinal fluid and brain autopsy material, a virus could be isolated and was classified by Southern blot analysis and restriction endonuclease reactions as the human polyomavirus BK. The postmortem findings of polyomavirus antigen and BK virus DNA in various cell types of the kidneys, lungs, and central nervous system strongly suggest that BK virus was the causative agent of a tubulointerstitial nephropathy, an interstitial desquamative pneumonitis, and a subacute meningoencephalitis with accentuation of the ventricular and meningeal surfaces of the brain. Besides distinctive cytopathic effects, the presence of intranuclear inclusions was a prominent histopathological feature. Therefore, the human polyomavirus BK should be regarded as a new candidate on the still growing list of opportunistic pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8391217

  18. Understanding socio-economic impacts of geohazards aided by cyber-enabled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2008-12-01

    Due to an increase in the volume of geohazards worldwide, not only are impoverished regions in less developed countries such as Haiti, vulnerable to risk but also low income regions in industrialized countries, e.g. USA, as well. This has been exemplified once again by Hurricanes Gustav, Hanna and Ike and the impact on the Caribbean countries during the summer of 2008. To date, extensive research has been conducted to improve the monitoring of human-nature coupled systems. However, there is little emphasis on improving and developing methodologies to a) interpret multi-dimensional and complex data and b) validate prediction and modeling results. This presentation tries to motivate more research initiatives to address the aforementioned issues, bringing together two academic disciplines, earth and social sciences, to research the relationship between natural and socio-economic processes. Results are presented where cyber-enabled methods based on artificial intelligence are applied to different geohazards and regions in the world. They include 1) modeling of public health risks associated with volcanic gas hazards, 2) prediction and validation of potential areas of mining-triggered earthquakes, and 3) modeling of socio-economic risks associated with tropical storms in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

  19. Decision-aids for enhancing intergovernmental interactions: The Pre-notification Analysis Support System (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, M.; Liebow, E.; Holm, J.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to honor its commitment to government-to-government interactions by providing advance notice of DOE spent fuel and high-level waste shipments to Indian tribes whose jurisdictions are crossed by or adjacent to transportation routes. The tribes are important contributors to a regional response network, and providing tribes with advance notice of DOE shipping plans marks the start -- not the end -- of direct, government-to-government interactions with DOE. The Tribal Prenotification Analysis Support System (PASS) is being developed for the Office of Special Programs within the Department`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. PASS will help DOE-Headquarters to coordinate field office activities and provide technical and institutional support to the DOE field offices. PASS is designed to be used by anyone with minimum computer literacy and having contemporary computer hardware and software. It uses on-screen maps to choose and display a shipment route, and to display the tribal jurisdictions. With forms that are easy to understand, it provides information about each jurisdiction and points of contact. PASS records all contacts, commitments made, and actions taken.

  20. AIDS--legal issues.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M

    1988-01-01

    Legal issues worldwide prompted by the AIDS epidemic are discussed, in a general way, since legal systems vary widely in different countries and localities. WHO publishes a tabulation of legal instruments dealing with AIDS and HIV infection. Criminal laws intended to protect people from harm from HIV infection have been enacted, such as a penalty for unprotected sexual intercourse by infected persons, in some Australian states. Knowing spread of HIV already amounts to a crime in many systems. The U.S. Supreme Court has already ruled that states do not violate the constitution for punishing homosexuals for consensual sodomy, nor the Army for discharging homosexuals. Quarantine law is a civil matter, but may provide penalties stricter than criminal penalties, without as much protection. No quarantines against AIDS have been enacted, although some countries require screening of immigrants. Legal issues regarding screening, liability of suppliers of blood products, and tracing of sexual partners are much discussed. Stigmatization of minority and alienated groups such as homosexuals, prostitutes, migrants, drug users and prisoners is a tricky legal problem. The apparent failure of the criminalization of drug users and how to contain the spread of AIDS into the drug free population may prompt drastic new solutions. Other legal issues drawing attention include regulation of health insurance, changes in family law, pre-marriage HIV tests, screening for HIV ostensibly to detect HIV-associated dementia, liability protection for developers and testers of vaccines, and euthanasia and the treatment of the deceased. The legal system tends to lag behind medicine. In the case of AIDS, it cannot afford to delay, therefore effective legal strategies will include effective media presentation of AIDS information to the general public; ready and cheap supply of condoms; and a new approach to illegal drugs. PMID:3147672

  1. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  2. Modelisation et optimisation des systemes energetiques a l'aide d'algorithmes evolutifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounkonnou, Sessinou M. William

    Optimization of thermal and nuclear plant has many economics advantages as well as environmentals. Therefore new operating points research and use of new tools to achieve those kind of optimization are the subject of many studies. In this momentum, this project is intended to optimize energetic systems precisely the secondary loop of Gentilly 2 nuclear plant using both the extraction of the high and low pressure turbine as well as the extraction of the mixture coming from the steam generator. A detailed thermodynamic model of the various equipment of the secondary loop such as the feed water heaters, the moisture separator-reheater, the dearator, the condenser and the turbine is carried out. We use Matlab software (version R2007b, 2007) with the library for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam (XSteam pour Matlab, Holmgren, 2006). A model of the secondary loop is than obtained thanks to the assembly of the different equipments. A simulation of the equipment and the complete cycle enabled us to release two objectifs functions knowing as the net output and the efficiency which evolve in an opposite way according to the variation of the extractions. Due to the complexity of the problem, we use a method based on the genetic algorithms for the optimization. More precisely we used a tool which was developed at the "Institut de genie nucleaire" named BEST (Boundary Exploration Search Technique) developed in VBA* (Visual BASIC for Application) for its ability to converge more quickly and to carry out a more exhaustive search at the border of the optimal solutions. The use of the DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) enables us to link the simulator and the optimizer. The results obtained show us that they still exists several combinations of extractions which make it possible to obtain a better point of operation for the improvement of the performance of Gentilly 2 power station secondary loop. *Trademark of Microsoft

  3. Computer-aided detection system for masses in automated whole breast ultrasonography: development and evaluation of the effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a proposed computer-aided detection (CAD) system in automated breast ultrasonography (ABUS). Methods: Eighty-nine two-dimensional images (20 cysts, 42 benign lesions, and 27 malignant lesions) were obtained from 47 patients who underwent ABUS (ACUSON S2000). After boundary detection and removal, we detected mass candidates by using the proposed adjusted Otsu's threshold; the threshold was adaptive to the variations of pixel intensities in an image. Then, the detected candidates were segmented. Features of the segmented objects were extracted and used for training/testing in the classification. In our study, a support vector machine classifier was adopted. Eighteen features were used to determine whether the candidates were true lesions or not. A five-fold cross validation was repeated 20 times for the performance evaluation. The sensitivity and the false positive rate per image were calculated, and the classification accuracy was evaluated for each feature. Results: In the classification step, the sensitivity of the proposed CAD system was 82.67% (SD, 0.02%). The false positive rate was 0.26 per image. In the detection/segmentation step, the sensitivities for benign and malignant mass detection were 90.47% (38/42) and 92.59% (25/27), respectively. In the five-fold cross-validation, the standard deviation of pixel intensities for the mass candidates was the most frequently selected feature, followed by the vertical position of the centroids. In the univariate analysis, each feature had 50% or higher accuracy. Conclusion: The proposed CAD system can be used for lesion detection in ABUS and may be useful in improving the screening efficiency. PMID:24936503

  4. Sensitivity analysis as an aid in modelling and control of (poorly-defined) ecological systems. [closed ecological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornberger, G. M.; Rastetter, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of the use of sensitivity analyses in modelling nonlinear, ill-defined systems, such as ecological interactions is presented. Discussions of previous work, and a proposed scheme for generalized sensitivity analysis applicable to ill-defined systems are included. This scheme considers classes of mathematical models, problem-defining behavior, analysis procedures (especially the use of Monte-Carlo methods), sensitivity ranking of parameters, and extension to control system design.

  5. First aid advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  6. Computer-Aided Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Graham

    This report discusses the impact of and presents guidelines for developing a computer-aided instructional (CAI) system. The first section discusses CAI in terms of the need for the countries of Asia to increase their economic self-sufficiency. The second section examines various theories on the nature of learning with special attention to the role…

  7. Developing a conceptual framework for an evaluation system for the NIAID HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Kane, Mary; Quinlan, Kathleen M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William MK

    2009-01-01

    Globally, health research organizations are called upon to re-examine their policies and practices to more efficiently and effectively address current scientific and social needs, as well as increasing public demands for accountability. Through a case study approach, the authors examine an effort undertaken by the National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases (part of the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health & Human Services, United States Government) to develop an evaluation system for its recently restructured HIV/AIDS clinical trials program. The challenges in designing, operationalizing, and managing global clinical trials programs are considered in the context of large scale scientific research initiatives. Through a process of extensive stakeholder input, a framework of success factors was developed that enables both a prospective view of the elements that must be addressed in an evaluation of this research and a current state assessment of the extent to which the goals of the restructuring are understood by stakeholders across the DAIDS clinical research networks. PMID:19460164

  8. Computer aided diagnosis system for Alzheimer disease using brain diffusion tensor imaging features selected by Pearson's correlation.

    PubMed

    Graña, M; Termenon, M; Savio, A; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Echeveste, J; Pérez, J M; Besga, A

    2011-09-20

    The aim of this paper is to obtain discriminant features from two scalar measures of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD), and to train and test classifiers able to discriminate Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from controls on the basis of features extracted from the FA or MD volumes. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained and tested on FA and MD data. Feature selection is done computing the Pearson's correlation between FA or MD values at voxel site across subjects and the indicative variable specifying the subject class. Voxel sites with high absolute correlation are selected for feature extraction. Results are obtained over an on-going study in Hospital de Santiago Apostol collecting anatomical T1-weighted MRI volumes and DTI data from healthy control subjects and AD patients. FA features and a linear SVM classifier achieve perfect accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in several cross-validation studies, supporting the usefulness of DTI-derived features as an image-marker for AD and to the feasibility of building Computer Aided Diagnosis systems for AD based on them. PMID:21839143

  9. A current mode feed-forward gain control system for a 0.8 V CMOS hearing aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanyang, Li; Haigang, Yang; Fei, Liu; Tao, Yin

    2011-06-01

    A current mode feed-forward gain control (CMFGC) technique is presented, which is applied in the front-end system of a hearing aid chip. Compared with conventional automatic gain control (AGC), CMFGC significantly improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) by digital gain control. To attain the digital gain control codes according to the extremely weak output signal from the microphone, a rectifier and a state controller implemented in current mode are proposed. A prototype chip has been designed based on a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process. The measurement results show that the supply voltage can be as low as 0.6 V. And with the 0.8 V supply voltage, the THD is improved and below 0.06% (-64 dB) at the output level of 500 mVp-p, yet the power consumption is limited to 40 μW. In addition, the input referred noise is only 4 μVrms and the maximum gain is maintained at 33 dB.

  10. Decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation with optimum block length in hybrid QPSK/16QAM coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general model to entirely describe XPM effects induced by 16QAM channels in hybrid QPSK/16QAM wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. A power spectral density (PSD) formula is presented to predict the statistical properties of XPM effects at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for optimizing block length of QPSK channel coherent receiver with decision-aided (DA) maximum-likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE). With our theoretical analysis, the optimum block length can be employed to improve the performance of coherent receiver. Bit error rate (BER) performance in QPSK channel is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that by using the DA-ML with optimum block length, bit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement over DA-ML with fixed block length of 10, 20 and 40 at BER of 10-3 is 0.18 dB, 0.46 dB and 0.65 dB, respectively, when in-line residual dispersion is 0 ps/nm.

  11. Computer Aided Design of Microwave Front-End Components and Antennas for Ultrawideband Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almalkawi, Mohammad J.

    order to maintain high performance of conventional rectangular waveguides in planar form, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology was utilized. A design of single-band dual-mode SIW filters with improved upper stopband performance and a design of dual-band dual mode SIW filters are introduced. Compact evanescent-mode SIW filters are also realized for low frequency applications and for better stopband performance. In addition, a novel tuning solution for planar SIW reconfigurable filters is also presented. Tunablity of the reconfigurable filter is achieved by adjusting dc-magnetic bias applied to the ferrite material. The new tuning technique leads to a dramatic reduction in complexity for the external control system.

  12. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  13. A comparison of operational and LANDSAT-aided snow water content estimation systems. [Feather River Basin, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Thomas, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    How LANDSAT imagery can be cost effectively employed to augment an operational hydrologic model is described. Attention is directed toward the estimation of snow water content, a major predictor variable in the volumetric runoff forecasting model. A stratified double sampling scheme is supplemented with qualitative and quantitative analyses of existing operations to develop a comparison between the existing and satellite-aided approaches to snow water content estimation. Results show a decided advantage for the LANDSAT-aided approach.

  14. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  15. Extended ocular hazard distances associated with intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia remote sensing system, airborne aura laser (Big Sky Variant).

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-08-01

    A laser hazard analysis to determine the Extended Ocular Hazard Distances associated with a possible intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) airborne AURA laser (Big Sky Laser Technology) was performed based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances (ranges) from the airborne platform. Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and maximum ''eye-safe'' dwell times for various operational altitudes associated with unaided intrabeam exposure of ground personnel were determined and presented in a previous SAND report. Although the target areas are controlled and the use of viewing aids are prohibited there is the possibility of the unauthorized use of viewing aids such as binoculars. This aided viewing hazard analysis is supplemental to the previous SAND report for the laser hazard analysis of the airborne AURA.

  16. Evaluation of a computer-aided skin cancer diagnosis system for conventional digital photography with manual segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Chang, Wen-Yu; Hsieh, Cheng-Han; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) system developed for both melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions by using conventional digital photographs with lesion boundaries manually marked by a dermatologist. Clinical images of skin lesions taken by conventional digital cameras can capture useful information such as shape, color, and texture for diagnosing skin cancer. However, shape/border features are difficult to analyze automatically because skin surface reflections may change skin color and make segmentation a challenging task. In this study, two non-medical users manually mark the boundaries of a dataset of 769 (174 malignant, 595 benign) conventional photographs of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. A state-of-the-art software system for segmenting color images, JSEG, is also tested on the same dataset. Their results are compared to a dermatologist's markings, which are used as the gold standard in this study. The human users' markings are relatively close to the gold standard and achieve an overlapping rate of 70.4% (+/- 15.3%, std) and 74.5% (+/- 14.7%, std). Compared to human users, JSEG only succeeds in segmenting 636 (82.7%) out of 769 lesions and achieves an overlapping rate of 72.4% (+/-20.4%) for these 636 lesions. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the CADx by using lesion boundary markings of users 1, 2, and JSEG are 0.915, 0.940, and 0.857 respectively. Our preliminary results indicate that manual segmentation can be repeated relatively consistent compared to automatic segmentation.

  17. A computer-aided diagnosis system to identify regions of pathologic change in temporal subtraction images of the chest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Charles; Lee, Katherine; Armato, Samuel G.

    2015-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs side-by-side in order to identify regions of change and evaluate the clinical significance of such regions. Some changes in pathology, however, may be overlooked or misinterpreted. For this reason, temporal subtraction (TS) images provide an important tool for enhanced visualization. Not all areas of "change" demonstrated on a TS image, however, are caused by pathology. The purpose of this study was to develop an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to locate regions of change in TS images as well as to classify such regions as being true regions of pathologic change or false regions of change caused by misregistration artifacts. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images, on which an experienced radiologist outlined 74 regions of true pathologic change that were used as the gold standard. Through gray-level thresholding and initial false-positive reduction, an initial set of candidates was extracted and inputted into a classifier. A five-fold cross-validation method was employed to create training and testing groups. Both false-candidate regions as well as the gold-standard regions were used as training data. Of the three classifiers tested (support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear discriminant analysis), the logistic regression classifier performed the best with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 84%; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis resulted in an area under the ROC curve of 0.94. These results show promise in the performance of the CAD system to detect regions of pathologic changes in TS images of the chest.

  18. Helicopter Visual Aid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisley, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of police helicopter effectiveness revealed a need for improved visual capability. A JPL program developed a method that would enhance visual observation capability for both day and night usage and demonstrated the feasibility of the adopted approach. This approach made use of remote pointable optics, a display screen, a slaved covert searchlight, and a coupled camera. The approach was proved feasible through field testing and by judgement against evaluation criteria.

  19. An Adaptive Low-Cost GNSS/MEMS-IMU Tightly-Coupled Integration System with Aiding Measurement in a GNSS Signal-Challenged Environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifan; Zhang, Hai; Li, You; Li, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop a low-cost GNSS/MEMS-IMU tightly-coupled integration system with aiding information that can provide reliable position solutions when the GNSS signal is challenged such that less than four satellites are visible in a harsh environment. To achieve this goal, we introduce an adaptive tightly-coupled integration system with height and heading aiding (ATCA). This approach adopts a novel redundant measurement noise estimation method for an adaptive Kalman filter application and also augments external measurements in the filter to aid the position solutions, as well as uses different filters to deal with various situations. On the one hand, the adaptive Kalman filter makes use of the redundant measurement system's difference sequence to estimate and tune noise variance instead of employing a traditional innovation sequence to avoid coupling with the state vector error. On the other hand, this method uses the external height and heading angle as auxiliary references and establishes a model for the measurement equation in the filter. In the meantime, it also changes the effective filter online based on the number of tracked satellites. These measures have increasingly enhanced the position constraints and the system observability, improved the computational efficiency and have led to a good result. Both simulated and practical experiments have been carried out, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective at limiting the system errors when there are less than four visible satellites, providing a satisfactory navigation solution. PMID:26393605

  20. Computer-aided control of water activity for lipase-catalyzed esterification in solvent-free systems.

    PubMed

    Won, K; Lee, S B

    2001-01-01

    A computer system for on-line monitoring and control of the water activity (a(w)) in solvent-free media has been developed. The performance of this system was investigated by carrying out the lipase-catalyzed esterification of n-capric acid with n-decyl alcohol. A humidity sensor measured the relative humidity in the reactor headspace, which was then transmitted electrically to a digital computer that was used as a feedback controller. The water activity control was achieved by sparging either humidified air or dried air through the reaction medium at a flow rate determined by the digital feedback controller. The use of humid air and dry air for a(w) control made it possible to induce a larger a(w) gradient and thereby higher water transfer rate. As a result, the water activity quickly reached the desired a(w) values. We tested whether water activity in the reaction medium can be monitored by measuring relative humidity in the headspace. When the water activity in the liquid phase was determined from measurements of water content in the medium and compared to that measured directly with the humidity sensor, the a(w) in the reaction medium did not differ significantly from that in the headspace. This indicates that there is a near-equilibrium between the liquid medium and the exit air stream. Water activity was also successfully maintained close to the set point despite the massive production of water during the esterification process. Thus, the control system developed in this study is particularly useful for systems where large amounts of water are produced and where conventional methods make it difficult to control water activity as a result of a low water transfer rate. The effects that computer control of the water activity had on the reaction rate and yield were also examined. The reaction yield was significantly improved with water activity control. The conversions obtained at 28 h without and those with water activity control were 70% and 96%, respectively

  1. Expert Systems, Job Aids, and the Future of Instructional Technology; and Decision Tables, the Poor Person's Answer to "Expert Systems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul; Pipe, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Describes design and presents examples of industrial use of small expert systems and guidelines for choosing problems which lend themselves to small tool solutions. Use of microcomputer facilitated decision tables to diagnose and categorize people, things, and issues is suggested, and development of three decision table formats is described. (MBR)

  2. Computer aided production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the following contents: CIM in avionics; computer analysis of product designs for robot assembly; a simulation decision mould for manpower forecast and its application; development of flexible manufacturing system; advances in microcomputer applications in CAD/CAM; an automated interface between CAD and process planning; CAM and computer vision; low friction pneumatic actuators for accurate robot control; robot assembly of printed circuit boards; information systems design for computer integrated manufacture; and a CAD engineering language to aid manufacture.

  3. Feedforward carrier recovery via pilot-aided transmission for single-carrier systems with arbitrary M-QAM constellations.

    PubMed

    Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Zhuge, Qunbi; Chen, Lawrence R; Plant, David V

    2011-11-21

    We exploit pilot-aided (PA) transmission enabled by single-sideband (SSB) subcarrier modulation of both quadrature signals in the DSP domain to achieve fully feedforward carrier recovery (FFCR) in single-carrier (SC) coherent systems with arbitrary M-QAM constellations. A thorough mathematical description of the proposed PA-FFCR is presented, its linewidth tolerance is assessed by simulations and compared to other FFCR schemes in literature. Also, implementation and complexity issues of PA-FFCR are presented and briefly compared with other CR schemes. Simulation results show that PA-FFCR performs close to the best known CR technique in the literature with less computation complexity. Quantitatively, for 1 dB optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) penalty at BER = 3.8 × 10(-3), PA-FFCR tolerates linewidth-symbol-duration products (Δf.Ts) of 1.5 × 10(-4) (4-QAM), 4 × 10(-5) (16-QAM) and 1 × 10(-5) (64-QAM). Finally, we propose the use of maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation next to pilot phase compensation. This significantly improves tolerable Δf.Ts values to 7.5 × 10(-4) (4-QAM), 1.8 × 10(-4) (16-QAM) and 3.5 × 10(-5) (64-QAM). It turns out that PA-FFCR with ML always performs better or at least the same compared to other CR techniques known in literature with lower complexity in addition to the fact that pilot information can be as well exploited for tasks other than CR e.g., fiber nonlinearity compensation, with no extra complexity. PMID:22109460

  4. An Adaptive Low-Cost GNSS/MEMS-IMU Tightly-Coupled Integration System with Aiding Measurement in a GNSS Signal-Challenged Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifan; Zhang, Hai; Li, You; Li, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to develop a low-cost GNSS/MEMS-IMU tightly-coupled integration system with aiding information that can provide reliable position solutions when the GNSS signal is challenged such that less than four satellites are visible in a harsh environment. To achieve this goal, we introduce an adaptive tightly-coupled integration system with height and heading aiding (ATCA). This approach adopts a novel redundant measurement noise estimation method for an adaptive Kalman filter application and also augments external measurements in the filter to aid the position solutions, as well as uses different filters to deal with various situations. On the one hand, the adaptive Kalman filter makes use of the redundant measurement system’s difference sequence to estimate and tune noise variance instead of employing a traditional innovation sequence to avoid coupling with the state vector error. On the other hand, this method uses the external height and heading angle as auxiliary references and establishes a model for the measurement equation in the filter. In the meantime, it also changes the effective filter online based on the number of tracked satellites. These measures have increasingly enhanced the position constraints and the system observability, improved the computational efficiency and have led to a good result. Both simulated and practical experiments have been carried out, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective at limiting the system errors when there are less than four visible satellites, providing a satisfactory navigation solution. PMID:26393605

  5. The AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Conant, M A

    1994-09-01

    The nature of the clinical presentation of HIV infection continues to evolve over time. New cutaneous (e.g., seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and tinea pedis) and systemic (e.g., Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium marneffei) opportunistic fungal infections can now be added to the classic clinical markers for progressive HIV infection, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium intercellulare infections, and cryptococcal meningitis. The fact that the appearance of many of these fungal diseases is directly correlated with the patient's CD4 cell count is a valuable tool for ongoing clinical evaluation. Although systemic manifestations characterize a progression from asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS, many of the signs of disease progression are cutaneous. Prophylaxis against many of the potentially life-threatening systemic opportunistic infections associated with HIV positivity has had a positive impact on the life expectancy of patients with AIDS. PMID:7915731

  6. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  7. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  8. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  9. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  10. Developing an Action Model for Integration of Health System Response to HIV/AIDS and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although there are several models of integrated architecture, we still lack models and theories about the integration process of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. Objective: The overall purpose of this study is to design an action model, a systematic approach, for the integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in developing countries. Methods: An iterative and progressive approach of model development using inductive qualitative evidence synthesis techniques was applied. As evidence about integration is spread across different fields, synthesis of evidence from a broad range of disciplines was conducted. Results: An action model of integration having 5 underlying principles, 4 action fields, and a 9-step action cycle is developed. The INTEGRATE model is an acronym of the 9 steps of the integration process: 1) Interrelate the magnitude and distribution of the problems, 2) Navigate the linkage between the problems, 3) Testify individual level co-occurrence of the problems, 4) Examine the similarities and understand the differences between the response functions, 5) Glance over the health system’s environment for integration, 6) Repackage and share evidence in a useable form, 7) Ascertain the plan for integration, 8) Translate the plan in to action, 9) Evaluate and Monitor the integration. Conclusion: Our model provides a basis for integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in the context of developing countries. We propose that future empirical work is needed to refine the validity and applicability of the model. PMID:24373260

  11. RYAN WHITE COMPREHENSIVE AIDS RESOURCES EMERGENCY (CARE) ACT OF 1990 OR CARE ACT DATA REPORT (CADR) SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act is Federal legislation that addresses the unmet health needs of persons living with HIV disease (PLWH) by funding primary health care and support services that enhance access to and retention in care.

  12. Early & Often: Designing a Comprehensive System of Financial Aid Information. A Report of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Students and parents need ample time and accurate information to prepare for the financial burden of a college education--those who lack this knowledge base face a significant access barrier to higher education. This problem can be countered by the delivery of comprehensive, integrated financial aid information, an approach identified by the…

  13. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  14. AIDS: the frightening facts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M

    1986-01-01

    Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to

  15. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  16. Computer aided manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Zawacki, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the hardware and software system of a dedicated mini- and microcomputer network developed at the JPL teleoperator project to aid the operator in real-time control of remote manipulators. The operator can be in series or in parallel with the control computer during operation. The purpose of the project is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate advanced supervisory control concepts and techniques for space applications. The paper concludes with a brief outline of future development plans and issues.

  17. [AIDS in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Barstad, S

    1993-04-20

    The World Health Organization has announced that within 3 years 10% of Tanzania's population of 26 million will be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But there is some faint hope in the research of Tanzanian traditional medicine. An almost 90-year-man, Waziri Mrisho, is credited with having treated AIDS patients successfully with herbs that strengthen the immune system. Margaret Nakamya was stricken by the symptoms of AIDs in March 1990. She was referred to Waziri and started using his herbs. 3 years later she weighs 49 kg compared to 40 kg before. The old man's son set up a little factory where he pulverizes herbs and sells them at the price he can command The 3 types of trees that the herbal medicine is taken from grow in the wild, but some have also been planted around the factory. Even if these herbs are effective, it will take years before the AIDS epidemic is over, when people have changed their lifestyles. The means of communication (TV, cinema, radio, telephone) are missing or inadequate. In the Kagera region, with 1.2 million inhabitants, 25% of pregnant women are HIV-infected and 65,000 children lost their parents to AIDS. There are 2000 children in Dar Es Salaam living in the streets. The Anglican St. Albans Church runs a center for street kids where they get meals 3 times a week. The nurse Ruth Nesje enlisted a Norwegian physician and homeopath in a research project involving 30 AIDS patients in Norway. The University in Bergen will do in vitro testing. One group of patients will receive both AZT and the herbs, another group will get only AZT, and the 3rd group will obtain only the herbs. The Norwegian Nursing Association, NORAD, and DANIDA also plan various projects in the Tanga region. PMID:8499187

  18. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    PubMed

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future. PMID:12316939

  19. Deep-reasoning fault diagnosis - An aid and a model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Wan Chul; Hammer, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The design and evaluation are presented for the knowledge-based assistance of a human operator who must diagnose a novel fault in a dynamic, physical system. A computer aid based on a qualitative model of the system was built to help the operators overcome some of their cognitive limitations. This aid differs from most expert systems in that it operates at several levels of interaction that are believed to be more suitable for deep reasoning. Four aiding approaches, each of which provided unique information to the operator, were evaluated. The aiding features were designed to help the human's casual reasoning about the system in predicting normal system behavior (N aiding), integrating observations into actual system behavior (O aiding), finding discrepancies between the two (O-N aiding), or finding discrepancies between observed behavior and hypothetical behavior (O-HN aiding). Human diagnostic performance was found to improve by almost a factor of two with O aiding and O-N aiding.

  20. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...