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Sample records for mott scattering

  1. Inelastic light scattering from a Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Oosten, D. van; Dickerscheid, D.B.M.; Farid, B.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Straten, P. van der

    2005-02-01

    We propose to use Bragg spectroscopy to measure the excitation spectrum of the Mott-insulator state of an atomic Bose gas in an optical lattice. We calculate the structure factor of the Mott insulator taking into account both the self-energy corrections of the atoms and the corresponding dressing of the atom-photon interaction. We determine the scattering rate of photons in the stimulated Raman transition and show that by measuring this scattering rate in an experiment, in particular, the excitation gap of the Mott insulator can be determined.

  2. Mott scattering in an elliptically polarized laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Taj, S.

    2004-08-01

    We study Mott scattering in the presence of a strong elliptically polarized field. Using the first Born approximation and the Dirac-Volkov states for the electron, we obtain an analytic formula for the unpolarized differential cross section. This generalizes the results found for the linearly polarized field by Li et al. [ 67, 063409 (2003)] and for the circularly polarized field by Attaourti and Manaut [ 68, 067401 (2003)].

  3. Mott scattering of polarized electrons in a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Manaut, B.; Taj, S.; Attaourti, Y.

    2005-04-01

    We present analytical and numerical results of the relativistic calculation of the transition matrix element S{sub fi} and differential cross sections for Mott scattering of initially polarized Dirac particles (electrons) in the presence of a strong laser field with linear polarization. We use exact Dirac-Volkov wave functions to describe the dressed electrons and the collision process is treated in the first Born approximation. The influence of the laser field on the degree of polarization of the scattered electron is reported.

  4. Concept of a multichannel spin-resolving electron analyzer based on Mott scattering

    PubMed Central

    Strocov, Vladimir N.; Petrov, Vladimir N.; Dil, J. Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a multichannel electron spin detector based on optical imaging principles and Mott scattering (iMott) is presented. A multichannel electron image produced by a standard angle-resolving (photo) electron analyzer or microscope is re-imaged by an electrostatic lens at an accelerating voltage of 40 kV onto the Au target. Quasi-elastic electrons bearing spin asymmetry of the Mott scattering are imaged by magnetic lenses onto position-sensitive electron CCDs whose differential signals yield the multichannel spin asymmetry image. Fundamental advantages of this concept include acceptance of inherently divergent electron sources from the electron analyzer or microscope focal plane as well as small aberrations achieved by virtue of high accelerating voltages, as demonstrated by extensive ray-tracing analysis. The efficiency gain compared with the single-channel Mott detector can be a factor of more than 104 which opens new prospects of spin-resolved spectroscopies in application not only to standard bulk and surface systems (Rashba effect, topological insulators, etc.) but also to buried heterostructures. The simultaneous spin detection combined with fast CCD readout enables efficient use of the iMott detectors at X-ray free-electron laser facilities. PMID:25931087

  5. Disappearance of Mott Oscillations in Sub-barrier Elastic Scattering of Identical Nuclei and Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.; Mittig, W.

    2016-03-01

    The scattering of identical nuclei at low energies exhibits conspicuous Mott oscillations which can be used to investigate the presence of components in the predominantly Coulomb interaction arising from several physical effects. It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be {ηc = √{3s + 2}}, where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to {η_c} is found to be {E_c = 0.40} MeV for {α + α} (s = 0), 1.2 MeV for {6}Li + {6}LI (s = 1) and 7.1 MeV for {^{10}}B + {^{10}}B (s = 3). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. We also suggest extending the study of the TI to the scattering of identical atomic ions.

  6. Detection of spin-resolved electronic structures from a buried ferromagnetic layer utilizing forward Mott scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, S.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Takanashi, K.; Ishimaru, S.; Tsujikawa, M.; Shirai, M.

    2014-03-31

    We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials.

  7. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power in Graphene: Violation of the Mott Relation by Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Xie, Hong-Yi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Foster, Matthew S.; Kim, Philip

    2016-04-01

    We report the enhancement of the thermoelectric power (TEP) in graphene with extremely low disorder. At high temperature we observe that the TEP is substantially larger than the prediction of the Mott relation, approaching to the hydrodynamic limit due to strong inelastic scattering among the charge carriers. However, closer to room temperature the inelastic carrier-optical-phonon scattering becomes more significant and limits the TEP below the hydrodynamic prediction. We support our observation by employing a Boltzmann theory incorporating disorder, electron interactions, and optical phonons.

  8. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power in Graphene: Violation of the Mott Relation by Inelastic Scattering.

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Xie, Hong-Yi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Foster, Matthew S; Kim, Philip

    2016-04-01

    We report the enhancement of the thermoelectric power (TEP) in graphene with extremely low disorder. At high temperature we observe that the TEP is substantially larger than the prediction of the Mott relation, approaching to the hydrodynamic limit due to strong inelastic scattering among the charge carriers. However, closer to room temperature the inelastic carrier-optical-phonon scattering becomes more significant and limits the TEP below the hydrodynamic prediction. We support our observation by employing a Boltzmann theory incorporating disorder, electron interactions, and optical phonons. PMID:27081996

  9. Phase interference and sub-femtosecond time dynamics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, L. Andrew; Huang, Shih-Wen; Xia, Yuqi; Hasan, M. Zahid; Mathy, Charles; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Hussain, Zahid; Chuang, Yi-De

    2014-03-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is a powerful technique for observing the energy states of many-body quantum materials. The core hole resonance states that make RIXS possible are strongly correlated, and undergo complex time evolution that shapes scattering spectra. However, current inelastic scattering measurements cannot be converted to a time resolved picture, because techniques that determine relative phase information from elastic scattering have not been adapted to the greater complexity of inelastic spectra. We will show that inelastic scattering phases can be identified from quantum interference in sharply resolved (dE < 35meV) M-edge RIXS spectra of Mott insulators (e.g. SrCuO2 and NiO), and provide new information for identifying excitation symmetries and many-body time dynamics.

  10. Transverse Isotropy: Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical heavy ions and the nuclear ineraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahir; Canto, L. Felipe; Donangelo, Raul

    2015-04-01

    It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations usually present in the scattering of identical heavy ions, disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI) (L. F. Canto, R. Donangelo and M. S. Hussein, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 16), 1027 (2001). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be ηc =√{ 3 s + 2 } , where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to ηc is found to be Ec = 0.40 MeV for α + α (s = 0), and 1.2 MeV for 6 Li + 6 LI (s = 1). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. This can be verified by calculating the second derivative of the cross section at θ =90° . We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. Supported by CNPq, FAPESP, FAPERJ, CAPES/ITA.

  11. Topological Mott Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, S.

    2010-03-02

    We consider extended Hubbard models with repulsive interactions on a honeycomb lattice, and the transitions from the semimetal to Mott insulating phases at half-filling. Because of the frustrated nature of the second-neighbor interactions, topological Mott phases displaying the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects are found for spinless and spin fermion models, respectively. The mean-field phase diagram is presented and the fluctuations are treated within the random phase approximation. Renormalization group analysis shows that these states can be favored over the topologically trivial Mott insulating states.

  12. Weyl Mott Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic Weyl fermion (WF) often appears in the band structure of three dimensional magnetic materials and acts as a source or sink of the Berry curvature, i.e., the (anti-)monopole. It has been believed that the WFs are stable due to their topological indices except when two Weyl fermions of opposite chiralities annihilate pairwise. Here, we theoretically show for a model including the electron-electron interaction that the Mott gap opens for each WF without violating the topological stability, leading to a topological Mott insulator dubbed Weyl Mott insulator (WMI). This WMI is characterized by several novel features such as (i) energy gaps in the angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) and the optical conductivity, (ii) the nonvanishing Hall conductance, and (iii) the Fermi arc on the surface with the penetration depth diverging as approaching to the momentum at which the Weyl point is projected. Experimental detection of the WMI by distinguishing from conventional Mott insulators is discussed with possible relevance to pyrochlore iridates.

  13. Weyl Mott Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic Weyl fermion (WF) often appears in the band structure of three dimensional magnetic materials and acts as a source or sink of the Berry curvature, i.e., the (anti-)monopole. It has been believed that the WFs are stable due to their topological indices except when two Weyl fermions of opposite chiralities annihilate pairwise. Here, we theoretically show for a model including the electron-electron interaction that the Mott gap opens for each WF without violating the topological stability, leading to a topological Mott insulator dubbed Weyl Mott insulator (WMI). This WMI is characterized by several novel features such as (i) energy gaps in the angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) and the optical conductivity, (ii) the nonvanishing Hall conductance, and (iii) the Fermi arc on the surface with the penetration depth diverging as approaching to the momentum at which the Weyl point is projected. Experimental detection of the WMI by distinguishing from conventional Mott insulators is discussed with possible relevance to pyrochlore iridates. PMID:26822023

  14. Mott transition in granular aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachar, N.; Lerer, S.; Levy, A.; Hacohen-Gourgy, S.; Almog, B.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Morenzoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    2015-01-01

    A Mott transition in granular Al films is observed by probing the increase of the spin-flip scattering rate of conduction electrons as the nanosize metallic grains are being progressively decoupled. The presence of free spins in granular Al films is directly demonstrated by μ SR measurements. Analysis of the magnetoresistance in terms of an effective Fermi energy shows that it becomes of the order of the grains electrostatic charging energy at a room temperature resistivity ρ300 K≈50000 μ Ω cm , at which a metal to insulator transition is known to exist. As this transition is approached the magnetoresistance exhibits a heavy-fermion-like behavior, consistent with an increased electron effective mass.

  15. Extrapolation procedures in Mott electron polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, T. J.; Khakoo, M. A.; Brand, J. A.; Furst, J. E.; Wijayaratna, W. M. K. P.; Meyer, W. V.; Dunning, F. B.

    1992-01-01

    In standard Mott electron polarimetry using thin gold film targets, extrapolation procedures must be used to reduce the experimentally measured asymmetries A to the values they would have for scattering from single atoms. These extrapolations involve the dependent of A on either the gold film thickness or the maximum detected electron energy loss in the target. A concentric cylindrical-electrode Mott polarimeter, has been used to study and compare these two types of extrapolations over the electron energy range 20-100 keV. The potential systematic errors which can result from such procedures are analyzed in detail, particularly with regard to the use of various fitting functions in thickness extrapolations, and the failure of perfect energy-loss discrimination to yield accurate polarizations when thick foils are used.

  16. 5 MeV Mott Polarimeter Development at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. S.; Sinclair, C. K.; Cardman, L. S.; Haanskneccht, J.; Mack, D. J.; Piot, P.; Assamagan, K. A.; Grames, J.

    1997-01-01

    Low energy (E{sub k}=100 keV) Mott scattering polarimeters are ill- suited to support operations foreseen for the polarized electron injector at Jefferson Lab. One solution is to measure the polarization at 5 MeV where multiple and plural scattering are unimportant and precision beam monitoring is straightforward. The higher injector beam current offsets the lower cross-sections. Recent improvements in the CEBAF injector polarimeter scattering chamber have improved signal to noise.

  17. Field theory of Mottness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Ting-Pong

    One of the leading problems in condensed matter physics is what state of matter obtain when there is a strong Coulomb repulsion between the electrons. One of the exotic examples is the high temperature superconductivity which was discovered in copper-oxide ceramics (cuprates) over twenty years ago. Thus far, a satisfactory theory is absent. In particular, the nature of the electron state outside the superconducting phase remains controversial. In analogy with the BCS theory of a conventional superconductor, in which the metal is well known to be a Fermi liquid, a complete understanding of the normal state of cuprate is necessary prior to the study of the superconducting mechanism in the high temperature superconductors. In this thesis, we will provide a theory for these exotic normal state properties by studying the minimal microscopic model which captures the physics of strong electron correlation. Even in such a simple microscopic model, striking properties including charge localization and presence of a Luttinger surface resemble the normal state properties of cuprate. An exact low energy theory of a doped Mott insulator will be constructed by explicitly integrating (rather than projecting) out the degrees of freedom far away from the chemical potential. The exact low energy theory contains degrees of freedom that cannot be obtained from projective schemes. In particular, a charge 2e bosonic field which is not made out of elemental excitations emerges at low energies. Such a field accounts for dynamical spectral weight transfer across the Mott gap. At half-filling, we show that two such excitations emerge which play a crucial role in preserving the Luttinger surface along which the single-particle Green function vanishes. We also apply this method to the Anderson-U impurity and show that in addition to the Kondo interaction, bosonic degrees of freedom appear as well. We show that many of the normal state properties of the cuprates can result from this new charge

  18. Thermopower of graphene and the validity of Mott's formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) of graphene is previously measured in the disorder limited transport regime where the semiclassical Mott relation agrees with experimental data. In this presentation, we report the TEP measurement on graphene samples deposited on hexagonal boron nitride substrates where drastic suppression of disorder is achieved. Our results show that at high temperatures the measured thermopower deviates from Mott relation and this deviation is greater for higher mobility samples. We quantify this deviation in both degenerate and non-degenerate regime using Boltzmann transport theory considering different scattering mechanisms in the system.

  19. Photovoltaic effect for narrow-gap Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakis, Efstratios

    2012-02-01

    Solar cells, based on conventional band-semiconductors, have low efficiency for conversion of solar into electrical energy. The main reason is that the excess energy of the photon absorbed by an electron/hole pair beyond the band-gap becomes heat through electron-phonon scattering and phonon emission; through these processes electrons and holes relax to their band edges within a characteristic time scale of the order of 10-12-10-13 secs. We will discuss that a narrow-gap Mott insulator can produce a significant photovoltaic effect and, more importantly, if appropriately chosen it can lead to solar cells of high efficiency. In this case, a single solar photon can produce multiple electron/hole (doublon/hole) pairs, an effect known as impact ionization, faster than other relaxation processes such as relaxation through phonons. It has been proposed previously that this process could lead to an efficient solar cell using band-gap semiconductors; however, the characteristic time-scale for impact ionization is comparable to that for electron-phonon relaxation in band-gap semiconductors. The reason that a Mott insulator can behave differently is that the large Coulomb repulsion present in a Mott insulator leads to a large enhancement of the impact ionization rate. Provided that this enhancement does occur in an appropriately chosen Mott insulator, it can be demonstrated that the efficiency can improve significantly over conventional band-insulators. At present, we are doing calculations on specific transition-metal-oxide based materials believed to be Mott-insulators using extensions of the density functional theory (hybrid functionals) in combination with many-body perturbation theory. Our goal is to determine a promising candidate with suitable band structure and transition matrix elements leading to fast transition rates for impact ionization to occur in a time-scale faster than other relaxation processes.

  20. Photoheat-induced Schottky nanojunction and indirect Mott transition in VO2: photocurrent analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Minjung; Sohn, Ahrum; Slusar, Tetiana; Seo, Giwan; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    In order to elucidate a mechanism of the insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) for a Mott insulator VO2 (3d 1), we present Schottky nanojunctions and the structural phase transition (SPT) by simultaneous nanolevel measurements of photocurrent and Raman scattering in microlevel devices. The Schottky nanojunction with the monoclinic metallic phase between the monoclinic insulating phases is formed by the photoheat-induced IMT not accompanied with the SPT. The temperature dependence of the Schottky junction reveals that the Mott insulator has an electronic structure of an indirect subband between the main Hubbard d bands. The IMT as reverse process of the Mott transition occurs by temperature-induced excitation of bound charges in the indirect semiconductor band, most likely formed by impurities such as oxygen deficiency. The metal band (3d 1) for the Mott insulator is screened (trapped) by the indirect band (impurities).

  1. Influence of spinons fluctuations near the spin liquid Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tsung-Han; Florens, Serge; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir

    We investigate the metal to Mott-insulator transition (MIT) in the Hubbard-Heisenberg model using the slave-rotor technique, which allows to combine for the first time the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) with the Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) approach. In the spin-liquid phase at large Coulomb repulsion, the system shows a RVB transition from a trivial paramagnetic Mott insulator towards a low temperature insulating state with long lived spinons, as seen by the emergence of a linear specific heat. This quenching of the entropy in the spin liquid phase provides strong modifications in the shape of the standard DMFT phase diagram for the MIT occurring at intermediate values of the Coulomb repulsion. We find that the RVB transition happens concomitantly with the first order MIT lines at low temperature. This implies that the Mott insulator always accommodates a spinon Fermi surface, even in the coexistence regime of the MIT, and that the metallic state always stays a Fermi-liquid as it rejects the presence of free spinons, due to their strong scattering onto the holons.

  2. Phase Coherence of an Atomic Mott Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbier, Fabrice; Widera, Artur; Foelling, Simon; Mandel, Olaf; Gericke, Tatjana; Bloch, Immanuel

    2005-07-29

    We investigate the phase coherence properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices, with special emphasis on the Mott insulating phase. We show that phase coherence on short length scales persists even deep in the insulating phase, preserving a finite visibility of the interference pattern observed after free expansion. This behavior can be attributed to a coherent admixture of particle-hole pairs to the perfect Mott state for small but finite tunneling. In addition, small but reproducible kinks are seen in the visibility, in a broad range of atom numbers. We interpret them as signatures for density redistribution in the shell structure of the trapped Mott insulator.

  3. Towards Mott design by δ-doping of strongly correlated titanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechermann, Frank; Obermeyer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Doping the distorted-perovskite Mott insulators LaTiO3 and GdTiO3 with a single SrO layer along the [001] direction gives rise to a rich correlated electronic structure. A realistic superlattice study by means of the charge self-consistent combination of density functional theory with dynamical mean-field theory reveals layer- and temperature-dependent multi-orbital metal-insulator transitions. An orbital-selective metallic layer at the interface dissolves via an orbital-polarized doped-Mott state into an orbital-ordered insulating regime beyond the two conducting TiO2 layers. We find large differences in the scattering behavior within the latter. Breaking the spin symmetry in δ-doped GdTiO3 results in blocks of ferromagnetic itinerant and ferromagnetic Mott-insulating layers that are coupled antiferromagnetically.

  4. Hallmarks of the Mott-metal crossover in the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Waugh, Justin A; Reber, Theodore J; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Parham, Stephen; Park, S-R; Plumb, Nicholas C; Rotenberg, Eli; Bostwick, Aaron; Denlinger, Jonathan D; Qi, Tongfei; Hermele, Michael A; Cao, Gang; Dessau, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    The physics of doped Mott insulators remains controversial after decades of active research, hindered by the interplay among competing orders and fluctuations. It is thus highly desired to distinguish the intrinsic characters of the Mott-metal crossover from those of other origins. Here we investigate the evolution of electronic structure and dynamics of the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. The effective hole doping is achieved by replacing Ir with Rh atoms, with the chemical potential immediately jumping to or near the top of the lower Hubbard band. The doped iridates exhibit multiple iconic low-energy features previously observed in doped cuprates-pseudogaps, Fermi arcs and marginal-Fermi-liquid-like electronic scattering rates. We suggest these signatures are most likely an integral part of the material's proximity to the Mott state, rather than from many of the most claimed mechanisms, including preformed electron pairing, quantum criticality or density-wave formation. PMID:27102065

  5. Hallmarks of the Mott-metal crossover in the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Waugh, Justin A.; Reber, Theodore J.; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Parham, Stephen; Park, S.-R.; Plumb, Nicholas C.; Rotenberg, Eli; Bostwick, Aaron; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Qi, Tongfei; Hermele, Michael A.; Cao, Gang; Dessau, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The physics of doped Mott insulators remains controversial after decades of active research, hindered by the interplay among competing orders and fluctuations. It is thus highly desired to distinguish the intrinsic characters of the Mott-metal crossover from those of other origins. Here we investigate the evolution of electronic structure and dynamics of the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. The effective hole doping is achieved by replacing Ir with Rh atoms, with the chemical potential immediately jumping to or near the top of the lower Hubbard band. The doped iridates exhibit multiple iconic low-energy features previously observed in doped cuprates—pseudogaps, Fermi arcs and marginal-Fermi-liquid-like electronic scattering rates. We suggest these signatures are most likely an integral part of the material's proximity to the Mott state, rather than from many of the most claimed mechanisms, including preformed electron pairing, quantum criticality or density-wave formation. PMID:27102065

  6. Hallmarks of the Mott-metal crossover in the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiang; Waugh, Justin A.; Reber, Theodore J.; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Parham, Stephen; Park, S.-R.; Plumb, Nicholas C.; Rotenberg, Eli; Bostwick, Aaron; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Qi, Tongfei; Hermele, Michael A.; Cao, Gang; Dessau, Daniel S.

    2016-04-01

    The physics of doped Mott insulators remains controversial after decades of active research, hindered by the interplay among competing orders and fluctuations. It is thus highly desired to distinguish the intrinsic characters of the Mott-metal crossover from those of other origins. Here we investigate the evolution of electronic structure and dynamics of the hole-doped pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. The effective hole doping is achieved by replacing Ir with Rh atoms, with the chemical potential immediately jumping to or near the top of the lower Hubbard band. The doped iridates exhibit multiple iconic low-energy features previously observed in doped cuprates--pseudogaps, Fermi arcs and marginal-Fermi-liquid-like electronic scattering rates. We suggest these signatures are most likely an integral part of the material's proximity to the Mott state, rather than from many of the most claimed mechanisms, including preformed electron pairing, quantum criticality or density-wave formation.

  7. VIEW NORTHON MOTT STREETBUILDING 62 ANNEALING HOUSE EXTENSION John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-ON MOTT STREET-BUILDING 62 ANNEALING HOUSE EXTENSION - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  8. VIEW WESTON MOTT STREETBUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO 1 (1905) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-ON MOTT STREET-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO 1 (1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  9. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHTBUILDING 57 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 51 MOTT STREET GENERATING STATION (1897) RIGHT-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO.1 (1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  10. Constraints on topological order in mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Michael P; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-02-20

    We point out certain symmetry induced constraints on topological order in Mott insulators (quantum magnets with an odd number of spin 1/2 moments per unit cell). We show, for example, that the double-semion topological order is incompatible with time reversal and translation symmetry in Mott insulators. This sharpens the Hastings-Oshikawa-Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem for 2D quantum magnets, which guarantees that a fully symmetric gapped Mott insulator must be topologically ordered, but is silent about which topological order is permitted. Our result applies to the kagome lattice quantum antiferromagnet, where recent numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy indicate a ground state compatible with either toric code or double-semion topological order. Our result rules out the latter possibility. PMID:25763971

  11. Universality class of the mott transition.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Jawad, M; Kato, R; Watanabe, I; Tajima, N; Ishii, Y

    2015-03-13

    Pressure dependence of the conductivity and thermoelectric power is measured through the Mott transition in the layer organic conductor EtMe_{3}P[Pd(dmit)_{2}]_{2}. The critical behavior of the thermoelectric effect provides a clear and objective determination of the Mott-Hubbard transition during the isothermal pressure sweep. Above the critical end point, the metal-insulator crossing, determined by the thermoelectric effect minimum value, is not found to coincide with the maximum of the derivative of the conductivity as a function of pressure. We show that the critical exponents of the Mott-Hubbard transition fall within the Ising universality class regardless of the dimensionality of the system. PMID:25815951

  12. Holography and Mottness: A Discrete Marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Gauge-gravity duality has allowed us to solve the physics of certain strongly coupled quantum mechanical systems using gravity. I will show how a space-time consisting of a charged black hole and a bulk Pauli coupling corresponds to a boundary theory with a dynamically generated gap (with no obvious symmetry breaking) and a massive rearrangement of the spectral weight as in classic Mott systems such as VO2. In this holographic set-up, the gap opens only when discrete scale invariance is present. This raises the possibility that the elusive symmetry that might be broken in Mott insulators, in general, might pertain to scale invariance. The relevance of this claim to recent theories of Mott systems that possess massless charged bosons is explored.

  13. Spectral Evolution in (Ca,Sr)RuO{sub 3} near the Mott-Hubbard Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.S.; Bak, J.; Choi, H.S.; Noh, T.W.; Han, J.E.; Bang, Y.; Cho, J.H.; Jia, Q.X.

    1999-06-01

    We investigated optical properties of (Ca,Sr)RuO {sub 3} films on the borderline of a metal-insulator transition. Our results show all of the predicted characteristics for a metallic Mott-Hubbard system, including (i) a mass enhancement in dc limit, (ii) a U/2 excitation, and (iii) a U excitation. Also, self-consistency is exploited within the Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice picture for the Mott transition. Our finding displays that electron correlation should be important even in 4d materials. However, low frequency behaviors of electrodynamic quantities suggest extra scattering mechanisms in addition to the Mott-Hubbard correlation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  14. Spectral Evolution in (Ca,Sr)RuO[sub 3] near the Mott-Hubbard Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.S.; Bak, J.; Choi, H.S.; Noh, T.W. ); Han, J.E. ); Bang, Y. ); Cho, J.H. ); Jia, Q.X. )

    1999-06-01

    We investigated optical properties of (Ca,Sr)RuO [sub 3] films on the borderline of a metal-insulator transition. Our results show all of the predicted characteristics for a metallic Mott-Hubbard system, including (i) a mass enhancement in dc limit, (ii) a U/2 excitation, and (iii) a U excitation. Also, self-consistency is exploited within the Gutzwiller-Brinkman-Rice picture for the Mott transition. Our finding displays that electron correlation should be important even in 4d materials. However, low frequency behaviors of electrodynamic quantities suggest extra scattering mechanisms in addition to the Mott-Hubbard correlation. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  15. Quantum and classical solutions for statically screened two-dimensional Wannier-Mott excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J.

    2011-08-15

    Quantum solutions and classical orbits are discussed for statically screened Wannier-Mott excitons for two closely related potentials: the Stern-Howard potential and a suggested simple focusing one. Bound states and exact ''quantized'' values of screening are obtained as well. For the suggested potential, the scattering matrix, the Regge poles, and the transmission coefficient are calculated exactly. We argue that the simple potential can be utilized in applications instead of the Stern-Howard potential, which is difficult to handle.

  16. Electronic reconstruction of doped Mott insulator heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, M.; Hassan, S. R.; Karan, R.; Dion, M.; Senechal, D.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2012-02-01

    Correlated electron heterostructures became a possible alternative when thin-film deposition techniques achieved structures with a sharp interface transition [1]. Soon thereafter, Okamoto & Millis introduced the concept of ``electronic reconstruction'' [2]. We study here the electronic reconstruction of doped Mott insulator heterostructures based on a Cluster Dynamical Mean Field Theory (CDMFT) calculations of the Hubbard model in the limit where electrostatic energy dominates over the kinetic energy associated with transport across layers. The grand potential of individual layers is first computed within CDMFT and then the electrostatic potential energy is taken into account in the Hartree approximation. The charge reconstruction in an ensemble of stacked planes of different nature can lead to a distribution of electron charge and to transport properties that are unique to doped-Mott insulators.[4pt] [1] J. Mannhart, D. G. Schlom, Science 327, 1607 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Okamoto and A. J. Millis, Nature 428, 630 (2004).

  17. A different sort of Mott cell.

    PubMed Central

    Jäck, H M; Beck-Engeser, G; Sloan, B; Wong, M L; Wabl, M

    1992-01-01

    NYC is a B lymphoma cell line derived from B/W mice. Upon fusion of NYC cells with a plasmacytoma, which itself produces no immunoglobulin, the resulting NYCH hybridoma cells are Mott cells; i.e., they contain large intracellular vesicles filled with immunoglobulin, the so-called Russell bodies. When NYCH.kappa, a variant of NYCH that had lost the ability to produce heavy chain, was transfected with a heavy-chain construct, this concentration of immunoglobulin in the intracellular vesicles occurred only when the transfected immunoglobulin heavy chain had the same variable region as NYC. Moreover, unlike conventional Mott cells, the hybrid cells secrete immunoglobulin at a normal rate. Images PMID:1465384

  18. DYNAMICAL RESPONSE OF QUASI ID MOTT INSULATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    ESSLER,F.H.L.TSVELIK,A.M.

    2004-01-14

    At low energies certain one dimensional Mott insulators can be described in terms of an exactly solvable quantum field theory, the U(1) Thirring model. Using exact results derived from integrability we determine dynamical properties like the frequency dependent optical conductivity and the single-particle Green's function. We discuss the effects of a small temperature and the effects on interchain tunneling in a model of infinitely many weakly coupled chains.

  19. Ferroelectric control of a Mott insulator

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marinova, Maya; Altuntas, Philippe; Crassous, Arnaud; Bégon-Lours, Laura; Fusil, Stéphane; Jacquet, Eric; Garcia, Vincent; Bouzehouane, Karim; Gloter, Alexandre; Villegas, Javier E.; Barthélémy, Agnès; Bibes, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The electric field control of functional properties is an important goal in oxide-based electronics. To endow devices with memory, ferroelectric gating is interesting, but usually weak compared to volatile electrolyte gating. Here, we report a very large ferroelectric field-effect in perovskite heterostructures combining the Mott insulator CaMnO3 and the ferroelectric BiFeO3 in its “supertetragonal” phase. Upon polarization reversal of the BiFeO3 gate, the CaMnO3 channel resistance shows a fourfold variation around room temperature, and a tenfold change at ~200 K. This is accompanied by a carrier density modulation exceeding one order of magnitude. We have analyzed the results for various CaMnO3 thicknesses and explain them by the electrostatic doping of the CaMnO3 layer and the presence of a fixed dipole at the CaMnO3/BiFeO3 interface. Our results suggest the relevance of ferroelectric gates to control orbital- or spin-ordered phases, ubiquitous in Mott systems, and pave the way toward efficient Mott-tronics devices. PMID:24089020

  20. Quantum criticality of a Bose gas in an optical lattice near the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rançon, A.; Dupuis, N.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the equation of state of bosons in an optical lattice in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. Near the density-driven Mott transition, the expression of the pressure P(μ,T) versus chemical potential and temperature is similar to that of a dilute Bose gas but with renormalized mass m* and scattering length a*. Here m* is the mass of the elementary excitations at the quantum critical point governing the transition from the superfluid phase to the Mott-insulating phase, while a* is related to their effective interaction at low energy. We use a nonperturbative renormalization-group approach to compute these parameters as a function of the ratio t/U between hopping amplitude and on-site repulsion.

  1. Mott-superfluid transition of q-deformed bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeć, T. K.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of q-deformation of the bosonic algebra on the Mott-superfluid transition for interacting lattice bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model is studied using mean-filed theory. It has been shown that the Mott state proliferates and the initial periodicity of the Mott lobes as a function of the chemical potential disappears as the q-deformation increases. The ground state phase diagram as a function of the q-parameter exhibits superfluid order, which intervenes in narrow regions between Mott lobes, demonstrating the new concept of statistically induced quantum phase transition.

  2. Dynamical electronic nematicity from Mott physics

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Senechal, D.; Civelli, M.; Tremblay, A.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Very large anisotropies in transport quantities have been observed in the presence of very small in-plane structural anisotropy in many strongly correlated electron materials. By studying the two-dimensional Hubbard model with dynamical-mean-field theory for clusters, we show that such large anisotropies can be induced without static stripe order if the interaction is large enough to yield a Mott transition. Anisotropy decreases at large frequency. The maximum effect on conductivity anisotropy occurs in the underdoped regime, as observed in high temperature superconductors.

  3. VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFTBUILDING 62 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST ON MOTT STREET AT HUDSON STREET LEFT-BUILDING 62 ANNEALING HOUSE (c.1900) CENTER-BUILDING 57 FLAT SHOP NO. 1 (c.1905) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  4. Teenage Pregnancy: An Update and Guide to Mott Foundation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugg, Carol D.

    This document focuses on the involvement of the Mott Foundation in the problem of teenage pregnancy. After a brief introduction to the topic including statistics on the incidence of teenage pregnancy, methods by which other organizations and foundations have attacked the problem of teenage pregnancy are described. The role of the Mott Foundation…

  5. Quantum phase transitions and local magnetism in Mott insulators: A local probe investigation using muons, neutrons, and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.

    Mott insulators are materials in which strong correlations among the electrons induce an unconventional insulating state. Rich interplay between the structural, magnetic, and electronic degrees of freedom resulting from the electron correlation can lead to unusual complexity of Mott materials on the atomic scale, such as microscopically heterogeneous phases or local structural correlations that deviate significantly from the average structure. Such behavior must be studied by suitable experimental techniques, i.e. "local probes", that are sensitive to this local behavior rather than just the bulk, average properties. In this thesis, I will present results from our studies of multiple families of Mott insulators using two such local probes: muon spin relaxation (muSR), a probe of local magnetism; and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of x-ray and neutron total scattering, a probe of local atomic structure. In addition, I will present the development of magnetic pair distribution function analysis, a novel method for studying local magnetic correlations that is highly complementary to the muSR and atomic PDF techniques. We used muSR to study the phase transition from Mott insulator to metal in two archetypal Mott insulating systems: RENiO3 (RE = rare earth element) and V2O3. In both of these systems, the Mott insulating state can be suppressed by tuning a nonthermal parameter, resulting in a "quantum" phase transition at zero temperature from the Mott insulating state to a metallic state. In RENiO3, this occurs through variation of the rare-earth element in the chemical composition; in V 2O3, through the application of hydrostatic pressure. Our results show that the metallic and Mott insulating states unexpectedly coexist in phase-separated regions across a large portion of parameter space near the Mott quantum phase transition and that the magnitude of the ordered antiferromagnetic moment remains constant across the phase diagram until it is abruptly

  6. Slope-reversed Mott transition in multiorbital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Aaram J.; Choi, MooYoung; Jeon, Gun Sang

    2015-09-01

    We examine finite-temperature phase transitions in the two-orbital Hubbard model with different bandwidths by means of the dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. It is found that there emerges a peculiar slope-reversed first-order Mott transition between the orbital-selective Mott phase and the Mott insulator phase in the presence of Ising-type Hund's coupling. The origin of the slope-reversed phase transition is clarified by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the energy density. It turns out that the increase of Hund's coupling lowers the critical temperature of the slope-reversed Mott transition. Beyond a certain critical value of Hund's coupling the first-order transition turns into a finite-temperature crossover. We also reveal that the orbital-selective Mott phase exhibits frozen local moments in the wide orbital, which is demonstrated by the spin-spin correlation functions.

  7. A low-voltage retarding-field Mott polarimeter for photocathode characterization

    SciTech Connect

    McCarter, J. L.; Stutzman, M. L.; Trantham, K. W.; Anderson, T. G.; Cook, A. M.; Gay, T. J.

    2010-02-26

    Nuclear physics experiments at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's CEBAF rely on high polarization electron beams. We describe a recently commissioned system for prequalifying and studying photocathodes for CEBAF with a load-locked, low-voltage polarized electron source coupled to a compact retarding-field Mott polarimeter. The polarimeter uses simplified electrode structures and operates from 5 to 30 kV. The effective Sherman function for this device has been calibrated by comparison with the CEBAF 5 MeV Mott polarimeter. For elastic scattering from a thick gold target at 20 keV, the effective Sherman function is 0.201(5). Its maximum efficiency at 20 keV, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle current, is 5.4(2)×10-4, yielding a figure-of-merit, or analyzing power squared times efficiency, of 1.0(1)×10-5. The operating parameters of this new polarimeter design are compared to previously published data for other compact Mott polarimeters of the retarding-field type.

  8. A low-voltage retarding-field Mott polarimeter for photocathode characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, J. L.; Stutzman, M. L.; Trantham, K. W.; Anderson, T. G.; Cook, A. M.; Gay, T. J.

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear physics experiments at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's CEBAF rely on high polarization electron beams. We describe a recently commissioned system for prequalifying and studying photocathodes for CEBAF with a load-locked, low-voltage polarized electron source coupled to a compact retarding-field Mott polarimeter. The polarimeter uses simplified electrode structures and operates from 5 to 30 kV. The effective Sherman function for this device has been calibrated by comparison with the CEBAF 5 MeV Mott polarimeter. For elastic scattering from a thick gold target at 20 keV, the effective Sherman function is 0.201(5). Its maximum efficiency at 20 keV, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle current, is 5.4(2)×10 -4, yielding a figure-of-merit, or analyzing power squared times efficiency, of 1.0(1)×10 -5. The operating parameters of this new polarimeter design are compared to previously published data for other compact Mott polarimeters of the retarding-field type.

  9. MOTT FOUNDATION PROJECTS MOTT PROGRAM--FLINT PUBLIC SCHOOLS, SUMMARY REPORTS JULY 1, 1964 TO JUNE 30, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRIGGS, LARRY; AND OTHERS

    ONE-PAGE REPORTS ARE PRESENTED, SUMMARIZING EACH OF THE PROJECTS IN THE MOTT PROGRAM FOR THE FLINT PUBLIC SCHOOLS--WORKSHOPS AND VISITATIONS, ADULT EDUCATION, GRADUATE TRAINING, YOUTH PROGRAMS, THE MOTT CAMP, RECREATION, A BETTER TOMORROW FOR THE URBAN CHILD, THE PERSONALIZED CURRICULUM PROGRAM, MEDICAL-DENTAL HEALTH, INTERUNIVERSITY CLINICAL…

  10. Quench from Mott Insulator to Superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Tylutki, Marek

    2012-06-01

    We study a linear ramp of the nearest-neighbor tunneling rate in the Bose-Hubbard model driving the system from the Mott insulator state into the superfluid phase. We employ the truncated Wigner approximation to simulate linear quenches of a uniform system in 1...3 dimensions, and in a harmonic trap in 3 dimensions. In all these setups the excitation energy decays like one over third root of the quench time. The -1/3 scaling is explained by an impulse-adiabatic approximation - a variant of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism - describing a crossover from non-adiabatic to adiabatic evolution when the system begins to keep pace with the increasing tunneling rate.

  11. Dual vortex theory of doped Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Balents, Leon; Sachdev, Subir

    2007-11-15

    We present a general framework for describing the quantum phases obtained by doping paramagnetic Mott insulators on the square lattice. The undoped insulators are efficiently characterized by the projective transformations of various fields under the square lattice space group (the PSG). We show that the PSG also imposes powerful constraints on the doped system, and on the effective action for the vortex and Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations of superconducting states. This action can also be extended across transitions to supersolid or insulating states at non-zero doping. For the case of a valence bond solid (VBS) insulator, we show that the doped system has the same PSG as that of elementary bosons with density equal to the density of electron Cooper pairs. We also discuss aspects of the action for a d-wave superconductor obtained by doping a 'staggered-flux' spin liquid state.

  12. Bose and Mott glass phases in dimerized quantum antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S. J.; Krüger, F.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the effects of disorder on dimerized quantum antiferromagnets in a magnetic field, using the mapping to a lattice gas of hard-core bosons with finite-range interactions. Combining a strong-coupling expansion, the replica method, and a one-loop renormalization-group analysis, we investigate the nature of the glass phases formed. We find that away from the tips of the Mott lobes, the transition is from a Mott insulator to a compressible Bose glass, however the compressibility at the tips is strongly suppressed. We identify this finding with the presence of a rare Mott glass phase and demonstrate that the inclusion of replica symmetry breaking is vital to correctly describe the glassy phases. This result suggests that the formation of Bose and Mott glass phases is not simply a weak localization phenomenon but is indicative of much richer physics. We discuss our results in the context of both ultracold atomic gases and spin-dimer materials.

  13. Unusual Mott transition in multiferroic PbCrO3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Wendan; Bai, Ligang; Qian, Jiang; Yin, Liang; Sullivan, Neil S.; Jin, Changqing; He, Duanwei; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The Mott insulator in correlated electron systems arises from classical Coulomb repulsion between carriers to provide a powerful force for electron localization. Turning such an insulator into a metal, the so-called Mott transition, is commonly achieved by “bandwidth” control or “band filling.” However, both mechanisms deviate from the original concept of Mott, which attributes such a transition to the screening of Coulomb potential and associated lattice contraction. Here, we report a pressure-induced isostructural Mott transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3. At the transition pressure of ∼3 GPa, PbCrO3 exhibits significant collapse in both lattice volume and Coulomb potential. Concurrent with the collapse, it transforms from a hybrid multiferroic insulator to a metal. For the first time to our knowledge, these findings validate the scenario conceived by Mott. Close to the Mott criticality at ∼300 K, fluctuations of the lattice and charge give rise to elastic anomalies and Laudau critical behaviors resembling the classic liquid–gas transition. The anomalously large lattice volume and Coulomb potential in the low-pressure insulating phase are largely associated with the ferroelectric distortion, which is substantially suppressed at high pressures, leading to the first-order phase transition without symmetry breaking. PMID:26604314

  14. Unusual Mott transition in multiferroic PbCrO 3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Wendan; Bai, Ligang; Qian, Jiang; Yin, Liang; Sullivan, Neil S.; et al

    2015-11-24

    The Mott insulator in correlated electron systems arises from classical Coulomb repulsion between carriers to provide a powerful force for electron localization. When turning such an insulator into a metal, the so-called Mott transition, is commonly achieved by "bandwidth" control or "band filling." However, both mechanisms deviate from the original concept of Mott, which attributes such a transition to the screening of Coulomb potential and associated lattice contraction. We report a pressure-induced isostructural Mott transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3. At the transition pressure of similar to 3 GPa, PbCrO3 exhibits significant collapse in both lattice volume and Coulomb potential. Concurrentmore » with the collapse, it transforms from a hybrid multiferroic insulator to a metal. For the first time to our knowledge, these findings validate the scenario conceived by Mott. Close to the Mott criticality at similar to 300 K, fluctuations of the lattice and charge give rise to elastic anomalies and Laudau critical behaviors resembling the classic liquid-gas transition. Moreover, the anomalously large lattice volume and Coulomb potential in the low-pressure insulating phase are largely associated with the ferroelectric distortion, which is substantially suppressed at high pressures, leading to the first-order phase transition without symmetry breaking.« less

  15. Unusual Mott transition in multiferroic PbCrO3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Wendan; Bai, Ligang; Qian, Jiang; Yin, Liang; Sullivan, Neil S; Jin, Changqing; He, Duanwei; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-12-15

    The Mott insulator in correlated electron systems arises from classical Coulomb repulsion between carriers to provide a powerful force for electron localization. Turning such an insulator into a metal, the so-called Mott transition, is commonly achieved by "bandwidth" control or "band filling." However, both mechanisms deviate from the original concept of Mott, which attributes such a transition to the screening of Coulomb potential and associated lattice contraction. Here, we report a pressure-induced isostructural Mott transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3. At the transition pressure of ∼3 GPa, PbCrO3 exhibits significant collapse in both lattice volume and Coulomb potential. Concurrent with the collapse, it transforms from a hybrid multiferroic insulator to a metal. For the first time to our knowledge, these findings validate the scenario conceived by Mott. Close to the Mott criticality at ∼300 K, fluctuations of the lattice and charge give rise to elastic anomalies and Laudau critical behaviors resembling the classic liquid-gas transition. The anomalously large lattice volume and Coulomb potential in the low-pressure insulating phase are largely associated with the ferroelectric distortion, which is substantially suppressed at high pressures, leading to the first-order phase transition without symmetry breaking. PMID:26604314

  16. Anomalous superconductivity near the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Andre-Marie

    2006-03-01

    High-temperature superconductivity appears near an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating phase and a normal phase with a pseudogap. It was suggested early on by Anderson that the strong-coupling limit of the Hubbard model should contain the main physics. It is only recently that we have begun to have access to sufficiently accurate algorithms and powerful enough computers to begin to extract the main features of the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors from the Hubbard model in a nearly quantitative manner. In this talk, the zero temperature phase diagram of the two-dimensional Hubbard model is discussed based on several ``quantum cluster'' approaches, mainly Variational Cluster Perturbation Theory [1] and Cellular Dynamical Mean Field Theory [2], that shall be introduced. The overall ground state phase diagram of the high-temperature superconductors as well as the asymmetric one-particle excitation spectra for both hole- and electron-doping are reproduced. The d-wave order parameter is found to assume a dome shape as a function of doping and to scale like the magnetic exchange coupling J for U comparable to the bandwidth. We stress the features of superconductivity that are non-BCS like due to the proximity to the Mott insulator. In stark contrast with BCS theory, the superconducting gap can decrease monotonically at the same time as the d-wave order parameter increases away from half-filling. Also, d-wave superconductivity is driven by a lowering of kinetic energy instead of potential energy, in conformity with experiments on cuprates. The pseudogap [3-5] and results of other approaches will also be briefly touched upon. [1] David S'en'echal, P.-L. Lavertu, M.-A. Marois, and A.- M.S. Tremblay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 156404 (2005). [2] S. S. Kancharla, M. Civelli, M. Capone, B. Kyung, D. Senechal, G. Kotliar, A.-M.S. Tremblay, cond-mat/0508205. [3] B. Kyung, S.S. Kancharla, D. S'en'echal, A.-M.S. Tremblay, M. Civelli, and G. Kotliar cond-mat/0502565 [4] B

  17. Spin liquid phases of large-spin Mott insulating ultracold bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Todd C.; Lawler, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Mott insulating ultracold gases possess a unique whole-atom exchange interaction which enables large quantum fluctuations between the Zeeman sublevels of each atom. By strengthening this interaction—either through the use of large-spin atoms or by tuning the particle-particle interactions via optical Feshbach resonance—one may enhance fluctuations and facilitate the appearance of the long-sought-after quantum spin liquid phase—all in the highly tunable environment of cold atoms. To illustrate the relationship between the spin magnitude, interaction strength, and resulting magnetic phases, we present and solve a mean-field theory for bosons optically confined to the one-particle-per-site Mott state, using both analytic and numerical methods. We find on square and triangular lattices for bosons of hyperfine spin f >2 that making the repulsive s -wave scattering length through the singlet channel small—relative to the higher-order scattering channels—accesses a short-range resonating valence bond (s-RVB) spin liquid phase.

  18. Feshbach molecules from an atomic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz, Thomas; Syassen, Niels; Bauer, Dominik; Hansis, Eberhard; Duerr, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2006-05-01

    Feshbach molecules from bosonic atomic species have proven to be very unstable with respect to inelastic collisions [1]. As a result, the typical lifetime observed for a cloud of ultracold ^87Rb2 molecules stored in an optical dipole trap is limited to a few ms.Here, we report on the observation of long-lived Feshbach molecules in an optical lattice. A BEC of ^87Rb atoms is loaded into the lowest Bloch band of a 3D optical lattice operated at a wavelength of 830 nm. By ramping up the lattice depth, the atomic gas enters the Mott insulator regime. A magnetic-field ramp through the Feshbach resonance at 1007 G creates molecules [2]. Lattice sites initially occupied with more than 2 atoms experience fast inelastic collisional losses. The observed lifetime of the remaining molecules is ˜100 ms, which is much longer than for a pure molecular sample in an optical dipole trap. Similar results have recently been reported in Ref.[3]. The increased lifetime is an important step on the route to a BEC of molecules in the vibrational ground state [4].[1] T. Mukaiyama et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 180402 (2004) [2] S. D"urr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 020406 (2004) [3] G. Thalhammer et al., cond-mat/0510755 [4] D. Jaksch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 040402 (2002)

  19. A scalable neuristor built with Mott memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Matthew D.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R. Stanley

    2013-02-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley model for action potential generation in biological axons is central for understanding the computational capability of the nervous system and emulating its functionality. Owing to the historical success of silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, spike-based computing is primarily confined to software simulations and specialized analogue metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor circuits. However, there is interest in constructing physical systems that emulate biological functionality more directly, with the goal of improving efficiency and scale. The neuristor was proposed as an electronic device with properties similar to the Hodgkin-Huxley axon, but previous implementations were not scalable. Here we demonstrate a neuristor built using two nanoscale Mott memristors, dynamical devices that exhibit transient memory and negative differential resistance arising from an insulating-to-conducting phase transition driven by Joule heating. This neuristor exhibits the important neural functions of all-or-nothing spiking with signal gain and diverse periodic spiking, using materials and structures that are amenable to extremely high-density integration with or without silicon transistors.

  20. A scalable neuristor built with Mott memristors.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Matthew D; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R Stanley

    2013-02-01

    The Hodgkin-Huxley model for action potential generation in biological axons is central for understanding the computational capability of the nervous system and emulating its functionality. Owing to the historical success of silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, spike-based computing is primarily confined to software simulations and specialized analogue metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor circuits. However, there is interest in constructing physical systems that emulate biological functionality more directly, with the goal of improving efficiency and scale. The neuristor was proposed as an electronic device with properties similar to the Hodgkin-Huxley axon, but previous implementations were not scalable. Here we demonstrate a neuristor built using two nanoscale Mott memristors, dynamical devices that exhibit transient memory and negative differential resistance arising from an insulating-to-conducting phase transition driven by Joule heating. This neuristor exhibits the important neural functions of all-or-nothing spiking with signal gain and diverse periodic spiking, using materials and structures that are amenable to extremely high-density integration with or without silicon transistors. PMID:23241533

  1. Thermodynamics of a Bose gas near the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rançon, A.; Dupuis, N.

    2012-10-01

    We study the thermodynamics near the generic (density-driven) superfluid-Mott-insulator transition in the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model using the nonperturbative renormalization-group approach. At low energy, the physics is controlled by the Gaussian fixed point and becomes universal. Thermodynamic quantities can then be expressed in terms of the universal scaling functions of the dilute Bose gas universality class while the microscopic physics enters only via two nonuniversal parameters, namely, the effective mass m* and the “scattering length” a* of the elementary excitations at the quantum critical point between the superfluid and Mott-insulating phases. A notable exception is the condensate density in the superfluid phase which is proportional to the quasiparticle weight Zqp of the elementary excitations. The universal regime is defined by m*a*2T≪1 and m*a*2|δμ|≪1 or, equivalently, |n¯-n¯c|a*3≪1, where δμ=μ-μc is the chemical potential shift from the quantum critical point (μ=μc,T=0) and n¯-n¯c the doping with respect to the commensurate density n¯c of the T=0 Mott insulator. We compute Zqp, m*, and a* and find that they vary strongly with both the ratio t/U between hopping amplitude and onsite repulsion and the value of the (commensurate) density n¯c. Finally, we discuss the experimental observation of universality and the measurement of Zqp, m*, and a* in a cold-atomic gas in an optical lattice.

  2. Nonequilibrium gap collapse near a first-order Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, Matteo; Fabrizio, Michele

    2015-03-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a simple model for V2O3 that consists of a quarter-filled Hubbard model for two orbitals that are split by a weak crystal field. Peculiarities of this model are (1) a Mott insulator whose gap corresponds to transferring an electron from the occupied lower orbital to the empty upper one, rather than from the lower to the upper Hubbard subbands; (2) a Mott transition generically of first order even at zero temperature. We simulate by means of time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation the evolution within the insulating phase of an initial state endowed by a nonequilibrium population of electrons in the upper orbital and holes in the lower one. We find that the excess population may lead, above a threshold, to a gap collapse and drive the insulator into the metastable metallic phase within the coexistence region around the Mott transition. This result foresees a nonthermal pathway to revert a Mott insulator into a metal. Even though this physical scenario is uncovered in a very specific toy model, we argue it might apply to other Mott insulating materials that share similar features.

  3. Cluster dynamical mean field theory of the Mott transition.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Haule, K; Kotliar, G

    2008-10-31

    We address the nature of the Mott transition in the Hubbard model at half-filling using cluster dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). We compare cluster-DMFT results with those of single-site DMFT. We show that inclusion of the short-range correlations on top of the on-site correlations does not change the order of the transition between the paramagnetic metal and the paramagnetic Mott insulator, which remains first order. However, the short range correlations reduce substantially the critical U and modify the shape of the transition lines. Moreover, they lead to very different physical properties of the metallic and insulating phases near the transition point. Approaching the transition from the metallic side, we find an anomalous metallic state with very low coherence scale. The insulating state is characterized by the narrow Mott gap with pronounced peaks at the gap edge. PMID:18999845

  4. Superconducting fluctuations in organic molecular metals enhanced by Mott criticality

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Moon-Sun; Mézière, Cécile; Batail, Patrick; Zorina, Leokadiya; Simonov, Sergey; Ardavan, Arzhang

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional superconductivity typically occurs in materials in which a small change of a parameter such as bandwidth or doping leads to antiferromagnetic or Mott insulating phases. As such competing phases are approached, the properties of the superconductor often become increasingly exotic. For example, in organic superconductors and underdoped high-Tc cuprate superconductors a fluctuating superconducting state persists to temperatures significantly above Tc. By studying alloys of quasi-two-dimensional organic molecular metals in the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X family, we reveal how the Nernst effect, a sensitive probe of superconducting phase fluctuations, evolves in the regime of extreme Mott criticality. We find strong evidence that, as the phase diagram is traversed through superconductivity towards the Mott state, the temperature scale for superconducting fluctuations increases dramatically, eventually approaching the temperature at which quasiparticles become identifiable at all. PMID:24292063

  5. Anderson localization effects near the Mott metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragança, Helena; Aguiar, M. C. O.; Vučičević, J.; Tanasković, D.; Dobrosavljević, V.

    2015-09-01

    The interplay between Mott and Anderson routes to localization in disordered interacting systems gives rise to different transitions and transport regimes. Here, we investigate the phase diagram at finite temperatures using dynamical mean-field theory combined with typical medium theory, which is an effective theory of the Mott-Anderson metal-insulator transition. We mainly focus on the properties of the coexistence region associated with the Mott phase transition. For weak disorder, the coexistence region is found to be similar to that in the clean case. However, as we increase disorder, Anderson localization effects are responsible for shrinking the coexistence region, and at sufficiently strong disorder (approximately equal to twice the bare bandwidth) it drastically narrows, the critical temperature Tc abruptly goes to zero, and we observe a phase transition in the absence of a coexistence of the metallic and insulating phases. In this regime, the effects of interaction and disorder are found to be of comparable importance for charge localization.

  6. Site-resolved imaging of a fermionic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Christie; Greif, Daniel; Parsons, Maxwell F.; Mazurenko, Anton; Blatt, Sebastian; Huber, Florian; Ji, Geoffrey; Greiner, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Quantum gas microscopy of ultracold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice opens new perspectives for addressing long-standing open questions on strongly correlated low-temperature phases in the Hubbard model. Here we report on site-resolved imaging of two-component fermionic Mott insulators, metals, and band insulators with Lithium-6. For strong repulsive interactions we observe Mott insulators with more than 400 atoms and for intermediate interactions we observe a coexistence of phases. From comparison to theory, we find trap-averaged entropies per particle of 1 . 0kB in the Mott insulator and local entropies in the band insulator as low as 0 . 5kB . Our measurements serve as a benchmark for the performance of our experiment and are a starting point for accessing the low-temperature regime of magnetic ordering. Current address: Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany.

  7. Charge dynamics in doped Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xixiao; Lan, Yu; Qin, Ling; Feng, Shiping

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of the fermion-spin theory, the charge transport in the doped Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice is studied by taking into account the pseudogap effect. It is shown that the conductivity spectrum in the low-doped regime is separated by the pseudogap into a low-energy non-Drude peak followed by a broad mid-infrared band. However, the decrease of the pseudogap with the increase of doping leads to a shift of the position of the mid-infrared band towards the low-energy non-Drude peak, and then the low-energy Drude behavior recovers in the high-doped regime. The combined results of both the doped honeycomb-lattice and square-lattice Mott insulators indicate that the two-component conductivity induced by the pseudogap is a universal feature in the doped Mott insulators.

  8. Electronic Griffiths Phases and Quantum Criticality at Disordered Mott Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir

    2012-02-01

    The effects of disorder are investigated in strongly correlated electronic systems near the Mott metal-insulator transition. Correlation effects are foundootnotetextE. C. Andrade, E. Miranda, and V. Dobrosavljevic, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 206403 (2009). to lead to strong disorder screening, a mechanism restricted to low-lying electronic states, very similar to what is observed in underdoped cuprates. These results suggest, however, that this effect is not specific to disordered d-wave superconductors, but is a generic feature of all disordered Mott systems. In addition, the resulting spatial inhomogeneity rapidly increasesootnotetextE. C. Andrade, E. Miranda, and V. Dobrosavljevic, Phys. Rev. Lett., 104 (23), 236401 (2010). as the Mott insulator is approached at fixed disorder strength. This behavior, which can be described as an Electronic Griffiths Phase, displays all the features expected for disorder-dominated Infinite-Randomness Fixed Point scenario of quantum criticality.

  9. Fragmentation of Expanding Cylinders and the Statistical Theory of N. F. Mott

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis

    2002-07-01

    The seminal investigation of the explosive fragmentation of steel cylindrical shells by N. F. Mott in the early 1940's led to an elegant statistics-based theory of dynamic fragmentation (Mott, 1947). Experiments in which rapidly expanded metal rings undergo dynamic fragmentation provide ideal data for testing the fragment size and statistical distribution predictions of Mott's theory. In this work the theoretical development of Mott is examined and compared with expanding metal ring experimental data.

  10. Appearance of universal metallic dispersion in a doped Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahrakorpi, S.; Markiewicz, R. S.; Lin, Hsin; Lindroos, M.; Zhou, X. J.; Yoshida, T.; Yang, W. L.; Kakeshita, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Komiya, Seiki; Ando, Yoichi; Zhou, F.; Zhao, Z. X.; Sasagawa, T.; Fujimori, A.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.-X.; Bansil, A.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the dispersion renormalization Zdisp in La2-xSrxCuO4 over the wide doping range of x=0.03-0.30 , for binding energies extending to several hundred meV’s. Strong correlation effects conspire in such a way that the system exhibits a local-density-approximation-like dispersion which essentially “undresses” (Zdisp→1) as the Mott insulator is approached. Our finding that the Mott insulator contains “nascent” or “preformed” metallic states with a vanishing spectral weight offers a challenge to existing theoretical scenarios for cuprates.

  11. Kinetic magnetism at the interface between Mott and band insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaconis, Jason; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Sheng, D. N.; Balents, Leon

    2016-04-01

    We show that the interplay of a high-density two-dimensional electron gas and localized electrons in a neighboring Mott insulator leads to kinetic magnetism unique to the Mott and band insulator interface. Our study is based upon a bilayer Hubbard model at U =∞ with a potential difference between the two layers. We combine analytic results with DMRG simulations to show that magnetism, and especially ferromagnetism, is greatly enhanced relative to the proximity of the two subsystems. The results are potentially relevant to recent experiments, suggesting magnetism in R TiO3 /SrTiO3 heterostructures.

  12. Quantum Capillary Waves at the Superfluid—Mott-Insulator Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Spivak, Boris; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2011-10-01

    We discuss quantum fluctuations of the interface between a superfluid and a Mott-insulating state of ultracold atoms in a trap. The fluctuations of the boundary are due to a new type of surface modes, whose spectrum is similar—but not identical—to classical capillary waves. The corresponding quantum capillary length sets the scale for the penetration of the superfluid into the Mott-insulating regime by the proximity effect and may be on the order of several lattice spacings. It determines the typical magnitude of the interface width due to quantum fluctuations, which may be inferred from single-site imaging of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.

  13. A New Class of Jeff = 1 / 2 Mott Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    We predict a novel class of Jeff=1/2 Mott insulators in a family of Ir and Rh fluoride compounds with the K2GeF6 crystal structure that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron Density Functional Theory + Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DFT+DMFT) indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, SU(2) symmetric Jeff=1/2 limit.

  14. Assessing the orbital selective Mott transition with variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocchio, Luca F.; Arrigoni, Federico; Sorella, Sandro; Becca, Federico

    2016-03-01

    We study the Mott metal-insulator transition in the two-band Hubbard model with different hopping amplitudes t 1 and t 2 for the two orbitals on the two-dimensional square lattice by using non-magnetic variational wave functions, similarly to what has been considered in the limit of infinite dimensions by dynamical mean-field theory. We work out the phase diagram at half filling (i.e. two electrons per site) as a function of R={{t}2}/{{t}1} and the on-site Coulomb repulsion U, for two values of the Hund’s coupling J  =  0 and J/U  =  0.1. Our results are in good agreement with previous dynamical mean-field theory calculations, demonstrating that the non-magnetic phase diagram is only slightly modified from infinite to two spatial dimensions. Three phases are present: a metallic one, for small values of U, where both orbitals are itinerant; a Mott insulator, for large values of U, where both orbitals are localized because of the Coulomb repulsion; and the so-called orbital-selective Mott insulator (OSMI), for small values of R and intermediate Us, where one orbital is localized while the other one is still itinerant. The effect of the Hund’s coupling is two-fold: on one side, it favors the full Mott phase over the OSMI; on the other side, it stabilizes the OSMI at larger values of R.

  15. Influence of Local Moment Fluctuations on the Mott Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janani, C.; Florens, S.; Gupta, T.; Narayanan, R.

    The Mott metal to insulator transition is a remarkable phenomenon observed in strongly correlated materials, where the localization of electronic waves is driven by on-site electron-electron repulsion (see [7] for a review). Although the appearance of a Mott gap is clearly a charge-related effect, magnetism is expected to play a key role in elucidating the true nature of this phase transition. Indeed, since the Mott insulating state is purely paramagnetic, local moments are well-defined objects between their formation at high temperature (about the local Coulomb interaction ) and their ultimate ordering at the Neel temperature. This offers a window for the Mott transition to occur, in which the behavior of these local spin excitations is yet to be clearly understood. The simplest situation lies in case where the low-temperature magnetic ordering is first order, as in Cr-doped {textrm V}_2{textrm O}_3 . Accordingly magnetic fluctuations should be expected to be weak, so that many predictions can be made from a single-site approach such as the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) [4]. In particular, the fact that a low-temperature metallic state leads upon heating to an insulating phase can be understood as a Pomeranchuk effect , where the entropy gain benefits the state with magnetic degeneracy.

  16. Pressure-Induced Confined Metal from the Mott Insulator Sr3 Ir2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Yang, Liuxiang; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Kim, Heung-Sik; Han, Myung Joon; Luo, Wei; Feng, Zhenxing; Upton, Mary; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Zeng, Zhidan; Cao, Gang; Mao, Ho-kwang; van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr3Ir2O7 provides a fascinating playground to explore insulator-metal transition driven by intertwined charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. Here, we report high-pressure electric resistance and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on single-crystal Sr3Ir2O7 up to 63-65 GPa at 300 K. The material becomes a confined metal at 59.5 GPa, showing metallicity in the a b plane but an insulating behavior along the c axis. Such an unusual phenomenon resembles the strange metal phase in cuprate superconductors. Since there is no sign of the collapse of spin-orbit or Coulomb interactions in x-ray measurements, this novel insulator-metal transition is potentially driven by a first-order structural change at nearby pressures. Our discovery points to a new approach for synthesizing functional materials.

  17. Pressure-Induced Confined Metal from the Mott Insulator Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yang; Yang, Liuxiang; Chen, Cheng-Chien; Kim, Heung-Sik; Han, Myung Joon; Luo, Wei; Feng, Zhenxing; Upton, Mary; Casa, Diego; Kim, Jungho; Gog, Thomas; Zeng, Zhidan; Cao, Gang; Mao, Ho-Kwang; van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-05-27

    The spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7} provides a fascinating playground to explore insulator-metal transition driven by intertwined charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom. Here, we report high-pressure electric resistance and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on single-crystal Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7} up to 63-65 GPa at 300 K. The material becomes a confined metal at 59.5 GPa, showing metallicity in the ab plane but an insulating behavior along the c axis. Such an unusual phenomenon resembles the strange metal phase in cuprate superconductors. Since there is no sign of the collapse of spin-orbit or Coulomb interactions in x-ray measurements, this novel insulator-metal transition is potentially driven by a first-order structural change at nearby pressures. Our discovery points to a new approach for synthesizing functional materials. PMID:27284666

  18. Chiral magnetism and spin liquid Mott insulators induced by synthetic gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramekanti, Arun; Hickey, Ciaran; Cincio, Lukasz; Papic, Zlatko; Vellat-Sadashivan, Arun; Sohal, Ramanjit

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments using Raman-assisted tunneling or lattice-shaking have realized synthetic gauge fields and optical lattice bands with nontrivial band topology. Here we examine the effect of particle interactions in such bands, focussing on two-component fermions with local Hubbard repulsion. We show that interactions can drive the integer quantum Hall insulator into Mott insulating states which possess noncoplanar chiral magnetic textures and even chiral spin liquids with many-body topological order. We establish our results using a combination of mean field theory, strong coupling expansions, numerical exact diagonalization and DMRG methods. We also discuss possible signatures of such non-coplanar orders in Bragg scattering and noise measurements.

  19. Mott Physics at the Boundaries of Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhi, Amal; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Shenoy, Vijay; Krishnamurthy, H. R.

    2011-03-01

    We address how the nature of linearly dispersing edge states of a topological insulating solid evolves with increasing electron-electron correlation engendered by a Hubbard like on-site repulsion. We report studies on strips (2D) and slabs (3D) of varying widths and thicknesses of topological insulators described by model Hamiltonians using an inhomogeneous slave rotor mean-field theory. Motivated by these studies, we construct variational wavefunctions with approriate Gutzwiller-Jastrow correlations and study them using the Monte-Carlo method. These studies reveal the width/thickness dependence of the critical on-site repulsion that obtains an edge Mott insulating state, and uncover the mechanism of the Mott transition in such systems. Work supported by DAE, SRC and DST, India.

  20. Site-resolved imaging of a fermionic Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Greif, Daniel; Parsons, Maxwell F; Mazurenko, Anton; Chiu, Christie S; Blatt, Sebastian; Huber, Florian; Ji, Geoffrey; Greiner, Markus

    2016-02-26

    The complexity of quantum many-body systems originates from the interplay of strong interactions, quantum statistics, and the large number of quantum-mechanical degrees of freedom. Probing these systems on a microscopic level with single-site resolution offers important insights. Here we report site-resolved imaging of two-component fermionic Mott insulators, metals, and band insulators, using ultracold atoms in a square lattice. For strong repulsive interactions, we observed two-dimensional Mott insulators containing over 400 atoms. For intermediate interactions, we observed a coexistence of phases. From comparison to theory, we find trap-averaged entropies per particle of 1.0 times the Boltzmann constant (k(B)). In the band insulator, we find local entropies as low as 0.5 k(B). Access to local observables will aid the understanding of fermionic many-body systems in regimes inaccessible by modern theoretical methods. PMID:26917766

  1. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F.; Raczkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping t⊥ acts as a control parameter driving the second-order critical end point Tc of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at t⊥c/t ≃0.2 . Below t⊥c, the volume of the hole and electron Fermi pockets of a compensated metal vanishes continuously at the Mott transition. Above t⊥c, the volume reduction of the pockets is cut off by a first-order transition. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a putative quantum critical point in layered organic conductors, whose location remains elusive so far.

  2. Compressibility of a fermionic mott insulator of ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Pedro M; Hart, Russell A; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Liu, Xinxing; Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Scalettar, Richard T; Trivedi, Nandini; Hulet, Randall G

    2015-02-20

    We characterize the Mott insulating regime of a repulsively interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We use in situ imaging to extract the central density of the gas and to determine its local compressibility. For intermediate to strong interactions, we observe the emergence of a plateau in the density as a function of atom number, and a reduction of the compressibility at a density of one atom per site, indicating the formation of a Mott insulator. Comparisons to state-of-the-art numerical simulations of the Hubbard model over a wide range of interactions reveal that the temperature of the gas is of the order of, or below, the tunneling energy scale. Our results hold great promise for the exploration of many-body phenomena with ultracold atoms, where the local compressibility can be a useful tool to detect signatures of different phases or phase boundaries at specific values of the filling. PMID:25763942

  3. Electronic Griffiths phase of the d = 2 Mott transition.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E C; Miranda, E; Dobrosavljević, V

    2009-05-22

    We investigate the effects of disorder within the T = 0 Brinkman-Rice scenario for the Mott metal-insulator transition in two dimensions. For sufficiently weak disorder the transition retains the Mott character, as signaled by the vanishing of the local quasiparticle weights Z_{i} and strong screening of the renormalized site energies at criticality. In contrast to the behavior in high dimensions, here the local spatial fluctuations of quasiparticle parameters are strongly enhanced in the critical regime, with a distribution function P(Z) approximately Z;{alpha-1} and alpha --> 0 at the transition. This behavior indicates a robust emergence of an electronic Griffiths phase preceding the metal-insulator transition, in a fashion surprisingly reminiscent of the "infinite randomness fixed point" scenario for disordered quantum magnets. PMID:19519046

  4. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F; Raczkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-26

    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping t_{⊥} acts as a control parameter driving the second-order critical end point T_{c} of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at t_{⊥}^{c}/t≃0.2. Below t_{⊥}^{c}, the volume of the hole and electron Fermi pockets of a compensated metal vanishes continuously at the Mott transition. Above t_{⊥}^{c}, the volume reduction of the pockets is cut off by a first-order transition. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a putative quantum critical point in layered organic conductors, whose location remains elusive so far. PMID:26967431

  5. Design of a Mott Multiferroic from a Nonmagnetic Polar Metal.

    PubMed

    Puggioni, Danilo; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Capone, Massimo; Rondinelli, James M

    2015-08-21

    We examine the electronic properties of the newly discovered "ferroelectric metal" LiOsO3 combining density-functional and dynamical mean-field theories. We show that the material is close to a Mott transition and that electronic correlations can be tuned to engineer a Mott multiferroic state in the 1/1 superlattice of LiOsO3 and LiNbO3. We use electronic structure calculations to predict that the (LiOsO3)1/(LiNbO3)1 superlattice exhibits strong coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom with a ferroelectric polarization of 41.2  μC cm(-2), Curie temperature of 927 K, and Néel temperature of 379 K. Our results support a route towards high-temperature multiferroics, i.e., driving nonmagnetic polar metals into correlated insulating magnetic states. PMID:26340204

  6. Constitutive relations associated with the Mott-Smith distribution function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Baganoff, D.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the distribution function assumed by Mott-Smith determines a unique relation between heat flux, stress, and fluid velocity given by q = (3/2)??u, i.e., it provides a constitutive relation for heat flux, and it also determines a simple expression for this ratio of third-order central moments Q = . These expressions allow the equation of transfer for c x2 to be cast in a form that yields a nonlinear constitutive relation for stress. The results obtained from the Mott-Smith ansatz are compared with the theory of Baganoff and Nathenson and results from a numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for shock-wave structure obtained by Hicks and Yen.

  7. Mottness-induced healing in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Dobrosavljević, V.; Miranda, E.

    2014-03-01

    We study impurity healing effects in models of strongly correlated superconductors. We show that in general both the range and the amplitude of the spatial variations caused by nonmagnetic impurities are significantly suppressed in the superconducting as well as in the normal states. We explicitly quantify the weights of the local and the non-local responses to inhomogeneities and show that the former are overwhelmingly dominant over the latter. We find that the local response is characterized by a well-defined healing length scale, which is restricted to only a few lattice spacings over a significant range of dopings in the vicinity of the Mott insulating state. We demonstrate that this healing effect is ultimately due to the suppression of charge fluctuations induced by Mottness. We also define and solve analytically a simplified yet accurate model of healing, within which we obtain simple expressions for quantities of direct experimental relevance, such as the healing length.

  8. Mottness-induced healing in strongly correlated superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shao; Miranda, E.; Dobrosavljevic, V.

    2015-01-01

    We study impurity healing effects in models of strongly correlated superconductors. We show that in general both the range and the amplitude of the spatial variations caused by nonmagnetic impurities are significantly suppressed in the superconducting as well as in the normal states. We explicitly quantify the weights of the local and the nonlocal responses to inhomogeneities and show that the former are overwhelmingly dominant over the latter. We find that the local response is characterized by a well-defined healing length scale, which is restricted to only a few lattice spacings over a significant range of dopings in the vicinity of the Mott insulating state. We demonstrate that this healing effect is ultimately due to the suppression of charge fluctuations induced by Mottness. We also define and solve analytically a simplified yet accurate model of healing, within which we obtain simple expressions for quantities of direct experimental relevance.

  9. Mott metal-insulator transition on compressible lattices.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Mario; Bartosch, Lorenz; Garst, Markus

    2012-10-26

    The critical properties of the finite temperature Mott end point are drastically altered by a coupling to crystal elasticity, i.e., whenever it is amenable to pressure tuning. Similar as for critical piezoelectric ferroelectrics, the Ising criticality of the electronic system is preempted by an isostructural instability, and long-range shear forces suppress microscopic fluctuations. As a result, the end point is governed by Landau criticality. Its hallmark is, thus, a breakdown of Hooke's law of elasticity with a nonlinear strain-stress relation characterized by a mean-field exponent. Based on a quantitative estimate, we predict critical elasticity to dominate the temperature range ΔT*/T(c)≃8%, close to the Mott end point of κ-(BEDT-TTF)(2)X. PMID:23215206

  10. Theoretical prediction of fragile Mott insulators on plaquette Hubbard lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Han-Qing; He, Rong-Qiang; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Employing extensive cellular dynamical mean-field theory calculations with an exact diagonalization impurity solver, we investigate the ground-state phase diagrams and nonmagnetic metal-insulator transitions of the half-filled Hubbard model on two plaquette (the 1/5 depleted and checkerboard) square lattices. We identify three different insulators in the phase diagrams: dimer insulator, antiferromagnetic insulator, and plaquette insulator. We also demonstrate that the plaquette insulator is a novel fragile Mott insulator (FMI) which features a nontrivial one-dimensional irreducible representation of the C4 v crystalline point group and cannot be adiabatically connected to any band insulator with time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we study the nonmagnetic quantum phase transitions from the metal to the FMI and find that this Mott metal-insulator transition is characterized by the splitting of the noninteracting bands due to interaction effects.

  11. Vanadium dioxide: a Peierls-Mott insulator stable against disorder.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cédric; O'Regan, David D; Hine, Nicholas D M; Payne, Mike C; Kotliar, Gabriel; Littlewood, Peter B

    2012-06-22

    Vanadium dioxide undergoes a first order metal-insulator transition at 340 K. In this Letter, we develop and carry out state-of-the-art linear scaling density-functional theory calculations refined with nonlocal dynamical mean-field theory. We identify a complex mechanism, a Peierls-assisted orbital selection Mott instability, which is responsible for the insulating M(1) phase, and which furthermore survives a moderate degree of disorder. PMID:23004627

  12. Sudden expansion of Mott insulators in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, L.; Langer, S.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schneider, U.; Schollwöck, U.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the expansion of bosons and fermions in a homogeneous lattice after a sudden removal of the trapping potential using exact numerical methods. As a main result, we show that in one dimension, both bosonic and fermionic Mott insulators expand with the same velocity, irrespective of the interaction strength, provided the expansion starts from the ground state of the trapped gas. Furthermore, their density profiles become identical during the expansion; the asymptotic density dynamics is identical to that of initially localized, noninteracting particles, and the asymptotic velocity distribution is flat. The expansion velocity for initial correlated Mott insulating states is therefore independent of the interaction strength and particle statistics. Interestingly, this nonequilibrium dynamics is sensitive to the interaction driven quantum phase transition in the Bose-Hubbard model; while being constant in the Mott phase, the expansion velocity decreases in the superfluid phase and vanishes for large systems in the noninteracting limit. These results are compared to the setup of a recent experiment [Ronzheimer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.205301 110, 205301 (2013)], where the trap opening was combined with an interaction quench from infinitely strong interactions to finite values. In the latter case, the interaction quench breaks the universal dynamics in the asymptotic regime and the expansion depends on the interaction strength. We carry out an analogous analysis for a two-component Fermi gas, with similar observations. In addition, we study the effect of breaking the integrability of hard-core bosons in different ways; while the fast ballistic expansion from the ground state of Mott insulators in one dimension remains unchanged for finite interactions, we observe strong deviations from this behavior on a two-leg ladder even in the hard-core case. This change in dynamics bares similarities with the dynamics in the dimensional

  13. A Mott insulator of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Henning

    2009-03-01

    In a solid material strong interactions between the electrons can lead to surprising properties. A prime example is the Mott insulator, where the suppression of conductivity is a result of interactions and not the consequence of a filled Bloch band. The proximity to the Mott insulating phase in fermionic systems is the origin for many intriguing phenomena in condensed matter physics, most notably high-temperature superconductivity. Compared to real materials, a fermionic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice offers a very pure realisation of the Hubbard model, giving a new approach to understand the physics of strongly correlated systems. We report on the formation of a Mott insulator of a repulsively interacting two-component Fermi gas in an optical lattice. It is signalled by three features: a drastic suppression of doubly occupied lattice sites, a strong reduction of the compressibility inferred from the response of double occupancy to atom number increase, and the appearance of a gapped mode in the excitation spectrum. In collaboration with Robert J"ordens, Niels Strohmaier, and Daniel Greif, ETH Zurich; Kenneth G"unter, ETH Zurich, ENS Paris; Leticia Tarruell and Tilman Esslinger, ETH Zurich.

  14. Charge relaxation and recombination in photo-excited Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovšek, P.; Lenarčič, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Recent femtosecond pump-probe experiments on Mott insulators reveal charge recombination, which is in picosecond range, i.e., much faster than in clean bandgap semiconductors although excitation gaps in Mott insulators are even larger. The charge response in photo-excited insulators can be generally divided in femtosecond transient relaxation of charge excitations, which are holons and doublons, and a second slower, but still very fast, holon-doublon (HD) recombination. We present a theory of the recombination rate of the excited HD pairs, based on the two-dimensional (2D) model relevant for cuprates, which shows that such fast processes can be explained even quantitatively with the multi-magnon emission. We show that the condition for the exponential decay as observed in the experiment is the existence of the exciton, i.e., the bound HD pair. Its recombination rate is exponentially dependent on the charge gap and on the magnon energy, while the ultrafast process can be traced back to strong charge-spin coupling. We comment also fast recombination times in the one-dimensional (1D) Mott insulators, as e.g., organic salts. The recombination rate in the latter cases can be explained with the stronger coupling with phonon excitations.

  15. Doping induced Mott transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordi, Giovanni; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The description of the Mott transition by single-site dynamical mean-field theory is exact in infinite dimensions but, in two dimensions, substantial deviations from those results have been found for the interaction driven transition [1]. In addition, the experimentally relevant transition for layered systems such as the high-Tc cuprates is doping driven. We thus study this transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice using cluster dynamical mean-field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo in the hybridization expansion [2]. We find that the Mott transition is strongly influenced by the inclusion of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations. Doping of the Mott insulating state occurs gradually in the different momentum sectors, as found in previous studies [3], but in addition we find a first order transition between an incoherent metal and an insulator or between two incoherent metals, depending on interaction strength. Short range spin correlations create a pseudogap in a doping range that increases with interaction. [1] H. Park et al., PRL 101, 186403 (2008) [2] K. Haule, PRB 75, 155113 (2007) [3] E. Gull et al., arXiv:0909.1795 (2009)

  16. Optical Properties of a Vibrationally Modulated Solid State Mott Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, S.; Clark, S. R.; Nicoletti, D.; Cotugno, G.; Tobey, R. I.; Dean, N.; Lupi, S.; Okamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Optical pulses at THz and mid-infrared frequencies tuned to specific vibrational resonances modulate the lattice along chosen normal mode coordinates. In this way, solids can be switched between competing electronic phases and new states are created. Here, we use vibrational modulation to make electronic interactions (Hubbard-U) in Mott-insulator time dependent. Mid-infrared optical pulses excite localized molecular vibrations in ET-F2TCNQ, a prototypical one-dimensional Mott-insulator. A broadband ultrafast probe interrogates the resulting optical spectrum between THz and visible frequencies. A red-shifted charge-transfer resonance is observed, consistent with a time-averaged reduction of the electronic correlation strength U. Secondly, a sideband manifold inside of the Mott-gap appears, resulting from a periodically modulated U. The response is compared to computations based on a quantum-modulated dynamic Hubbard model. Heuristic fitting suggests asymmetric holon-doublon coupling to the molecules and that electron double-occupancies strongly squeeze the vibrational mode. PMID:24448171

  17. Nonequilibrium electronic transport in a one-dimensional Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Gonzalez, Ivan; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Feiguin, A. E.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the nonequilibrium electronic transport properties of a one-dimensional interacting chain at half filling, coupled to noninteracting leads. The interacting chain is initially in a Mott insulator state that is driven out of equilibrium by applying a strong bias voltage between the leads. For bias voltages above a certain threshold we observe the breakdown of the Mott insulator state and the establishment of a steady-state elec- tronic current through the system. Based on extensive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group simulations, we show that this steady-state current always has the same functional dependence on voltage, independent of the microscopic details of the model and we relate the value of the threshold to the Lieb-Wu gap. We frame our results in terms of the Landau-Zener dielectric breakdown picture. Finally, we also discuss the real-time evolution of the current, and characterize the current-carrying state resulting from the breakdown of the Mott insulator by computing the double occupancy, the spin structure factor, and the entanglement entropy.

  18. Probing the Mott physics in κ-(BEDT-TTF)₂X salts via thermal expansion.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mariano; Bartosch, Lorenz

    2015-02-11

    In the field of interacting electron systems the Mott metal-to-insulator (MI) transition represents one of the pivotal issues. The role played by lattice degrees of freedom for the Mott MI transition and the Mott criticality in a variety of materials are current topics under debate. In this context, molecular conductors of the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X type constitute a class of materials for unraveling several aspects of the Mott physics. In this review, we present a synopsis of literature results with focus on recent expansivity measurements probing the Mott MI transition in this class of materials. Progress in the description of the Mott critical behavior is also addressed. PMID:25603958

  19. Phase fluctuation in overdoped cuprates? Superconducting dome due to Mott-ness of the tightly bound preformed pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Wei; Yang, Fan

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the current lore, we demonstrate that even the overdoped cuprates suffer from superconducting phase fluctuation in the strong binding limit. Specifically, the Mott-ness of the underlying doped holes dictates naturally a generic optimal doping around 15% and nearly complete loss of phase coherence around 25%, giving rise to a dome shape of superconducting transition temperature in excellent agreement with experimental observations of the cuprates. We verify this effect with a simple estimation using Gutzwiller approximation of the preformed pairs, obtained through variational Monte Carlo calculation. This realization suggests strongly the interesting possibility that the high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates might be mostly described by Bose-Einstein condensation, without crossing over to amplitude fluctuating Cooper pairs. Supported by Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  20. Are peripheral Mott cells an indication of stress or inefficient immunity?

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    Atypical plasmacytes having distinctive cytoplasmic vacuoles (Mott cells) were detected in 77/1,000 (7.7%) of commercial hens housed conventionally, in aviaries, or in enriched environments. The earliest Mott positive peripheral blood samples were at placement (18 wk) from 2 consecutive commercial flocks. Additional samples obtained at 32, 48, 56, and 77 wk were positive. Most Mott cells came from hens with high total white blood cell counts as a component of leukocytosis. However, Mott cells were found in hens with low total white blood cell counts, and low heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. Phagocytosis of bacteria by some Mott cells was a remarkable feature. Many of the Mott positive hens had polymicrobial bacteremia and a few had fungemia likely accounting for the leukocytosis. In other cases, free-swimming bacteria were located near to a Mott cell. These atypical cells were in the peripheral blood samples from other poultry; a tom at slaughter (17 wk), experimental toms (10 wk), and experimental ducklings. Examples are included.As descriptions of avian Mott cells are few, the purpose of describing these cells is their contribution to hematology, immunology, and cytology. Mott cells like other atypia are sentinels, frank cytological indicators of an unusual hemogram, and consequently infer stress. Therefore, they bear directly on welfare issues. PMID:25725075

  1. Lucretia Mott: Friend of Justice. With a Message from Rosalynn Carter. Picture-book Biography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Kem Knapp

    An illustrated biography for children features Lucretia Mott, one of the pioneers of the movement for womens' rights. Born in 1793, Lucretia Mott was raised a Quaker; her strong spiritual beliefs underlay her outspoken advocacy of equal rights for women and blacks, and against war. Lucretia became a leader among those who wished to abolish…

  2. Spectral properties near the Mott transition in the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Masanori

    2013-03-01

    Single-particle excitations near the Mott transition in the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model are investigated by using cluster perturbation theory. The Mott transition is characterized by the loss of the spectral weight from the dispersing mode that leads continuously to the spin-wave excitation of the Mott insulator. The origins of the dominant modes of the 2D Hubbard model near the Mott transition can be traced back to those of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Various anomalous spectral features observed in cuprate high-temperature superconductors, such as the pseudogap, Fermi arc, flat band, doping-induced states, hole pockets, and spinon-like and holon-like branches, as well as giant kink and waterfall in the dispersion relation, are explained in a unified manner as properties near the Mott transition in a 2D system.

  3. Spin liquid phases of large spin Mott insulating ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Todd C.; Lawler, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding exotic forms of magnetism, primarily those driven by large spin fluctuations such as the quantum spin liquid state, is a major goal of condensed matter physics. But, the relatively small number of viable candidate materials poses a difficulty. We believe this problem can be solved by Mott insulating ultracold atoms with large spin moments that interact via whole-atom exchange. The large spin fluctuations of this exchange could stabilize exotic physics similar to condensed matter systems, all in an extremely tunable environment. We have approached the problem by performing a mean field theory for spin-f bosons in an optical lattice which is exact in the large-f limit. This setting is similar to that of SU(N) magnetism proposed for alkali-earth atoms but without the SU(N) symmetry. We find that states with long-range order, such as the spin nematic phase of f = 1 Na atoms, become highly entangled spin-liquid-like states for f = 3 Cr atoms. This is evidence that the magnetic phase diagram for Mott insulating atoms at larger spins generically contains exotic forms of magnetism.

  4. Mott transition in one dimension: Benchmarking dynamical cluster approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Matthias; Hanke, Werner; Potthoff, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The variational cluster approach (VCA) is applied to the one-dimensional Hubbard model at zero temperature using clusters (chains) of up to ten sites with full diagonalization and the Lanczos method as cluster solver. Within the framework of the self-energy-functional theory (SFT), different cluster reference systems with and without bath degrees of freedom, in different topologies and with different sets of variational parameters, are considered. Static and one-particle dynamical quantities are calculated for half-filling as a function of U as well as for fixed U as a function of the chemical potential to study the interaction- and filling-dependent metal-insulator (Mott) transition. The recently developed Q -matrix technique is used to compute the SFT grand potential. For benchmarking purposes we compare the VCA results with exact results available from the Bethe ansatz, with essentially exact dynamical density-matrix renormalization-group data, with (cellular) dynamical mean-field theory and full diagonalization of isolated Hubbard chains. Several issues are discussed including convergence of the results with cluster size, the ability of cluster approaches to access the critical regime of the Mott transition, efficiency in the optimization of correlated-site vs bath-site parameters, and of multidimensional parameter optimization. We also study the role of bath sites for the description of excitation properties and as charge reservoirs for the description of filling dependencies. The VCA turns out to be a computationally cheap method which is competitive with established cluster approaches.

  5. Spectral functions of 1D Peierls and Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Johannes

    1998-03-01

    We construct the spectral function of the Luther-Emery model which describes one-dimensional Peierls and Mott insulators with a spin resp. charge gap, using symmetries and known limits and equivalences to other models. For the Peierls insulator, we find a true singularity with interaction dependent exponents on the gapped spin dispersion and a finite maximum depending on the magnitude of the spin gap, on a charge dispersion shifted by Δ_σ, as well as strong shadow bands with the same functional form as the main bands. For 1D Mott insulators, one or two singularities with universal inverse-square-root singularities are found depending on whether the charge velocity is larger or smaller than the spin velocity. The shadow band has a single singularity on the renormalized charge dispersion. These results could apply to the description of photoemission experiments in systems like K_0.3 Mo O_3, TTF-TCNQ, or Sr Cu O_2.

  6. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F.; Raczkowski, Marcin

    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping t⊥ acts as control parameter driving the second-order critical endpoint Tc of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at t⊥c / t ~= 0 . 2 . Below t⊥c the volume of hole and electron Fermi pockets of a compensated metal vanishes continuously at the Mott transition. Above t⊥c the volume reduction of the pockets is cut off by a first-order transition. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a putative quantum critical point in layered organic conductors whose location remains elusive so far. We acknowledge support by DFG research units FOR1807 and FOR1346, ERC Starting Grant No. 306897 and NSF Grant No. PHY11-25915, and computer support by the GWDG and Jülich Supercomputing Centre.

  7. Mott physics and spin fluctuations: A functional viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayral, Thomas; Parcollet, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    We present a formalism for strongly correlated systems with fermions coupled to bosonic modes. We construct the three-particle irreducible functional K by successive Legendre transformations of the free energy of the system. We derive a closed set of equations for the fermionic and bosonic self-energies for a given K . We then introduce a local approximation for K , which extends the idea of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) approaches from two- to three-particle irreducibility. This approximation entails the locality of the three-leg electron-boson vertex Λ (i ω ,i Ω ) , which is self-consistently computed using a quantum impurity model with dynamical charge and spin interactions. This local vertex is used to construct frequency- and momentum-dependent electronic self-energies and polarizations. By construction, the method interpolates between the spin-fluctuation or G W approximations at weak coupling and the atomic limit at strong coupling. We apply it to the Hubbard model on two-dimensional square and triangular lattices. We complement the results of [T. Ayral and O. Parcollet, Phys. Rev. B 92, 115109 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.115109] by (i) showing that, at half-filling, as DMFT, the method describes the Fermi-liquid metallic state and the Mott insulator, separated by a first-order interaction-driven Mott transition at low temperatures, (ii) investigating the influence of frustration, and (iii) discussing the influence of the bosonic decoupling channel.

  8. Finite temperature quantum critical transport near the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Hanna; Dobrosavljevic, Vladimir

    2010-03-01

    We use Dynamical Mean-Field Theory to study incoherent transport above the critical end-point temperature Tc of the single band Hubbard model at half-filling. By employing an eigenvalue analysis for the free energy functional, we are able to precisely identify the crossover temperature T*(U) separating the Fermi liquid and the Mott insulating regimes. Our calculations demonstrate that a broad parameter range exist around the crossover line, where the family of resistivity curves displays simple scaling behavior. This is interpreted as a manifestation of quantum criticality controlled by the T=0 Mott transition, which is ``interrupted'' by the emergence of the coexistence dome at T < Tc . We argue that in situations where the critical temperature Tc is significantly reduced, so that the coexistence region is reduced or even absent (as in two-band, particle-hole asymmetric models, where this is found even in the clean d->∞ limit [1, 2]), similar critical scaling properties should persist down to much lower temperatures, resembling quantum critical transport similar to that found in a number of experiments [2]. [1] A. Amaricci, G. Sordi, and M. J. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 146403 (2008) [2] A. Camjayi, K. Haule, V. Dobrosavljevic, and G. Kotliar, Nature Physics, 4, 932 (2008)

  9. Scattering of twisted relativistic electrons by atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbo, V.; Ivanov, I. P.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Mott scattering of high-energetic twisted electrons by atoms is investigated within the framework of the first Born approximation and Dirac's relativistic equation. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and longitudinal polarization of the scattered electrons. In order to evaluate these angular and polarization properties we consider two experimental setups in which the twisted electron beam collides with either a single well-localized atom or macroscopic atomic target. Detailed relativistic calculations have been performed for both setups and for the electrons with kinetic energy from 10 to 1000 keV. The results of these calculations indicate that the emission pattern and polarization of outgoing electrons differ significantly from the scattering of plane-wave electrons and can be very sensitive to the parameters of the incident twisted beam. In particular, it is shown that the angular- and polarization-sensitive Mott measurements may reveal valuable information about both the transverse and longitudinal components of the linear momentum and the projection of the total angular momentum of twisted electron states. Thus, the Mott scattering emerges as a diagnostic tool for the relativistic vortex beams.

  10. Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit and resistivity crossover in a tractable electron-phonon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werman, Yochai; Berg, Erez

    2016-02-01

    Many metals display resistivity saturation—a substantial decrease in the slope of the resistivity as a function of temperature that occurs when the electron scattering rate τ-1 becomes comparable to the Fermi energy EF/ℏ (the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit). At such temperatures, the usual description of a metal in terms of ballistically propagating quasiparticles is no longer valid. We present a tractable model of a large number N of electronic bands coupled to N2 optical phonon modes, which displays a crossover behavior in the resistivity at temperatures where τ-1˜EF/ℏ . At low temperatures, the resistivity obeys the familiar linear form, while at high temperatures, the resistivity still increases linearly, but with a modified slope (that can be either lower or higher than the low-temperature slope, depending on the band structure). The high-temperature non-Boltzmann regime is interpreted by considering the diffusion constant and the compressibility, both of which scale as the inverse square root of the temperature.

  11. Mott-insulator phases of spin-3/2 fermions in the presence of quadratic Zeeman coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, K.; Argueelles, A.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Vekua, T.; Santos, L.

    2010-07-30

    We study the influence of the quadratic Zeeman effect on the Mott-insulator phases of hard-core 1D spin-3/2 fermions. We show that, contrary to spinor bosons, the quadratic Zeeman coupling preserves an SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry, leading for large-enough quadratic Zeeman coupling to an isotropic pseudo-spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. Decreasing the quadratic Zeeman coupling, this phase undergoes, depending on the scattering lengths, either a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a gapped dimerized phase or a commensurate-incommensurate transition into a gapless spin liquid. This rich phase diagram can be observed experimentally in four-component fermions in optical lattices under similar entropy constraints to those needed for Neel order in spin-1/2 gases.

  12. Cluster Mott insulators and two Curie-Weiss regimes on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the quantum-spin-liquid candidate material LiZn2Mo3O8 , we study a single-band extended Hubbard model on an anisotropic kagome lattice with the 1/6 electron filling. Due to the partial filling of the lattice, the intersite repulsive interaction is necessary to generate Mott insulators, where electrons are localized in clusters rather than at lattice sites. It is shown that these cluster Mott insulators are generally U(1) quantum spin liquids with spinon Fermi surfaces. The nature of charge excitations in cluster Mott insulators can be quite different from conventional Mott insulator and we show that there exists a cluster Mott insulator where charge fluctuations around the hexagonal cluster induce a plaquette charge order (PCO). The spinon excitation spectrum in this spin-liquid cluster Mott insulator is reconstructed due to the PCO so that only 1/3 of the total spinon excitations are magnetically active. Based on these results, we propose that the two Curie-Weiss regimes of the spin susceptibility in LiZn2Mo3O8 may be explained by finite-temperature properties of the cluster Mott insulator with the PCO as well as fractionalized spinon excitations. Existing and possible future experiments on LiZn2Mo3O8 , and other Mo-based cluster magnets are discussed in light of these theoretical predictions.

  13. Elastic collapse and avalanche criticality near a Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. L.; Safarik, D. J.; Lashley, J. C.; Salje, E. K. H.; Opeil, C. P.; Riseborough, P. S.

    2011-03-01

    We study some dynamic aspects of a Mott transition in a rare-earth alloy Ce 0.90 Th 0.10 by resonant-ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), electrical-transport, and thermal-expansion measurements. In the temperature range spanning the first-order transition, we observe a stiffening of the elastic response that is associated with a continuous front propagation (e . g . solitons). A defining characteristic of a mixed phase regime, slow scanning rates (0.01 K/min) show these solitons to be superimposed with jerks and avalanches in all three data sets: RUS, resistivity, and thermal expansion data. Analysis of the avalanche data give power law distributions with critical exponents P (E) =En for energy, in the case of thermal expansion data and length, in the case of electrical transport data. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy.

  14. Slowdown of the Electronic Relaxation Close to the Mott Transition.

    PubMed

    Sayyad, Sharareh; Eckstein, Martin

    2016-08-26

    We investigate the time-dependent reformation of the quasiparticle peak in a correlated metal near the Mott transition, after the system is quenched into a hot electron state and equilibrates with an environment which is colder than the Fermi-liquid crossover temperature. Close to the transition, we identify a purely electronic bottleneck time scale, which depends on the spectral weight around the Fermi energy in the bad metallic phase in a nonlinear way. This time scale can be orders of magnitude larger than the bare and renormalized electronic hopping time, so that a separation of electronic and lattice time scales may break down. The results are obtained using nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory and a slave-rotor representation of the Anderson impurity model. PMID:27610867

  15. Wannier-Mott excitons in semiconductors with a superlattice

    SciTech Connect

    Suris, R. A.

    2015-06-15

    The effect of the motion of a Wannier-Mott exciton in semiconductors with a superlattice formed by heterojunctions on the exciton binding energy and wave function is analyzed. This effect arises as a result of the fact that the dispersion laws of the electron and hole that form an exciton in a superlattice differ from the quadratic law. The investigated one-dimensional superlattice consists of alternating semiconductor layers with different energy positions of the conduction and valence bands, i.e., with one-dimensional wells and barriers. The exciton state in a superlattice consisting of quantum dots is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the closer the electron and hole effective masses, the greater the dependence of the binding energy on the exciton quasi-momentum. The possibility of replacing the tunneling excitation transfer between superlattice cells with the dipole-dipole one at certain exciton quasi-wave vector values is investigated.

  16. A cylindrically symmetric "micro-Mott" electron polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Clayburn, N B; Brunkow, E; Burtwistle, S J; Rutherford, G H; Gay, T J

    2016-05-01

    A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff, or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device's maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 × 10(-4) at 20 keV. The figure-of-merit of the device, η, is defined as Seff (2)IIo and equals 9.0 ± 1.6 × 10(-6). Potential sources of false asymmetries due to detector electronic asymmetry and beam misalignment have been investigated. The new polarimeter's performance is compared to published results for similar compact retarding-field Mott polarimeters, and it is concluded that this device has a relatively large Seff and low efficiency. SIMION(®) electron trajectory simulations and Sherman function calculations are presented to explain the differences in performance between this device and previous designs. This design has an Seff that is insensitive to spatial beam fluctuations and, for an energy loss window >0.5 keV, negligible background due to spurious ion and X-ray production at the target. PMID:27250409

  17. A cylindrically symmetric "micro-Mott" electron polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, N. B.; Brunkow, E.; Burtwistle, S. J.; Rutherford, G. H.; Gay, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff, or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device's maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 × 10-4 at 20 keV. The figure-of-merit of the device, η, is defined as Seff2I/Io and equals 9.0 ± 1.6 × 10-6. Potential sources of false asymmetries due to detector electronic asymmetry and beam misalignment have been investigated. The new polarimeter's performance is compared to published results for similar compact retarding-field Mott polarimeters, and it is concluded that this device has a relatively large Seff and low efficiency. SIMION® electron trajectory simulations and Sherman function calculations are presented to explain the differences in performance between this device and previous designs. This design has an Seff that is insensitive to spatial beam fluctuations and, for an energy loss window >0.5 keV, negligible background due to spurious ion and X-ray production at the target.

  18. First-order superfluid to Mott-insulator phase transitions in spinor condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zihe; Jiang, Jie; Zhao, Lichao; Wang, Shengtao; Tang, Tao; Duan, Luming; Liu, Yingmei

    2016-05-01

    We observe evidence of first-order superfluid to Mott-insulator quantum phase transitions in a lattice-confined antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. The observed signatures include hysteresis effect, significant heatings across the phase transitions, and evolutions of spin populations due to the formation of spin singlets in the Mott-insulator phase. The nature of the phase transitions is found to strongly depend on the ratio of the quadratic Zeeman energy to the spin-dependent interaction. Our observations are qualitatively understood by the mean field theory, and in addition suggest tuning the quadratic Zeeman energy is a new approach to realize superfluid to Mott-insulator phase transitions.

  19. First-order superfluid-to-Mott-insulator phase transitions in spinor condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Zhao, L.; Wang, S.-T.; Chen, Z.; Tang, T.; Duan, L.-M.; Liu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    We observe evidence of first-order superfluid-to-Mott-insulator quantum phase transitions in a lattice-confined antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. The observed signatures include the hysteresis effect, significant heatings across the phase transitions, and changes in spin populations due to the formation of spin singlets in the Mott-insulator phase. The nature of the phase transitions is found to strongly depend on the ratio of the quadratic Zeeman energy to the spin-dependent interaction. Our observations are qualitatively understood by the mean field theory and suggest tuning the quadratic Zeeman energy is a new approach to realize superfluid-to-Mott-insulator phase transitions.

  20. Parity-time symmetry-breaking mechanism of dynamic Mott transitions in dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Vikram; Galda, Alexey; Barman, Himadri; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the critical behavior of the electric field-driven (dynamic) Mott insulator-to-metal transitions in dissipative Fermi and Bose systems in terms of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians invariant under simultaneous parity (P ) and time-reversal (T ) operations. The dynamic Mott transition is identified as a PT symmetry-breaking phase transition, with the Mott insulating state corresponding to the regime of unbroken PT symmetry with a real energy spectrum. We establish that the imaginary part of the Hamiltonian arises from the combined effects of the driving field and inherent dissipation. We derive the renormalization and collapse of the Mott gap at the dielectric breakdown and describe the resulting critical behavior of transport characteristics. The obtained critical exponent is in an excellent agreement with experimental findings.

  1. Colossal Magnetoresistance in a Mott Insulator via Magnetic Field-Driven Insulator-Metal Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Peng, J.; Zou, T.; Prokes, K.; Mahanti, S. D.; Hong, T.; Mao, Z. Q.; Liu, G. Q.; Ke, X.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new type of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) arising from an anomalous collapse of the Mott insulating state via a modest magnetic field in a bilayer ruthenate, Ti-doped Ca3Ru2O7 . Such an insulator-metal transition is accompanied by changes in both lattice and magnetic structures. Our findings have important implications because a magnetic field usually stabilizes the insulating ground state in a Mott-Hubbard system, thus calling for a deeper theoretical study to reexamine the magnetic field tuning of Mott systems with magnetic and electronic instabilities and spin-lattice-charge coupling. This study further provides a model approach to search for CMR systems other than manganites, such as Mott insulators in the vicinity of the boundary between competing phases.

  2. Colossal Magnetoresistance in a Mott Insulator via Magnetic Field-Driven Insulator-Metal Transition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Peng, J; Zou, T; Prokes, K; Mahanti, S D; Hong, T; Mao, Z Q; Liu, G Q; Ke, X

    2016-05-27

    We present a new type of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) arising from an anomalous collapse of the Mott insulating state via a modest magnetic field in a bilayer ruthenate, Ti-doped Ca_{3}Ru_{2}O_{7}. Such an insulator-metal transition is accompanied by changes in both lattice and magnetic structures. Our findings have important implications because a magnetic field usually stabilizes the insulating ground state in a Mott-Hubbard system, thus calling for a deeper theoretical study to reexamine the magnetic field tuning of Mott systems with magnetic and electronic instabilities and spin-lattice-charge coupling. This study further provides a model approach to search for CMR systems other than manganites, such as Mott insulators in the vicinity of the boundary between competing phases. PMID:27284665

  3. Noise Correlation Spectroscopy of the Broken Order of a Mott Insulating Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Guarrera, V.; Fabbri, N.; Fallani, L.; Fort, C.; Stam, K. M. R. van der; Inguscio, M.

    2008-06-27

    We use a two-color lattice to break the homogeneous site occupation of an atomic Mott insulator of bosonic {sup 87}Rb. We detect the disruption of the ordered Mott domains via noise correlation analysis of the atomic density distribution after time of flight. The appearance of additional correlation peaks evidences the redistribution of the atoms into a strongly inhomogeneous insulating state, in quantitative agreement with the predictions.

  4. Pressure-induced Mott transition in an organic superconductor with a finite doping level.

    PubMed

    Oike, H; Miyagawa, K; Taniguchi, H; Kanoda, K

    2015-02-13

    We report the pressure study of a doped organic superconductor with a Hall coefficient and conductivity measurements. We find that maximally enhanced superconductivity and a marginal-Fermi liquid appear around a certain pressure where mobile carriers increase critically, suggesting a possible quantum phase transition between strongly and weakly correlated regimes. This observation points to the presence of a criticality in Mottness for a doped Mott insulator with tunable correlation. PMID:25723239

  5. Unusual Mott transition in multiferroic PbCrO 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shanmin; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Wendan; Bai, Ligang; Qian, Jiang; Yin, Liang; Sullivan, Neil S.; Jin, Changqing; He, Duanwei; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-11-24

    The Mott insulator in correlated electron systems arises from classical Coulomb repulsion between carriers to provide a powerful force for electron localization. When turning such an insulator into a metal, the so-called Mott transition, is commonly achieved by "bandwidth" control or "band filling." However, both mechanisms deviate from the original concept of Mott, which attributes such a transition to the screening of Coulomb potential and associated lattice contraction. We report a pressure-induced isostructural Mott transition in cubic perovskite PbCrO3. At the transition pressure of similar to 3 GPa, PbCrO3 exhibits significant collapse in both lattice volume and Coulomb potential. Concurrent with the collapse, it transforms from a hybrid multiferroic insulator to a metal. For the first time to our knowledge, these findings validate the scenario conceived by Mott. Close to the Mott criticality at similar to 300 K, fluctuations of the lattice and charge give rise to elastic anomalies and Laudau critical behaviors resembling the classic liquid-gas transition. Moreover, the anomalously large lattice volume and Coulomb potential in the low-pressure insulating phase are largely associated with the ferroelectric distortion, which is substantially suppressed at high pressures, leading to the first-order phase transition without symmetry breaking.

  6. Quantum gases in optical lattices : the atomic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oosten, D.

    2004-09-01

    An optical lattice is a periodic potential for atoms, created using a standing wave pattern of light. Due to the interaction between the light and the atoms, the atoms are attracted to either the nodes or the anti-nodes of the standing wave, depending on the exact wave lenght of the light. This means that if such a lattice is loaded with a sufficiently high number of ultracold atoms, a periodic array of atoms is obtained, we an interatomic distance of a few tenths of a micrometer. In order to obtain such a high number of cold atoms, one first has to create a so-called Bose-Einstein condensate. When an optical lattice is loaded from a Bose-Einstein condensate, it is possible to create a system in which every atom is in the lowest band of the lattice and there is on average one atom in each lattice site. Because the lattice potential is created with laser light, the depth of the lattice can easily be tuned by changing the intensity of the laser. When the intensity of the laser light is low, the atoms can tunnel from one site to the next. Due to this tunneling, the gas of atoms in the lattice will remain superfluid. However, if the intensity of the laser light is increased to above a certain critical value, a quantum phase transition occurs to a so-called Mott insulator. In this state, the atoms can no longer tunnel due to the fact that the on-site interaction between atoms becomes more important then the tunneling probability. In this PhD thesis, a description is given of the experimental setup that is being constructed in our group to create these systems in our lab. Also, a theoretical description is given of these systems and several important quantities our derived, such as the gap of the Mott-insulating state. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed that can be used to accurately measure this gap.

  7. Designing Quantum Spin-Orbital Liquids in Artificial Mott Insulators

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xu; Kotov, Valeri N.; Uchoa, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Quantum spin-orbital liquids are elusive strongly correlated states of matter that emerge from quantum frustration between spin and orbital degrees of freedom. A promising route towards the observation of those states is the creation of artificial Mott insulators where antiferromagnetic correlations between spins and orbitals can be designed. We show that Coulomb impurity lattices on the surface of gapped honeycomb substrates, such as graphene on SiC, can be used to simulate SU(4) symmetric spin-orbital lattice models. We exploit the property that massive Dirac fermions form mid-gap bound states with spin and valley degeneracies in the vicinity of a Coulomb impurity. Due to electronic repulsion, the antiferromagnetic correlations of the impurity lattice are driven by a super-exchange interaction with SU(4) symmetry, which emerges from the bound states degeneracy at quarter filling. We propose that quantum spin-orbital liquids can be engineered in artificially designed solid-state systems at vastly higher temperatures than achievable in optical lattices with cold atoms. We discuss the experimental setup and possible scenarios for candidate quantum spin-liquids in Coulomb impurity lattices of various geometries. PMID:27553516

  8. Anderson localization and Mott insulator phase in the time domain

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Particles in space periodic potentials constitute standard models for investigation of crystalline phenomena in solid state physics. Time periodicity of periodically driven systems is a close analogue of space periodicity of solid state crystals. There is an intriguing question if solid state phenomena can be observed in the time domain. Here we show that wave-packets localized on resonant classical trajectories of periodically driven systems are ideal elements to realize Anderson localization or Mott insulator phase in the time domain. Uniform superpositions of the wave-packets form stationary states of a periodically driven particle. However, an additional perturbation that fluctuates in time results in disorder in time and Anderson localization effects emerge. Switching to many-particle systems we observe that depending on how strong particle interactions are, stationary states can be Bose-Einstein condensates or single Fock states where definite numbers of particles occupy the periodically evolving wave-packets. Our study shows that non-trivial crystal-like phenomena can be observed in the time domain. PMID:26074169

  9. Designing Quantum Spin-Orbital Liquids in Artificial Mott Insulators.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xu; Kotov, Valeri N; Uchoa, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Quantum spin-orbital liquids are elusive strongly correlated states of matter that emerge from quantum frustration between spin and orbital degrees of freedom. A promising route towards the observation of those states is the creation of artificial Mott insulators where antiferromagnetic correlations between spins and orbitals can be designed. We show that Coulomb impurity lattices on the surface of gapped honeycomb substrates, such as graphene on SiC, can be used to simulate SU(4) symmetric spin-orbital lattice models. We exploit the property that massive Dirac fermions form mid-gap bound states with spin and valley degeneracies in the vicinity of a Coulomb impurity. Due to electronic repulsion, the antiferromagnetic correlations of the impurity lattice are driven by a super-exchange interaction with SU(4) symmetry, which emerges from the bound states degeneracy at quarter filling. We propose that quantum spin-orbital liquids can be engineered in artificially designed solid-state systems at vastly higher temperatures than achievable in optical lattices with cold atoms. We discuss the experimental setup and possible scenarios for candidate quantum spin-liquids in Coulomb impurity lattices of various geometries. PMID:27553516

  10. Importance of subleading corrections for the Mott critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.; Semon, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    The interaction-induced metal-insulator transition should be in the Ising universality class. Experiments on layered organic superconductors suggest instead that the observed critical endpoint of the first-order Mott transition in d = 2 does not belong to any of the known universality classes for thermal phase transitions. In particular, it is found that δ = 2 . Given the quantum nature of the two phases involved in the transition, we use dynamical mean-field theory and a cluster generalization to investigate whether the new exponents could arise as transient quantum behavior preceding the asymptotic critical behavior. In the cluster calculation, a canonical transformation that minimizes the sign problem in continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations allows previously unattainable precision. Our results show that there are important subleading corrections in the mean-field regime that can lead to an apparent exponent δ = 2 . Experiments on optical lattices could verify our predictions for double occupancy. P. Sémon and A.-M.S. Tremblay, Phys. Rev. B 85, 201101(R)/1-5 (2012). Supported by NSERC, Canada Research Chair, CIFAR, CFI, MELS, Calcul Quebec, Compute/Calcul Canada

  11. Nature of strong hole pairing in doped Mott antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Sheng, D N; Weng, Zheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Cooper pairing instability in a Fermi liquid is well understood by the BCS theory, but pairing mechanism for doped Mott insulators still remains elusive. Previously it has been shown by density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method that a single doped hole is always self-localized due to the quantum destructive interference of the phase string signs hidden in the t-J ladders. Here we report a DMRG investigation of hole binding in the same model, where a novel pairing-glue scheme beyond the BCS realm is discovered. Specifically, we show that, in addition to spin pairing due to superexchange interaction, the strong frustration of the phase string signs on the kinetic energy gets effectively removed by pairing the charges, which results in strong binding of two holes. By contrast, if the phase string signs are "switched off" artificially, the pairing strength diminishes significantly even if the superexchange coupling remains the same. In the latter, unpaired holes behave like coherent quasiparticles with pairing drastically weakened, whose sole origin may be attributed to the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) pairing of spins. Such non-BCS pairing mechanism is therefore beyond the RVB picture and may shed important light on the high-T(c) cuprate superconductors. PMID:24957467

  12. Infinite bandwidth of a Mott-Hubbard insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freericks, James; Cohn, Jeffrey; van Dongen, Peter; Krishnamurthy, Hulikal

    The conventional viewpoint of the strongly correlated electron metal-insulator transition is that a single band splits into two upper and lower Hubbard bands at the metal-insulator transition. Much work has investigated whether this transition is continuous or discontinuous. Here we focus on another aspect and ask the question of whether there are additional upper and lower Hubbard bands, which stretch all the way out to infinity|leading to an infinite bandwidth for the Mott insulator. While we are not yet able to provide a rigorous proof of this result, we use exact diagonalization studies on small clusters to motivate the existence of these additional bands, and we discuss some different methods that might be utilized to provide a rigorous proof of this result. Even though the extra upper and lower Hubbard bands have very low total spectral weight, those states are expected to have extremely long lifetimes, leading to a nontrivial contribution to the transport density of states for dc transport and modifying the high temperature limit for the electrical resistivity. JKF supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46542, and by the McDevitt bequest at Georgetown University. HRK supported by the Indian Science Foundation.

  13. Möbius molecules and fragile Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muechler, Lukas; Maciejko, Joseph; Neupert, Titus; Car, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the concept of Möbius aromatics in organic chemistry, we extend the recently introduced concept of fragile Mott insulators (FMI) to ring-shaped molecules with repulsive Hubbard interactions threaded by a half-quantum of magnetic flux (h c /2 e ) . In this context, an FMI is the insulating ground state of a finite-size molecule that cannot be adiabatically connected to a single Slater determinant, i.e., to a band insulator, provided that time-reversal and lattice translation symmetries are preserved. Based on exact numerical diagonalization for finite Hubbard interaction strength U and existing Bethe-ansatz studies of the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the large-U limit, we establish a duality between Hubbard molecules with 4 n and 4 n +2 sites, with n integer. A molecule with 4 n sites is an FMI in the absence of flux but becomes a band insulator in the presence of a half-quantum of flux, while a molecule with 4 n +2 sites is a band insulator in the absence of flux but becomes an FMI in the presence of a half-quantum of flux. Including next-nearest-neighbor hoppings gives rise to new FMI states that belong to multidimensional irreducible representations of the molecular point group, giving rise to a rich phase diagram.

  14. Möbius molecules and fragile Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muechler, Lukas; Maciejko, Joseph; Neupert, Titus; Car, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the concept of Möbius aromatics in organic chemistry, we extend the recently introduced concept of fragile Mott insulators (FMI) to ring-shaped molecules with repulsive Hubbard interactions threaded by a half-quantum of magnetic flux (hc / 2 e). In this context, a FMI is the insulating ground state of a finite-size molecule that cannot be adiabatically connected to a single Slater determinant, i.e., to a band insulator, provided that time-reversal and lattice translation symmetries are preserved. Based on exact numerical diagonalization for finite Hubbard interaction strength U and existing Bethe-ansatz studies of the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the large- U limit, we establish a duality between Hubbard molecules with 4 n and 4 n + 2 sites, with n integer. A molecule with 4 n sites is an FMI in the absence of flux but becomes a band insulator in the presence of a half-quantum of flux, while a molecule with 4 n + 2 sites is a band insulator in the absence of flux but becomes an FMI in the presence of a half-quantum of flux. Including next-nearest-neighbor-hoppings gives rise to new FMI states that belong to multidimensional irreducible representations of the molecular point group, giving rise to a rich phase diagram. Reference: arXiv:1409.6732

  15. Anderson localization and Mott insulator phase in the time domain.

    PubMed

    Sacha, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Particles in space periodic potentials constitute standard models for investigation of crystalline phenomena in solid state physics. Time periodicity of periodically driven systems is a close analogue of space periodicity of solid state crystals. There is an intriguing question if solid state phenomena can be observed in the time domain. Here we show that wave-packets localized on resonant classical trajectories of periodically driven systems are ideal elements to realize Anderson localization or Mott insulator phase in the time domain. Uniform superpositions of the wave-packets form stationary states of a periodically driven particle. However, an additional perturbation that fluctuates in time results in disorder in time and Anderson localization effects emerge. Switching to many-particle systems we observe that depending on how strong particle interactions are, stationary states can be Bose-Einstein condensates or single Fock states where definite numbers of particles occupy the periodically evolving wave-packets. Our study shows that non-trivial crystal-like phenomena can be observed in the time domain. PMID:26074169

  16. Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic wave functions and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M

    2011-10-21

    We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532

  17. A new class of in-plane Ferroelectric Mott insulators via oxide hetorostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris

    2015-03-01

    We propose simple design rules based on charge transfer, cation ordering, and size mismatch to design a new class of in-plane ferroelectric Mott insulators in perovskite-based transition metal oxides. Ab Initio DFT+U calculations are then used to selectively scan phase space based on these rules. We begin by exploring pairs of A-type ions (A, A') and pairs of B-type ions (B, B') in AA' BB'O6 which will have nominal charge transfer consistent with valencies that are conducive to a low Mott gap insulator. Additionally, the A-type ions are chosen to have a large size mismatch and stereochemical effect. The ordering of A/A' and B/B' still retains C4v symmetry which may be spontaneously broken to yield an in-plane ferroelectric. We uncover a number of materials which are strong candidates to be in-plane ferroelectric Mott insulators in experiment, including BaBiVCuO6, BaBiVNiO6, PbLaVCuO6. Finally, we will discuss potential applications of in-plane ferroelectric Mott insulators such as ferroelectric photovoltaics, Mott FET, and optoelectronic devices. Semiconductor Research Corporation (FAME).

  18. Characterizing Featureless Mott Insulating State by Quasiparticle Interferences - A DMFT Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shantanu; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    In this talk we discuss the quasiparticle interferences (QPIs) of a Mott insulator using a T-matrix formalism implemented with the dynamical mean-field theory (T-DMFT). In the Mott insulating state, the DMFT predicts a singularity in the real part of electron self energy s (w) at low frequencies, which completely washes out the QPI at small bias voltage. However, the QPI patterns produced by the non-interacting Fermi surfaces can appear at a critical bias voltage in Mott insulating state. The existence of this non-zero critical bias voltage is a direct consequence of the singular behavior of Re[s (w)] /sim n/w with n behaving as the 'order parameter' of Mott insulating state. We propose that this reentry of non-interacting QPI patterns could serve as an experimental signature of Mott insulating state, and the 'order parameter' can be experimentally measured W.C.L acknowledges financial support from start up fund from Binghamton University.

  19. Quantum critical Mott transitions in a bilayer Kondo insulator-metal model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sudeshna; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.

    2016-04-01

    A bilayer system comprising a Kondo insulator coupled to a simple metal (KI-M) is considered. Employing the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, the model system is shown to exhibit a surface of quantum critical points (QCPs) that separates a Kondo screened, Fermi liquid phase from a local moment, Mott insulating phase. The quantum critical nature of these Mott transitions is characterized by the vanishing of (a) the coherence scale on the Fermi liquid side, and (b) the Mott gap on the MI side. In contrast to the usual "large-to-small" Fermi surface (FS) QCPs in heavy-fermion systems, the bilayer KI-M system exhibits a complete FS destruction.

  20. Electron-hole doping asymmetry of Fermi surface reconstructed in a simple Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasugi, Yoshitaka; Seki, Kazuhiro; Edagawa, Yusuke; Sato, Yoshiaki; Pu, Jiang; Takenobu, Taishi; Yunoki, Seiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi M.; Kato, Reizo

    2016-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the effect of doping into a Mott insulator is complicated and unpredictable, as can be seen by examining the Hall coefficient in high Tc cuprates. The doping effect, including the electron-hole doping asymmetry, may be more straightforward in doped organic Mott insulators owing to their simple electronic structures. Here we investigate the doping asymmetry of an organic Mott insulator by carrying out electric-double-layer transistor measurements and using cluster perturbation theory. The calculations predict that strongly anisotropic suppression of the spectral weight results in the Fermi arc state under hole doping, while a relatively uniform spectral weight results in the emergence of a non-interacting-like Fermi surface (FS) in the electron-doped state. In accordance with the calculations, the experimentally observed Hall coefficients and resistivity anisotropy correspond to the pocket formed by the Fermi arcs under hole doping and to the non-interacting FS under electron doping.

  1. Tunnelling into the twisted Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 with atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansary, Armin; Nichols, John; Bray-Ali, Noah; Cao, Gang; Ng, Kwok-Wai

    2014-03-01

    We studied the single-layered iridate Sr2IrO4 with a scanning tunneling microscope. The finite low temperature conductance enables the electronic structure of this antiferromagnetic Mott insulator to be measured by tunneling spectroscopy. We imaged the topography of freshly cleaved surfaces and measured differential tunneling conductance at cryogenic temperatures. We found the Mott gap in the tunneling density of states to be 2 Δ = 615 meV. Within the Mott gap, additional shoulders are observed which are interpreted as inelastic loss features due to magnons. This research was supported by NSF grants DMR- 0800367, DMR-0856234 and EPS-0814194. Noah Bray- Ali acknowledges support from the National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associateship Program.

  2. On the gap problem for the Mott--Hubbard transition within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Reinhard M.; Gebhard, Florian

    1998-03-01

    Within the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory, the zero temperature Mott-Hubbard metal-to-insulator transition has been proposed to be discontinuous in the sense that the gap jumps to a finite value at the transition.(A. Georges, G. Kotliar, W. Krauth, and M. J. Rozenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68), 13 (1996). We use the Random Dispersion Approximation to the Hubbard model,(F. Gebhard, The Mott Metal-Insulator Transition), Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 137 (Springer, Berlin, 1997). which becomes equivalent to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory in the thermodynamic limit, to show that the charge gap opens continuously at the critical interaction strength which is of the size of the bandwidth. Therefore, our results support the idea^2 that the Dynamical Mean Field Theory provides a generic description of the Mott--Hubbard transition as a continuous quantum phase transition.

  3. Electron-hole doping asymmetry of Fermi surface reconstructed in a simple Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Kawasugi, Yoshitaka; Seki, Kazuhiro; Edagawa, Yusuke; Sato, Yoshiaki; Pu, Jiang; Takenobu, Taishi; Yunoki, Seiji; Yamamoto, Hiroshi M; Kato, Reizo

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the effect of doping into a Mott insulator is complicated and unpredictable, as can be seen by examining the Hall coefficient in high Tc cuprates. The doping effect, including the electron-hole doping asymmetry, may be more straightforward in doped organic Mott insulators owing to their simple electronic structures. Here we investigate the doping asymmetry of an organic Mott insulator by carrying out electric-double-layer transistor measurements and using cluster perturbation theory. The calculations predict that strongly anisotropic suppression of the spectral weight results in the Fermi arc state under hole doping, while a relatively uniform spectral weight results in the emergence of a non-interacting-like Fermi surface (FS) in the electron-doped state. In accordance with the calculations, the experimentally observed Hall coefficients and resistivity anisotropy correspond to the pocket formed by the Fermi arcs under hole doping and to the non-interacting FS under electron doping. PMID:27492864

  4. 'An atmosphere of cure': Frederick Mott, shell shock and the Maudsley.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-12-01

    Although recognized as a medical scientist, the work of Frederick Mott as a physician, educator and clinical policymaker has been overshadowed. As a late entrant to the asylum system, Mott questioned established practices of treating mentally-ill patients and campaigned for reform. During World War I, entrusted with the management of the Maudsley neurological section, he sought to raise clinical standards and experimented with a range of therapies designed to treat the most severe or intractable forms of shell shock. While Mott believed that psychiatric disorder was underwritten by inherited characteristics, he did not dismiss the impact of the environment. The diversity of his interests has led to an understatement of his contribution as a physician, not only to the design and founding of the Maudsley Hospital but also to the therapeutic regime practised there during the interwar period. PMID:25395439

  5. Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dean, M. P. M.; Cao, Y.; Liu, X.; Wall, S.; Zhu, D.; Mankowsky, R.; Thampy, V.; Chen, X. M.; Vale, J. G.; Casa, D.; et al

    2016-05-09

    Measuring how the magnetic correlations evolve in doped Mott insulators has greatly improved our understanding of the pseudogap, non-Fermi liquids and high-temperature superconductivity1, 2, 3, 4. Recently, photo-excitation has been used to induce similarly exotic states transiently5, 6, 7. However, the lack of available probes of magnetic correlations in the time domain hinders our understanding of these photo-induced states and how they could be controlled. Here, we implement magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser to directly determine the magnetic dynamics after photo-doping the Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. We find that the non-equilibrium state, 2 ps after the excitation,more » exhibits strongly suppressed long-range magnetic order, but hosts photo-carriers that induce strong, non-thermal magnetic correlations. These two-dimensional (2D) in-plane Néel correlations recover within a few picoseconds, whereas the three-dimensional (3D) long-range magnetic order restores on a fluence-dependent timescale of a few hundred picoseconds. In conclusion, the marked difference in these two timescales implies that the dimensionality of magnetic correlations is vital for our understanding of ultrafast magnetic dynamics.« less

  6. Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, M. P. M.; Cao, Y.; Liu, X.; Wall, S.; Zhu, D.; Mankowsky, R.; Thampy, V.; Chen, X. M.; Vale, J. G.; Casa, D.; Kim, Jungho; Said, A. H.; Juhas, P.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Glownia, J. M.; Robert, A.; Robinson, J.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Kozina, M.; Lemke, H.; Patthey, L.; Owada, S.; Katayama, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Togashi, T.; Liu, J.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Kim, B. J.; Huber, L.; Chang, C.-L.; McMorrow, D. F.; Först, M.; Hill, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring how the magnetic correlations evolve in doped Mott insulators has greatly improved our understanding of the pseudogap, non-Fermi liquids and high-temperature superconductivity. Recently, photo-excitation has been used to induce similarly exotic states transiently. However, the lack of available probes of magnetic correlations in the time domain hinders our understanding of these photo-induced states and how they could be controlled. Here, we implement magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser to directly determine the magnetic dynamics after photo-doping the Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. We find that the non-equilibrium state, 2 ps after the excitation, exhibits strongly suppressed long-range magnetic order, but hosts photo-carriers that induce strong, non-thermal magnetic correlations. These two-dimensional (2D) in-plane Néel correlations recover within a few picoseconds, whereas the three-dimensional (3D) long-range magnetic order restores on a fluence-dependent timescale of a few hundred picoseconds. The marked difference in these two timescales implies that the dimensionality of magnetic correlations is vital for our understanding of ultrafast magnetic dynamics.

  7. Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4.

    PubMed

    Dean, M P M; Cao, Y; Liu, X; Wall, S; Zhu, D; Mankowsky, R; Thampy, V; Chen, X M; Vale, J G; Casa, D; Kim, Jungho; Said, A H; Juhas, P; Alonso-Mori, R; Glownia, J M; Robert, A; Robinson, J; Sikorski, M; Song, S; Kozina, M; Lemke, H; Patthey, L; Owada, S; Katayama, T; Yabashi, M; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Togashi, T; Liu, J; Rayan Serrao, C; Kim, B J; Huber, L; Chang, C-L; McMorrow, D F; Först, M; Hill, J P

    2016-06-01

    Measuring how the magnetic correlations evolve in doped Mott insulators has greatly improved our understanding of the pseudogap, non-Fermi liquids and high-temperature superconductivity. Recently, photo-excitation has been used to induce similarly exotic states transiently. However, the lack of available probes of magnetic correlations in the time domain hinders our understanding of these photo-induced states and how they could be controlled. Here, we implement magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser to directly determine the magnetic dynamics after photo-doping the Mott insulator Sr2IrO4. We find that the non-equilibrium state, 2 ps after the excitation, exhibits strongly suppressed long-range magnetic order, but hosts photo-carriers that induce strong, non-thermal magnetic correlations. These two-dimensional (2D) in-plane Néel correlations recover within a few picoseconds, whereas the three-dimensional (3D) long-range magnetic order restores on a fluence-dependent timescale of a few hundred picoseconds. The marked difference in these two timescales implies that the dimensionality of magnetic correlations is vital for our understanding of ultrafast magnetic dynamics. PMID:27159018

  8. Pressure induced novel-phenomena in Mott insulator Ca2RuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Sakaki, Mariko; Takemoto, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takashi; Alireza, Patricia L.; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2010-12-01

    In order to explore unconventional superconductivity, we have studied pressure effect on a 4d-electron Mott insulator Ca2RuO4. Pressurisation to Ca2RuO4 above 0.5 GPa transforms it from a Mott insulator to a metal with a ferromagnetic ground state. The itinerancy of the ferromagnetic state at 2 GPa is quantitatively evidenced by the magnetisation process at 2 K. Moreover, the pressure phase diagram of this system suggests the existence of a ferromagnetic quantum phase transition at ˜10 GPa.

  9. New class of planar ferroelectric Mott insulators via first-principles design

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chanul; Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2015-12-11

    which is not common in known materials. Here we use first-principles calculations to design layered double perovskite oxides AABBO6 which achieve the aforementioned properties in the context of Mott insulators. In our design rules, the gap is dictated by B/B electronegativity difference in a Mott state, while the polarization is obtained via nominal d0 filling on the B-site, A-type cations bearing lone-pair electrons, and A = A size mismatch. Successful execution is demonstrated in BaBiCuVO6, BaBiNiVO6, BaLaCuVO6, and PbLaCuVO6.

  10. Pressure-Induced Metallization of the Mott Insulator MnO

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J R; Aracne, C M; Jackson, D D; Weir, S T; Malba, V; Baker, P A; Vohra, Y K

    2004-01-12

    High-pressure electrical conductivity experiments have been performed on the Mott insulator MnO to a maximum pressure of 106 GPa. We observe a steady decrease in resistivity to 90 GPa, followed by a large, rapid decrease by a factor of 10{sup 5} between 90 and 106 GPa. Temperature cycling the sample at 87 and 106 GPa shows insulating and metallic behavior at these pressures, respectively. Our observations provide strong evidence for a pressure-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition with an accompanying magnetic collapse beginning at 90 GPa.

  11. THz-Frequency Modulation of the Hubbard U in an Organic Mott Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, R.; Cotugno, G.; Kaiser, S.; Först, M.; Mitrano, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Cartella, A.; Manzoni, C.; Okamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-10-01

    We use midinfrared pulses with stable carrier-envelope phase offset to drive molecular vibrations in the charge transfer salt ET -F2TCNQ , a prototypical one-dimensional Mott insulator. We find that the Mott gap, which is probed resonantly with 10 fs laser pulses, oscillates with the pump field. This observation reveals that molecular excitations can coherently perturb the electronic on-site interactions (Hubbard U ) by changing the local orbital wave function. The gap oscillates at twice the frequency of the vibrational mode, indicating that the molecular distortions couple quadratically to the local charge density.

  12. Ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer with a mini Mott detector

    SciTech Connect

    Souma, S.; Sugawara, K.; Takayama, A.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2010-09-15

    We have developed an ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer with a highly efficient mini Mott detector and an intense xenon plasma discharge lamp. The spectrometer achieves the energy resolutions of 0.9 and 8 meV for non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved modes, respectively. Three-dimensional spin-polarization is determined by using a 90 deg. electron deflector situated before the Mott detector. The performance of spectrometer is demonstrated by observation of a clear Rashba splitting of the Bi(111) surface states.

  13. Critical Slowing Down of the Charge Carrier Dynamics at the Mott Metal-Insulator Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Benedikt; Zielke, David; Polzin, Jana; Sasaki, Takahiko; Müller, Jens

    2015-05-01

    We report on the dramatic slowing down of the charge carrier dynamics in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, which can be reversibly tuned through the Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT). At the finite-temperature critical end point, we observe a divergent increase of the resistance fluctuations accompanied by a drastic shift of spectral weight to low frequencies, demonstrating the critical slowing down of the order parameter (doublon density) fluctuations. The slow dynamics is accompanied by non-Gaussian fluctuations, indicative of correlated charge carrier dynamics. A possible explanation is a glassy freezing of the electronic system as a precursor of the Mott MIT.

  14. Ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer with a mini Mott detector.

    PubMed

    Souma, S; Takayama, A; Sugawara, K; Sato, T; Takahashi, T

    2010-09-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer with a highly efficient mini Mott detector and an intense xenon plasma discharge lamp. The spectrometer achieves the energy resolutions of 0.9 and 8 meV for non-spin-resolved and spin-resolved modes, respectively. Three-dimensional spin-polarization is determined by using a 90° electron deflector situated before the Mott detector. The performance of spectrometer is demonstrated by observation of a clear Rashba splitting of the Bi(111) surface states. PMID:20887002

  15. Jeff=1 /2 Mott-Insulating State in Rh and Ir Fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    Discovery of new transition metal compounds with large spin orbit coupling coexisting with strong electron-electron correlation among the d electrons is essential for understanding the physics that emerges from the interplay of these two effects. In this study, we predict a novel class of Jeff=1 /2 Mott insulators in a family of fluoride compounds that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron density functional theory +dynamical mean field theory indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, S U (2 ) symmetric Jeff=1 /2 limit.

  16. Observation of a Superradiant Mott Insulator in the Dicke-Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinder, J.; Keßler, H.; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Thorwart, M.; Hemmerich, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the bosonic Hubbard model possesses a Mott insulator phase. Likewise, it is known that the Dicke model exhibits a self-organized superradiant phase. By implementing an optical lattice inside of a high-finesse optical cavity, both models are merged such that an extended Hubbard model with cavity-mediated infinite range interactions arises. In addition to a normal superfluid phase, two superradiant phases are found, one of them coherent and hence superfluid and one incoherent Mott insulating.

  17. Promising Breakthroughs: Initial Results of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation's Breaking Through Initiative. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Barnett, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The Breaking Through (BT) initiative of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation seeks to prepare low-skilled adults, adult learners who are below college-level in reading, writing and/or mathematics, often lacking a high school diploma, and frequently low-income, to be successful in college and the labor market by strengthening and expanding policies…

  18. From Romantic Idealism to Enlightenment Rationalism: Lucretia Coffin Mott Responds to Richard Henry Dana, Sr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that the contrast between speeches by Richard Henry Dana Sr. and Lucretia Coffin Mott lies not only in their two views of the woman's place and role in society but also in the respective orientation toward Romantic idealism and Enlightenment rationalism. (TB)

  19. Flat-Band Potential of a Semiconductor: Using the Mott-Schottky Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelderman, K.; L. Lee; Donne, S. W.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment is suitable for fourth-year undergraduate and graduate students in which the nature of the semiconductor materials through determination of flat-band potential using the Mott-Schottky equation is explored. The experiment confirms the soundness of the technique.

  20. Spectral properties of the two-dimensional t- J model near the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Masanori

    The single-particle spectral function of the two-dimensional t- J model near the Mott transition is studied using cluster perturbation theory to clarify how the spectral-weight distribution transforms to that of the Mott insulator as the doping concentration decreases. Various anomalous features observed in cuprate high-temperature superconductors are collectively explained in the two-dimensional t- J model near the Mott transition as in the two-dimensional Hubbard model. The results imply that the spectral features are primarily related to the proximity of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, which has a low-energy spin-wave mode but no low-energy charge excitation, and to the presence of states characterized by different energy scales rather than to the presence of double occupancy, which is completely removed in the t- J model. The results are confirmed to remain almost unchanged as the cluster size is increased from 4 ×4 to 6 ×6 sites in cluster perturbation theory by using the non-Abelian dynamical density-matrix renormalization group method.

  1. Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning

    DOE PAGESBeta

    B. A. Frandsen; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Morenzoni, E.; Munsie, T. J.S.; Hallas, A. M.; Wilson, M. N.; Cai, Y.; et al

    2016-08-17

    RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phasemore » separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition.« less

  2. THE MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER--THE WORLD OF STEPHEN SHAKER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    THE C.S. MOTT FOUNDATION CHILDREN'S HEALTH CENTER WAS BUILT TO SERVE CHILDREN OF THOSE BORDERLINE FAMILIES WHOSE INCOMES PROHIBIT PRIVATE MEDICAL CARE YET MAKE THEM INELIGIBLE FOR DIRECT RELIEF OF ANY KIND. THE NEED FOR SUCH A CENTER WAS PROVED BY THE CHILDREN'S 18,000 VISITS ANNUALLY FOR HEALTH CARE. WHILE PROVIDING CARE FOR CHILDREN WAS THE MAIN…

  3. Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Liu, Lian; Cheung, Sky C.; Guguchia, Zurab; Khasanov, Rustem; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Hallas, Alannah M.; Wilson, Murray N.; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme M.; Chen, Bijuan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Ito, Takashi U.; Higemoto, Wataru; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Sakamoto, Shoya; Fujimori, Atsushi; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Kotliar, Gabriel; Imada, Masatoshi; Uemura, Yasutomo J.

    2016-01-01

    RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phase separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition. PMID:27531192

  4. Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.

  5. Time and the "True Light" in Lucretia Coffin Mott's "Discourse on Woman."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulick, Margaret D.; Leff, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Argues that some of the complexity and tension in Lucretia Coffin Mott's speech results from the conflicting demands of the immediate situation and the speaker's broader views on theological and social issues. Suggests the speech's inherent tensions are not fully resolved, particularly those between a typological sense of history and a progressive…

  6. Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Benjamin A; Liu, Lian; Cheung, Sky C; Guguchia, Zurab; Khasanov, Rustem; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Munsie, Timothy J S; Hallas, Alannah M; Wilson, Murray N; Cai, Yipeng; Luke, Graeme M; Chen, Bijuan; Li, Wenmin; Jin, Changqing; Ding, Cui; Guo, Shengli; Ning, Fanlong; Ito, Takashi U; Higemoto, Wataru; Billinge, Simon J L; Sakamoto, Shoya; Fujimori, Atsushi; Murakami, Taito; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Kotliar, Gabriel; Imada, Masatoshi; Uemura, Yasutomo J

    2016-01-01

    RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phase separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition. PMID:27531192

  7. Device Performance of the Mott Insulator LaVO3 as a Photovoltaic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingfei; Li, Yongfeng; Bera, Ashok; Ma, Chun; Jin, Feng; Yuan, Kaidi; Yin, Wanjian; David, Adrian; Chen, Wei; Wu, Wenbin; Prellier, Wilfrid; Wei, Suhuai; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Searching for solar-absorbing materials containing earth-abundant elements with chemical stability is of critical importance for advancing photovoltaic technologies. Mott insulators have been theoretically proposed as potential photovoltaic materials. In this paper, we evaluate their performance in solar cells by exploring the photovoltaic properties of Mott insulator LaVO3 (LVO). LVO films show an indirect band gap of 1.08 eV as well as strong light absorption over a wide wavelength range in the solar spectrum. First-principles calculations on the band structure of LVO further reveal that the d -d transitions within the upper and lower Mott-Hubbard bands and p -d transitions between the O 2 p and V 3 d band contribute to the absorption in visible and ultraviolet ranges, respectively. Transport measurements indicate strong carrier trapping and the formation of polarons in LVO. To utilize the strong light absorption of LVO and to overcome its poor carrier transport, we incorporate it as a light absorber in solar cells in conjunction with carrier transporters and evaluate its device performance. Our complementary experimental and theoretical results on such prototypical solar cells made of Mott-Hubbard transition-metal oxides pave the road for developing light-absorbing materials and photovoltaic devices based on strongly correlated electrons.

  8. Coulomb Liquid Phases of Bosonic Cluster Mott Insulators on a Pyrochlore Lattice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jian-Ping; Chen, Gang; Deng, Youjin; Meng, Zi Yang

    2015-07-17

    Employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we reveal the full phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model of hard-core bosons on the pyrochlore lattice with partial fillings. When the intersite repulsion is dominant, the system is in a cluster Mott insulator phase with an integer number of bosons localized inside the tetrahedral units of the pyrochlore lattice. We show that the full phase diagram contains three cluster Mott insulator phases with 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 boson fillings, respectively. We further demonstrate that all three cluster Mott insulators are Coulomb liquid phases and its low-energy property is described by the emergent compact U(1) quantum electrodynamics. In addition to measuring the specific heat and entropy of the cluster Mott insulators, we investigate the correlation function of the emergent electric field and verify it is consistent with the compact U(1) quantum electrodynamics description. Our result sheds light on the magnetic properties of various pyrochlore systems, as well as the charge physics of the cluster magnets. PMID:26230823

  9. Spin-orbital fluctuations in the paramagnetic Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiner, Jonathan; Stone, Matthew; Lumsden, Mark; Bao, Wei; Broholm, Collin

    2015-03-01

    The phase diagram of rhombohedral V2O3 features several distinct strongly correlated phases as a function of doping, pressure and temperature. When doped with chromium for 180 K Mott metal to insulator transition. Using the modern time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometer SEQUOIA at the SNS, we have probed the excitation spectrum of (V0.96Cr0.04)2O3 in the PI phase and in the monoclinic commensurate anti-ferromagnet for T <180 K. An effective exchange Hamiltonian that accounts for the low T spin waves indicates alternating FM and AFM interactions for nearest neighbor spin pairs that are equivalent in the PI. We argue that the corresponding spin-orbital fluctuations are responsible for the extremely short-range dynamic spin correlations that we document in the PI phase. Research at the Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Research was also supported by ORNL LDRD funding.

  10. Mott criticality and multiferroicity in organic κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic charge-transfer (CT) salts of the κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X family show a wealth of electronic phases resulting from the interplay of strong electron-electron correlations, reduced dimensions and magnetic frustration. Of particular interest has been the bandwidth-controlled Mott transition, separating an antiferromagnetic (afm) insulating state from a correlated metallic and superconducting state. Whereas the hydrogenated X = Cu[N(CN)2]Br salt is located on the metallic side, the deuterated variant, denoted κ-D8, is situated in splitting distance to the Mott transition, enabling the s-shaped transition line TMI to be crossed via temperature sweeps. The talk will address the following aspects: 1) Thermal expansion measurements on single crystalline κ-D8 reveal discontinuous changes of the lattice parameters on crossing the Mott transition line and a huge anomaly close to the second-order critical end point of TMI. By elaborating on a scaling theory, we found that (i) the latter effect is a consequence of an almost divergence of the Grüneisen parameter Γ at the finite- T critical end point, and (ii) that the expansivity data of are in excellent agreement with the Mott criticality lying within the 2D Ising universality class, at variance with results from conductivity measurements. Thermal expansion measurements under Helium-gas pressure are underway for providing thermodynamic information at variable pressure. 2) Surprisingly, for the isostructural X = Cu[N(CN)2]Cl salt, located close to the Mott transition on the insulating side, we found that besides the well-established afm order at TN ~ 27 K, the system also reveals a ferroelectric transition at TFE, making this material the first multiferroic CT salt. Most remarkably, the measurements reveal TFE ~TN , suggesting a close interrelation between both types of ferroic order. Work was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through the Collaborative Research Centers TRR 49 and TRR 80.

  11. Correlation-driven charge order at the interface between a Mott and a band insulator.

    PubMed

    Pentcheva, Rossitza; Pickett, Warren E

    2007-07-01

    To study digital Mott insulator LaTiO3 and band insulator SrTiO3 interfaces, we apply correlated band theory within the local density approximation including a Hubbard U to (n, m) multilayers, 1Mott insulating behavior of undistorted LaTiO3, the charge imbalance at the interface is found in all cases to be accommodated by disproportionation (Ti4++Ti3+), charge ordering, and Ti3+ dxy-orbital ordering, with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the spins in the interface layer. Lattice relaxations lead to conducting behavior by shifting (slightly but importantly) the lower Hubbard band, but the charge and orbital order is robust against relaxation. PMID:17678179

  12. STM/STS study of metal-to-Mott-insulator transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanaguri, T.; Kohsaka, Y.; Iwaya, K.; Satow, S.; Kitazawa, K.; Takagi, H.; Azuma, M.; Takano, M.

    2004-08-01

    We performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) on Ca 2- xNa xCuO 2Cl 2 and NiS 2- xSe x, which are filling and bandwidth-controlled Mott transition systems, respectively. STM images of Ca 2- xNa xCuO 2Cl 2 show inhomogeneous patch-like corrugations which are originated from the spatial variations of the local density of states. Such an electronic inhomogeneity is absent in NiS 2- xSe x, except in the close vicinity of the metal-insulator transition (MIT). These results suggest that the change in electronic states across the MIT is different between filling- and bandwidth-controlled Mott transition systems.

  13. Ultrafast and reversible control of the exchange interaction in Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Mentink, J. H.; Balzer, K.; Eckstein, M.

    2015-01-01

    The strongest interaction between microscopic spins in magnetic materials is the exchange interaction Jex. Therefore, ultrafast control of Jex holds the promise to control spins on ultimately fast timescales. We demonstrate that time-periodic modulation of the electronic structure by electric fields can be used to reversibly control Jex on ultrafast timescales in extended antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. In the regime of weak driving strength, we find that Jex can be enhanced and reduced for frequencies below and above the Mott gap, respectively. Moreover, for strong driving strength, even the sign of Jex can be reversed and we show that this causes time reversal of the associated quantum spin dynamics. These results suggest wide applications, not only to control magnetism in condensed matter systems, for example, via the excitation of spin resonances, but also to assess fundamental questions concerning the reversibility of the quantum many-body dynamics in cold atom systems. PMID:25819547

  14. Extended dynamic Mott transition in the two-band Hubbard model out of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, Malte; Fabrizio, Michele; Lechermann, Frank

    2013-07-01

    We reformulate the time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation by M. Schiró and M. Fabrizio, [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.076401 105, 076401 (2010)] in the framework of slave-boson mean-field theory, which is used to investigate the dynamical Mott transition of the generic two-band Hubbard model at half filling upon an interaction quench. Interorbital fluctuations lead to notable changes with respect to the single-band case. The singular dynamical transition is replaced by a broad regime of long-lived fluctuations between metallic and insulating states, accompanied by intriguing precursor behavior. A mapping to a spin model proves helpful to analyze the different regions in terms of the evolution of an Ising-like order parameter. Contrary to the static case, singlet occupations remain vital in the Mott-insulating regime with finite Hund's exchange.

  15. Carrier doping to the organic Mott insulator by conjugating with tetrathiafulvalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Hayakawa, K.; Inabe, T.; Naito, T.

    2012-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of the organic Mott insulator ET-F2TCNQ (ET = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, F2TCNQ = 2,5-difluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) crystal was found to be enhanced by conjugation with a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) single crystal on its surface; surface sheet resistance decreased from 5 × l05 to 2 × 103 Ω/sq. The mechanism of this decrement was investigated through optical and atomic force microscopy measurements at the interface. When TTF was conjugated to the ET-F2TCNQ crystal, electron injection from TTF and complex formation between TTF and F2TCNQ occurred. Neutral ET molecules were consequently generated at the interface, and this charge doping broke the Mott insulating state.

  16. Coexistence of Midgap Antiferromagnetic and Mott States in Undoped, Hole- and Electron-Doped Ambipolar Cuprates.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinmao; Zeng, Shengwei; Das, Tanmoy; Baskaran, G; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Santoso, Iman; Yu, Xiaojiang; Diao, Caozheng; Yang, Ping; Breese, Mark B H; Venkatesan, T; Lin, Hsin; Ariando; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-05-13

    We report the first observation of the coexistence of a distinct midgap state and a Mott state in undoped and their evolution in electron and hole-doped ambipolar Y_{0.38}La_{0.62}(Ba_{0.82}La_{0.18})_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y} films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray absorption spectroscopies at the O K and Cu L_{3,2} edges. Supported by theoretical calculations, the midgap state is shown to originate from antiferromagnetic correlation. Surprisingly, while the magnetic state collapses and its correlation strength weakens with dopings, the Mott state in contrast moves toward a higher energy and its correlation strength increases. Our result provides important clues to the mechanism of electronic correlation strengths and superconductivity in cuprates. PMID:27232036

  17. First-Order Melting of a Weak Spin-Orbit Mott Insulator into a Correlated Metal.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Tom; Yamani, Z; Walkup, D; Chen, Xiang; Dally, Rebecca; Ward, Thomas Z; Dean, M P M; Hill, John; Islam, Z; Madhavan, Vidya; Wilson, Stephen D

    2015-06-26

    The electronic phase diagram of the weak spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr(1-x)La(x))(3)Ir(2)O(7) is determined via an exhaustive experimental study. Upon doping electrons via La substitution, an immediate collapse in resistivity occurs along with a narrow regime of nanoscale phase separation comprised of antiferromagnetic, insulating regions and paramagnetic, metallic puddles persisting until x≈0.04. Continued electron doping results in an abrupt, first-order phase boundary where the Néel state is suppressed and a homogenous, correlated, metallic state appears with an enhanced spin susceptibility and local moments. As the metallic state is stabilized, a weak structural distortion develops and suggests a competing instability with the parent spin-orbit Mott state. PMID:26197142

  18. Mott lobes evolution of the spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapie-F, A. F.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    We study spin-1 bosons confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice, taking into consideration both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interaction. Using the density matrix renormalization group, we determine the phase diagram for the two firsts lobes and report the evolution of the first and second Mott lobes with respect to the spin-exchange interaction parameter (U 2). We determine that for the antiferromagnetic case, the first lobe is suppressed while the second grows as |U 2| increases. For the ferromagnetic case, the first and second Mott lobes are suppressed by the spin-exchange interaction parameter. We propose an expresion to describe the evolution of the critical point with the increase in |U 2| for both cases.

  19. Mott Transition, Antiferromagnetism, and d-wave Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Organic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.; Kyung, Bumsoo

    2007-03-01

    We study the Mott transition, antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in layered organic conductors using Cellular Dynamical Mean Field Theory for the frustrated Hubbard model. A d-wave superconducting phase appears between an antiferromagnetic insulator and a metal for t^'/t=0.3-0.7 , or between a nonmagnetic Mott insulator (spin liquid) and a metal for t^'/t>=0.8, in agreement with experiments on layered organic conductors including κ-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3. These phases are separated by a strong first order transition. The phase diagram gives much insight into the mechanism for d-wave superconductivity. Two predictions are made. B. Kyung and A.-M.S. Tremblay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 046402 (2006)

  20. A microscopic view on the Mott transition in chromium-doped V(2)O(3).

    PubMed

    Lupi, S; Baldassarre, L; Mansart, B; Perucchi, A; Barinov, A; Dudin, P; Papalazarou, E; Rodolakis, F; Rueff, J-P; Itié, J-P; Ravy, S; Nicoletti, D; Postorino, P; Hansmann, P; Parragh, N; Toschi, A; Saha-Dasgupta, T; Andersen, O K; Sangiovanni, G; Held, K; Marsi, M

    2010-01-01

    V(2)O(3) is the prototype system for the Mott transition, one of the most fundamental phenomena of electronic correlation. Temperature, doping or pressure induce a metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) between a paramagnetic metal (PM) and a paramagnetic insulator. This or related MITs have a high technological potential, among others, for intelligent windows and field effect transistors. However the spatial scale on which such transitions develop is not known in spite of their importance for research and applications. Here we unveil for the first time the MIT in Cr-doped V(2)O(3) with submicron lateral resolution: with decreasing temperature, microscopic domains become metallic and coexist with an insulating background. This explains why the associated PM phase is actually a poor metal. The phase separation can be associated with a thermodynamic instability near the transition. This instability is reduced by pressure, that promotes a genuine Mott transition to an eventually homogeneous metallic state. PMID:21045823

  1. Coexistence of Midgap Antiferromagnetic and Mott States in Undoped, Hole- and Electron-Doped Ambipolar Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xinmao; Zeng, Shengwei; Das, Tanmoy; Baskaran, G.; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Santoso, Iman; Yu, Xiaojiang; Diao, Caozheng; Yang, Ping; Breese, Mark B. H.; Venkatesan, T.; Lin, Hsin; Ariando; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-05-01

    We report the first observation of the coexistence of a distinct midgap state and a Mott state in undoped and their evolution in electron and hole-doped ambipolar Y0.38 La0.62 (Ba0.82 La0.18 )2Cu3 Oy films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray absorption spectroscopies at the O K and Cu L3 ,2 edges. Supported by theoretical calculations, the midgap state is shown to originate from antiferromagnetic correlation. Surprisingly, while the magnetic state collapses and its correlation strength weakens with dopings, the Mott state in contrast moves toward a higher energy and its correlation strength increases. Our result provides important clues to the mechanism of electronic correlation strengths and superconductivity in cuprates.

  2. First-order melting of a weak spin-orbit mott insulator into a correlated metal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hogan, Tom; Yamani, Z.; Walkup, D.; Chen, Xiang; Dally, Rebecca; Ward, Thomas Zac; Dean, M. P. M.; Hill, John P.; Islam, Z.; Madhavan, Vidya; et al

    2015-06-25

    Herein, the electronic phase diagram of the weak spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 is determined via an exhaustive experimental study. Upon doping electrons via La substitution, an immediate collapse in resistivity occurs along with a narrow regime of nanoscale phase separation comprised of antiferromagnetic, insulating regions and paramagnetic, metallic puddles persisting until x≈0.04. Continued electron doping results in an abrupt, first-order phase boundary where the Néel state is suppressed and a homogenous, correlated, metallic state appears with an enhanced spin susceptibility and local moments. In conclusion, as the metallic state is stabilized, a weak structural distortion develops and suggests a competingmore » instability with the parent spin-orbit Mott state.« less

  3. First-order melting of a weak spin-orbit mott insulator into a correlated metal

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Tom; Yamani, Z.; Walkup, D.; Chen, Xiang; Dally, Rebecca; Ward, Thomas Zac; Dean, M. P. M.; Hill, John P.; Islam, Z.; Madhavan, Vidya; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2015-06-25

    Herein, the electronic phase diagram of the weak spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 is determined via an exhaustive experimental study. Upon doping electrons via La substitution, an immediate collapse in resistivity occurs along with a narrow regime of nanoscale phase separation comprised of antiferromagnetic, insulating regions and paramagnetic, metallic puddles persisting until x≈0.04. Continued electron doping results in an abrupt, first-order phase boundary where the Néel state is suppressed and a homogenous, correlated, metallic state appears with an enhanced spin susceptibility and local moments. In conclusion, as the metallic state is stabilized, a weak structural distortion develops and suggests a competing instability with the parent spin-orbit Mott state.

  4. Extension of the radiative lifetime of Wannier-Mott excitons in semiconductor nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of the study is to calculate the radiative lifetime of Wannier-Mott excitons in three-dimensional potential wells formed of direct-gap narrow-gap semiconductor nanoclusters in wide-gap semiconductors and assumed to be large compared to the exciton radius. Calculations are carried out for the InAs/GaAs heterosystem. It is shown that, as the nanocluster dimensions are reduced to values on the order of the exciton radius, the exciton radiative lifetime becomes several times longer compared to that in a homogeneous semiconductor. The increase in the radiative lifetime is more pronounced at low temperatures. Thus, it is established that the placement of Wannier-Mott excitons into direct-gap semiconductor nanoclusters, whose dimensions are of the order of the exciton radius, can be used for considerable extension of the exciton radiative lifetime.

  5. New class of planar ferroelectric Mott insulators via first-principles design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanul; Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2015-12-01

    The bulk photovoltaic effect requires a low electronic band gap (i.e., ≈1 -2 eV) and large electronic polarization, which is not common in known materials. Here we use first-principles calculations to design layered double perovskite oxides AA'BB'O6 which achieve the aforementioned properties in the context of Mott insulators. In our design rules, the gap is dictated by B/B' electronegativity difference in a Mott state, while the polarization is obtained via nominal d0 filling on the B-site, A-type cations bearing lone-pair electrons, and A ≠A' size mismatch. Successful execution is demonstrated in BaBiCuVO6, BaBiNiVO6, BaLaCuVO6, and PbLaCuVO6.

  6. Finite mass enhancement across bandwidth controlled Mott transition in NiS2-xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Garam; Kyung, W. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Cheng, C. M.; Tsuei, K. D.; Lee, K. D.; Hur, N.; Kim, H.-D.; Kim, C.

    One of the most important and still debated issues in the strongly correlated electron systems is on the metal insulator transition (MIT) mechanism. In the bandwidth controlled Mott transition (BCMT) scenario, which Mott originally proposed, MIT occurs through a mass divergence in which the effective mass of the quasi-particle (QP) diverges approaching the MIT. The interpretation is supported by dynamic mean field theory (DMFT) model calculations. However, few direct observations have been made yet due to various experimental restrictions. In this talk, I present systematic angle resolved photoemission studies on the MIT in NiS2-xSex, which is a well-known BCMT material. We observed not only the bandwidth shrinkage but also the coherent quasi-particle peak (QP) which is not of the surface origin. In addition, we experimentally showed the mass of the QP remains finite approaching the MIT. This work was supported by IBS-R009-D1.

  7. First-Order Melting of a Weak Spin-Orbit Mott Insulator into a Correlated Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tom; Yamani, Z.; Walkup, D.; Chen, Xiang; Dally, Rebecca; Ward, Thomas Z.; Dean, M. P. M.; Hill, John; Islam, Z.; Madhavan, Vidya; Wilson, Stephen D.

    2015-06-01

    The electronic phase diagram of the weak spin-orbit Mott insulator (Sr1 -xLax)3Ir2O7 is determined via an exhaustive experimental study. Upon doping electrons via La substitution, an immediate collapse in resistivity occurs along with a narrow regime of nanoscale phase separation comprised of antiferromagnetic, insulating regions and paramagnetic, metallic puddles persisting until x ≈0.04 . Continued electron doping results in an abrupt, first-order phase boundary where the Néel state is suppressed and a homogenous, correlated, metallic state appears with an enhanced spin susceptibility and local moments. As the metallic state is stabilized, a weak structural distortion develops and suggests a competing instability with the parent spin-orbit Mott state.

  8. Site-selective Mott transition in rare-earth-element nickelates.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew J; Marianetti, Chris A

    2012-10-12

    A combination of density functional and dynamical mean field theory calculations are used to show that the remarkable metal-insulator transition in the rare-earth-element nickelate perovskites arises from a site-selective Mott phase, in which the d electrons on half of the Ni ions are localized to form a fluctuating moment while the d electrons on other Ni ions form a singlet with holes on the surrounding oxygen ions. The calculation reproduces key features observed in the nickelate materials, including an insulating gap in the paramagnetic state, a strong variation of static magnetic moments among Ni sites and an absence of charge order. A connection between structure and insulating behavior is documented. The site-selective Mott transition may be a more broadly applicable concept in the description of correlated materials. PMID:23102343

  9. Non-local order in Mott insulators, duality and Wilson loops

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Simeth, Wolfgang; Endres, Manuel; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    It is shown that the Mott insulating and superfluid phases of bosons in an optical lattice may be distinguished by a non-local ‘parity order parameter’ which is directly accessible via single site resolution imaging. In one dimension, the lattice Bose model is dual to a classical interface roughening problem. We use known exact results from the latter to prove that the parity order parameter exhibits long range order in the Mott insulating phase, consistent with recent experiments by Endres et al. [M. Endres, M. Cheneau, T. Fukuhara, C. Weitenberg, P. Schauß, C. Gross, L. Mazza, M.C. Bañuls, L. Pollet, I. Bloch, et al., Science 334 (2011) 200]. In two spatial dimensions, the parity order parameter can be expressed in terms of an equal time Wilson loop of a non-trivial U(1) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions which exhibits a transition between a Coulomb and a confining phase. The negative logarithm of the parity order parameter obeys a perimeter law in the Mott insulator and is enhanced by a logarithmic factor in the superfluid. -- Highlights: •Number statistics of cold atoms in optical lattices show non-local correlations. •These correlations are measurable via single site resolution imaging. •Incompressible phases exhibit an area law in particle number fluctuations. •This leads to long-range parity order of Mott-insulators in one dimension. •Parity order in 2d is connected with a Wilson-loop in a lattice gauge theory.

  10. 5f-electron localization in the actinide metals: thorides, actinides and the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    For the light actinides Ac-Cm, the numbers of localized and itinerant 5f-electrons are determined by comparing various estimates of the f-electron counts. At least one itinerant f-electron is found for each element, Pa-Cm. These results resolve certain disagreements among electron counts determined by different methods and are consistent with the Mott transition model and with the picture of the 5f-electrons' dual nature.

  11. Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Erica; Liu, Shuo; Phillabaum, Benjamin; Dahmen, Karin; Vidhyadhiraja, Narsimhamurthy; Qazilbash, Mumtaz; Basov, Dimitri

    We report the first application of critical cluster techniques to the Mott metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide. We show that the geometric properties of the metallic and insulating puddles observed by scanning near-field infrared microscopy are consistent with the system passing near criticality of the random field Ising model as temperature is varied. The resulting large barriers to equilibrium may be the source of the unusually robust hysteresis phenomena associated with the metal-insulator transition in this system.

  12. Microsphere plate detectors used with a compact Mott polarimeter for time-of-flight studies

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, G.; Viefhaus, J.; Dunning, F. B.; Berrah, N.

    2000-06-01

    A compact retarding-potential Mott polarimeter combined with microsphere plates (MSP) as electron detectors was built to perform spin-resolved time-of-flight electron spectroscopy. The comparison of the performance of MSP and channeltron detectors shows that the MSP detector has a better time resolution but a lower efficiency. The overall time resolution of the system was determined to be 350 ps using synchrotron radiation pulses. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Transition from a Two-Dimensional Superfluid to a One-Dimensional Mott Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bergkvist, Sara; Rosengren, Anders; Saers, Robert; Lundh, Emil; Rehn, Magnus; Kastberg, Anders

    2007-09-14

    A two-dimensional system of atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice is studied theoretically. If the system is finite in one direction, it is shown to exhibit a transition between a two-dimensional superfluid and a one-dimensional Mott insulating chain of superfluid tubes. Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the expectation that the phase transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless type. The effect of the transition on experimental time-of-flight images is discussed.

  14. High pressure metallization of Mott Insulators: Magnetic, structural and electronic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, M.P.; Hearne, G.; Sterer, E.; Taylor, R.D.; Jeanloz, R.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure studies of the insulator-metal transition in the (TM)I{sub 2} (TM = V, Fe, Co and Ni) compounds are described. Those divalent transition-metal iodides are structurally isomorphous and classified as Mott Insulators. Resistivity, X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy were employed to investigate the electronic, structural, and magnetic properties as a function of pressure both on the highly correlated and on the metallic regimes.

  15. Bosons with Artificial Gauge Fields and Mott Physics on the Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidanovic, Ivana; Petrescu, Alexandru; Le Hur, Karyn; Hofstetter, Walter

    2014-03-01

    We study bosons in the tight-binding model on the honeycomb lattice introduced by Haldane. We analyze the ground state topology and quasiparticle properties in the Mott phase by applying bosonic dynamical mean field theory, strong-coupling perturbation theory, exact diagonalization and numerical evaluations of sample Hall conductivity. The phase diagram also contains two different superfluid phases. The quasiparticle dynamics, number fluctuations, and local currents are measurable in cold atom experiments.

  16. Competing ground states of strongly correlated bosons in the Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natu, Stefan S.; Mueller, Erich J.; Das Sarma, S.

    2016-06-01

    Using an efficient cluster approach, we study the physics of two-dimensional lattice bosons in a strong magnetic field in the regime where the tunneling is much weaker than the on-site interaction strength. We study both the dilute, hard-core bosons at filling factors much smaller than unity occupation per site and the physics in the vicinity of the superfluid-Mott lobes as the density is tuned away from unity. For hard-core bosons, we carry out extensive numerics for a fixed flux per plaquette ϕ =1 /5 and ϕ =1 /3 . At large flux, the lowest-energy state is a strongly correlated superfluid, analogous to He-4, in which the order parameter is dramatically suppressed, but nonzero. At filling factors ν =1 /2 ,1 , we find competing incompressible states which are metastable. These appear to be commensurate density wave states. For small flux, the situation is reversed and the ground state at ν =1 /2 is an incompressible density wave solid. Here, we find a metastable lattice supersolid phase, where superfluidity and density wave order coexist. We then perform careful numerical studies of the physics near the vicinity of the Mott lobes for ϕ =1 /2 and ϕ =1 /4 . At ϕ =1 /2 , the superfluid ground state has commensurate density wave order. At ϕ =1 /4 , incompressible phases appear outside the Mott lobes at densities n =1.125 and n =1.25 , corresponding to filling fractions ν =1 /2 and 1, respectively. These phases, which are absent in single-site mean-field theory, are metastable and have slightly higher energy than the superfluid, but the energy difference between them shrinks rapidly with increasing cluster size, suggestive of an incompressible ground state. We thus explore the interplay between Mott physics, magnetic Landau levels, and superfluidity, finding a rich phase diagram of competing compressible and incompressible states.

  17. Interacting bosons in an optical lattice: Bose-Einstein condensates and Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Fialko, O.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.

    2007-05-15

    A dense Bose gas with hard-core interaction is considered in an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram in terms of a special mean-field theory that describes a Bose-Einstein condensate and a Mott insulator with a single particle per lattice site for zero as well as for nonzero temperatures. We calculate the densities, the excitation spectrum, and the static structure factor for each of these phases.

  18. Critical behavior near the Mott transition in the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Le, Duc-Anh

    2016-03-01

    We study the half-filled asymmetric Hubbard model within the two-site dynamical mean field theory. At zero temperature, explicit expressions of the critical interaction Uc for the Mott transition and the local self-energy are analytically derived. Critical behavior of the quasiparticle weights and the double occupancy are obtained analytically as functions of the on-site interaction U and the hopping asymmetry r. Our results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by much more sophisticated theory.

  19. Strongly Correlated Superconductivity close to a Mott transition in orbitally degenerate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio; Tosatti, Erio

    2004-03-01

    Recently a novel strongly correlated superconductivity (SCS) scenario has been proposed [1] which deals with the question whether and under which conditions Cooper-pairing may get enhanced by strong electron repulsion close to a Mott transition. The core of the SCS proposal is that the effective repulsion between quasiparticles vanishes close to the Mott transition, whereas any pairing attraction will remain unrenormalized if it acts inside the spin channel. This scenario was originally demonstrated through a Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) solution of a model for doped fullerenes, but it is believed to be far more general. Very recently, a twofold orbitally degenerate model with inverted Hund rule exchange has been proposed as a new candidate for SCS [2]. We report fresh DMFT work that fully confirms this expectation, and provides an extremely appealing phase diagram, where superconductivity arises by doping the Mott insulator, out of an unstable a pseudogapped metal, very much as it happens in cuprates. [1] M. Capone, M. Fabrizio, C. Castellani, and E. Tosatti, Science 296, 2364 (2002). [2] M. Fabrizio, A.F. Ho, L. De Leo, and G. Santoro, Phys. Rev. Lett., to appear; L. De Leo and M. Fabrizio, unpublished.

  20. Mott Transitions and Staggered Orders in the Three-Component Fermionic System: Variational Cluster Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasunuma, Takumi; Kaneko, Tatsuya; Miyakoshi, Shohei; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-07-01

    The variational cluster approximation is used to study the ground-state properties and single-particle spectra of the three-component fermionic Hubbard model defined on the two-dimensional square lattice at half filling. First, we show that either a paired Mott state or color-selective Mott state is realized in the paramagnetic system, depending on the anisotropy in the interaction strengths, except around the SU(3) symmetric point, where a paramagnetic metallic state is maintained. Then, by introducing Weiss fields to observe spontaneous symmetry breakings, we show that either a color-density-wave state or color-selective antiferromagnetic state is realized depending on the interaction anisotropy and that the first-order phase transition between these two states occurs at the SU(3) point. We moreover show that these staggered orders originate from the gain in potential energy (or Slater mechanism) near the SU(3) point but originate from the gain in kinetic energy (or Mott mechanism) when the interaction anisotropy is strong. The staggered orders near the SU(3) point disappear when the next-nearest-neighbor hopping parameters are introduced, indicating that these orders are fragile, protected only by the Fermi surface nesting.

  1. Ellen N. La Motte: the making of a nurse, writer, and activist.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lea M

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the early career of Ellen N. La Motte (1873-1961) to trace how her training at the Johns Hopkins Training School for Nurses and years spent as a tuberculosis nurse in Baltimore shaped her perception of tuberculosis prevention and women's suffrage. Although studies of tuberculosis have frequently alluded to her work, no sustained biocritical discussion of her development as a nurse and scholar exists. Between 1902, when she graduated from nursing school, and 1914, the start of the Great War, La Motte published a textbook and dozens of articles in journals devoted to nursing and social reform and delivered many speeches at local, regional, and national meetings. In addition, as her reputation as an expert in the field of tuberculosis nursing grew, her advocacy for the vote for women increased, and she used her writing and speaking skills on behalf of the suffrage cause. This article assesses how the skills La Motte acquired during these years helped mold her into a successful and respected nurse, writer, and activist. PMID:25272476

  2. Superconductivity close to the Mott state: From condensed-matter systems to superfluidity in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Le Hur, Karyn Maurice Rice, T.

    2009-07-15

    Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986 by Bednorz and Mueller, great efforts have been devoted to finding out how and why it works. From the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations, and the presence of a mysterious pseudogap phase close to the Mott state, one can conclude that high-T{sub c} superconductors are clearly distinguishable from the well-understood BCS superconductors. The d-wave superconducting state can be understood through a Gutzwiller-type projected BCS wavefunction. In this review article, we revisit the Hubbard model at half-filling and focus on the emergence of exotic superconductivity with d-wave symmetry in the vicinity of the Mott state, starting from ladder systems and then studying the dimensional crossovers to higher dimensions. This allows to confirm that short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations can mediate superconductivity with d-wave symmetry. Ladders are also nice prototype systems allowing to demonstrate the truncation of the Fermi surface and the emergence of a Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) state with preformed pairs in the vicinity of the Mott state. In two dimensions, a similar scenario emerges from renormalization group arguments. We also discuss theoretical predictions for the d-wave superconducting phase as well as the pseudogap phase, and address the crossover to the overdoped regime. Finally, cold atomic systems with tunable parameters also provide a complementary insight into this outstanding problem.

  3. Path to poor coherence in the periodic Anderson model from Mott physics and hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaricci, A.; de'Medici, L.; Sordi, G.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Capone, M.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the anomalous metal arising from hole-doping the Mott insulating state in the periodic Anderson model. Using dynamical mean-field theory we show that, as opposed to the electron-doped case, in the hole-doped regime the hybridization between localized and delocalized orbitals leads to the formation of composite quasiparticles reminiscent of the Zhang-Rice singlets. We compute the coherence temperature of this state, showing its extremely small value at low doping. As a consequence the weakly doped Mott state deviates from the predictions of Fermi-liquid theory already at small temperatures. The onset of the Zhang-Rice state and of the consequent poor coherence is due to the electronic structure in which both localized and itinerant carriers have to be involved in the formation of the conduction states and to the proximity to the Mott state. By investigating the magnetic properties of this state, we discuss the relation between the anomalous metallic properties and the behavior of the magnetic degrees of freedom.

  4. High-density Two-Dimensional Small Polaron Gas in a Delta-Doped Mott Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Ouellette, Daniel G.; Moetakef, Pouya; Cain, Tyler A.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Stemmer, Susanne; Emin, David; Allen, S. James

    2013-01-01

    Heterointerfaces in complex oxide systems open new arenas in which to test models of strongly correlated material, explore the role of dimensionality in metal-insulator-transitions (MITs) and small polaron formation. Close to the quantum critical point Mott MITs depend on band filling controlled by random disordered substitutional doping. Delta-doped Mott insulators are potentially free of random disorder and introduce a new arena in which to explore the effect of electron correlations and dimensionality. Epitaxial films of the prototypical Mott insulator GdTiO3 are delta-doped by substituting a single (GdO)+1 plane with a monolayer of charge neutral SrO to produce a two-dimensional system with high planar doping density. Unlike metallic SrTiO3 quantum wells in GdTiO3 the single SrO delta-doped layer exhibits thermally activated DC and optical conductivity that agree in a quantitative manner with predictions of small polaron transport but with an extremely high two-dimensional density of polarons, ~7 × 1014 cm−2. PMID:24257578

  5. Unquenched eg1 orbital moment in the Mott-insulating antiferromagnet KOsO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joon; Ahn, Kyo-Hoon; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Pickett, Warren E.

    2014-12-01

    Applying the correlated electronic structure method based on density functional theory plus the Hubbard U interaction, we have investigated the tetragonal scheelite structure Mott insulator KOsO4, whose eg1 configuration should be affected only slightly by spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The method reproduces the observed antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state, populating the Os dz2 majority orbital. The quarter-filled eg manifold is characterized by a symmetry breaking due to the tetragonal structure, and the Os ion shows a crystal field splitting Δcf=1.7 eV from the t2 g complex, which is relatively small considering the high formal oxidation state Os 7 +. The small magnetocrystalline anisotropy before including correlation (i.e., in the metallic state) is increased by more than an order of magnitude in the Mott-insulating state, a result of a strong interplay between large SOC and a strong correlation. In contrast to conventional wisdom that the eg complex will not support orbital magnetism, we find that for the easy axis [100] direction the substantial Os orbital moment ML≈-0.2 μB compensates half of the Os spin moment MS=0.4 μB . The origin of the orbital moment is analyzed and understood in terms of additional spin-orbital lowering of symmetry, and beyond that due to structural distortion, for magnetization along [100]. Further interpretation is assisted by analysis of the spin density and the Wannier function with SOC included.

  6. Double Occupancy in low-energy theoreis of doped Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Philip; Pong Choy, Ting; Leigh, Robert; Sawatzky, George

    2008-03-01

    We review how a proper low-energy theory can be constructed for the Hubbard model by explicitly integrating over the degrees of freedom far away from the chemical potential. A surprsing feature of the exact low-energy theory is the emergence of an elementary charge 2e boson which mediates double occupancy much below the Mott scale. We show that within the standard canonical transformation formalismused to derive the t-J model from the Hubbard model, a similar feature (double occupancy below the Mott scale) appears ONLY if the electron creation and annihilation operators are properly transformed as well. By comparing precisely how the electron operators transform in both theories, we are able to show that the charge 2e boson mediates dynamical spectral weight transfer across the Mott gap. At half-filling, the interactions mediated by the charge 2e boson defeat the artificial local SU(2) symmetry found earlier in the projected t-J model. R. G. Leigh, P. Phillips and T. -P. Choy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 46404 (2007); arxiv:07071554 (PRB, in press).

  7. Nature of the magnetic correlations in photo-doped and chemically-doped spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Mark P. M.

    In the iridates, competition between spin-orbit coupling, crystal field, and electronic correlation has lead to the observation of several novel states. Particularly notable is the spin-orbit Mott insulating state in Sr2IrO4 which has close analogies to the high temperature superconducting cuprates. This talk will describe the nature of the magnetic correlations in Sr2IrO4 and how the magnetic correlations can be modified by two different doping schemes. I will first describe doping via photo-excitation in which we use femtosecond infrared pulses to excite carriers across the Mott gap. After excitation, we probe the resulting magnetic state as a function of time delay using the first implementation of magnetic resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at a free electron laser. We find that the non-equilibrium state 2 ps after the excitation has strongly suppressed long-range magnetic order, but hosts photo-carriers that induce strong, non-thermal magnetic correlations. The magnetism recovers its two-dimensional in-plane Néel correlations on a timescale of a few ps, while the three-dimensional long range magnetic order is restored over a far longer, fluence-dependent timescale of a few 100 ps. In the second part of the talk I will describe chemical doping via Ir-Ru substitution. In this situation, we find that with increased Ru concentration, the dispersive magnetic excitations in the parent compound become almost momentum-independent, opening a magnetic gap > 150 meV. We attribute this gap to the combined effects of disorder and Ir-Ru interactions. Work performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy, Division of Materials Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  8. Rayleigh Scattering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Andrew T.

    1982-01-01

    The correct usage of such terminology as "Rayleigh scattering,""Rayleigh lines,""Raman lines," and "Tyndall scattering" is resolved during an historical excursion through the physics of light-scattering by gas molecules. (Author/JN)

  9. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.

    2016-05-12

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate ofmore » the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. We find our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger's theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition.« less

  10. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.

    2016-05-01

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. Our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger’s theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition.

  11. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2

    PubMed Central

    Friedemann, S.; Chang, H.; Gamża, M. B.; Reiss, P.; Chen, X.; Alireza, P.; Coniglio, W. A.; Graf, D.; Tozer, S.; Grosche, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. Our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger’s theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition. PMID:27174799

  12. Large Fermi Surface of Heavy Electrons at the Border of Mott Insulating State in NiS2.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, S; Chang, H; Gamża, M B; Reiss, P; Chen, X; Alireza, P; Coniglio, W A; Graf, D; Tozer, S; Grosche, F M

    2016-01-01

    One early triumph of quantum physics is the explanation why some materials are metallic whereas others are insulating. While a treatment based on single electron states is correct for most materials this approach can fail spectacularly, when the electrostatic repulsion between electrons causes strong correlations. Not only can these favor new and subtle forms of matter, such as magnetism or superconductivity, they can even cause the electrons in a half-filled energy band to lock into position, producing a correlated, or Mott insulator. The transition into the Mott insulating state raises important fundamental questions. Foremost among these is the fate of the electronic Fermi surface and the associated charge carrier mass, as the Mott transition is approached. We report the first direct observation of the Fermi surface on the metallic side of a Mott insulating transition by high pressure quantum oscillatory measurements in NiS2. Our results point at a large Fermi surface consistent with Luttinger's theorem and a strongly enhanced quasiparticle effective mass. These two findings are in line with central tenets of the Brinkman-Rice picture of the correlated metal near the Mott insulating state and rule out alternative scenarios in which the carrier concentration vanishes continuously at the metal-insulator transition. PMID:27174799

  13. Relativistic electron scattering from a freely movable proton in a strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Hua; Li, Shu-Min

    2014-11-01

    We study the electron scattering from the freely movable spin-1/2 proton in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field in the first Born approximation. The dressed state of the electron is described by a time-dependent wave function derived from a perturbation treatment (in a laser field). With the aid of numerical results we explore the dependencies of the differential cross section (DCS) on the electron-impact energy. Due to the mobility of the target, the DCS of this process is modified compared to the Mott scattering, especially in large scattering angles.

  14. Haldane-Hubbard Mott Insulator: From Tetrahedral Spin Crystal to Chiral Spin Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Ciaran; Cincio, Lukasz; Papic, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    Motivated by recent experimental realizations of artificial gauge fields in ultracold atoms, we study the honeycomb lattice Haldane-Hubbard Mott insulator of spin- 1 / 2 fermions using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We show that this model exhibits various chiral magnetic orders including a wide regime of triple-Q tetrahedral order. Incorporating third-neighbor hopping frustrates and ultimately melts this tetrahedral spin crystal. From analyzing low energy spectra, many-body Chern numbers, entanglement spectra, and modular matrices, we identify the molten state as a chiral spin liquid with gapped semion excitations.

  15. Phase boundary of the boson Mott insulator in a rotating optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.

    2007-11-15

    We consider the Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional rotating optical lattice and investigate the consequences of the effective magnetic field created by rotation. Using a Gutzwiller-type variational wave function, we find an analytical expression for the Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition boundary in terms of the maximum eigenvalue of the Hofstadter butterfly. The dependence of phase boundary on the effective magnetic field is complex, reflecting the self-similar properties of the single particle energy spectrum. Finally, we argue that fractional quantum Hall phases exist close to the MI-SF transition boundaries, including MI states with particle densities greater than one.

  16. Observation of 2D Fermionic Mott Insulators of 40K with Single-Site Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Lawrence, Katherine R.; Okan, Melih; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the site-resolved observation of characteristic states of the two-dimensional repulsive Fermi-Hubbard model, using ultracold 40K atoms in an optical lattice. By varying the tunneling, interaction strength, and external confinement, we realize metallic, Mott-insulating, and band-insulating states. We directly measure the local moment, which quantifies the degree of on-site magnetization, as a function of temperature and chemical potential. Entropies per particle as low as 0.99 (6 )kB indicate that nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic correlations should be detectable using spin-sensitive imaging.

  17. Probing spin dynamics from the Mott insulating to the superfluid regime in a dipolar lattice gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paz, A.; Pedri, P.; Sharma, A.; Efremov, M.; Naylor, B.; Gorceix, O.; Maréchal, E.; Vernac, L.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the spin dynamics of an out-of-equilibrium large spin dipolar atomic Bose gas in an optical lattice. We observe a smooth crossover from a complex oscillatory behavior to an exponential behavior throughout the Mott-to-superfluid transition. While both of these regimes are well described by our theoretical models, we provide data in the intermediate regime where dipolar interactions, contact interactions, and superexchange mechanisms compete. In this strongly correlated regime, spin dynamics and transport are coupled, which challenges theoretical models for quantum magnetism.

  18. Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Phillabaum, B.; Carlson, E. W.; Dahmen, K. A.; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Qazilbash, M. M.; Basov, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first application of critical cluster techniques to the Mott metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide. We show that the geometric universal properties of the metallic and insulating puddles observed by scanning near-field infrared microscopy are consistent with the system passing near criticality of the random field Ising model as temperature is varied. The resulting large barriers to equilibrium may be the source of the unusually robust hysteresis phenomena associated with the metal-insulator transition in this system.

  19. Specific features of the hybridization of Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons in a microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovskii, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    Polariton states have been investigated in a microcavity, where the energy of the Frenkel exciton in an organic quantum well and the energy of the semiconductor Wannier-Mott exciton in an inorganic quantum well are close to the microcavity optical mode. It has been shown that the interaction of each of these excitons with the microcavity optical mode leads to their interaction with each other and to the formation of mutually coupled hybrid excitations. The influence of the location of the quantum wells in a microcavity on the spectra of hybrid states with different polarizations has been analyzed.

  20. Ferromagnetism in the Mott insulator Ba2NaOsO6

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, A.S.; Misra, S.; Miller, G.J.; Harrison, W.A.; Kim, J.M.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-01-15

    Results are presented of single crystal structural, thermodynamic, and reflectivity measurements of the double-perovskite Ba{sub 2}NaOsO{sub 6}. These characterize the material as a 5d1 ferromagnetic Mott insulator with an ordered moment of {approx} 0.2 {micro}B per formula unit and T{sub C} = 6.8(3) K. The magnetic entropy associated with this phase transition is close to Rln2, indicating that the quartet groundstate anticipated from consideration of the crystal structure is split, consistent with a scenario in which the ferromagnetism is associated with orbital ordering.

  1. Mott variable range hopping conduction mechanism in single-phase CZTS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohd Zubair; Khare, Neeraj

    2015-06-01

    Single-phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film has been deposited by ultrasonic assisted chemical vapor deposition method on glass substrate at 325 °C substrate temperature. The temperature dependent of electrical conductivity of the CZTS thin film has been measured in order to identify the dominant conduction mechanism. In the high temperature range, the dominance of thermally activated band conduction is observed, whereas in the lower temperature region (70K-230K) the Mott 3D Variable Range Hopping is found to dominate.

  2. Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO(2).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Phillabaum, B; Carlson, E W; Dahmen, K A; Vidhyadhiraja, N S; Qazilbash, M M; Basov, D N

    2016-01-22

    We report the first application of critical cluster techniques to the Mott metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide. We show that the geometric universal properties of the metallic and insulating puddles observed by scanning near-field infrared microscopy are consistent with the system passing near criticality of the random field Ising model as temperature is varied. The resulting large barriers to equilibrium may be the source of the unusually robust hysteresis phenomena associated with the metal-insulator transition in this system. PMID:26849604

  3. Pressure-Induced Mott Transition Followed by a 24-K Superconducting Phase in BaFe2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Touru; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yutaka; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2015-12-01

    We performed high-pressure study for a Mott insulator BaFe2S3 , by measuring dc resistivity and ac susceptibility up to 15 GPa. We found that the antiferromagnetic insulating state at the ambient pressure is transformed into a metallic state at the critical pressure, Pc=10 GPa , and the superconductivity with the optimum Tc=24 K emerges above Pc. Furthermore, we found that the metal-insulator transition (Mott transition) boundary terminates at a critical point around 10 GPa and 75 K. The obtained pressure-temperature (P -T ) phase diagram is similar to those of the organic and fullerene compounds; namely, BaFe2S3 is the first inorganic superconductor in the vicinity of bandwidth control type Mott transition.

  4. Effect of the Mott cross section on the determination of the charge of ultraheavy cosmic rays from emulsion tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, P. B.; Morgan, S. H.; Parnell, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Energy deposition due to secondary electrons is calculated as a function of distance from the axis of the track of a heavy ion. The calculation incorporates the empirical formulas of Kobetich and Katz (1968) for delta-ray energy dissipation. Both the Mott and Born-approximation expressions for the delta-ray energy distributions are used, and the results are compared. The energy deposition projected along a line perpendicular to the track is also calculated. These results are used to estimate the effect that the use of the Mott cross section would have in the interpretation of photometric measurements on emulsion tracks of trans-iron cosmic-ray particles. It is shown that the use of 50 keV as a characteristic track-formation electron energy to estimate the effect of the Mott cross section systematically overestimates charge as derived from emulsions for Z greater than 20.

  5. Doped Mott Insulators in (111) Bilayers of Perovskite Transition-Metal Oxides with a Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of Mott insulators realized in (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides are studied. The low-energy effective Hamiltonians for such Mott insulators are derived in the presence of a strong spin-orbit coupling. These models are characterized by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interaction and the anisotropic interaction whose form depends on the $d$ orbital occupancy. From exact diagonalization analyses on finite clusters, the ground state phase diagrams are derived, including a Kitaev spin liquid phase in a narrow parameter regime for $t_{2g}$ systems. Slave-boson mean-field analyses indicate the possibility of novel superconducting states induced by carrier doping into the Mott-insulating parent systems, suggesting the present model systems as unique playgrounds for studying correlation-induced novel phenomena. Possible experimental realizations are also discussed.

  6. Nanoscale manipulation of the Mott insulating state coupled to charge order in 1T-TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doohee; Cheon, Sangmo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Heum; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-01-01

    The controllability over strongly correlated electronic states promises unique electronic devices. A recent example is an optically induced ultrafast switching device based on the transition between the correlated Mott insulating state and a metallic state of a transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2. However, the electronic switching has been challenging and the nature of the transition has been veiled. Here we demonstrate the nanoscale electronic manipulation of the Mott state of 1T-TaS2. The voltage pulse from a scanning tunnelling microscope switches the insulating phase locally into a metallic phase with irregularly textured domain walls in the charge density wave order inherent to this Mott state. The metallic state is revealed as a correlated phase, which is induced by the moderate reduction of electron correlation due to the charge density wave decoherence.

  7. Nanoscale manipulation of the Mott insulating state coupled to charge order in 1T-TaS2

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Doohee; Cheon, Sangmo; Kim, Ki-Seok; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Heum; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-01-01

    The controllability over strongly correlated electronic states promises unique electronic devices. A recent example is an optically induced ultrafast switching device based on the transition between the correlated Mott insulating state and a metallic state of a transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2. However, the electronic switching has been challenging and the nature of the transition has been veiled. Here we demonstrate the nanoscale electronic manipulation of the Mott state of 1T-TaS2. The voltage pulse from a scanning tunnelling microscope switches the insulating phase locally into a metallic phase with irregularly textured domain walls in the charge density wave order inherent to this Mott state. The metallic state is revealed as a correlated phase, which is induced by the moderate reduction of electron correlation due to the charge density wave decoherence. PMID:26795073

  8. Electric-field-induced metal maintained by current of the Mott insulator Ca2RuO4

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Fumihiko; Sakaki, Mariko; Yamanaka, Yuya; Tamaru, Sho; Suzuki, Takashi; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2013-01-01

    Recently, “application of electric field (E-field)” has received considerable attention as a new method to induce novel quantum phenomena since application of E-field can tune the electronic states directly with obvious scientific and industrial advantages over other turning methods. However, E-field-induced Mott transitions are rare and typically require high E-field and low temperature. Here we report that the multiband Mott insulator Ca2RuO4 shows unique insulator-metal switching induced by applying a dry-battery level voltage at room temperature. The threshold field Eth ~40 V/cm is much weaker than the Mott gap energy. Moreover, the switching is accompanied by a bulk structural transition. Perhaps the most peculiar of the present findings is that the induced metal can be maintained to low temperature by a weak current. PMID:23985626

  9. Fabrication and Measurement of Electroluminescence and Electrical Properties of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Containing Mott Insulator Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Nozoe, Soichiro; Kinoshita, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    By using the short-time electrocrystallization technique, phthalocyanine (Pc)-based Mott insulator Co(Pc)(CN)2 . 2CHCl3 nanocrystals were fabricated and applied to organic light-emiting diodes (OLEDs). The fabricated device having the configuration ITO/Co(Pc)(CN)2 . 2CHCl3/Alq3/Al, in which ITO is indium-tin oxide and Alq3 is tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum, showed clear emission from Alq3, suggesting the Mott insulator Co(Pc)(CN)2 . 2CHCl3 can work as useful hole-injection and transport material in OLEDs. PMID:27451640

  10. Strong-coupling approach to Mott transition of massless and massive Dirac fermions on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibi, Elaheh; Jafari, S. Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Phase transitions in the Hubbard model and ionic Hubbard model at half-filling on the honeycomb lattice are investigated in the strong-coupling perturbation theory which corresponds to an expansion in powers of the hopping t around the atomic limit. Within this formulation we find analytic expressions for the single-particle spectrum, whereby the calculation of the insulating gap is reduced to a simple root finding problem. This enables high-precision determination of the insulating gap that does not require any extrapolation procedure. The critical value of Mott transition on the honeycomb lattice is obtained to be Uc≈2.38 t . Studying the ionic Hubbard model at the lowest order, we find two insulating states, one with Mott character at large U and another with single-particle gap character at large ionic potential Δ . The present approach gives a critical gapless state at U =2 Δ at lowest order. By systematically improving on the perturbation expansion, the density of states around this critical gapless phase reduces.

  11. Bias activated dielectric response of excitons and excitonic Mott transition in quantum confined lasers structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhunia, Amit; Bansal, Kanika; Datta, Shouvik; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Henini, Mohamed

    In contrast to the widely reported optical techniques, there are hardly any investigations on corresponding electrical signatures of condensed matter physics of excitonic phenomena. We studied small signal steady state capacitance response in III-V materials based multi quantum well (AlGaInP) and MBE grown quantum dot (InGaAs) laser diodes to identify signatures of excitonic presence. Conductance activation by forward bias was probed using frequency dependent differential capacitance response (fdC/df), which changes characteristically with the onset of light emission indicating the occurrence of negative activation energy. Our analysis shows that it is connected with a steady state population of exciton like bound states. Calculated average energy of this bound state matches well with the binding energy of weakly confined excitons in this type of structures. Further increase in charge injection decreases the differential capacitive response in AlGaInP based diodes, indicating a gradual Mott transition of excitonic states into electron hole plasma. This electrical description of excitonic Mott transition is fully supplemented by standard optical spectroscopic signatures of band gap renormalization and phase space filling effects.

  12. Ultra-fast photo-carrier relaxation in Mott insulators with short-range spin correlations.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-fast spectroscopy can reveal the interplay of charges with low energy degrees of freedom, which underlies the rich physics of correlated materials. As a potential glue for superconductivity, spin fluctuations in Mott insulators are of particular interest. A theoretical description of the coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom is challenging, because magnetic order is often only short-lived and short-ranged. In this work we theoretically investigate how the spin-charge interactions influence the relaxation of a two-dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulator after photo-excitation. We use a nonequilibrium variant of the dynamical cluster approximation, which, in contrast to single-site dynamical mean-field theory, captures the effect of short-range correlations. The relaxation time is found to scale with the strength of the nearest-neighbor spin correlations, and can be 10-20 fs in the cuprates. Increasing the temperature or excitation density decreases the spin correlations and thus implies longer relaxation times. This may help to distinguish the effect of spin-fluctuations on the charge relaxation from the influence of other bosonic modes in the solid. PMID:26883536

  13. Nonequilibrium self-energy functional approach to the dynamical Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Eckstein, Martin; Potthoff, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The real-time dynamics of the Fermi-Hubbard model, driven out of equilibrium by quenching or ramping the interaction parameter, is studied within the framework of the nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. A dynamical impurity approximation with a single auxiliary bath site is considered as a reference system, and the time-dependent hybridization is optimized as prescribed by the variational principle. The dynamical two-site approximation turns out to be useful to study the real-time dynamics on short and intermediate time scales. Depending on the strength of the interaction in the final state, two qualitatively different response regimes are observed. For both weak and strong couplings, qualitative agreement with previous results of nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory is found. The two regimes are sharply separated by a critical point at which the low-energy bath degree of freedom decouples in the course of time. We trace the dependence of the critical interaction of the dynamical Mott transition on the duration of the interaction ramp from sudden quenches to adiabatic dynamics and therewith link the dynamical to the equilibrium Mott transition.

  14. Ultra-fast photo-carrier relaxation in Mott insulators with short-range spin correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    Ultra-fast spectroscopy can reveal the interplay of charges with low energy degrees of freedom, which underlies the rich physics of correlated materials. As a potential glue for superconductivity, spin fluctuations in Mott insulators are of particular interest. A theoretical description of the coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom is challenging, because magnetic order is often only short-lived and short-ranged. In this work we theoretically investigate how the spin-charge interactions influence the relaxation of a two-dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulator after photo-excitation. We use a nonequilibrium variant of the dynamical cluster approximation, which, in contrast to single-site dynamical mean-field theory, captures the effect of short-range correlations. The relaxation time is found to scale with the strength of the nearest-neighbor spin correlations, and can be 10-20 fs in the cuprates. Increasing the temperature or excitation density decreases the spin correlations and thus implies longer relaxation times. This may help to distinguish the effect of spin-fluctuations on the charge relaxation from the influence of other bosonic modes in the solid.

  15. Charge-ordering cascade with spin-orbit Mott dimer states in metallic iridium ditelluride.

    PubMed

    Ko, K-T; Lee, H-H; Kim, D-H; Yang, J-J; Cheong, S-W; Eom, M J; Kim, J S; Gammag, R; Kim, K-S; Kim, H-S; Kim, T-H; Yeom, H-W; Koo, T-Y; Kim, H-D; Park, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling results in technologically-crucial phenomena underlying magnetic devices like magnetic memories and energy-efficient motors. In heavy element materials, the strength of spin-orbit coupling becomes large to affect the overall electronic nature and induces novel states such as topological insulators and spin-orbit-integrated Mott states. Here we report an unprecedented charge-ordering cascade in IrTe2 without the loss of metallicity, which involves localized spin-orbit Mott states with diamagnetic Ir(4+)-Ir(4+) dimers. The cascade in cooling, uncompensated in heating, consists of first order-type consecutive transitions from a pure Ir(3+) phase to Ir(3+)-Ir(4+) charge-ordered phases, which originate from Ir 5d to Te 5p charge transfer involving anionic polymeric bond breaking. Considering that the system exhibits superconductivity with suppression of the charge order by doping, analogously to cuprates, these results provide a new electronic paradigm of localized charge-ordered states interacting with itinerant electrons through large spin-orbit coupling. PMID:26059464

  16. Maximally--localized Wannier Functions in Mott Insulators: the Case of MnO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posternak, M.; Baldereschi, A.; Marzari, N.

    2000-03-01

    Wannier functions can be considered a generalization of ``localized molecular orbitals'' to the case of extended systems. As such, they allow for a clear description of chemical bonds, and provide a convenient basis to study correlation effects. The localization algorithm of Marzari and Vanderbilt(N. Marzari and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 56) 12847 (1997). is combined here with the all--electron FLAPW method, and then applied to the case of antiferromagnetic MnO, a half--filled d shell Mott insulator. Two different one-electron schemes have been explored: local spin density (LSD), and LSD+U. In the latter case, the screened on--site Coulomb interaction U is explicitly included. The observed mixed charge--transfer/Mott--Hubbard character of MnO, as well as the mechanism of superexchange, are discussed in terms of the calculated Wannier functions, which display O 2p/Mn 3d bonding character. The centers of these Wannier functions are either on the Mn sites, or close to the O sites. Finally, their individual contributions to the Born effective charges are also presented.

  17. Unified understanding of superconductivity and Mott transition in alkali-doped fullerides from first principles.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Capone, Massimo; Arita, Ryotaro

    2015-08-01

    Alkali-doped fullerides A 3C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs) are surprising materials where conventional phonon-mediated superconductivity and unconventional Mott physics meet, leading to a remarkable phase diagram as a function of volume per C60 molecule. We address these materials with a state-of-the-art calculation, where we construct a realistic low-energy model from first principles without using a priori information other than the crystal structure and solve it with an accurate many-body theory. Remarkably, our scheme comprehensively reproduces the experimental phase diagram including the low-spin Mott-insulating phase next to the superconducting phase. More remarkably, the critical temperatures T c's calculated from first principles quantitatively reproduce the experimental values. The driving force behind the surprising phase diagram of A 3C60 is a subtle competition between Hund's coupling and Jahn-Teller phonons, which leads to an effectively inverted Hund's coupling. Our results establish that the fullerides are the first members of a novel class of molecular superconductors in which the multiorbital electronic correlations and phonons cooperate to reach high T c s-wave superconductivity. PMID:26601242

  18. Orbital-selective Mott phase of Cu-substituted iron-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Yang-Yang; Song, Yun

    2016-07-01

    We study the phase transition in Cu-substituted iron-based superconductors with a new developed real-space Green’s function method. We find that Cu substitution has strong effect on the orbital-selective Mott transition introduced by the Hund’s rule coupling. The redistribution of the orbital occupancy which is caused by the increase of the Hund’s rule coupling, gives rise to the Mott–Hubbard metal-insulator transition in the half-filled d xy orbital. We also find that more and more electronic states appear inside that Mott gap of the d xy orbital with the increase of Cu substitution, and the in-gap states around the Fermi level are strongly localized at some specific lattice sites. Further, a distinctive phase diagram, obtained for the Cu-substituted Fe-based superconductors, displays an orbital-selective insulating phase, as a result of the cooperative effect of the Hund’s rule coupling and the impurity-induced disorder.

  19. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Scheurer, Mathias S.; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers. PMID:25669431

  20. Quantum simulation of a topological Mott insulator with Rydberg atoms in a Lieb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, A.; Müller, M.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    We propose a realistic scheme to quantum simulate the so-far experimentally unobserved topological Mott insulator phase—an interaction-driven topological insulator—using cold atoms in an optical Lieb lattice. To this end, we study a system of spinless fermions in a Lieb lattice, exhibiting repulsive nearest- and next-to-nearest-neighbor interactions and derive the associated zero-temperature phase diagram within mean-field approximation. In particular, we analyze how the interactions can dynamically generate a charge density wave ordered, a nematic, and a topologically nontrivial quantum anomalous Hall phase. We characterize the topology of the different phases by the Chern number and discuss the possibility of phase coexistence. Based on the identified phases, we propose a realistic implementation of this model using cold Rydberg-dressed atoms in an optical lattice. The scheme, which allows one to access, in particular, the topological Mott insulator phase, robustly and independently of its exact position in parameter space, merely requires global, always-on off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states and is feasible with state-of-the-art experimental techniques that have already been demonstrated in the laboratory.

  1. Mott insulating states and quantum phase transitions of correlated SU(2 N ) Dirac fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Wang, Da; Meng, Zi Yang; Wang, Yu; Wu, Congjun

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between charge and spin degrees of freedom in strongly correlated fermionic systems, in particular of Dirac fermions, is a long-standing problem in condensed matter physics. We investigate the competing orders in the half-filled SU (2 N ) Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice, which can be accurately realized in optical lattices with ultracold large-spin alkaline-earth fermions. Employing large-scale projector determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we have explored quantum phase transitions from the gapless Dirac semimetals to the gapped Mott insulating phases in the SU(4) and SU(6) cases. Both of these Mott insulating states are found to be columnar valence bond solid (cVBS) and to be absent of the antiferromagnetic Néel ordering and the loop current ordering. Inside the cVBS phases, the dimer ordering is enhanced by increasing fermion components and behaves nonmonotonically as the interaction strength increases. Although the transitions generally should be of first order due to a cubic invariance possessed by the cVBS order, the coupling to gapless Dirac fermions can soften the transitions to second order through a nonanalytic term in the free energy. Our simulations provide important guidance for the experimental explorations of novel states of matter with ultracold alkaline-earth fermions.

  2. Gate-Tuned Mott Transition in Dilute InAs/GaSb Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lingjie; Lou, Wenkai; Chang, Kai; Sullivan, Gerard; Du, Rui-Rui

    We investigate the origin of the bulk gap in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum wells (QWs) that host spatially-separated electrons and holes using charge-neutral point (CNP) density (n_o~p_o) in gated devices as a tuning parameter. We find two distinct gap regimes: for I), n_o >>5×1010/cm2, a soft gap opens predominately by hybridization, which closes under B// >~10T; for II), approaching the dilute limit n_o~5×1010/cm2, a hard gap opens leading to a true bulk insulator with quantized helical edges, continuously for B// up to 35T. Our results confirm that hard gap is associated with the Quantum Spin Hall (QSH) effect but cannot be explained by single-particle band theory. Instead it originates from many-body correlations. The data are remarkably consistent with a Mott insulator bulk state in the dilute InAs/GaSb bilayers. Specifically, spontaneous exciton binding is a viable mechanism for driving the Mott transition. Our results point to the importance of charge interactions in properties of QSHE in InAs/GaSb, in addition to single-particle band theories. The work in Rice was supported by DOE (measurements) and NSF (materials).

  3. Topological Mott Insulator in Three-Dimensional Systems with Quadratic Band Touching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbut, Igor F.; Janssen, Lukas

    2014-09-01

    We argue that a three-dimensional electronic system with the Fermi level at the quadratic band touching point such as HgTe could be unstable with respect to the spontaneous formation of the (topological) Mott insulator at arbitrary weak long-range Coulomb interaction. The mechanism of the instability can be understood as the collision of Abrikosov's non-Fermi liquid fixed point with another, quantum critical, fixed point, which approaches it in the coupling space as the system's dimensionality d→dlow+, with the "lower critical dimension" 2Mott transition finally takes place at the critical temperature Tc˜T*exp[-zC/(dlow-d)1/2]. We estimate C =π/1.1, dynamical critical exponent z≈1.8, and the temperature scale kBT*≈(4m/melɛ2)13.6 eV, with m as the band mass and ɛ as the dielectric constant.

  4. Ultra-fast photo-carrier relaxation in Mott insulators with short-range spin correlations

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Martin; Werner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-fast spectroscopy can reveal the interplay of charges with low energy degrees of freedom, which underlies the rich physics of correlated materials. As a potential glue for superconductivity, spin fluctuations in Mott insulators are of particular interest. A theoretical description of the coupled spin and charge degrees of freedom is challenging, because magnetic order is often only short-lived and short-ranged. In this work we theoretically investigate how the spin-charge interactions influence the relaxation of a two-dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulator after photo-excitation. We use a nonequilibrium variant of the dynamical cluster approximation, which, in contrast to single-site dynamical mean-field theory, captures the effect of short-range correlations. The relaxation time is found to scale with the strength of the nearest-neighbor spin correlations, and can be 10–20 fs in the cuprates. Increasing the temperature or excitation density decreases the spin correlations and thus implies longer relaxation times. This may help to distinguish the effect of spin-fluctuations on the charge relaxation from the influence of other bosonic modes in the solid. PMID:26883536

  5. Electrical permittivity driven metal-insulator transition in heterostructures of nonpolar Mott and band insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yukiko; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    Metallic interfaces between insulating perovskites are often observed in heterostructures combining polar and nonpolar materials. In these systems, the polar discontinuity across the interface may drive an electronic reconstruction inducing free carriers at the interface. Here, we theoretically show that a metallic interface between a Mott and a band insulator can also form in the absence of a polar discontinuity. The condition for the appearance of such a metallic state is consistent with the classical Mott criterion: the metallic state is stable if the screening length falls below the effective Bohr radius of a particle-hole pair. In this case, the metallic state bears a remarkable similarity to the one found in polar/nonpolar heterostructures. On the other hand, if the screening length approaches the size of the effective Bohr radius, particles and holes are bound to each other resulting in an overall insulating phase. We analyze this metal-insulator transition, which is tunable by the dielectric constant, in the framework of the slave-boson mean-field theory for a lattice model with both on-site and long-range Coulomb interactions. We discuss ground-state properties and transport coefficients, which we derive in the relaxation-time approximation. Interestingly, we find that the metal-insulator transition is accompanied by a strong enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient in the band-insulator region in the vicinity of the interface. The implications of our theoretical findings for various experimental systems such as nonpolar (110) interfaces are also discussed.

  6. Hopping conduction in bismuth modified zinc vanadate glasses: An applicability of Mott's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punia, R.; Kundu, R. S.; Murugavel, S.; Kishore, N.

    2012-12-01

    The dc conductivity measured in a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 533.16 K) for glass samples of compositions 50V2O5.xBi2O3.(50-x) ZnO; x = 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20, is discussed in this paper. The temperature dependent dc conductivity has been analyzed in the framework of various theoretical models, which describe the hopping conduction in disordered semiconducting systems. It has been observed that Mott's model of polaron hopping in transition metals is in good agreement with the experimental data in high as well as intermediate temperature regions. The various polaron hopping parameters have also been deduced. It has been ascertained by these estimated quantities and different approaches that the electrical conduction in present glass system is due to non-adiabatic variable range hopping of small polarons. Moreover, it has been found that Mott's and Greaves' variable range hopping models are in good agreement with the experimental data in the whole studied temperature range in the present investigation.

  7. Tuning a strain-induced orbital selective Mott transition in epitaxial VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shantanu; Quackenbush, N. F.; Paik, H.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Schlom, D. G.; Piper, L. F. J.; Lee, Wei-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    We present evidence of strain-induced modulation of electron correlation effects and increased orbital anisotropy in the rutile phase of epitaxial VO2/TiO2 films from hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and soft V L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy, respectively. By using the U(1) slave spin formalism, we further argue that the observed anisotropic correlation effects can be understood by a model of orbital selective Mott transition at a filling that is noninteger but close to the half filling. Because the overlaps of wave functions between d orbitals are modified by the strain, orbital-dependent renormalizations of the bandwidths and the onsite energy occur. These renormalizations generally result in different occupation numbers in different orbitals. We find that if the system has a noninteger filling number near the half filling such as for VO2, certain orbitals could reach an occupation number closer to half filling under the strain, resulting in a strong reduction in the quasiparticle weight Zα of that orbital. Our work demonstrates that such an orbital selective Mott transition, defined as the case with Zα=0 in some but not all orbitals, could be accessed by epitaxial-strain engineering of correlated electron systems.

  8. Bose-glass, superfluid, and rung-Mott phases of hard-core bosons in disordered two-leg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Becca, Federico; Fabrizio, Michele

    2011-06-01

    By means of Monte Carlo techniques, we study the role of disorder on a system of hard-core bosons in a two-leg ladder with both intrachain (t) and interchain (t') hoppings. We find that the phase diagram as a function of the boson density, disorder strength, and t'/t is far from being trivial. This contrasts with the case of spinless fermions where standard localization arguments apply and an Anderson-localized phase pervades the whole phase diagram. A compressible Bose-glass phase always intrudes between the Mott insulator with zero (or one) bosons per site and the superfluid that is stabilized for weak disorder. At half-filling, there is a direct transition between a (gapped) rung-Mott insulator and a Bose glass, which is driven by exponentially rare regions where disorder is suppressed. Finally, by doping the rung-Mott insulator, a direct transition to the superfluid is possible only in the clean system, whereas the Mott phase is always surrounded by the a Bose glass when disorder is present. The phase diagram based on our numerical evidence is finally reported.

  9. Doping-driven orbital-selective Mott transition in multi-band Hubbard models with crystal field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilin, Wang; Li, Huang; Liang, Du; Xi, Dai

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the doping-driven orbital-selective Mott transition in multi-band Hubbard models with equal band width in the presence of crystal field splitting. Crystal field splitting lifts one of the bands while leaving the others degenerate. We use single-site dynamical mean-field theory combined with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver to calculate a phase diagram as a function of total electron filling N and crystal field splitting Δ. We find a large region of orbital-selective Mott phase in the phase diagram when the doping is large enough. Further analysis indicates that the large region of orbital-selective Mott phase is driven and stabilized by doping. Such models may account for the orbital-selective Mott transition in some doped realistic strongly correlated materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00108) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB921700).

  10. Jeff = 1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state close to the cubic limit in Ca4IrO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, S.; Cao, G.-X.; Okamoto, S.; Kim, J. W.; Cooper, V. R.; Gai, Z.; Sales, B. C.; Lumsden, M. D.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2014-03-01

    The Jeff = 1/2 Mott spin-orbit insulating state is manifested in systems with large cubic crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling that are comparable to the on-site Coulomb interaction, U. 5d transition metal oxides host parameters in this regime and recently strong evidence for this state in Sr2IrO4, and additional iridates, has been presented. All the candidates, however, have distorted octahedra, such as the elongation along the c-axis in Sr2IrO4, and consequently a non-cubic local crystal field environment. Consequently the materials form a mixed Jeff = 1/2,3/2 ground state. The lack of a material with an unmixed Jeff = 1/2 has impacted the development and testing of robust models of this novel insulating and magnetic state. We present neutron diffraction, resonant x-ray scattering and DFT calculations that not only reveal Ca4IrO6 is a new candidate Jeff = 1/2 material with long-range magnetic order, but furthermore resides close to the required cubic limit. Both our experimental and theoretical investigation indicate Ca4IrO6 is uniquely positioned to act as a canonical system to investigate of the Jeff = 1/2 state. This research was supported by the Scientific User Facilities Division and the Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Angle Resolved Photoemission Study of a Mott Insulator and Its Evolution to a High Temperature Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronning, F.

    2002-03-01

    One of the most remarkable facts about the high temperature superconductors is their close proximity to an antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulating phase. This fact suggests that to understand superconductivity in the cuprates we must first understand the insulating regime. Due to material properties the technique of angle resolved photoemission is ideally suited to study the electronic structure in the cuprates. Thus, a natural starting place to unlocking the secrets of high Tc would appears to be with a photoemission investigation of insulating cuprates. This dissertation presents the results of precisely such a study. In particular, we have focused on the compound Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. With increasing Na content this system goes from an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator with a Neel transition of 256K to a superconductor with an optimal transition temperature of 28K. At half filling we have found an asymmetry in the integrated spectral weight, which can be related to the occupation probability, n(k). This has led us to identify a d-wave-like dispersion in the insulator, which in turn implies that the high energy pseudogap as seen by photoemission is a remnant property of the insulator. These results are robust features of the insulator which we found in many different compounds and experimental conditions. By adding Na we were able to study the evolution of the electronic structure across the insulator to metal transition. We found that the chemical potential shifts as holes are doped into the system. This picture is in sharp contrast to the case of La2-xSrxCuO4 where the chemical potential remains fixed and states are created inside the gap. Furthermore, the low energy excitations (ie the Fermi surface) in metallic Ca1.9Na0.1CuO2Cl2 is most well described as a Fermi arc, although the high binding energy features reveal the presence of shadow bands. Thus, the results in this dissertation provide a new avenue for understanding the evolution of the Mott insulator to

  12. Haldane-Hubbard Mott Insulator: From Tetrahedral Spin Crystal to Chiral Spin Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by cold atom experiments on Chern insulators, we study the honeycomb lattice Haldane-Hubbard Mott insulator of spin-1 /2 fermions using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We show that this model exhibits various chiral magnetic orders including a wide regime of triple-Q tetrahedral order. Incorporating third-neighbor hopping frustrates and ultimately melts this tetrahedral spin crystal. From analyzing the low energy spectrum, many-body Chern numbers, entanglement spectra, and modular matrices, we identify the molten state as a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with gapped semion excitations. We formulate and study the Chern-Simons-Higgs field theory of the exotic CSL-to-tetrahedral spin crystallization transition.

  13. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665

  14. Using nonequilibrium dynamics to probe competing orders in a Mott-Peierls system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Y.; Moritz, B.; Chen, C. -C.; Jia, C. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2016-02-24

    Competition between ordered phases, and their associated phase transitions, are significant in the study of strongly correlated systems. Here, we examine one aspect, the nonequilibrium dynamics of a photoexcited Mott-Peierls system, using an effective Peierls-Hubbard model and exact diagonalization. Near a transition where spin and charge become strongly intertwined, we observe antiphase dynamics and a coupling-strength-dependent suppression or enhancement in the static structure factors. The renormalized bosonic excitations coupled to a particular photoexcited electron can be extracted, which provides an approach for characterizing the underlying bosonic modes. The results from this analysis for different electronic momenta show an uneven softeningmore » due to a stronger coupling near kF. As a result, this behavior reflects the strong link between the fermionic momenta, the coupling vertices, and ultimately, the bosonic susceptibilities when multiple phases compete for the ground state of the system.« less

  15. Quantum melting of magnetic order in an organic dimer Mott-insulating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Makoto; Ishihara, Sumio

    2016-05-01

    Quantum entanglement effects between the electronic spin and charge degrees of freedom are examined in an organic molecular solid, termed a dimer Mott-insulating system, in which molecular dimers are arranged in a crystal as fundamental units. A low energy effective model includes an antisymmetric exchange interaction, as one of the dominant magnetic interactions. This interaction favors a 90 deg spin configuration, and competes with the Heisenberg-type exchange interaction. Stabilities of the magnetic ordered phases are examined by using the spin-wave theory, as well as the Schwinger-boson theory. It is found that the spin-charge interaction promotes an instability of the long-range magnetic ordered state around a parameter region where two spin-spiral phases are merged. Implication for the quantum spin liquid state observed in κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2 (CN) 3 is discussed.

  16. Surface Effects on the Mott-Hubbard Transition in Archetypal V{2}O{3}.

    PubMed

    Lantz, G; Hajlaoui, M; Papalazarou, E; Jacques, V L R; Mazzotti, A; Marsi, M; Lupi, S; Amati, M; Gregoratti, L; Si, L; Zhong, Z; Held, K

    2015-12-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study exploring surface effects on the evolution of the metal-insulator transition in the model Mott-Hubbard compound Cr-doped V{2}O{3}. We find a microscopic domain formation that is clearly affected by the surface crystallographic orientation. Using scanning photoelectron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we find that surface defects act as nucleation centers for the formation of domains at the temperature-induced isostructural transition and favor the formation of microscopic metallic regions. A density-functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory study of different surface terminations shows that the surface reconstruction with excess vanadyl cations leads to doped, and hence more metallic, surface states, which explains our experimental observations. PMID:26684133

  17. Surface Effects on the Mott-Hubbard Transition in Archetypal V2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, G.; Hajlaoui, M.; Papalazarou, E.; Jacques, V. L. R.; Mazzotti, A.; Marsi, M.; Lupi, S.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Si, L.; Zhong, Z.; Held, K.

    2015-12-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study exploring surface effects on the evolution of the metal-insulator transition in the model Mott-Hubbard compound Cr-doped V2O3. We find a microscopic domain formation that is clearly affected by the surface crystallographic orientation. Using scanning photoelectron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we find that surface defects act as nucleation centers for the formation of domains at the temperature-induced isostructural transition and favor the formation of microscopic metallic regions. A density-functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory study of different surface terminations shows that the surface reconstruction with excess vanadyl cations leads to doped, and hence more metallic, surface states, which explains our experimental observations.

  18. Depth profiling charge accumulation from a ferroelectric into a doped Mott insulator.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Maya; Rault, Julien E; Gloter, Alexandre; Nemsak, Slavomir; Palsson, Gunnar K; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Fadley, Charles S; Carrétéro, Cécile; Yamada, Hiroyuki; March, Katia; Garcia, Vincent; Fusil, Stéphane; Barthélémy, Agnès; Stéphan, Odile; Colliex, Christian; Bibes, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The electric field control of functional properties is a crucial goal in oxide-based electronics. Nonvolatile switching between different resistivity or magnetic states in an oxide channel can be achieved through charge accumulation or depletion from an adjacent ferroelectric. However, the way in which charge distributes near the interface between the ferroelectric and the oxide remains poorly known, which limits our understanding of such switching effects. Here, we use a first-of-a-kind combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy, near-total-reflection hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ab initio theory to address this issue. We achieve a direct, quantitative, atomic-scale characterization of the polarization-induced charge density changes at the interface between the ferroelectric BiFeO3 and the doped Mott insulator Ca(1-x)Ce(x)MnO3, thus providing insight on how interface-engineering can enhance these switching effects. PMID:25768912

  19. {epsilon} expansion of the conductivity at the superconductor{endash}Mott-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, R.; Zappala, D.

    1996-04-01

    We study the critical behavior of the conductivity {sigma}({omega}) at the zero-temperature superconductor{endash}Mott-insulator transition in {ital d} spacetime dimensions for a model of bosons with short-range interaction and no disorder. We obtain {sigma}({omega}{sub {ital n}})=(4{ital e}{sup 2}/{h_bar}){sigma}{sub {epsilon}}{omega}{sub {ital n}}{sup 1{minus}{epsilon}}, as predicted by the scaling theory, and the prefactor {sigma}{sub {epsilon}} is calculated in the {epsilon} expansion, to order {epsilon}{sup 2} ({epsilon}=4{minus}{ital d}). In two spatial dimensions ({ital d}=3), we find a value of the universal conductance {sigma}{sup {sq_bullet}}=0.315(4{ital e}{sup 2}/{ital h}), in good agreement with the known Monte Carlo results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Using Nonequilibrium Dynamics to Probe Competing Orders in a Mott-Peierls System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Moritz, B; Chen, C-C; Jia, C J; van Veenendaal, M; Devereaux, T P

    2016-02-26

    Competition between ordered phases, and their associated phase transitions, are significant in the study of strongly correlated systems. Here, we examine one aspect, the nonequilibrium dynamics of a photoexcited Mott-Peierls system, using an effective Peierls-Hubbard model and exact diagonalization. Near a transition where spin and charge become strongly intertwined, we observe antiphase dynamics and a coupling-strength-dependent suppression or enhancement in the static structure factors. The renormalized bosonic excitations coupled to a particular photoexcited electron can be extracted, which provides an approach for characterizing the underlying bosonic modes. The results from this analysis for different electronic momenta show an uneven softening due to a stronger coupling near k_{F}. This behavior reflects the strong link between the fermionic momenta, the coupling vertices, and ultimately, the bosonic susceptibilities when multiple phases compete for the ground state of the system. PMID:26967429

  1. Mott Electrons in an Artificial Graphenelike Crystal of Rare-Earth Nickelate.

    PubMed

    Middey, S; Meyers, D; Doennig, D; Kareev, M; Liu, X; Cao, Y; Yang, Zhenzhong; Shi, Jinan; Gu, Lin; Ryan, P J; Pentcheva, R; Freeland, J W; Chakhalian, J

    2016-02-01

    Deterministic control over the periodic geometrical arrangement of the constituent atoms is the backbone of the material properties, which, along with the interactions, define the electronic and magnetic ground state. Following this notion, a bilayer of a prototypical rare-earth nickelate, NdNiO_{3}, combined with a dielectric spacer, LaAlO_{3}, has been layered along the pseudocubic [111] direction. The resulting artificial graphenelike Mott crystal with magnetic 3d electrons has antiferromagnetic correlations. In addition, a combination of resonant X-ray linear dichroism measurements and ab initio calculations reveal the presence of an ordered orbital pattern, which is unattainable in either bulk nickelates or nickelate based heterostructures grown along the [001] direction. These findings highlight another promising venue towards designing new quantum many-body states by virtue of geometrical engineering. PMID:26894726

  2. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-01-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665

  3. Z2 gauge theory description of the Mott transition in infinite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitko, Rok; Fabrizio, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The infinite-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model can be mapped exactly with no additional constraint onto a model of free fermions coupled in a Z2 gauge-invariant manner to auxiliary Ising spins in a transverse field. In this slave-spin representation, the zero-temperature insulator-to-metal transition translates into spontaneous breaking of the local Z2 gauge symmetry, which is not forbidden in infinite dimensions, thus endowing the Mott transition of an order parameter that is otherwise elusive in the original fermion representation. We demonstrate this interesting scenario by exactly solving the effective spin-fermion model by dynamical mean-field theory both at zero and at finite temperature.

  4. Photoinduced phase transitions in narrow-gap Mott insulators: The case of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhuoran; Millis, Andrew J.

    2016-03-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in the narrow-gap Mott insulator VO2. The initial stages of relaxation are treated using a quantum Boltzmann equation methodology, which reveals a rapid (˜femtosecond time scale) relaxation to a pseudothermal state characterized by a few parameters that vary slowly in time. The long-time limit is then studied by a Hartree-Fock methodology, which reveals the possibility of nonequilibrium excitation to a new metastable M1 metal phase that is qualitatively consistent with a recent experiment. The general physical picture of photoexcitation driving a correlated electron system to a new state that is not accessible in equilibrium may be applicable in similar materials.

  5. Mott glass to superfluid transition for random bosons in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, S.; Pekker, D.; Refael, G.

    2012-03-01

    We study the zero-temperature superfluid-insulator transition for a two-dimensional model of interacting, lattice bosons in the presence of quenched disorder and particle-hole symmetry. We follow the approach of a recent series of papers by Altman, Kafri, Polkovnikov, and Refael, in which the strong disorder renormalization group is used to study disordered bosons in one dimension. Adapting this method to two dimensions, we study several different species of disorder and uncover universal features of the superfluid-insulator transition. In particular, we locate an unstable finite disorder fixed point that governs the transition between the superfluid and a gapless, glassy insulator. We present numerical evidence that this glassy phase is the incompressible Mott glass and that the transition from this phase to the superfluid is driven by a percolation-type process. Finally, we provide estimates of the critical exponents governing this transition.

  6. A Mott Glass to Superfluid Transition for Random Bosons in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekker, David; Iyer, Shankar; Refael, Gil

    2012-02-01

    We study the zero temperature superfluid-insulator transition for a two-dimensional model of interacting, lattice bosons in the presence of quenched disorder and particle-hole symmetry. We follow the approach of a recent series of papers by Altman, Kafri, Polkovnikov, and Refael, in which the strong disorder renormalization group is used to study disordered bosons in one dimension. Adapting this method to two dimensions, we study several different species of disorder and uncover universal features of the superfluid-insulator transition. In particular, we locate an unstable finite disorder fixed point that governs the transition between the superfluid and a gapless, glassy insulator. We present numerical evidence that this glassy phase is the incompressible Mott glass and that the transition from this phase to the superfluid is driven by percolation-type process. Finally, we provide estimates of the critical exponents governing this transition.

  7. Spin Andreev-like Reflection in Metal-Mott Insulator Heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Al Hassanieh, Khaled A; Rincon, Julian; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2015-01-01

    Using the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG), we study the time evolution of electron wave packets in one-dimensional (1D) metal-superconductor heterostructures. The results show Andreev reflection at the interface, as expected. By combining these results with the well-known single- spin-species electron-hole transformation in the Hubbard model, we predict an analogous spin Andreev reflection in metal-Mott insulator heterostructures. This effect is numerically confirmed using 1D tDMRG, but it is expected to also be present in higher dimensions, as well as in more general Hamiltonians. We present an intuitive picture of the spin reflection, analogous to that of Andreev reflection at metal-more » superconductor interfaces. This allows us to discuss a novel antiferromagnetic proximity effect. Possible experimental realizations are discussed.« less

  8. Spin Andreev-like Reflection in Metal-Mott Insulator Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Hassanieh, Khaled A; Rincon, Julian; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2015-01-01

    Using the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group (tDMRG), we study the time evolution of electron wave packets in one-dimensional (1D) metal-superconductor heterostructures. The results show Andreev reflection at the interface, as expected. By combining these results with the well-known single- spin-species electron-hole transformation in the Hubbard model, we predict an analogous spin Andreev reflection in metal-Mott insulator heterostructures. This effect is numerically confirmed using 1D tDMRG, but it is expected to also be present in higher dimensions, as well as in more general Hamiltonians. We present an intuitive picture of the spin reflection, analogous to that of Andreev reflection at metal- superconductor interfaces. This allows us to discuss a novel antiferromagnetic proximity effect. Possible experimental realizations are discussed.

  9. Mott Electrons in an Artificial Graphenelike Crystal of Rare-Earth Nickelate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Doennig, D.; Kareev, M.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Yang, Zhenzhong; Shi, Jinan; Gu, Lin; Ryan, P. J.; Pentcheva, R.; Freeland, J. W.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-02-01

    Deterministic control over the periodic geometrical arrangement of the constituent atoms is the backbone of the material properties, which, along with the interactions, define the electronic and magnetic ground state. Following this notion, a bilayer of a prototypical rare-earth nickelate, NdNiO3 , combined with a dielectric spacer, LaAlO3, has been layered along the pseudocubic [111] direction. The resulting artificial graphenelike Mott crystal with magnetic 3 d electrons has antiferromagnetic correlations. In addition, a combination of resonant X-ray linear dichroism measurements and ab initio calculations reveal the presence of an ordered orbital pattern, which is unattainable in either bulk nickelates or nickelate based heterostructures grown along the [001] direction. These findings highlight another promising venue towards designing new quantum many-body states by virtue of geometrical engineering.

  10. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving this purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.

  11. Spin-orbit coupling and electronic charge effects in Mott insulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Shan; Li, You -Quan; Batista, Cristian D.

    2014-11-04

    We derive the effective charge- and current-density operators for the strong-coupling limit of a single-band Mott insulator in the presence of spin-orbit coupling and show that the spin-orbit contribution to the effective charge density leads to novel mechanisms for multiferroic behavior. In some sense, these mechanisms are the electronic counterpart of the ionic-based mechanisms, which have been proposed for explaining the electric polarization induced by spiral spin orderings. In addition, the new electronic mechanisms are illustrated by considering cycloidal and proper-screw magnetic orderings on sawtooth and kagome lattices. As for the isotropic case, geometric frustration is crucial for achieving thismore » purely electronic coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom.« less

  12. Coexistence of Mott and superfluid domains of bosons confined in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanore, Mukesh; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ground state properties of the attractive Bose-gas confined on square optical lattice and superimposed wine-bottle-bottom or Mexican hat trap potential. The system is modeled by two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions and inhomogeneous lattice potential. We calculate the energy spectrum, the on-site number fluctuation, local density and local compressibility using numerical exact diagonalization method for incommensurate lattice filling. The trap potential has several degenerate minimum sites distributed along a ring at the wine-bottle-bottom. It is shown that beyond a certain value of the attractive interaction strength there is phase coherent condensate on these degenerate sites with finite value of the on-site number fluctuation and local compressibility giving rise to localized superfluidity or superfluidity on a ring. For the same value of the interaction strength the non-degenerate sites produces Mott region.

  13. Can the Mott Insulator TiOCl be Metallized by Doping? A First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Jeschke, Harald O.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Valentí, Roser

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the effect of Na intercalation in the layered Mott insulator TiOCl within the framework of density functional theory. We show that the system remains always insulating for all studied Na concentrations, and the evolution of the spectral weight upon Na doping is consistent with recent photoemission experiments. We predict the Na-doped superlattice structures, and show that substitutions of O by F, Cl by S, or Ti by V (or Sc), respectively, fail to metallize the system. We propose a description in terms of a multiorbital ionic Hubbard model in a quasi-two-dimensional lattice and discuss the nature of the insulating state under doping. Finally, a likely route for metallizing TiOCl by doping is proposed.

  14. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-01

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  15. Hydrogen-like Wannier-Mott Excitons in Single Crystal of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Tilchin, Jenya; Dirin, Dmitry N; Maikov, Georgy I; Sashchiuk, Aldona; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2016-06-28

    A thorough investigation of exciton properties in bulk CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals was carried out by recording the reflectance, steady-state and transient photoluminescence spectra of submicron volumes across the crystal. The study included an examination of the spectra profiles at various temperatures and laser excitation fluencies. The results resolved the first and second hydrogen-like Wannier-Mott exciton transitions at low temperatures, from which the ground-state exciton's binding energy of 15.33 meV and Bohr radius of ∼4.38 nm were derived. Furthermore, the photoluminescence temperature dependence suggested dominance of delayed exciton emission at elevated temperatures, originating from detrapping of carriers from shallow traps or/and from retrapping of electron-hole pairs into exciton states. The study revealed knowledge about several currently controversial issues that have an impact on functionality of perovskite materials in optoelectronic devices. PMID:27249335

  16. External pumping of hybrid nanostructures in microcavity with Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The exciton-exciton interaction in hybrid nanostructures with resonating Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons was investigated in many publications. In microcavity the hybrid nanostructures can be exposed to different types of optical pumping, the most common one being pumping through one of the microcavity side. However, not investigated and thus never been discussed the hybrid excitons generation by pumping of confined quantum wells from the side of empty microcavity without nanostructures in a wave guided configuration. Here, we consider the hybrid excitations in cavity with organic and inorganic quantum wells and with different types of pumping from external source. The frequency dependence for intensity of excitations in hybrid structure is also investigated. The results may be used for search of most effective fluorescence and relaxation processes. The same approach may be used when both quantum wells are organic or inorganic.

  17. Haldane-Hubbard Mott Insulator: From Tetrahedral Spin Crystal to Chiral Spin Liquid.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ciarán; Cincio, Lukasz; Papić, Zlatko; Paramekanti, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by cold atom experiments on Chern insulators, we study the honeycomb lattice Haldane-Hubbard Mott insulator of spin-1/2 fermions using exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group methods. We show that this model exhibits various chiral magnetic orders including a wide regime of triple-Q tetrahedral order. Incorporating third-neighbor hopping frustrates and ultimately melts this tetrahedral spin crystal. From analyzing the low energy spectrum, many-body Chern numbers, entanglement spectra, and modular matrices, we identify the molten state as a chiral spin liquid (CSL) with gapped semion excitations. We formulate and study the Chern-Simons-Higgs field theory of the exotic CSL-to-tetrahedral spin crystallization transition. PMID:27082001

  18. Electrically tunable transport in the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Seinige, H.; Cao, G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Tsoi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Electronic transport properties of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator S r2Ir O4 have been investigated under extremely high electric biases. Using nanoscale contacts, we apply electric fields up to a few MV/m to a single crystal of S r2Ir O4 and observe a continuous reduction in the material's resistivity with increasing bias, characterized by a reduction in the transport activation energy by as much as 16 % . Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements provide a means to unambiguously retrieve the bias dependence of the activation energy from the Arrhenius plots at different biases. We further demonstrate the feasibility of reversible resistive switching induced by the electric bias, which is of interest for the emerging field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Our findings demonstrate the potential of electrical means for tuning electronic properties in 5 d transition-metal oxides and suggest a promising path towards development of next-generation functional devices.

  19. Self-doping induced orbital-selective Mott transition in Hg2Ru2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, L.; Laad, M. S.; Leoni, S.; Rosner, H.

    2009-02-01

    Pyrochlore oxides are fascinating systems where strong multiorbital correlations in concert with geometrical frustration give rise to unanticipated physical properties. The detailed mechanism of the insulator-metal transitions (IMTs) underpinning these phenomena is, however, ill understood in general. Motivated thereby, we study the IMT in the pyrochlore Hg2Ru2O7 using local-density approximation plus dynamical mean-field theory. In contrast to the well-known examples of Mott transitions in transition metal oxide, we show that in the negative charge-transfer situation characteristic of Hg2Ru2O7 , self-doping plays a crucial role in the emergence of an orbital-selective IMT. We argue that this mechanism has broader relevance to other correlated pyrochlore oxides.

  20. Coexistence and competition of on-site and intersite Coulomb interactions in Mott-molecular-dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, R. C.; de Arruda, A. S.; Craco, L.

    2016-02-01

    We reveal the interplay between on-site (U) and intersite (V) Coulomb interactions in the extended two-site Hubbard model. Due to its atomic-like form quantum correlations intrinsic to Mott-molecular-dimers are exactly computed. Our results for physical quantities such as double occupancy and specific heat are consistent with those obtained for the one-band Hubbard model, suggesting that a two-site dimer model is able to capture the essential thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting electron systems. It is noted that intersite Coulomb interactions promote the formation of doublons, which compete with the spin-singlet state induced by the on-site Coulomb repulsion. Our results are expected to be relevant for understanding electronic and thermodynamical properties of interacting electrons in systems with strongly coupled magnetic atoms.

  1. Observation of correlated particle-hole pairs and string order in low-dimensional Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Endres, M; Cheneau, M; Fukuhara, T; Weitenberg, C; Schauss, P; Gross, C; Mazza, L; Bañuls, M C; Pollet, L; Bloch, I; Kuhr, S

    2011-10-14

    Quantum phases of matter are characterized by the underlying correlations of the many-body system. Although this is typically captured by a local order parameter, it has been shown that a broad class of many-body systems possesses a hidden nonlocal order. In the case of bosonic Mott insulators, the ground state properties are governed by quantum fluctuations in the form of correlated particle-hole pairs that lead to the emergence of a nonlocal string order in one dimension. By using high-resolution imaging of low-dimensional quantum gases in an optical lattice, we directly detect these pairs with single-site and single-particle sensitivity and observe string order in the one-dimensional case. PMID:21998381

  2. Atomic diffusion in the surface state of Mott insulator NiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, C.; Friedemann, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present resistivity measurements of Mott insulator NiS2 single crystals after heat treatment. We find a strong increase of the low temperature resistivity that relaxes back towards the pristine behaviour over several days with a time constant of 45 h at room temperature. The low temperature resistivity has previously been shown to be dominated by surface conduction (Thio and Bennett, 1994 [1]). Consequently, the changes induced by heat treatment are attributed to changes of surface states. Our results suggest the creation of vacancies in the surface that are refilled from the bulk via atomic diffusion. We estimate a diffusion constant of D ≈ 1 × 10-10 m2 s-1 at room temperature. We identify sulphur vacancies as the most likely to form via oxidisation of sulphur forming volatile SO2 during heat treatment. Our results point towards these sulphur vacancies to be the source of surface state localisation in NiS2.

  3. Foundations of heavy-fermion superconductivity: lattice Kondo effect and Mott physics.

    PubMed

    Steglich, Frank; Wirth, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    This article overviews the development of heavy-fermion superconductivity, notably in such rare-earth-based intermetallic compounds which behave as Kondo-lattice systems. Heavy-fermion superconductivity is of unconventional nature in the sense that it is not mediated by electron-phonon coupling. Rather, in most cases the attractive interaction between charge carriers is apparently magnetic in origin. Fluctuations associated with an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP) play a major role. The first heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 turned out to be the prototype of a larger group of materials for which the underlying, often pressure-induced, AF QCP is likely to be of a three-dimensional (3D) spin-density-wave (SDW) variety. For UBe13, the second heavy-fermion superconductor, a magnetic-field-induced 3D SDW QCP inside the superconducting phase can be conjectured. Such a 'conventional', itinerant QCP can be well understood within Landau's paradigm of order-parameter fluctuations. In contrast, the low-temperature normal-state properties of a few heavy-fermion superconductors are at odds with the Landau framework. They are characterized by an 'unconventional', local QCP which may be considered a zero-temperature 4 f-orbital selective Mott transition. Here, as concluded for YbRh2Si2, the breakdown of the Kondo effect concurring with the AF instability gives rise to an abrupt change of the Fermi surface. Very recently, superconductivity was discovered for this compound at ultra-low temperatures. Therefore, YbRh2Si2 along with CeRhIn5 under pressure provide a natural link between the large group of about fifty low-temperature heavy-fermion superconductors and other families of unconventional superconductors with substantially higher T c, e.g. the doped Mott insulators of the perovskite-type cuprates and the organic charge-transfer salts. PMID:27376190

  4. Foundations of heavy-fermion superconductivity: lattice Kondo effect and Mott physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Frank; Wirth, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    This article overviews the development of heavy-fermion superconductivity, notably in such rare-earth-based intermetallic compounds which behave as Kondo-lattice systems. Heavy-fermion superconductivity is of unconventional nature in the sense that it is not mediated by electron-phonon coupling. Rather, in most cases the attractive interaction between charge carriers is apparently magnetic in origin. Fluctuations associated with an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP) play a major role. The first heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 turned out to be the prototype of a larger group of materials for which the underlying, often pressure-induced, AF QCP is likely to be of a three-dimensional (3D) spin-density-wave (SDW) variety. For UBe13, the second heavy-fermion superconductor, a magnetic-field-induced 3D SDW QCP inside the superconducting phase can be conjectured. Such a ‘conventional’, itinerant QCP can be well understood within Landau’s paradigm of order-parameter fluctuations. In contrast, the low-temperature normal-state properties of a few heavy-fermion superconductors are at odds with the Landau framework. They are characterized by an ‘unconventional’, local QCP which may be considered a zero-temperature 4 f-orbital selective Mott transition. Here, as concluded for YbRh2Si2, the breakdown of the Kondo effect concurring with the AF instability gives rise to an abrupt change of the Fermi surface. Very recently, superconductivity was discovered for this compound at ultra-low temperatures. Therefore, YbRh2Si2 along with CeRhIn5 under pressure provide a natural link between the large group of about fifty low-temperature heavy-fermion superconductors and other families of unconventional superconductors with substantially higher T c, e.g. the doped Mott insulators of the perovskite-type cuprates and the organic charge-transfer salts.

  5. Cavity-Enhanced Light Scattering in Optical Lattices to Probe Atomic Quantum Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut

    2007-03-09

    Different quantum states of atoms in optical lattices can be nondestructively monitored by off-resonant collective light scattering into a cavity. Angle resolved measurements of photon number and variance give information about atom-number fluctuations and pair correlations without single-site access. Observation at angles of diffraction minima provides information on quantum fluctuations insensitive to classical noise. For transverse probing, no photon is scattered into a cavity from a Mott insulator phase, while the photon number is proportional to the atom number for a superfluid.

  6. Ca2O3Fe2.6S2: an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at proximity to bad metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Wu, Xiaozhi; Li, Dandan; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhiping; Shen, Shijie; Yuan, Duanduan; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-04-01

    We report here the first layered iron oxychalcogenide Ca2O3Fe2.6S2 that contains both planar [Ca2FeO2]2+ and [Fe2OS2]2- layers with the shortest Fe-Fe bond length. This compound is a narrow band gap (~0.073 eV) Mott insulator. The observed antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at 77 K is due to the ordered Fe vacancies, which can be suppressed by partial substitution of Se for S. We show that the vacancy-free phase Ca2O3Fe3S2 may become a metal with moderate electron correlation comparable to the parent compound LaOFeAs of corresponding superconductors. Our results imply that iron oxychalcogenide can be converted from an AFM Mott insulator into a bad metal like iron pnictides through Fe-Fe bond length shrinking.

  7. Slow Mass Transport and Statistical Evolution of an Atomic Gas across the Superfluid-Mott-Insulator Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Chenlung; Zhang Xibo; Gemelke, Nathan; Chin Cheng

    2010-04-23

    We study transport dynamics of ultracold cesium atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice across the superfluid-Mott-insulator transition based on in situ imaging. Inducing the phase transition with a lattice ramping routine expected to be locally adiabatic, we observe a global mass redistribution which requires a very long time to equilibrate, more than 100 times longer than the microscopic time scales for on-site interaction and tunneling. When the sample enters the Mott-insulator regime, mass transport significantly slows down. By employing fast recombination loss pulses to analyze the occupancy distribution, we observe similarly slow-evolving dynamics, and a lower effective temperature at the center of the sample.

  8. Mott-insulator phase of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model: A high-order perturbative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2006-10-01

    The one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at a unit filling factor is studied by means of a very high-order symbolic perturbative expansion. Analytical expressions are derived for the ground-state quantities such as energy per site, variance of on-site occupation, and correlation functions: ⟨âj†âj+r⟩ and ⟨n̂jn̂j+r⟩ . These findings are compared to numerics and good agreement is found in the Mott insulator phase. Our results provide analytical approximations to important observables in the Mott phase, and are also of direct relevance to future experiments with ultracold atomic gases placed in optical lattices. We also discuss the symmetry of the Bose-Hubbard model associated with the sign change of the tunneling coupling.

  9. Density fluctuations of a hard-core Bose gas in a one-dimensional lattice near the Mott insulating phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ates, C.; Moseley, Ch.; Ziegler, K.

    2005-06-15

    The characteristic oscillations of the density-density correlation function and the resulting structure factor are studied for a hard-core Bose gas in a one-dimensional lattice. Their wavelength diverges as the system undergoes a continuous transition from an incommensurate to a Mott insulating phase. The transition is associated with a unit static structure factor and a vanishing sound velocity. The qualitative picture is unchanged when a weak confining potential is applied to the system.

  10. A metallic mosaic phase and the origin of Mott-insulating state in 1T-TaS2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liguo; Ye, Cun; Yu, Yijun; Lu, Xiu Fang; Niu, Xiaohai; Kim, Sejoong; Feng, Donglai; Tománek, David; Son, Young-Woo; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2016-01-01

    Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions are two major driving forces that stabilize various charge-ordered phases of matter. In layered compound 1T-TaS2, the intricate interplay between the two generates a Mott-insulating ground state with a peculiar charge-density-wave (CDW) order. The delicate balance also makes it possible to use external perturbations to create and manipulate novel phases in this material. Here, we study a mosaic CDW phase induced by voltage pulses, and find that the new phase exhibits electronic structures entirely different from that of the original Mott ground state. The mosaic phase consists of nanometre-sized domains characterized by well-defined phase shifts of the CDW order parameter in the topmost layer, and by altered stacking relative to the layers underneath. We discover that the nature of the new phase is dictated by the stacking order, and our results shed fresh light on the origin of the Mott phase in 1T-TaS2. PMID:26961788

  11. A metallic mosaic phase and the origin of Mott-insulating state in 1T-TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liguo; Ye, Cun; Yu, Yijun; Lu, Xiu Fang; Niu, Xiaohai; Kim, Sejoong; Feng, Donglai; Tománek, David; Son, Young-Woo; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2016-03-01

    Electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions are two major driving forces that stabilize various charge-ordered phases of matter. In layered compound 1T-TaS2, the intricate interplay between the two generates a Mott-insulating ground state with a peculiar charge-density-wave (CDW) order. The delicate balance also makes it possible to use external perturbations to create and manipulate novel phases in this material. Here, we study a mosaic CDW phase induced by voltage pulses, and find that the new phase exhibits electronic structures entirely different from that of the original Mott ground state. The mosaic phase consists of nanometre-sized domains characterized by well-defined phase shifts of the CDW order parameter in the topmost layer, and by altered stacking relative to the layers underneath. We discover that the nature of the new phase is dictated by the stacking order, and our results shed fresh light on the origin of the Mott phase in 1T-TaS2.

  12. A metallic mosaic phase and the origin of Mott-insulating state in 1T-TaS2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liguo; Ye, Cun; Yu, Yijun; Lu, Xiu Fang; Niu, Xiaohai; Kim, Sejoong; Feng, Donglai; Tománek, David; Son, Young-Woo; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2016-01-01

    Electron–electron and electron–phonon interactions are two major driving forces that stabilize various charge-ordered phases of matter. In layered compound 1T-TaS2, the intricate interplay between the two generates a Mott-insulating ground state with a peculiar charge-density-wave (CDW) order. The delicate balance also makes it possible to use external perturbations to create and manipulate novel phases in this material. Here, we study a mosaic CDW phase induced by voltage pulses, and find that the new phase exhibits electronic structures entirely different from that of the original Mott ground state. The mosaic phase consists of nanometre-sized domains characterized by well-defined phase shifts of the CDW order parameter in the topmost layer, and by altered stacking relative to the layers underneath. We discover that the nature of the new phase is dictated by the stacking order, and our results shed fresh light on the origin of the Mott phase in 1T-TaS2. PMID:26961788

  13. Sitewise manipulations and Mott insulator-superfluid transition of interacting photons using superconducting circuit simulators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Xiuhao; Jia, Chunjing; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2015-02-23

    We report that the Bose Hubbard model (BHM) of interacting bosons in a lattice has been a paradigm in many-body physics, and it exhibits a Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition at integer filling. Here a quantum simulator of the BHM using a superconducting circuit is proposed. Specifically, a superconducting transmission line resonator supporting microwave photons is coupled to a charge qubit to form one site of the BHM, and adjacent sites are connected by a tunable coupler. To obtain a mapping from the superconducting circuit to the BHM, we focus on the dispersive regime where the excitations remain photonlike. Standardmore » perturbation theory is implemented to locate the parameter range where the MI-SF transition may be simulated. This simulator allows single-site manipulations and we illustrate this feature by considering two scenarios where a single-site manipulation can drive a MI-SF transition. The transition can be analyzed by mean-field analyses, and the exact diagonalization was implemented to provide accurate results. The variance of the photon density and the fidelity metric clearly show signatures of the transition. Lastly, experimental realizations and other possible applications of this simulator are also discussed.« less

  14. Sitewise manipulations and Mott insulator-superfluid transition of interacting photons using superconducting circuit simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xiuhao; Jia, Chunjing; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2015-02-23

    We report that the Bose Hubbard model (BHM) of interacting bosons in a lattice has been a paradigm in many-body physics, and it exhibits a Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition at integer filling. Here a quantum simulator of the BHM using a superconducting circuit is proposed. Specifically, a superconducting transmission line resonator supporting microwave photons is coupled to a charge qubit to form one site of the BHM, and adjacent sites are connected by a tunable coupler. To obtain a mapping from the superconducting circuit to the BHM, we focus on the dispersive regime where the excitations remain photonlike. Standard perturbation theory is implemented to locate the parameter range where the MI-SF transition may be simulated. This simulator allows single-site manipulations and we illustrate this feature by considering two scenarios where a single-site manipulation can drive a MI-SF transition. The transition can be analyzed by mean-field analyses, and the exact diagonalization was implemented to provide accurate results. The variance of the photon density and the fidelity metric clearly show signatures of the transition. Lastly, experimental realizations and other possible applications of this simulator are also discussed.

  15. Direct Probing of the Mott Crossover in the SU (N ) Fermi-Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofrichter, Christian; Riegger, Luis; Scazza, Francesco; Höfer, Moritz; Fernandes, Diogo Rio; Bloch, Immanuel; Fölling, Simon

    2016-04-01

    We report on a detailed experimental investigation of the equation of state (EoS) of the three-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model (FHM) in its generalized SU (N ) -symmetric form, using a degenerate ytterbium gas in an optical lattice. In its more common spin-1 /2 form, the FHM is a central model of condensed-matter physics. The generalization to N >2 was first used to describe multi-orbital materials and is expected to exhibit novel many-body phases in a complex phase diagram. By realizing and locally probing the SU (N ) FHM with ultracold atoms, we obtain model-free access to thermodynamic quantities. The measurement of the EoS and the local compressibility allows us to characterize the crossover from a compressible metal to an incompressible Mott insulator. We reach specific entropies above Néel order but below that of uncorrelated spins. Having access to the EoS of such a system represents an important step towards probing predicted novel SU (N ) phases.

  16. Bose glass and Mott glass of quasiparticles in a doped quantum magnet.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Yin, Liang; Sullivan, Neil S; Xia, J S; Huan, Chao; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Oliveira, Nei F; Haas, Stephan; Steppke, Alexander; Miclea, Corneliu F; Weickert, Franziska; Movshovich, Roman; Mun, Eun-Deok; Scott, Brian L; Zapf, Vivien S; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2012-09-20

    The low-temperature states of bosonic fluids exhibit fundamental quantum effects at the macroscopic scale: the best-known examples are Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity, which have been tested experimentally in a variety of different systems. When bosons interact, disorder can destroy condensation, leading to a 'Bose glass'. This phase has been very elusive in experiments owing to the absence of any broken symmetry and to the simultaneous absence of a finite energy gap in the spectrum. Here we report the observation of a Bose glass of field-induced magnetic quasiparticles in a doped quantum magnet (bromine-doped dichloro-tetrakis-thiourea-nickel, DTN). The physics of DTN in a magnetic field is equivalent to that of a lattice gas of bosons in the grand canonical ensemble; bromine doping introduces disorder into the hopping and interaction strength of the bosons, leading to their localization into a Bose glass down to zero field, where it becomes an incompressible Mott glass. The transition from the Bose glass (corresponding to a gapless spin liquid) to the Bose-Einstein condensate (corresponding to a magnetically ordered phase) is marked by a universal exponent that governs the scaling of the critical temperature with the applied field, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Our study represents a quantitative experimental account of the universal features of disordered bosons in the grand canonical ensemble. PMID:22996552

  17. Design of Chern and Mott insulators in buckled 3 d oxide honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doennig, David; Baidya, Santu; Pickett, Warren E.; Pentcheva, Rossitza

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite (La X O3 )2/(LaAlO3)4(111) superlattices with X spanning the entire 3 d transition-metal series combine the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition-metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice as a key feature. Based on density functional theory calculations including strong interaction effects, we establish trends in the evolution of electronic states as a function of several control parameters: band filling, interaction strength, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and lattice instabilities. Competition between local pseudocubic and global trigonal symmetry as well as the additional flexibility provided by the magnetic and spin degrees of freedom of 3 d ions lead to a broad array of distinctive broken-symmetry ground states not accessible for the (001)-growth direction, offering a platform to design two-dimensional electronic functionalities. Constraining the symmetry between the two triangular sublattices causes X =Mn , Co, and Ti to emerge as Chern insulators driven by SOC. For X =Mn we illustrate how interaction strength and lattice distortions can tune these systems between a Dirac semimetal, a Chern and a trivial Mott insulator.

  18. Infinite single-particle bandwidth of a Mott-Hubbard insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freericks, J. K.; Cohn, J. R.; van Dongen, P. G. J.; Krishnamurthy, H. R.

    2016-03-01

    The conventional viewpoint of the strongly correlated electron metal-insulator transition is that a single band splits into two upper and lower Hubbard bands at the transition. Much work has investigated whether this transition is continuous or discontinuous. Here we focus on another aspect and ask the question of whether there are additional upper and lower Hubbard bands, which stretch all the way out to infinity — leading to an infinite single-particle bandwidth (or spectral range) for the Mott insulator. While we are not able to provide a rigorous proof of this result, we use exact diagonalization studies on small clusters to motivate the existence of these additional bands, and we discuss some different methods that might be utilized to provide such a proof. Even though the extra upper and lower Hubbard bands have very low total spectral weight, those states are expected to have extremely long lifetimes, leading to a nontrivial contribution to the transport density of states for dc transport and modifying the high temperature limit for the electrical resistivity.

  19. Trapping, cooling and probing fermionic atoms into the Mott and Neel states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Antoine

    2011-03-01

    A new form of quantum condensed matter physics has emerged from the study of ultra-cold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Experiments have recently reached the incompressible Mott regime. Detailed comparison to theory and computational studies at intermediate temperatures have validated the concept of optical lattice emulation of many-body fermionic systems. Cooling these systems deeper into the quantum degenerate regime, and devising new spectroscopic probes to investigate physical issues of interest such as quasiparticle properties, are key challenges in this context. The presentation will be based in part on the following references: L. De Leo, C.Kollath, A.Georges, M.Ferrero and O.Parcollet Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210403(2008); J.-S. Bernier et al. Phys. Rev. A 79, 061601 (2009); R. Jördens et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 180401 (2010); J.-S. Bernier et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 063618 (2010); L. De Leo et al., arXiv:1009.2761 Collaboration with J.S. Bernier, L. De Leo and C.Kollath is especially acknowledged. Work supported in part by CNRS, the ``Triangle de la Physique'' and the DARPA-OLE program.

  20. Gigantic optical nonlinearity in one-dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators

    PubMed

    Kishida; Matsuzaki; Okamoto; Manabe; Yamashita; Taguchi; Tokura

    2000-06-22

    The realization of all-optical switching, modulating and computing devices is an important goal in modern optical technology. Nonlinear optical materials with large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (chi(3)) are indispensable for such devices, because the magnitude of this quantity dominates the device performance. A key strategy in the development of new materials with large nonlinear susceptibilities is the exploration of quasi-one-dimensional systems, or 'quantum wires'--the quantum confinement of electron-hole motion in one-dimensional space can enhance chi(3). Two types of chemically synthesized quantum wires have been extensively studied: the band insulators of silicon polymers, and Peierls insulators of pi-conjugated polymers and platinum halides. In these systems, chi(3) values of 10(-12) to 10(-7) e.s.u. (electrostatic system of units) have been reported. Here we demonstrate an anomalous enhancement of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a different category of quantum wires: one-dimensional Mott insulators of 3d transition-metal oxides and halides. By analysing the electroreflectance spectra of these compounds, we measure chi(3) values in the range 10(-8) to 10(-5) e.s.u. The anomalous enhancement results from a large dipole moment between the lowest two excited states of these systems. PMID:10879529

  1. Ambient organic molecular passivation of Si yields near-ideal, Schottky-Mott limited, junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Har-Lavan, Rotem; Yaffe, Omer; Joshi, Pranav; Kazaz, Roy; Cohen, Hagai; Cahen, David

    2012-03-01

    We report near-perfect transfer of the electrical properties of oxide-free Si surface, modified by a molecular monolayer, to the interface of a junction made with that modified Si surface. Such behavior is highly unusual for a covalent, narrow bandgap semiconductor, such as Si. Short, ambient atmosphere, room temperature treatment of oxide-free Si(100) in hydroquinone (HQ)/alkyl alcohol solutions, fully passivates the Si surface, while allowing controlled change of the resulting surface potential. The junctions formed, upon contacting such surfaces with Hg, a metal that does not chemically interact with Si, follow the Schottky-Mott model for metal-semiconductor junctions closer than ever for Si-based junctions. Two examples of such ideal behavior are demonstrated: a) Tuning the molecular surface dipole over 400 mV, with only negligible band bending, by changing the alkyl chain length. Because of the excellent passivation this yields junctions with Hg with barrier heights that follow the change in the Si effective electron affinity nearly ideally. b) HQ/ methanol passivation of Si is accompanied by a large surface dipole, which suffices, as interface dipole, to drive the Si into strong inversion as shown experimentally via its photovoltaic effect. With only ˜0.3 nm molecular interlayer between the metal and the Si, our results proves that it is passivation and prevention of metal-semiconductor interactions that allow ideal metal-semiconductor junction behavior, rather than an insulating transport barrier.

  2. Modeling of oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles by using Cabrera Mott Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanova, Zamart; Zyskin, Maxim; Martirosyan, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Our research focuses on modeling new Nanoenergetic Gas-Generator (NGG) formulations that rapidly release a large amount of gaseous products and generates shock and pressure waves. Nanoenergetic thermite reagents include mixtures of Al and metal oxides such as bismuth trioxide and iodine pentoxide. The research problem is considered a spherically symmetric case and used the Cabrera Mott oxidation model to describe the kinetics of oxide growth on spherical Al nanoparticles for evaluating reaction time which a process of the reaction with oxidizer happens on the outer part of oxide layer of aluminum ions are getting in contact with an oxidizing agent and react. We assumed that a ball of Al of radius 20 to 50 nm is covered by a thin oxide layer 2-4 nm and is surrounded by abundant amount of oxygen stored by oxidizers. The ball is rapidly heated up to ignition temperature to initiate self-sustaining oxidation reaction. As a result highly exothermic reaction is generated. In the oxide layer of excess concentrations of electrons and ions are dependent on the electric field potential with the corresponding of the Gibbs factors and that it conducts to the solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation for the electric field potential in a moving boundary domain. Motion of the boundary is determined by the gradient of a solution on the boundary. We investigated oxidation model numerically, using the COMSOL software utilizing finite element analysis. The computing results demonstrate that oxidation rate increases with the decreasing particle radius.

  3. Featureless and nonfractionalized Mott insulators on the honeycomb lattice at 1/2 site filling

    PubMed Central

    Kimchi, Itamar; Parameswaran, S. A.; Turner, Ari M.; Wang, Fa; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2013-01-01

    Within the Landau paradigm, phases of matter are distinguished by spontaneous symmetry breaking. Implicit here is the assumption that a completely symmetric state exists: a paramagnet. At zero temperature such quantum featureless insulators may be forbidden, triggering either conventional order or topological order with fractionalized excitations. Such is the case for interacting particles when the particle number per unit cell, f, is not an integer. However, can lattice symmetries forbid featureless insulators even at integer f? An especially relevant case is the honeycomb (graphene) lattice—where free spinless fermions at (the two sites per unit cell mean is half-filling per site) are always metallic. Here we present wave functions for bosons, and a related spin-singlet wave function for spinful electrons, on the honeycomb lattice and demonstrate via quantum to classical mappings that they do form featureless Mott insulators. The construction generalizes to symmorphic lattices at integer f in any dimension. Our results explicitly demonstrate that in this case, despite the absence of a noninteracting insulator at the same filling, lack of order at zero temperature does not imply fractionalization.

  4. Reliability of the one-crossing approximation in describing the Mott transition.

    PubMed

    Vildosola, V; Pourovskii, L V; Manuel, L O; Roura-Bas, P

    2015-12-01

    We assess the reliability of the one-crossing approximation (OCA) approach in a quantitative description of the Mott transition in the framework of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The OCA approach has been applied in conjunction with DMFT to a number of heavy-fermion, actinide, transition metal compounds and nanoscale systems. However, several recent studies in the framework of impurity models pointed out serious deficiencies of OCA and raised questions regarding its reliability. Here we consider a single band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice at finite temperatures and compare the results of OCA to those of a numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. The temperature-local repulsion U phase diagram for the particle-hole symmetric case obtained by OCA is in good agreement with that of QMC, with the metal-insulator transition captured very well. We find, however, that the insulator to metal transition is shifted to higher values of U and, simultaneously, correlations in the metallic phase are significantly overestimated. This counter-intuitive behaviour is due to simultaneous underestimations of the Kondo scale in the metallic phase and the size of the insulating gap. We trace the underestimation of the insulating gap to that of the second moment of the high-frequency expansion of the impurity spectral density. Calculations of the system away from the particle-hole symmetric case are also presented and discussed. PMID:26565588

  5. Reliability of the one-crossing approximation in describing the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vildosola, V.; Pourovskii, L. V.; Manuel, L. O.; Roura-Bas, P.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the reliability of the one-crossing approximation (OCA) approach in a quantitative description of the Mott transition in the framework of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). The OCA approach has been applied in conjunction with DMFT to a number of heavy-fermion, actinide, transition metal compounds and nanoscale systems. However, several recent studies in the framework of impurity models pointed out serious deficiencies of OCA and raised questions regarding its reliability. Here we consider a single band Hubbard model on the Bethe lattice at finite temperatures and compare the results of OCA to those of a numerically exact quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. The temperature-local repulsion U phase diagram for the particle-hole symmetric case obtained by OCA is in good agreement with that of QMC, with the metal-insulator transition captured very well. We find, however, that the insulator to metal transition is shifted to higher values of U and, simultaneously, correlations in the metallic phase are significantly overestimated. This counter-intuitive behaviour is due to simultaneous underestimations of the Kondo scale in the metallic phase and the size of the insulating gap. We trace the underestimation of the insulating gap to that of the second moment of the high-frequency expansion of the impurity spectral density. Calculations of the system away from the particle-hole symmetric case are also presented and discussed.

  6. Mott transition in CaFe2O4 at around 50 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Eran; Rozenberg, Gregory Kh.; Xu, Weiming; Pasternak, Moshe P.; McCammon, Catherine; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical transport and magnetic properties of CaFe2O4 have been studied at pressures up to 70 GPa using Fe57 Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy, and electrical resistance measurements. These studies have shown the onset of the Mott transition (MT) at a pressure of around 50 GPa, leading to the collapse of Fe3+ magnetic moments and to the insulator-metal (IM) transition. The observed onset of the MT corroborates with the recently reported isostructural transition accompanied by a 12% decrease in the Fe polyhedral volume. An analysis of the alterations of the electrical transport, magnetic, and structural properties with pressure increase and at the transition range suggests that the coinciding IM transition, magnetic moment, and volume collapse at around 50 GPa are caused by the closure of the Hubbard gap driven by the high-spin to low-spin (HS-LS) transition. At that, since MS did not reveal any evidence of a preceding LS state, it could be inferred that the HS-LS transition immediately leads to an IM transition and complete collapse of magnetism.

  7. Transport coefficients of graphene: Interplay of impurity scattering, Coulomb interaction, and optical phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong-Yi; Foster, Matthew S.

    2016-05-01

    We study the electric and thermal transport of the Dirac carriers in monolayer graphene using the Boltzmann-equation approach. Motivated by recent thermopower measurements [F. Ghahari, H.-Y. Xie, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, M. S. Foster, and P. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 136802 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.136802], we consider the effects of quenched disorder, Coulomb interactions, and electron-optical-phonon scattering. Via an unbiased numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation we calculate the electrical conductivity, thermopower, and electronic component of the thermal conductivity, and discuss the validity of Mott's formula and of the Wiedemann-Franz law. An analytical solution for the disorder-only case shows that screened Coulomb impurity scattering, although elastic, violates the Wiedemann-Franz law even at low temperature. For the combination of carrier-carrier Coulomb and short-ranged impurity scattering, we observe the crossover from the interaction-limited (hydrodynamic) regime to the disorder-limited (Fermi-liquid) regime. In the former, the thermopower and the thermal conductivity follow the results anticipated by the relativistic hydrodynamic theory. On the other hand, we find that optical phonons become non-negligible at relatively low temperatures and that the induced electron thermopower violates Mott's formula. Combining all of these scattering mechanisms, we obtain the thermopower that quantitatively coincides with the experimental data.

  8. The 'Higgs' amplitude mode at the two-dimensional superfluid/Mott insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Endres, Manuel; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Pekker, David; Cheneau, Marc; Schauss, Peter; Gross, Christian; Demler, Eugene; Kuhr, Stefan; Bloch, Immanuel

    2012-07-26

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking plays a key role in our understanding of nature. In relativistic quantum field theory, a broken continuous symmetry leads to the emergence of two types of fundamental excitation: massless Nambu-Goldstone modes and a massive 'Higgs' amplitude mode. An excitation of Higgs type is of crucial importance in the standard model of elementary particle physics, and also appears as a fundamental collective mode in quantum many-body systems. Whether such a mode exists in low-dimensional systems as a resonance-like feature, or whether it becomes overdamped through coupling to Nambu-Goldstone modes, has been a subject of debate. Here we experimentally find and study a Higgs mode in a two-dimensional neutral superfluid close to a quantum phase transition to a Mott insulating phase. We unambiguously identify the mode by observing the expected reduction in frequency of the onset of spectral response when approaching the transition point. In this regime, our system is described by an effective relativistic field theory with a two-component quantum field, which constitutes a minimal model for spontaneous breaking of a continuous symmetry. Additionally, all microscopic parameters of our system are known from first principles and the resolution of our measurement allows us to detect excited states of the many-body system at the level of individual quasiparticles. This allows for an in-depth study of Higgs excitations that also addresses the consequences of the reduced dimensionality and confinement of the system. Our work constitutes a step towards exploring emergent relativistic models with ultracold atomic gases. PMID:22837000

  9. Carrier localization and electronic phase separation in a doped spin-orbit-driven Mott phase in Sr₃(Ir(1-x)Ru(x))₂O₇.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Chetan; Hogan, Tom; Zhou, Wenwen; Chen, Xiang; Ren, Zhensong; Pokharel, Mani; Okada, Yoshinori; Heine, M; Tian, Wei; Yamani, Z; Opeil, C; Helton, J S; Lynn, J W; Wang, Ziqiang; Madhavan, Vidya; Wilson, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Interest in many strongly spin-orbit-coupled 5d-transition metal oxide insulators stems from mapping their electronic structures to a J(eff)=1/2 Mott phase. One of the hopes is to establish their Mott parent states and explore these systems' potential of realizing novel electronic states upon carrier doping. However, once doped, little is understood regarding the role of their reduced Coulomb interaction U relative to their strongly correlated 3d-electron cousins. Here we show that, upon hole-doping a candidate J(eff)=1/2 Mott insulator, carriers remain localized within a nanoscale phase-separated ground state. A percolative metal-insulator transition occurs with interplay between localized and itinerant regions, stabilizing an antiferromagnetic metallic phase beyond the critical region. Our results demonstrate a surprising parallel between doped 5d- and 3d-electron Mott systems and suggest either through the near-degeneracy of nearby electronic phases or direct carrier localization that U is essential to the carrier response of this doped spin-orbit Mott insulator. PMID:24566714

  10. Fitting of m*/m with Divergence Curve for He3 Fluid Monolayer using Hole-driven Mott Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2012-02-01

    The electron-electron interaction for strongly correlated systems plays an important role in formation of an energy gap in solid. The breakdown of the energy gap is called the Mott metal-insulator transition (MIT) which is different from the Peierls MIT induced by breakdown of electron-phonon interaction generated by change of a periodic lattice. It has been known that the correlated systems are inhomogeneous. In particular, He3 fluid monolayer [1] and La1-xSrxTiO3 [2] are representative strongly correlated systems. Their doping dependence of the effective mass of carrier in metal, m*/m, indicating the magnitude of correlation (Coulomb interaction) between electrons has a divergence behavior. However, the fitting remains unfitted to be explained by a Mott-transition theory with divergence. In the case of He3 regarded as the Fermi system with one positive charge (2 electrons + 3 protons), the interaction between He3 atoms is regarded as the correlation in strongly correlated system. In this presentation, we introduce a Hole-driven MIT with a divergence near the Mott transition [3] and fit the m*/m curve in He3 [1] and La1-xSrxTiO3 systems with the Hole-driven MIT with m*/m=1/(1-ρ^4) where ρ is band filling. Moreover, it is shown that the physical meaning of the effective mass with the divergence is percolation in which m*/m increases with increasing doping concentration, and that the magnitude of m*/m is constant.[4pt] [1] Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 115301 (2003).[0pt] [2] Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2126 (1993).[0pt] [3] Physica C 341-348, 259 (2000); Physica C 460-462, 1076 (2007).

  11. Mott metal-insulator transition induced by utilizing a glasslike structural ordering in low-dimensional molecular conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Benedikt; Müller, Jens; Sasaki, Takahiko

    2014-11-01

    We utilize a glasslike structural transition in order to induce a Mott metal-insulator transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt κ -(BEDT-TTF)2Cu [N (CN)2Br ]. In this material, the terminal ethylene groups of the BEDT-TTF molecules can adopt two different structural orientations within the crystal structure, namely eclipsed (E) and staggered (S) with the relative orientation of the outer C-C bonds being parallel and canted, respectively. These two conformations are thermally disordered at room temperature and undergo a glasslike ordering transition at Tg˜75 K. When cooling through Tg, a small fraction that depends on the cooling rate remains frozen in the S configuration, which is of slightly higher energy, corresponding to a controllable degree of structural disorder. We demonstrate that, when thermally coupled to a low-temperature heat bath, a pulsed heating current through the sample causes a very fast relaxation with cooling rates at Tg of the order of several 1000 K /min . The freezing of the structural degrees of freedom causes a decrease of the electronic bandwidth W with increasing cooling rate, and hence a Mott metal-insulator transition as the system crosses the critical ratio (W/U ) c of bandwidth to on-site Coulomb repulsion U . Due to the glassy character of the transition, the effect is persistent below Tg and can be reversibly repeated by melting the frozen configuration upon warming above Tg. Both by exploiting the characteristics of slowly changing relaxation times close to this temperature and by controlling the heating power, the materials can be fine-tuned across the Mott transition. A simple model allows for an estimate of the energy difference between the E and S state as well as the accompanying degree of frozen disorder in the population of the two orientations.

  12. Adapting a compact Mott spin polarimeter to a large commercial electron energy analyzer for spin-polarized electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Di-Jing; Lee, Jae-Yong; Suen, Jih-Shih; Mulhollan, G. A.; Andrews, A. B.; Erskine, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    A modified Rice University-type compact Mott spin polarimeter operating at 20 kV is adapted to a large commerical hemispherical electron energy analyzer. Normal energy analyzer functions are preserved via a retractable channeltron in the polarimeter acceleration column. In the spin-detection mode, the polarimeter permits analysis of two orthogonal transverse spin-polarization components. Electron trajectory analysis is used to optimize polarimeter lens column voltages in both normal and spin-detection modes. Performance levels are established by experiments and significantly improved spin-detection efficiency is shown to be accessible by changes in the polarimeter collection solid angle.

  13. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4). PMID:26551128

  14. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; McKeown Walker, S.; Bruno, F. Y.; Riccó, S.; Wang, Z.; Gutierrez Lezama, I.; Scheerer, G.; Giriat, G.; Jaccard, D.; Berthod, C.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Hunter, E. C.; Perry, R. S.; Tamai, A.; Baumberger, F.

    2015-10-01

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr1 -xLax)2IrO4 . For a doping level of x =0.05 , we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π ,π ) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr2IrO4 .

  15. Monoclinic and Correlated Metal Phase in VO2 as Evidence of the Mott Transition: Coherent Phonon Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak; Lee, Yong Wook; Kim, Bong-Jun; Chae, Byung-Gyu; Yun, Sun Jin; Kang, Kwang-Yong; Han, Kang-Jeon; Yee, Ki-Ju; Lim, Yong-Sik

    2006-12-01

    In femtosecond pump-probe measurements, the appearance of coherent phonon oscillations at 4.5 and 6.0 THz indicating the rutile metal phase of VO2 does not occur simultaneously with the first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) near 68°C. The monoclinic and correlated metal (MCM) phase between the MIT and the structural phase transition (SPT) is generated by a photoassisted hole excitation, which is evidence of the Mott transition. The SPT between the MCM phase and the rutile metal phase occurs due to subsequent Joule heating. The MCM phase can be regarded as an intermediate nonequilibrium state.

  16. Light-scattering detection of quantum phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jinwu; Zhang, J. M.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang Keye; Li Yan; Zhang Weiping

    2011-05-15

    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases effectively remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we show that the optical Bragg scattering of cold atoms loaded on optical lattices can be used to detect many quantum phases, which include not only the conventional superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases, such as various kinds of charge density wave (CDW), valence bond solid (VBS), CDW supersolid (CDW-SS) and Valence bond supersolid (VB-SS).

  17. Probing orbital ordering in LaVO3 epitaxial films by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrejoiu, I.; Himcinschi, C.; Jin, L.; Jia, C.-L.; Raab, N.; Engelmayer, J.; Waser, R.; Dittmann, R.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of Mott-Hubbard insulator LaVO3 exhibit spin and orbital ordering along with a structural change below ≈140 K. The occurrence of orbital ordering in epitaxial LaVO3 films has, however, been little investigated. By temperature-dependent Raman scattering spectroscopy, we probed and evidenced the transition to orbital ordering in epitaxial LaVO3 film samples fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. This opens up the possibility to explore the influence of different epitaxial strain (compressive vs. tensile) and of epitaxy-induced distortions of oxygen octahedra on the orbital ordering, in epitaxial perovskite vanadate films.

  18. Excitation-Photon-Energy Selectivity of Photoconversions in Halogen-Bridged Pd-Chain Compounds: Mott Insulator to Metal or Charge-Density-Wave State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Iwata, M.; Miyamoto, T.; Terashige, T.; Iwano, K.; Takaishi, S.; Takamura, M.; Kumagai, S.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, R.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Okamoto, H.

    2014-08-01

    Ultrafast photoinduced transitions of a one-dimensional Mott insulator into two distinct electronic phases, metal and charge-density-wave (CDW) state, were achieved in a bromine-bridged Pd-chain compound [Pd(en)2Br](C5-Y)2H2O (en =ethylenediamine and C5-Y=dialkylsulfosuccinate), by selecting the photon energy of a femtosecond excitation pulse. For the resonant excitation of the Mott-gap transition, excitonic states are generated and converted to one-dimensional CDW domains. For the higher-energy excitation, free electron and hole carriers are produced, giving rise to a transition of the Mott insulator to a metal. Such selectivity in photoconversions by the choice of initial photoexcited states opens a new possibility for the developments of advanced optical switching and memory functions.

  19. Analysis of resonances in Moeller scattering in a laser field of relativistic radiation power

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, P.; Kaminski, J.Z.; Ehlotzky, F.

    2004-01-01

    Presently available laser sources can yield powers for which the ponderomotive energy U{sub p} of an electron can be equal to or even larger than the rest energy mc{sup 2} of an electron. Therefore it has become of interest to consider fundamental radiation-induced or assisted processes in such powerful laser fields. In the present work we consider laser-assisted electron-electron scattering in such a field, assuming that the laser beam has linear polarization. We investigate in detail the angular and polarization dependence of the differential cross sections of the laser-assisted nonlinear processes as a function of the order N of absorbed or emitted laser photons {omega}. The present work is a continuation of our previous analysis of Compton scattering and of Mott scattering in a linearly polarized laser field [Phys. Rev. A 65, 022712 (2002); 65, 033408 (2002)].

  20. Superconductivity in quasi-2d organic doped Mott insulators: a superconducting dome without an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.; Hébert, Charles-David; Sémon, Patrick

    Layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family are model systems for understanding the interplay of the Mott transition with superconductivity, magnetic order and frustration. Recent experimental studies on a hole-doped compound reveal an enhancement of superconductivity and a rapid crossover between two different conducting phases above the superconducting dome. Using plaquette cellular dynamical mean field theory with state of the art continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we study this problem with the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice. Phase diagrams are in broad agreement with experiment. As in the case of the cuprates, we find, at finite doping in the unstable normal state, a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal. We make several experimental predictions. This work also clearly shows that the superconducting dome in organic superconductors is tied to the Mott transition and its continuation as a transition separating pseudogap phase from correlated metal in doped compounds, as in the cuprates. Contrary to heavy fermions for example, the maximum Tc is definitely not attached to an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. That can also be verified experimentally. Supported by NSERC, CIFAR and the Tier I Canada Research Chair Program.

  1. Metal-insulator transition in a spin-orbital-lattice coupled Mott system: K2V8O16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooran; Kim, Beom Hyun; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B. I.

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the underlying mechanism of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in hollandite-type vanadate, K2V8O16 , which has a quasi-one-dimensional chain structure and undergoes the MIT and Peierls-like structural transition upon cooling. For this purpose, we have investigated its electronic and magnetic properties in comparison to those of Rb2V8O16 that also undergoes the MIT but without the Peierls-like structural distortion. We have found that K2V8O16 is a spin-orbital-lattice coupled Mott system and manifests the orbital-selective Mott transition. The interplay of on-site Coulomb interaction, the magnetic-exchange interaction, and the Jahn-Teller-type tetragonal distortion plays an essential role in driving the MIT of K2V8O16 , inducing the the charge ordering (CO) and orbital ordering of V t2 g bands. The CO of V+3 and V+4 occurs in separate chains, preserving the inversion symmetry of the crystal. The dx y orbitals form the spin-singlet state along the chain direction. The Peierls-like distortion does not play an essential role in the MIT.

  2. Orbital-selective Mott phases of a one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model studied using computational techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangkun; Kaushal, Nitin; Li, Shaozhi; Bishop, Christopher B.; Wang, Yan; Johnston, Steve; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    2016-06-01

    A recently introduced one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model displays orbital-selective Mott phases with exotic spin arrangements such as spin block states [J. Rincón et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 106405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.106405]. In this publication we show that the constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo (CPQMC) technique can accurately reproduce the phase diagram of this multiorbital one-dimensional model, paving the way to future CPQMC studies in systems with more challenging geometries, such as ladders and planes. The success of this approach relies on using the Hartree-Fock technique to prepare the trial states needed in CPQMC. We also study a simplified version of the model where the pair-hopping term is neglected and the Hund coupling is restricted to its Ising component. The corresponding phase diagrams are shown to be only mildly affected by the absence of these technically difficult-to-implement terms. This is confirmed by additional density matrix renormalization group and determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations carried out for the same simplified model, with the latter displaying only mild fermion sign problems. We conclude that these methods are able to capture quantitatively the rich physics of the several orbital-selective Mott phases (OSMP) displayed by this model, thus enabling computational studies of the OSMP regime in higher dimensions, beyond static or dynamic mean-field approximations.

  3. Orbital-selective Mott phases of a one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model studied using computational techniques.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangkun; Kaushal, Nitin; Li, Shaozhi; Bishop, Christopher B; Wang, Yan; Johnston, Steve; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    2016-06-01

    A recently introduced one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model displays orbital-selective Mott phases with exotic spin arrangements such as spin block states [J. Rincón et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 106405 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.106405]. In this publication we show that the constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo (CPQMC) technique can accurately reproduce the phase diagram of this multiorbital one-dimensional model, paving the way to future CPQMC studies in systems with more challenging geometries, such as ladders and planes. The success of this approach relies on using the Hartree-Fock technique to prepare the trial states needed in CPQMC. We also study a simplified version of the model where the pair-hopping term is neglected and the Hund coupling is restricted to its Ising component. The corresponding phase diagrams are shown to be only mildly affected by the absence of these technically difficult-to-implement terms. This is confirmed by additional density matrix renormalization group and determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations carried out for the same simplified model, with the latter displaying only mild fermion sign problems. We conclude that these methods are able to capture quantitatively the rich physics of the several orbital-selective Mott phases (OSMP) displayed by this model, thus enabling computational studies of the OSMP regime in higher dimensions, beyond static or dynamic mean-field approximations. PMID:27415393

  4. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron-hole pairs: probing Mott physics of magneto-excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    Density-dependent Coulomb interactions can drive electron-hole (e - h) pairs in semiconductors through an excitonic Mott transition from an excitonic gas into an e - h plasma. Theoretical studies suggest that these interactions can be strongly modified by an external magnetic field, including the absence of inter-exciton interactions in the high magnetic field limit in two dimensions, due to an e - h charge symmetry, which results in ultrastable magneto-excitons. Here, we present a systematic experimental study of e - h pairs in photo-excited undoped GaAs quantum wells in magnetic fields with ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy. We simultaneously monitored the dynamics of the intraexcitonic 1 s-2 p transition (which splits into 1 s-2p+ and 1 s-2p- transitions in a magnetic field) and the cyclotron resonance of unbound electrons and holes up to 10 Tesla. We found that the 1 s-2p- absorption feature is robust at high magnetic fields even under high excitation fluences, indicating magnetically enhanced stability of excitons. We will discuss the Mott physics of magneto-excitons as a function of temperature, e - h pair density, optical pump delay time, as well as magnetic field, and also compare two-dimensional excitons in GaAs quantum wells with three-dimensional excitons in bulk GaAs.

  5. Orbital-selective Mott phases of a one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model studied using computational techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Guangkun; Kaushal, Nitin; Liu, Shaozhi; Bishop, Christopher B.; Wang, Yan; Johnston, Steve; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio R.

    2016-06-24

    A recently introduced one-dimensional three-orbital Hubbard model displays orbital-selective Mott phases with exotic spin arrangements such as spin block states [J. Rincón et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 106405 (2014)]. In this paper we show that the constrained-path quantum Monte Carlo (CPQMC) technique can accurately reproduce the phase diagram of this multiorbital one-dimensional model, paving the way to future CPQMC studies in systems with more challenging geometries, such as ladders and planes. The success of this approach relies on using the Hartree-Fock technique to prepare the trial states needed in CPQMC. In addition, we study a simplified version of themore » model where the pair-hopping term is neglected and the Hund coupling is restricted to its Ising component. The corresponding phase diagrams are shown to be only mildly affected by the absence of these technically difficult-to-implement terms. This is confirmed by additional density matrix renormalization group and determinant quantum Monte Carlo calculations carried out for the same simplified model, with the latter displaying only mild fermion sign problems. Lastly, we conclude that these methods are able to capture quantitatively the rich physics of the several orbital-selective Mott phases (OSMP) displayed by this model, thus enabling computational studies of the OSMP regime in higher dimensions, beyond static or dynamic mean-field approximations.« less

  6. Study of Low Energy Electron Inelastic Scattering Mechanisms Using Spin Sensitive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hongbing

    1995-01-01

    Spin sensitive electron spectroscopies were used to study low energy electron inelastic scattering from metal surfaces and thin films. In these experiments, a beam of spin polarized electrons from a GaAs source is directed on the sample surface, and the spin polarization and intensity are measured as a function of energy loss and scattering angle by a Mott electron polarimeter coupled with a concentric hemispherical energy analyzer. Systematic studies of the angular dependence of inelastically scattered electrons were conducted on a Cu(100) surface, and Mo/Cu(100), non-magnetized Fe/Cu(100), and Co/Cu(100) films. The polarization and intensity of scattered electrons were measured as function of energy loss and scattering angle. Further studies were also conducted on Ag(100) surface and amorphous Cu/Ag(100) films. From the experimental results, the angular distributions of dipole and impact scattered electrons can be determined individually and both are found to peak in the specular scattering direction. Preliminary studies were conducted on magnetized Co/Cu(100) films. The spin dependent scattering intensity asymmetry was measured, with a clearly observable peak at energy loss of ~1 eV, which coincides with the band splitting. The polarizations of secondary electrons produced by an unpolarized primary beam were also measured. The polarizations can be related to the band polarization of magnetized cobalt films.

  7. The Mott State and Superconductivity in Face-Centred Cubic Structured Cs3C60: A 133Cs-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Fukui, Junji; Motoyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuta; Shibasaki, Seiji; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, fullerides have been studied as the source of high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconductivity except for copper oxides. The recent finding of the Mott insulating state right beside superconductivity in Cs3C60 has suggested that magnetism helps raise Tc even in fullerides as in heavy-fermion compounds, high-Tc copper oxides, two-dimensional organic conductors, and iron pnictides. Namely, one tends to think that the link between Mott insulator and superconductivity takes place in fullerides, which can give rise to the mechanism beyond the Bardeen--Cooper--Schrieffer framework. However, the relationship between the Mott state and the superconductivity in Cs3C60 is still under debate. By nuclear magnetic resonance measurements under pressure, we find that the magnetism and superconductivity in Cs3C60 are competing orders. Different from previous reports, the phase separation of Cs3C60 crystals into the Mott and metallic states allows us to systematically study the evolution of the ground state under pressure. Our careful experiments have found that the prevention of a magnetic order is rather essential for the superconductivity in face-centred cubic Cs3C60, which presents a basic strategy for finding still higher Tc in this system.

  8. Mott Multiferroics and Ferroelectric Metals from Dynamical Mean-Field Theory combined with Density-Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials, in which ferroelectricity and long-range magnetic ordering coexist, are natural candidates for applications. In this perspective, the most promising compounds are those in which the two phenomena do not simply coexist, but they influence each other through a magnetoelectric coupling. We present different applications of Density Functional Theory combined with Dynamical Mean-Field Theory in which electron-electron correlation effects are crucial in the stabilization of multiferroic behavior and in the magnetoelectric coupling. Within this wide family we can distinguish different cases. In Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3 the multiferroic behavior is associated with a Mott insulating state in which the Mn half-filled t2g orbitals are responsible of the magnetic properties and the value of the polarization is strongly affected by the magnetic state. LiOsO3 shares the same electronic configuration with half-filled Os t2g orbitals. Despite this configuration enhances the effect of electron-electron interactions, the material remains metallic and represents a peculiar ferroelectric metal. We propose however how to turn this non-magnetic polar metal into a multiferroic through the design of a superlattice, which increases the degree of correlation, leading to Mott localization of the Os orbitals. In completely different systems, such as organic crystals like (TMTTF)2-X, strong correlations can lead to multiferroicity in organic crystals such as (TMTTF)2-X, where charge ordering promotes a polarization which is favored by an antiferromagnetic ordering. We finally discuss how strong correlations can play a major role away from half-filling when the Hund's coupling is sizable in compounds with a nominal valence of, e.g., two electrons in the three t2g orbitals. Such ``Hund's metals'' are correlated despite being far from Mott localization. This physical regime can be a fertile ground to obtain other ferroelectric metals. This work is supported by ERC/FP7 through the

  9. Tuning bad metal and non-Fermi liquid behavior in a Mott material: Rare-earth nickelate thin films.

    PubMed

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J; Himmetoglu, Burak; Moreno, Nelson E; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Resistances that exceed the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit (known as bad metal behavior) and non-Fermi liquid behavior are ubiquitous features of the normal state of many strongly correlated materials. We establish the conditions that lead to bad metal and non-Fermi liquid phases in NdNiO3, which exhibits a prototype bandwidth-controlled metal-insulator transition. We show that resistance saturation is determined by the magnitude of Ni eg orbital splitting, which can be tuned by strain in epitaxial films, causing the appearance of bad metal behavior under certain conditions. The results shed light on the nature of a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid metal phase and provide a predictive criterion for Anderson localization. They elucidate a seemingly complex phase behavior as a function of film strain and confinement and provide guidelines for orbital engineering and novel devices. PMID:26601140

  10. Competing valence bond and symmetry-breaking Mott states of spin-3/2 fermions on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakab, D.; Szirmai, E.; Lewenstein, M.; Szirmai, G.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of strongly interacting four component spin-3/2 ultracold fermionic atoms in the Mott insulator limit with one particle per site in an optical lattice with honeycomb symmetry. In this limit, atomic tunneling is virtual, and only the atomic spins can exchange. We find a competition between symmetry-breaking and liquidlike disordered phases. Particularly interesting are valence bond states with bond centered magnetizations, situated between the ferromagnetic and conventional valence bond phases. In the framework of a mean-field theory, we calculate the phase diagram and identify an experimentally relevant parameter region where a homogeneous SU(4) symmetric Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki-like valence bond state is present.

  11. Tuning bad metal and non-Fermi liquid behavior in a Mott material: Rare-earth nickelate thin films

    PubMed Central

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Hauser, Adam J.; Himmetoglu, Burak; Moreno, Nelson E.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resistances that exceed the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit (known as bad metal behavior) and non-Fermi liquid behavior are ubiquitous features of the normal state of many strongly correlated materials. We establish the conditions that lead to bad metal and non-Fermi liquid phases in NdNiO3, which exhibits a prototype bandwidth-controlled metal-insulator transition. We show that resistance saturation is determined by the magnitude of Ni eg orbital splitting, which can be tuned by strain in epitaxial films, causing the appearance of bad metal behavior under certain conditions. The results shed light on the nature of a crossover to a non-Fermi liquid metal phase and provide a predictive criterion for Anderson localization. They elucidate a seemingly complex phase behavior as a function of film strain and confinement and provide guidelines for orbital engineering and novel devices. PMID:26601140

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional noncollinear magnetism in the Mott insulator Sr2F2Fe2OS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang L.; Wu, Shan; Wang, Jiakui K.; Hodges, J. P.; Broholm, C.; Morosan, E.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of Sr2F2Fe2OS2 was examined through neutron powder diffraction and thermodynamic and transport measurements. Quasi-two-dimensional magnetic order develops below TN=106(2) K with an in-plane correlation length exceeding 310 Å and an out-of-plane correlation length of just 17(3) Å. The data are consistent with a two-k structure with k1=(1/2,0,1/2) and k2=(0,1/2,1/2) and an ordered moment of 3.3(1)μB oriented along the in-plane components of k. This structure is composed of orthogonal antiferromagnetic chains intersecting at superexchange-mediating O sites. Density functional theory also points to this structure and a narrower Fe 3d band than for the iron pnictides from which electronic correlations produce a Mott insulator.

  13. James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials Talk: What is new in multiferroicity?: Mott ferroelectrics!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2010-03-01

    Multiferroicity is an old topic. For example, linear magnetoelectric effect in materials such as Cr2O3 with broken time reversal and space inversion symmetry has been known since 1960's. However, giant cross-coupling effects such as flipping polarization or enormous change of dielectric constant by applied magnetic fields have been recently observed in systems such as Tb(Dy)MnO3 and Tb(Dy)Mn2O5 [1-3]. The important ingredient for these giant magnetoelectric effects turns out to be associated with the presence of non-zero d electrons and their mutual interactions, leading to the Mott-insulator-type charge gap, magnetism, and collective phase transitions. Particularly, the collective nature of simultaneous magnetic-ferroelectric phase transitions results in the giant magnetoelectric effects. In addition, fascinating charge transport properties such as a switchable photovoltaic effect and characteristic conduction properties at domain walls stem from the (carrier-doped) Mott insulating nature of compounds such as BiFeO3 and hexagonal YMnO3 [4,5]. [4pt] [1] Kimura, T. et al. Magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization. Nature 426, 55--58 (2003).[0pt] [2] Hur, N. et al. Electric polarization reversal and memory in a multiferroic material induced by magnetic fields. Nature 429, 392--395 (2004).[0pt] [3] Cheong, S.-W. & Mostovoy, M. Multiferroics: a magnetic twist for ferroelectricity. Nature Mater. 6, 13--20 (2007).[0pt] [4] Seidel, J. et al. Conduction at domain walls in oxide multiferroics. Nature Mater. 8, 229--234 (2009).[0pt] [5] Choi, T., Lee, S., Choi, Y.J., Kiryukhin, V. & Cheong, S.-W. Switchable ferroelectric diode and photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3. Science 324, 63--66 (2009)

  14. How Cooper pairs vanish approaching the Mott insulator in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta.

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Y; Taylor, C; Wahl, P; Schmidt, A; Lee, Jhinhwan; Fujita, K; Alldredge, J W; McElroy, K; Lee, Jinho; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; Lee, D-H; Davis, J C

    2008-08-28

    The antiferromagnetic ground state of copper oxide Mott insulators is achieved by localizing an electron at each copper atom in real space (r-space). Removing a small fraction of these electrons (hole doping) transforms this system into a superconducting fluid of delocalized Cooper pairs in momentum space (k-space). During this transformation, two distinctive classes of electronic excitations appear. At high energies, the mysterious 'pseudogap' excitations are found, whereas, at lower energies, Bogoliubov quasi-particles-the excitations resulting from the breaking of Cooper pairs-should exist. To explore this transformation, and to identify the two excitation types, we have imaged the electronic structure of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) in r-space and k-space simultaneously. We find that although the low-energy excitations are indeed Bogoliubov quasi-particles, they occupy only a restricted region of k-space that shrinks rapidly with diminishing hole density. Concomitantly, spectral weight is transferred to higher energy r-space states that lack the characteristics of excitations from delocalized Cooper pairs. Instead, these states break translational and rotational symmetries locally at the atomic scale in an energy-independent way. We demonstrate that these unusual r-space excitations are, in fact, the pseudogap states. Thus, as the Mott insulating state is approached by decreasing the hole density, the delocalized Cooper pairs vanish from k-space, to be replaced by locally translational- and rotational-symmetry-breaking pseudogap states in r-space. PMID:18756248

  15. Hartree-Fock Solutions of 2d Interacting Tight-Binding Electrons: Mott Properties and Room Temperature Superconductivity Indications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A.; March, N. H.; Cabo-Bizet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Former results for a tight-binding (TB) model of CuO planes in La2CuO4 are reinterpreted here to underline their wider implications. It is noted that physical systems being appropriately described by the TB model can exhibit the main strongly correlated electron system (SCES) properties, when they are solved in the HF approximation, by also allowing crystal symmetry breaking effects and noncollinear spin orientations of the HF orbitals. It is argued how a simple 2D square lattice system of Coulomb interacting electrons can exhibit insulator gaps and pseudogap states, and quantum phase transitions as illustrated by the mentioned former works. A discussion is also presented here indicating the possibility of attaining room temperature superconductivity, by means of a surface coating with water molecules of cleaved planes of graphite, being orthogonal to its c-axis. The possibility that 2D arrays of quantum dots can give rise to the same effect is also proposed to consideration. The analysis also furnishes theoretical insight to solve the Mott-Slater debate, at least for the La2CuO4 and TMO band structures. The idea is to apply a properly noncollinear GW scheme to the electronic structure calculation of these materials. The fact is that the GW approach can be viewed as a HF procedure in which the screening polarization is also determined. This directly indicates the possibility of predicting the assumed dielectric constant in the previous works. Thus, the results seem to identify that the main correlation properties in these materials are determined by screening. Finally, the conclusions also seem to be of help for the description of the experimental observations of metal-insulator transitions and Mott properties in atoms trapped in planar photonic lattices.

  16. Light scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices as an optical probe of quantum statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhov, Igor B.; Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut

    2007-11-15

    We study off-resonant collective light scattering from ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the spatial intensity distribution, quadrature variances, photon statistics, or spectral measurements. In particular, angle-resolved intensity measurements reflect global statistics of atoms (total number of radiating atoms) as well as local statistical quantities (single-site statistics even without optical access to a single site) and pair correlations between different sites. As a striking example we consider scattering from transversally illuminated atoms into an optical cavity mode. For the Mott-insulator state, similar to classical diffraction, the number of photons scattered into a cavity is zero due to destructive interference, while for the superfluid state it is nonzero and proportional to the number of atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate that light scattering into a standing-wave cavity has a nontrivial angle dependence, including the appearance of narrow features at angles, where classical diffraction predicts zero. The measurement procedure corresponds to the quantum nondemolition measurement of various atomic variables by observing light.

  17. Block Magnetic Excitations in the Orbitally Selective Mott Insulator BaFe2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourigal, M.; Wu, Shan; Stone, M. B.; Neilson, J. R.; Caron, J. M.; McQueen, T. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    2015-07-01

    Iron pnictides and selenides display a variety of unusual magnetic phases originating from the interplay between electronic, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. Using powder inelastic neutron scattering on the two-leg ladder BaFe2Se3 , we fully characterize the static and dynamic spin correlations associated with the Fe4 block state, an exotic magnetic ground state observed in this low-dimensional magnet and in Rb0.89Fe1.58Se2 . All the magnetic excitations of the Fe4 block state predicted by an effective Heisenberg model with localized spins are observed below 300 meV and quantitatively reproduced. However, the data only account for 16 (3 )μB2 per Fe2 + , approximatively 2 /3 of the total spectral weight expected for localized S =2 moments. Our results highlight how orbital degrees of freedom in iron-based magnets can conspire to stabilize an exotic magnetic state.

  18. Mott-type MgxZn1-xO-based visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors with active anti-reflection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X. H.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Wang, S. P.; Jiang, M. M.; Shan, C. X.; Zhao, D. X.; Chen, H. Y.; Shen, D. Z.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a vertical geometry Mott-type visible (VIS)-blind Ultraviolet (UV) photodetector which was fabricated based on wurzite MgZnO (W-MgZnO) with a cubic MgZnO (C-MgZnO) anti-reflection layer. The C-MgZnO layer plays two roles in the detector, not only the conventional optical part but also electrical part. Photon-generated holes were restricted due to valence band offset. More "hot" electrons injected over a reduced Mott potential barrier at the metal-semiconductor interface, resulting in additional current contributing to photoresponse. This dual-function structure is a highly compact and wavelength-resonant UV detector, with a spectral response high-gain and fast.

  19. Magnetic field induced lattice effects in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor close to the Mott metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Mariano; Brühl, Andreas; Strack, Christian; Schweitzer, Dieter; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-01

    We present ultra-high-resolution dilatometric studies in magnetic fields on a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor κ-(D8-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, which is located close to the Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition. The obtained thermal expansion coefficient, α(T), reveals two remarkable features: (i) the Mott MI transition temperature TMI=(13.6±0.6) K is insensitive to fields up to 10 T, the highest applied field; (ii) for fields along the interlayer b axis, a magnetic field induced (FI) phase transition at TFI=(9.5±0.5) K is observed above a threshold field Hc˜1 T, indicative of a spin reorientation with strong magnetoelastic coupling.

  20. Optical conductivity measurements of GaTa4Se8 under high pressure: evidence of a bandwidth-controlled insulator-to-metal Mott transition.

    PubMed

    Ta Phuoc, V; Vaju, C; Corraze, B; Sopracase, R; Perucchi, A; Marini, C; Postorino, P; Chligui, M; Lupi, S; Janod, E; Cario, L

    2013-01-18

    The optical properties of a GaTa(4)Se(8) single crystal are investigated under high pressure. At ambient pressure, the optical conductivity exhibits a charge gap of ≈0.12 eV and a broad midinfrared band at ≈0.55 eV. As pressure is increased, the low energy spectral weight is strongly enhanced and the optical gap is rapidly filled, pointing to an insulator to metal transition around 6 GPa. The overall evolution of the optical conductivity demonstrates that GaTa(4)Se(8) is a Mott insulator which undergoes a bandwidth-controlled Mott metal-insulator transition under pressure, in remarkably good agreement with theory. With the use of our optical data and ab initio band structure calculations, our results were successfully compared to the (U/D, T/D) phase diagram predicted by dynamical mean field theory for strongly correlated systems. PMID:23373949

  1. Pressure-dependent relaxation in the photoexcited mott insulator ET-F2TCNQ: influence of hopping and correlations on quasiparticle recombination rates.

    PubMed

    Mitrano, M; Cotugno, G; Clark, S R; Singla, R; Kaiser, S; Stähler, J; Beyer, R; Dressel, M; Baldassarre, L; Nicoletti, D; Perucchi, A; Hasegawa, T; Okamoto, H; Jaksch, D; Cavalleri, A

    2014-03-21

    We measure the ultrafast recombination of photoexcited quasiparticles (holon-doublon pairs) in the one dimensional Mott insulator ET-F(2)TCNQ as a function of external pressure, which is used to tune the electronic structure. At each pressure value, we first fit the static optical properties and extract the electronic bandwidth t and the intersite correlation energy V. We then measure the recombination times as a function of pressure, and we correlate them with the corresponding microscopic parameters. We find that the recombination times scale differently than for metals and semiconductors. A fit to our data based on the time-dependent extended Hubbard Hamiltonian suggests that the competition between local recombination and delocalization of the Mott-Hubbard exciton dictates the efficiency of the recombination. PMID:24702420

  2. Photoinduced dynamics in doped Mott insulators with polaronic conduction: Ba2Ti13O22 and BaxTi8O16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Furuhashi, A.; Nishihara, H.; Murata, R.; Takayama, K.; Katsufuji, T.

    2016-07-01

    To clarify the dynamics of polarons in doped Mott insulators, we performed pump-probe reflectivity measurements for two barium titanates, Ba2Ti13O22 and BaxTi8O16 , with a noninteger average number of d electrons per Ti. We found that the photoinduced dynamics in Ba2Ti13O22 with a three-dimensional electronic structure is characterized by a broadening of the polaron-excitation peak immediately after photoirradiation, whereas that in BaxTi8O16 with a one-dimensional electronic structure is characterized by a change in the intensities of the polaron-excitation peak and charge-gap-excitation peak with time. This indicates that a difference in dimensionality results in different photoinduced dynamics of polarons in doped Mott insulators.

  3. Multiphonon scattering from surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, J. R.; Celli, V.; Himes, D.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the relationship between several different formalisms for treating the multiphonon inelastic scattering of atomic projectiles from surfaces. Starting from general principles of formal scattering theory, the trajectory approximation to the scattering intensity is obtained. From the trajectory approximation, the conditions leading to the fast-collision approximation for multiquantum inelastic scattering are systematically derived.

  4. Influence of the Kerr effect in a Mott insulator on the superfluid transition from the point of view of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Clélio B. C.; Almeida, Francisco A. G.; Souza, Andre M. C.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied analytically the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model for a one-dimensional optical lattice with the account of the Kerr-type nonlinearity under the fermionic approximation. We have found that an increase in the number of photons or in the detuning parameter favors the superfluid phase. We have also found that the nonlinear Kerr effect favors the Mott insulator phase, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Enhanced auto-antibody production and Mott cell formation in FcμR-deficient autoimmune mice

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Kazuhito; Kubagawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takagi, Miyuki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Bucy, R. Pat; Izui, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    The IgM-Fc receptor (FcμR) is involved in IgM homeostasis as evidenced by increased pre-immune serum IgM and natural auto-antibodies of both IgM and IgG isotypes in Fcmr-deficient C57BL/6 (B6) mice. To determine the impact of Fcmr-ablation on autoimmunity, we introduced the Fcmr null mutation onto the Fas-deficient autoimmune-prone B6.MRL Fas lpr/lpr mouse background (B6/lpr). Both IgM and IgG auto-antibodies against dsDNA or chromatin appeared earlier in FcμR(−) B6/lpr than FcμR(+) B6/lpr mice, but this difference became less pronounced with age. Splenic B2 cells, which were 2-fold elevated in FcμR(+) B6/lpr mice, were reduced to normal B6 levels in FcμR(−) B6/lpr mice, whereas splenic B1 cells were comparable in both groups of B6/lpr mice. By contrast, marginal zone (MZ) B cells were markedly reduced in FcμR(−) B6/lpr mice compared with either FcμR(+) B6/lpr or wild type (WT) B6 mice. This reduction appeared to result from rapid differentiation of MZ B cells into plasma cells in the absence of FcμR, as IgM antibody to a Smith (Sm) antigen, to which MZ B cells are known to preferentially respond, was greatly increased in both groups (B6/lpr and B6) of FcμR(−) mice compared with FcμR(+) B6/lpr or B6 mice. Mott cells, aberrant plasma cells with intra-cytoplasmic inclusions, were also increased in the absence of FcμR. Despite these abnormalities, the severity of renal pathology and function and survival were all indistinguishable between FcμR(−) and FcμR(+) B6/lpr mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that FcμR plays important roles in the regulation of auto-antibody production, Mott cell formation and the differentiation of MZ B cells into plasma cells in B6.MRL Fas lpr/lpr mice. PMID:24994818

  6. Superconducting dome in doped quasi-two-dimensional organic Mott insulators: A paradigm for strongly correlated superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Charles-David; Sémon, Patrick; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family are model systems for understanding the interplay of the Mott transition with superconductivity, magnetic order, and frustration, ingredients that are essential to understand superconductivity also in the cuprate high-temperature superconductors. Recent experimental studies on a hole-doped version of the organic compounds reveals an enhancement of superconductivity and a rapid crossover between two different conducting phases above the superconducting dome. One of these phases is a Fermi liquid, the other not. Using plaquette cellular dynamical mean field theory with state-of-the-art continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations, we study this problem with the two-dimensional Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice. Phase diagrams as a function of temperature T and interaction strength U /t are obtained for anisotropy parameters t'=0.4 t ,t'=0.8 t and for various fillings. As in the case of the cuprates, we find, at finite doping, a first-order transition between two normal-state phases. One of theses phases has a pseudogap while the other does not. At temperatures above the critical point of the first-order transition, there is a Widom line where crossovers occur. The maximum (optimal) superconducting critical temperature Tcm at finite doping is enhanced by about 25% compared with its maximum at half filling and the range of U /t where superconductivity appears is greatly extended. These results are in broad agreement with experiment. Also, increasing frustration (larger t'/t ) significantly reduces magnetic ordering, as expected. This suggests that for compounds with intermediate to high frustration, very light doping should reveal the influence of the first-order transition and associated crossovers. These crossovers could possibly be even visible in the superconducting phase through subtle signatures. We also predict that destroying the superconducting phase by a magnetic field should reveal the

  7. Cluster Dynamical Mean Field Methods and the Momentum-selective Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Emanuel

    2011-03-01

    Innovations in methodology and computational power have enabled cluster dynamical mean field calculations of the Hubbard model with interaction strengths and band structures representative of high temperature copper oxide superconductors, for clusters large enough that the thermodyamic limit behavior may be determined. We present the methods and show how extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit work in practice. We show that the Hubbard model with next-nearest neighbor hopping at intermediate interaction strength captures much of the exotic behavior characteristic of the high temperature superconductors. An important feature of the results is a pseudogap for hole doping but not for electron doping. The pseudogap regime is characterized by a gap for momenta near Brillouin zone face and gapless behavior near the zone diagonal. for dopings outside of the pseudogap regime we find scattering rates which vary around the fermi surface in a way consistent with recent transport measurements. Using the maximum entropy method we calculate spectra, self-energies, and response functions for Raman spectroscopy and optical conductivities, finding results also in good agreement with experiment. Olivier Parcollet, Philipp Werner, Nan Lin, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Andrew J. Millis; NSF-DMR-0705847.

  8. Engineered Mott ground state in a LaTiO3+δ/LaNiO3 heterostructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Choudhury, D.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Kim, J. -W.; Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J. W.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-01-21

    In pursuit of creating cuprate-like electronic and orbital structures, artificial heterostructures based on LaNiO3 have inspired a wealth of exciting experimental and theoretical results. However, to date there is a very limited experimental understanding of the electronic and orbital states emerging from interfacial charge transfer and their connections to the modified band structure at the interface. Towards this goal, we have synthesized a prototypical superlattice composed of a correlated metal LaNiO3 and a doped Mott insulator LaTiO3+δ, and investigated its electronic structure by resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electrical transport and theory calculations. The heterostructure exhibitsmore » interfacial charge transfer from Ti to Ni sites, giving rise to an insulating ground state with orbital polarization and eg orbital band splitting. Here, our findings demonstrate how the control over charge at the interface can be effectively used to create exotic electronic, orbital and spin states.« less

  9. Electric double-layer transistor using layered iron selenide Mott insulator TlFe1.6Se2.

    PubMed

    Katase, Takayoshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-03-18

    A(1-x)Fe(2-y)Se2 (A = K, Cs, Rb, Tl) are recently discovered iron-based superconductors with critical temperatures (Tc) ranging up to 32 K. Their parent phases have unique properties compared with other iron-based superconductors; e.g., their crystal structures include ordered Fe vacancies, their normal states are antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulating phases, and they have extremely high Néel transition temperatures. However, control of carrier doping into the parent AFM insulators has been difficult due to their intrinsic phase separation. Here, we fabricated an Fe-vacancy-ordered TlFe1.6Se2 insulating epitaxial film with an atomically flat surface and examined its electrostatic carrier doping using an electric double-layer transistor (EDLT) structure with an ionic liquid gate. The positive gate voltage gave a conductance modulation of three orders of magnitude at 25 K, and further induced and manipulated a phase transition; i.e., delocalized carrier generation by electrostatic doping is the origin of the phase transition. This is the first demonstration, to the authors' knowledge, of an EDLT using a Mott insulator iron selenide channel and opens a way to explore high Tc superconductivity in iron-based layered materials, where carrier doping by conventional chemical means is difficult. PMID:24591598

  10. Engineered Mott ground state in a LaTiO3+δ/LaNiO3 heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Choudhury, D.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J.W.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of creating cuprate-like electronic and orbital structures, artificial heterostructures based on LaNiO3 have inspired a wealth of exciting experimental and theoretical results. However, to date there is a very limited experimental understanding of the electronic and orbital states emerging from interfacial charge transfer and their connections to the modified band structure at the interface. Towards this goal, we have synthesized a prototypical superlattice composed of a correlated metal LaNiO3 and a doped Mott insulator LaTiO3+δ, and investigated its electronic structure by resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electrical transport and theory calculations. The heterostructure exhibits interfacial charge transfer from Ti to Ni sites, giving rise to an insulating ground state with orbital polarization and eg orbital band splitting. Our findings demonstrate how the control over charge at the interface can be effectively used to create exotic electronic, orbital and spin states. PMID:26791402

  11. Engineered Mott ground state in a LaTiO3+δ/LaNiO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Choudhury, D.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Kim, J.-W.; Ryan, P. J.; Freeland, J. W.; Chakhalian, J.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of creating cuprate-like electronic and orbital structures, artificial heterostructures based on LaNiO3 have inspired a wealth of exciting experimental and theoretical results. However, to date there is a very limited experimental understanding of the electronic and orbital states emerging from interfacial charge transfer and their connections to the modified band structure at the interface. Towards this goal, we have synthesized a prototypical superlattice composed of a correlated metal LaNiO3 and a doped Mott insulator LaTiO3+δ, and investigated its electronic structure by resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electrical transport and theory calculations. The heterostructure exhibits interfacial charge transfer from Ti to Ni sites, giving rise to an insulating ground state with orbital polarization and eg orbital band splitting. Our findings demonstrate how the control over charge at the interface can be effectively used to create exotic electronic, orbital and spin states.

  12. Engineered Mott ground state in a LaTiO(3+δ)/LaNiO3 heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M; Choudhury, D; Middey, S; Meyers, D; Kim, J-W; Ryan, P J; Freeland, J W; Chakhalian, J

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of creating cuprate-like electronic and orbital structures, artificial heterostructures based on LaNiO3 have inspired a wealth of exciting experimental and theoretical results. However, to date there is a very limited experimental understanding of the electronic and orbital states emerging from interfacial charge transfer and their connections to the modified band structure at the interface. Towards this goal, we have synthesized a prototypical superlattice composed of a correlated metal LaNiO3 and a doped Mott insulator LaTiO(3+δ), and investigated its electronic structure by resonant X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electrical transport and theory calculations. The heterostructure exhibits interfacial charge transfer from Ti to Ni sites, giving rise to an insulating ground state with orbital polarization and e(g) orbital band splitting. Our findings demonstrate how the control over charge at the interface can be effectively used to create exotic electronic, orbital and spin states. PMID:26791402

  13. Fractional Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition of Bose–Hubbard model in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Hui; Li, Peng; Su, Haibin

    2016-06-01

    By generalizing the traditional single-site strong coupling expansion approach to a cluster one, we study the zero-temperature phase diagram of bosonic atoms in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice. Some new features are present in this system. Due to the strong intra-trimer hopping interaction, there will be a new Mott insulator (MI), which is by definition incompressible but with a fractional filling per trimer. This is different from the traditional MI, which has an integral filling and originates only from the repulsive interaction between particles. We investigate the MI-to-superfluid transition and the nature of the fractional MI by calculating the critical exponents of phase transitions and the low-lying energy excitation spectra of quasiparticles (quasihole). We will show how the low-energy properties of this system can be understood qualitatively as a Bose–Hubbard model in triangular lattice from the point of view of the cluster strong coupling expansion. We also discuss how our results are related to experiment by studying the Bragg spectroscopy.

  14. Large epitaxial bi-axial strain induces a Mott-like phase transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2014-08-18

    The metal insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) has been an important topic for recent years. It has been generally agreed upon that the mechanism of the MIT in bulk VO{sub 2} is considered to be a collaborative Mott-Peierls transition, however, the effect of strain on the phase transition is much more complicated. In this study, the effect of the large strain on the properties of VO{sub 2} films was investigated. One remarkable result is that highly strained epitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films were rutile in the insulating state as well as in the metallic state. These highly strained VO{sub 2} films underwent an electronic phase transition without the concomitant Peierls transition. Our results also show that a very large tensile strain along the c-axis of rutile VO{sub 2} resulted in a phase transition temperature of ∼433 K, much higher than in any previous report. Our findings elicit that the metal insulator transition in VO{sub 2} can be driven by an electronic transition alone, rather the typical coupled electronic-structural transition.

  15. Fractional Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition of Bose-Hubbard model in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-Hui; Li, Peng; Su, Haibin

    2016-06-29

    By generalizing the traditional single-site strong coupling expansion approach to a cluster one, we study the zero-temperature phase diagram of bosonic atoms in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice. Some new features are present in this system. Due to the strong intra-trimer hopping interaction, there will be a new Mott insulator (MI), which is by definition incompressible but with a fractional filling per trimer. This is different from the traditional MI, which has an integral filling and originates only from the repulsive interaction between particles. We investigate the MI-to-superfluid transition and the nature of the fractional MI by calculating the critical exponents of phase transitions and the low-lying energy excitation spectra of quasiparticles (quasihole). We will show how the low-energy properties of this system can be understood qualitatively as a Bose-Hubbard model in triangular lattice from the point of view of the cluster strong coupling expansion. We also discuss how our results are related to experiment by studying the Bragg spectroscopy. PMID:27165440

  16. Slater to Mott Crossover in the Metal to Insulator Transition of Nd2Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, M.; Kondo, Takeshi; Tian, Z.; Ishikawa, J. J.; Halim, M.; Bareille, C.; Malaeb, W.; Kuroda, K.; Tomita, T.; Ideta, S.; Tanaka, K.; Matsunami, M.; Kimura, S.; Inami, N.; Ono, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Balents, L.; Nakatsuji, S.; Shin, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present an angle-resolved photoemission study of the electronic structure of the three-dimensional pyrochlore iridate Nd2Ir2O7 through its magnetic metal-insulator transition. Our data reveal that metallic Nd2Ir2O7 has a quadratic band, touching the Fermi level at the Γ point, similar to that of Pr2Ir2O7 . The Fermi node state is, therefore, a common feature of the metallic phase of the pyrochlore iridates. Upon cooling below the transition temperature, this compound exhibits a gap opening with an energy shift of quasiparticle peaks like a band gap insulator. The quasiparticle peaks are strongly suppressed, however, with further decrease of temperature, and eventually vanish at the lowest temperature, leaving a nondispersive flat band lacking long-lived electrons. We thereby identify a remarkable crossover from Slater to Mott insulators with decreasing temperature. These observations explain the puzzling absence of Weyl points in this material, despite its proximity to the zero temperature metal-insulator transition.

  17. Electric double-layer transistor using layered iron selenide Mott insulator TlFe1.6Se2

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A1–xFe2–ySe2 (A = K, Cs, Rb, Tl) are recently discovered iron-based superconductors with critical temperatures (Tc) ranging up to 32 K. Their parent phases have unique properties compared with other iron-based superconductors; e.g., their crystal structures include ordered Fe vacancies, their normal states are antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulating phases, and they have extremely high Néel transition temperatures. However, control of carrier doping into the parent AFM insulators has been difficult due to their intrinsic phase separation. Here, we fabricated an Fe-vacancy-ordered TlFe1.6Se2 insulating epitaxial film with an atomically flat surface and examined its electrostatic carrier doping using an electric double-layer transistor (EDLT) structure with an ionic liquid gate. The positive gate voltage gave a conductance modulation of three orders of magnitude at 25 K, and further induced and manipulated a phase transition; i.e., delocalized carrier generation by electrostatic doping is the origin of the phase transition. This is the first demonstration, to the authors' knowledge, of an EDLT using a Mott insulator iron selenide channel and opens a way to explore high Tc superconductivity in iron-based layered materials, where carrier doping by conventional chemical means is difficult. PMID:24591598

  18. The Si(1 1 1) (7 × 7) reconstruction: A surface close to a Mott Hubbard metal insulator transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, D.; Bromberger, C.; Jänsch, H. J.; Kühlert, O.; Schillinger, R.; Weindel, C.

    2006-09-01

    Li adsorption at extremely low coverages on the "metallic" Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface has been experimentally studied recently by β-NMR experiments. Instead of increasing linearly with the sample temperature, as expected for a metallic system, the relaxation rate α = 1/ T1 is almost constant in between 50 K and 300 K sample temperature and rises Arrhenius like above. In order to understand this behaviour in a transparent way a closed form analysis is presented using rectangular density of states distributions. The almost temperature independent relaxation rate below 300 K points to an extremely localized and thus narrow band (width about 10 meV) which pins the Fermi energy. Because of the steeply rising relaxation rate beyond 300 K it is located energetically within a gap (about 380 meV wide) in between a lower filled and an upper empty (Hubbard) band. In dynamical mean field theories based on Hubbard Hamiltonians this kind of density of states is typical for correlated electron systems close to a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition.

  19. Metallic Si (111) - (7×7) -reconstruction: A surface close to a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, R.; Bromberger, C.; Jänsch, H. J.; Kleine, H.; Kühlert, O.; Weindel, C.; Fick, D.

    2005-09-01

    Li adsorption at extremely low coverages ( 10-3 ML and below) on the metallic Si(111)-(7×7) surface has been studied by β -NMR experiments (measurement of T1 -times). Instead of increasing linearly with the sample temperature, as expected for a metallic system, the relaxation rate α=1/T1 is almost constant in between 50K and 300K sample temperature and rises considerably above. Comparison with T1 -times around 900K (observed with Li6 -NMR) excludes adsorbate diffusion as the cause of the relaxation rate. Thus the almost temperature independent relaxation rate below 300K points to an extremely localized and thus narrow band (width about 10meV ) which pins the Fermi energy. It is responsible for the metallicity of the (7×7) -reconstruction. Because of the steeply rising relaxation rate beyond 300K this narrow band is located energetically within a gap (approximately 100-500meV wide) in between a lower filled and an upper empty (Hubbard) band. Due to its extremely narrow width it can hardly be detected in photo electron experiments. In dynamical mean field theories based on Hubbard Hamiltonians this kind of density of states is typical for correlated electron systems close to a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition.

  20. Possible Bose-condensate behavior in a quantum phase originating in a collective excitation in the chemically and optically doped Mott-Hubbard system UO2+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradson, Steven D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; An, Yong Q.; Andersson, David A.; Bishop, Alan R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Byler, Darrin D.; Clark, David L.; Conradson, Dylan R.; Conradson, Leilani L.; Costello, Alison L.; Hess, Nancy J.; Lander, Gerard H.; Llobet, Anna; Martucci, Mary B.; Mustre de Leon, Jose; Nordlund, Dennis; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Proffen, Thomas E.; Rodriguez, George; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Trugman, Stuart A.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Valdez, James A.

    2013-09-01

    X-ray pair distribution function (pdf) and U L3 extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and neutron pdf measurements that give identical results for UO2 show U(VI)-oxo moieties with x rays for mixed valence U4O9 and U3O7, in contrast to the neutron data that indicate only U(V) sites with no short U-O bonds as well as other differences. In addition, although the EXAFS spectra of UO2 are essentially identical at 30, 100, and 200 K, those of the UO2+x compounds exhibit different nearest-neighbor U-O distributions at each temperature. Further tunneling polaron-type behavior is found in the broadening of the features of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of the UO2+x compounds. Raman spectra of powders also show a large increase in scattering cross section with increasing O content that would originate in a change in the electronic structure that increases the overall polarizability. The XAS and Raman also show that U4O9 does not behave as a linear combination of the UO2 and U3O7 fluorite endpoints. The properties induced by mobile rather than static charged quasiparticles were explored by optical pumping of the metal-to-metal charge-transfer transition. The temperature dependence of 4.71 eV pump-1.57 eV probe reflectivity on UO2 that initially populates the U 6d-dominated portion of the upper Hubbard band (UHB) shows a sharp 28-μsec lifetime peak at 25 K that may be associated with the fluctuations of its antiferromagnetic transition. Pumping at 3.14 eV into the 5f-dominated portion of the UHB shows an analogous 2.8-μsec peak but also a plateau bracketing this peak that ends in a cusp at 50-60 K and an abrupt change in the hardening rate of a novel 12-15 GHz phonon that is the signature for the quasiparticle quantum phase. The different results for the different excitation channels indicate a highly specific nonthermal relaxation mechanism. These results constitute the first observation of a distinct phase of photoinduced quasiparticles that is

  1. A new SERS: scattering enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can be used to obtain detailed chemical information about a system without the need for chemical markers. It has been widely used for a variety of applications such as cancer diagnosis and material characterization. However, Raman scattering is a highly inefficient process, where only one in 1011 scattered photons carry the needed information. Several methods have been developed to enhance this inherently weak effect, including surface enhanced Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. These techniques suffer from drawbacks limiting their commercial use, such as the need for spatial localization of target molecules to a `hot spot', or the need for complex laser systems. Here, we present a simple instrument to enhance spontaneous Raman scattering using elastic light scattering. Elastic scattering is used to substantially increase the interaction volume. Provided that the scattering medium exhibits very low absorption in the spectral range of interest, a large enhancement factor can be attained in a simple and inexpensive setting. In our experiments, we demonstrate an enhancement of 107 in Raman signal intensity. The proposed novel device is equally applicable for analyzing solids, liquids, and gases.

  2. Optics as Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo

    1973-01-01

    The art of deriving information about an object from the radiation it scatters was once limited to visible light. Now due to new techniques, much of the modern physical science research utilizes radiation scattering. (DF)

  3. The electronic structure of the Mott insulator VO2: the strongly correlated metal state is screened by impurity band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Tak

    A Mott insulator VO2 (3d1) has a direct gap (Δdirect ~Vdirect) of 0.6 eV and an indirect gap of Δact ~Vdirect ~ 0.15 eV coming from impurity indirect band. At Tc, Δdirect =Δact = O is satisfied and the insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) occurs. The metallic carriers near core region can be trapped when a critical onsite Coulomb Uc exists. Then, a potential energy is defined as Vg =Vdirect +Uc +Vindirect = - (2 2 3) EF (1 + e (NtotNtotntot) (1 - exp (-Δact-ΔactkB T))) +Uc kB T))) +Uc ntot) (1 - exp (-Δact-ΔactkB T))) +Uc kB T))) +Uc 3) EF (1 + e (NtotNtotntot) (1 - exp (-Δact-ΔactkB T))) +Uc kB T))) +Uc ntot) (1 - exp (-Δact-ΔactkB T))) +Uc kB T))) +Uc , where Vdirect = - (2 2 3 3) EF is the screened Coulomb pseudopotential at K = 0. Δρ =NtotNtotntot ~ 0 . 018 % ntot ~ 0 . 018 % [1] is defined as the critical doping quantity, where ntot is the carrier density in the direct band and Ntot is the carrier density in the impurity band. In Uc < (2

  4. Electromagnetic inverse scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bojarski, N. N.

    1972-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic inverse scattering identity, based on the physical optics approximation, is developed for the monostatic scattered far field cross section of perfect conductors. Uniqueness of this inverse identity is proven. This identity requires complete scattering information for all frequencies and aspect angles. A nonsingular integral equation is developed for the arbitrary case of incomplete frequence and/or aspect angle scattering information. A general closed-form solution to this integral equation is developed, which yields the shape of the scatterer from such incomplete information. A specific practical radar solution is presented. The resolution of this solution is developed, yielding short-pulse target resolution radar system parameter equations. The special cases of two- and one-dimensional inverse scattering and the special case of a priori knowledge of scatterer symmetry are treated in some detail. The merits of this solution over the conventional radar imaging technique are discussed.

  5. Spin-singlet state formation in the cluster Mott insulator GaNb4S8 studied by μSR and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waki, T.; Kajinami, Y.; Tabata, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, M.; Takigawa, M.; Watanabe, I.

    2010-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments revealed that the spin-singlet state with an excitation gap of ˜200K is realized from S=1/2Nb4 tetrahedral clusters in a cluster Mott insulator GaNb4S8 . The intercluster cooperative phenomenon to the singlet state at TS=32k is triggered by intracluster Jahn-Teller type structural instability developed from ˜3TS . Referring to the lattice symmetry, the formation of Nb8 octamer ( Nb4-Nb4 bond) is suggested.

  6. Direct probe of Mott-Hubbard to charge-transfer insulator transition and electronic structure evolution in transition-metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Olalde-Velasco, P; Jimenez-Mier, J; Denlinger, JD; Hussain, Z; Yang, WL

    2011-07-11

    We report the most direct experimental verification of Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer insulators through x-ray emission spectroscopy in transition-metal (TM) fluorides. The p-d hybridization features in the spectra allow a straightforward energy alignment of the anion-2p and metal-3d valence states, which visually shows the difference between the two types of insulators. Furthermore, in parallel with the theoretical Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen diagram, a complete experimental systematics of the 3d Coulomb interaction and the 2p-3d charge-transfer energy is reported and could serve as a universal experimental trend for other TM systems including oxides.

  7. Scaling theory of the mott transition and breakdown of the Grüneisen scaling near a finite-temperature critical end point.

    PubMed

    Bartosch, Lorenz; de Souza, Mariano; Lang, Michael

    2010-06-18

    We discuss a scaling theory of the lattice response in the vicinity of a finite-temperature critical end point. The thermal expansivity is shown to be more singular than the specific heat such that the Grüneisen ratio diverges as the critical point is approached, except for its immediate vicinity. More generally, we express the thermal expansivity in terms of a scaling function which we explicitly evaluate for the two-dimensional Ising universality class. Recent thermal expansivity measurements on the layered organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X close to the Mott transition are well described by our theory. PMID:20867311

  8. Electric polarization of Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3: a multiferroic Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourafkan, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics, materials which display simultaneous magnetic and ferroelectric orders, are interesting both for their rich physics and for their promising practical applications. The search for multiferroic materials with strong-magnetoelectric coupling is challenging and requires an understanding of how the magnetic order, or more specifically the correlations, influence the electric polarization and vice versa. A calculations of the electric polarization in the paramagnetic (PM) insulating phase of multiferroics is essential to address this mutual influence. Ab inito calculations of the electric polarization are based on the modern theory of polarization, which is a single-electron theory. Thus, a correlation driven insulating state is beyond the scope of this approach. Here we show that combining correlated band structure calculations (DFT+DMFT) with a formula for the electric polarization of interacting insulators, expressed in terms of the full Green and vertex functions, allows for the first time to reliably calculate the polarization in the PM phase. We focus on the Mott insulator Sr0.5Ba0.5MnO3, in which both magnetic and ferroelectric instabilities are related to the Mn ions. We predict a ferroelectric polarization of ~= 16 . 5 μC / cm2 in the high temperature paramagnetic phase and recover the measured value of ~= 13 . 3 μC / cm2 in the low temperature antiferromagnetic phase. Our calculations reveal that the the driving force behind the ferroelectric distortion comes from the tendency of Mn eg states to establish a stronger covalency with the surrounding oxygens. This covalency is reduced by correlations, in particular by Hund coupling. On the other hand, the half-filled Mn t2 g orbitals give rise to the magnetic ordering which decreases the ionic displacement, hence its contribution to the polarization. For fixed ionic displacement, the magnetic order also slightly decreases the electronic contribution to the electric polarization by partially

  9. Multiple scattering tomography.

    PubMed

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Peter, Silvia; Abis, Matteo; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; David, Christian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2014-07-11

    Multiple scattering represents a challenge for numerous modern tomographic imaging techniques. In this Letter, we derive an appropriate line integral that allows for the tomographic reconstruction of angular resolved scattering distributions, even in the presence of multiple scattering. The line integral is applicable to a wide range of imaging techniques utilizing various kinds of probes. Here, we use x-ray grating interferometry to experimentally validate the framework and to demonstrate additional structural sensitivity, which exemplifies the impact of multiple scattering tomography. PMID:25062159

  10. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  11. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Green's Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  12. Electronic and optical properties of the Mg2-xFexSiO4 spinel:From band insulator to Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokár, Kamil; Piekarz, Przemysław; Derzsi, Mariana; Jochym, Paweł T.; Łażewski, Jan; Sternik, Małgorzata; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Parlinski, Krzysztof

    2010-11-01

    The crystal properties and electronic structure of Mg2-xFexSiO4 spinel have been studied using the density-functional theory including the local Hubbard interaction U within the generalized gradient approximation. The lattice constant depends linearly on increasing iron concentration x in agreement with the Vegard’s law. The contributions of the Fe(t2g) and Fe(eg) orbitals to the electronic density of states have been determined and their crucial role in the band-gap formation has been elucidated. We explain the decrease in the insulating gap with increasing iron concentration on the basis of the Mott-Hubbard picture of correlated insulators. Thus, it was revealed that the electronic structure of Mg2-xFexSiO4 evolves from the band insulator found in Mg2SiO4 to the Mott insulator with increasing iron concentration. We present also the absorption spectra derived from the complex dielectric tensor, which are in good qualitative agreement with the previously reported experimental data for a wide range of energies.

  13. Competition between the barrier and injection mechanisms of nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristic in Mott-barrier detector diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashkin, V. I.; Vostokov, N. V.

    2009-08-01

    We obtain an analytical solution to the problem of transverse injection current in an undoped semiconductor i layer of arbitrary thickness with account of self-consistent boundary conditions. Charge transfer in the semiconductor bulk is described in the drift-diffusion approximation. Current transfer through the boundaries of an undoped layer is described in terms of the thermoelectron emission theory. Thus, the generalized thermoemission-diffusion approach applies for semiconductors with both low and high mobilities of charge carriers. On the basis of the obtained solution, we analyze the characteristics of the current nonlinearity of the Mott-barrier diodes. The generalized approach is used for describing current transfer in low-barrier diodes based on Mott contacts with near-surface δ-doping. Characteristics of detection of low-barrier diodes are analyzed. Limiting values of the volt-watt and threshold sensitivities of the detectors based on these diodes in the subterahertz frequency range (up to 1 THz) are determined.

  14. Size and symmetry of the superconducting gap in the f.c.c. Cs3C60 polymorph close to the metal-Mott insulator boundary

    PubMed Central

    Potočnik, Anton; Krajnc, Andraž; Jeglič, Peter; Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Ganin, Alexey Y.; Prassides, Kosmas; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Arčon, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The alkali fullerides, A3C60 (A = alkali metal) are molecular superconductors that undergo a transition to a magnetic Mott-insulating state at large lattice parameters. However, although the size and the symmetry of the superconducting gap, Δ, are both crucial for the understanding of the pairing mechanism, they are currently unknown for superconducting fullerides close to the correlation-driven magnetic insulator. Here we report a comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of face-centred-cubic (f.c.c.) Cs3C60 polymorph, which can be tuned continuously through the bandwidth-controlled Mott insulator-metal/superconductor transition by pressure. When superconductivity emerges from the insulating state at large interfullerene separations upon compression, we observe an isotropic (s-wave) Δ with a large gap-to-superconducting transition temperature ratio, 2Δ0/kBTc = 5.3(2) [Δ0 = Δ(0 K)]. 2Δ0/kBTc decreases continuously upon pressurization until it approaches a value of ~3.5, characteristic of weak-coupling BCS theory of superconductivity despite the dome-shaped dependence of Tc on interfullerene separation. The results indicate the importance of the electronic correlations for the pairing interaction as the metal/superconductor-insulator boundary is approached. PMID:24584087

  15. A new route to the Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition: Strong correlations effects in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sub; Choi, Sun Gyu; Park, Hyung-Ho; Rozenberg, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistive random access memory based on the resistive switching phenomenon is emerging as a strong candidate for next generation non-volatile memory. So far, the resistive switching effect has been observed in many transition metal oxides, including strongly correlated ones, such as, cuprate superconductors, colossal magnetoresistant manganites and Mott insulators. However, up to now, no clear evidence of the possible relevance of strong correlation effects in the mechanism of resistive switching has been reported. Here, we study Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, which shows bipolar resistive switching. Performing micro-spectroscopic studies on its bare surface we are able to track the systematic electronic structure changes in both, the low and high resistance state. We find that a large change in the electronic conductance is due to field-induced oxygen vacancies, which drives a Mott metal-insulator transition at the surface. Our study demonstrates that strong correlation effects may be incorporated to the realm of the emerging oxide electronics.

  16. Scattering theory of nonlinear thermoelectricity in quantum coherent conductors.

    PubMed

    Meair, Jonathan; Jacquod, Philippe

    2013-02-27

    We construct a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear thermoelectric transport through sub-micron scale conductors. The theory incorporates the leading nonlinear contributions in temperature and voltage biases to the charge and heat currents. Because of the finite capacitances of sub-micron scale conducting circuits, fundamental conservation laws such as gauge invariance and current conservation require special care to be preserved. We do this by extending the approach of Christen and Büttiker (1996 Europhys. Lett. 35 523) to coupled charge and heat transport. In this way we write relations connecting nonlinear transport coefficients in a manner similar to Mott's relation between the linear thermopower and the linear conductance. We derive sum rules that nonlinear transport coefficients must satisfy to preserve gauge invariance and current conservation. We illustrate our theory by calculating the efficiency of heat engines and the coefficient of performance of thermoelectric refrigerators based on quantum point contacts and resonant tunneling barriers. We identify, in particular, rectification effects that increase device performance. PMID:23343784

  17. Limitations in scatter propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, E. W.

    1982-04-01

    A short description of the main scatter propagation mechanisms is presented; troposcatter, meteor burst communication and chaff scatter. For these propagation modes, in particular for troposcatter, the important specific limitations discussed are: link budget and resulting hardware consequences, diversity, mobility, information transfer and intermodulation and intersymbol interference, frequency range and future extension in frequency range for troposcatter, and compatibility with other services (EMC).

  18. Compton scattering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V

    2008-12-01

    An overview of linear and nonlinear Compton scattering is presented, along with a comparison with Thomson scattering. Two distinct processes play important roles in the nonlinear regime: multi-photon interactions, leading to the generation of harmonics, and radiation pressure, yielding a downshift of the radiated spectral features. These mechanisms, their influence on the source brightness, and different modeling strategies are also briefly discussed.

  19. Diffractive hard scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-03-01

    I discuss events in high energy hadron collisions that contain a hard scattering, in the sense that very heavy quarks or high P/sub T/ jets are produced, yet are diffractive, in the sense that one of the incident hadrons is scattered with only a small energy loss. 8 refs.

  20. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  1. Sudden slowing down of charge carrier dynamics at the Mott metal-insulator transition in κ-(D8-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Jens; Müller, Jens; Schlueter, John A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of correlated charge carriers in the vicinity of the Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt κ-(D8-BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br by means of fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy. The observed 1/f-type fluctuations are quantitatively very well described by a phenomenological model based on the concept of non-exponential kinetics. The main result is a correlation-induced enhancement of the fluctuations accompanied by a substantial shift of spectral weight to low frequencies in the vicinity of the Mott critical endpoint. This sudden slowing down of the electron dynamics, observed here in a pure Mott system, may be a universal feature of MI transitions. Our findings are compatible with an electronic phase separation in the critical region of the phase diagram and offer an explanation for the not yet understood absence of effective mass enhancement when crossing the Mott transition.

  2. Sudden slowing down of charge carrier dynamics at the Mott metal-insulator transition in kappa-(D{sub 8}-BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, J.; Muller, J.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dynamics of correlated charge carriers in the vicinity of the Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition in the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt {kappa}-(D{sub 8}-BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br by means of fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy. The observed 1/f-type fluctuations are quantitatively very well described by a phenomenological model based on the concept of non-exponential kinetics. The main result is a correlation-induced enhancement of the fluctuations accompanied by a substantial shift of spectral weight to low frequencies in the vicinity of the Mott critical endpoint. This sudden slowing down of the electron dynamics, observed here in a pure Mott system, may be a universal feature of MI transitions. Our findings are compatible with an electronic phase separation in the critical region of the phase diagram and offer an explanation for the not yet understood absence of effective mass enhancement when crossing the Mott transition.

  3. Phase structure of (2+1)-dimensional compact lattice gauge theories and the transition from Mott insulator to fractionalized insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiseth, J.; Smørgrav, E.; Nogueira, F. S.; Hove, J.; Sudbø, A.

    2003-05-01

    Ising universality class (1+α)/ν=1.763 as a limiting case for β→∞,κ→0.761, and the XY universality class (1+α)/ν=1.467 as a limiting case for β→0.454,κ→∞. However, the critical line exhibits a remarkable resilience of Z2 criticality as β is reduced along the critical line. Thus, the three-dimensional compact Abelian Higgs model for q=2 appears to represent a fixed-line theory defining a new universality class. We relate these results to a recent microscopic description of zero-temperature quantum phase transitions within insulating phases of strongly correlated systems in two spatial dimensions, proposing the above to be the universality class of the zero-temperature quantum phase transition from a Mott-Hubbard insulator to a charge-fractionalized insulator in two spatial dimensions, which thus is that of the 3D Ising model for a considerable range of parameters.

  4. Calculates Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-11-10

    Version 00 THRUSH computes the thermal neutron scattering kernel by the phonon expansion method for both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. The calculation of the coherent part is suitable only for calculating the scattering kernel for heavy water.

  5. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  6. Intra-beam scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwinski, A.

    Intra-beam scattering is analysed and the rise times or damping times of the beam dimensions are derived. The theoretical results are compared with experimental values obtained on the CERN AA and SPS machines.

  7. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C.; Oller, Juan C.; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C4H4N2) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  8. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  9. Scaling of the gap, fidelity susceptibility, and Bloch oscillations across the superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Rigol, Marcos

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the interaction-induced superfluid-to-Mott-insulator transition in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model (BHM) for fillings n=1, n=2, and n=3 by studying the single-particle gap, the fidelity susceptibility, and the amplitude of Bloch oscillations via density-matrix renormalization-group methods. We apply a generic scaling procedure for the gap, which allows us to determine the critical points with very high accuracy. We also study how the fidelity susceptibility behaves across the phase transition. Furthermore, we show that in the BHM, and in a system of spinless fermions, the amplitude of Bloch oscillations after a tilt of the lattice vanishes at the critical points. This indicates that Bloch oscillations can serve as a tool to detect the transition point in ongoing experiments with ultracold gases.

  10. Strong lattice correlation of non-equilibrium quasiparticles in a pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Yuelin; Schaller, Richard D.; Zhu, Mengze; Walko, Donald A.; Kim, Jungho; Ke, Xianglin; Miao, Ludi; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-20

    In correlated oxides the coupling of quasiparticles to other degrees of freedom such as spin and lattice plays critical roles in the emergence of symmetry-breaking quantum ordered states such as high temperature superconductivity. We report a strong lattice coupling of photon-induced quasiparticles in spin-orbital coupling Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 probed via optical excitation. Combining time-resolved x-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques, we reconstruct a spatiotemporal map of the diffusion of these quasiparticles. Lastly, due to the unique electronic configuration of the quasiparticles, the strong lattice correlation is unexpected but extends the similarity between Sr2IrO4 and cuprates to a new dimension ofmore » electron-phonon coupling which persists under highly non-equilibrium conditions.« less

  11. Strong lattice correlation of non-equilibrium quasiparticles in a pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Schaller, Richard D; Zhu, Mengze; Walko, Donald A; Kim, Jungho; Ke, Xianglin; Miao, Ludi; Mao, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    In correlated oxides the coupling of quasiparticles to other degrees of freedom such as spin and lattice plays critical roles in the emergence of symmetry-breaking quantum ordered states such as high temperature superconductivity. We report a strong lattice coupling of photon-induced quasiparticles in spin-orbital coupling Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 probed via optical excitation. Combining time-resolved x-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques, we reconstruct a spatiotemporal map of the diffusion of these quasiparticles. Due to the unique electronic configuration of the quasiparticles, the strong lattice correlation is unexpected but extends the similarity between Sr2IrO4 and cuprates to a new dimension of electron-phonon coupling which persists under highly non-equilibrium conditions. PMID:26787094

  12. Strong lattice correlation of non-equilibrium quasiparticles in a pseudospin-1/2 Mott insulator Sr2IrO4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Schaller, Richard D.; Zhu, Mengze; Walko, Donald A.; Kim, Jungho; Ke, Xianglin; Miao, Ludi; Mao, Z. Q.

    2016-01-01

    In correlated oxides the coupling of quasiparticles to other degrees of freedom such as spin and lattice plays critical roles in the emergence of symmetry-breaking quantum ordered states such as high temperature superconductivity. We report a strong lattice coupling of photon-induced quasiparticles in spin-orbital coupling Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 probed via optical excitation. Combining time-resolved x-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques, we reconstruct a spatiotemporal map of the diffusion of these quasiparticles. Due to the unique electronic configuration of the quasiparticles, the strong lattice correlation is unexpected but extends the similarity between Sr2IrO4 and cuprates to a new dimension of electron-phonon coupling which persists under highly non-equilibrium conditions. PMID:26787094

  13. Magnetic-field induced crossover of superconducting percolation regimes in the layered organic Mott system {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Cl.

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.; Brandenberg, J.; Schlueter, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Max Planck Inst. for Chemical Physics of Solids

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuation spectroscopy is used to investigate the organic bandwidth-controlled Mott system {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Cl. We find evidence for percolative-type superconductivity in the spatially inhomogeneous coexistence region of antiferromagnetic insulating and superconducting states. When the superconducting transition is driven by a magnetic field, percolation seems to be dominated by instable superconducting clusters upon approaching T{sub c}(B) from above, before a 'classical' type of percolation is resumed at low fields, dominated by the fractional change of superconducting clusters. The 1/f noise is resolved into Lorentzian spectra in the crossover region, where the action of an individual fluctuator is enhanced, pointing to a mesoscopic phase separation.

  14. Pressure-induced electronic and magnetic phase transitions in a Mott insulator: Ti-doped C a3R u2O7 bilayer ruthenate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, T.; Cao, H. B.; Liu, G. Q.; Peng, J.; Gottschalk, M.; Zhu, M.; Zhao, Y.; Leão, J. B.; Tian, W.; Mao, Z. Q.; Ke, X.

    2016-07-01

    We report the hydrostatic pressure-induced electronic and magnetic phase transitions in a Mott insulator, a bilayer ruthenate C a3(Ru0.97Ti0.03 ) 2O7 , via electronic transport and single crystal neutron diffraction measurements. The system undergoes an insulator-metal transition at a very small hydrostatic pressure ≈0.04 GPa, followed by a magnetic phase transition around 0.3 GPa, suggesting that the low energy charge fluctuation and magnetic ordering couple to the pressure separately in this compound. The a b initio calculations show that the suppressed Ru O6 flattening induced by the pressure reduces the orbital polarization and gives rise to an insulator-metal transition preceding the magnetic phase transition.

  15. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy Studies of the Mott Insulator to Superconductor Evolution in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Kyle Michael

    2005-09-02

    It is widely believed that many of the exotic physical properties of the high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors arise from the proximity of these materials to the strongly correlated, antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state. Therefore, one of the fundamental questions in the field of high-temperature superconductivity is to understand the insulator-to-superconductor transition and precisely how the electronic structure of Mott insulator evolves as the first holes are doped into the system. This dissertation presents high-resolution, doping dependent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies of the cuprate superconductor Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, spanning from the undoped parent Mott insulator to a high-temperature superconductor with a T{sub c} of 22 K. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain how the spectral lineshape, the quasiparticle band dispersion, and the chemical potential all progress with doping in a logical and self-consistent framework. This model is based on Franck-Condon broadening observed in polaronic systems where strong electron-boson interactions cause the quasiparticle residue, Z, to be vanishingly small. Comparisons of the low-lying states to different electronic states in the valence band strongly suggest that the coupling of the photohole to the lattice (i.e. lattice polaron formation) is the dominant broadening mechanism for the lower Hubbard band states. Combining this polaronic framework with high-resolution ARPES measurements finally provides a resolution to the long-standing controversy over the behavior of the chemical potential in the high-T{sub c} cuprates. This scenario arises from replacing the conventional Fermi liquid quasiparticle interpretation of the features in the Mott insulator by a Franck-Condon model, allowing the reassignment of the position of the quasiparticle pole. As a function of hole doping, the chemical potential shifts smoothly into the valence band while spectral weight is transferred

  16. The happy marriage between electron-phonon superconductivity and Mott physics in Cs3C60: A first-principle phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, Massimo; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakai, Shiro; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Arita, Ryotaro

    The phase diagram of doped fullerides like Cs3C60 as a function of the spacing between fullerene molecules is characterized by a first-order transition between a Mott insulator and an s-wave superconductor with a dome-shaped behavior of the critical temperature. By means of an ab-initio modeling of the bandstructure, the electron-phonon interaction and the interaction parameter and a Dynamical Mean-Field Theory solution, we reproduce the phase diagram and demonstrate that phonon superconductivity benefits from strong correlations confirming earlier model predictions. The role of correlations is manifest also in infrared measurements carried out by L. Baldassarre. The superconducting phase shares many similarities with ''exotic'' superconductors with electronic pairing, suggesting that the anomalies in the ''normal'' state, rather than the pairing glue, can be the real common element unifying a wide family of strongly correlated superconductors including cuprates and iron superconductors

  17. Positron-rubidium scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    A 5-state close-coupling calculation (5s-5p-4d-6s-6p) was carried out for positron-Rb scattering in the energy range 3.7 to 28.0 eV. In contrast to the results of similar close-coupling calculations for positron-Na and positron-K scattering the (effective) total integrated cross section has an energy dependence which is contrary to recent experimental measurements.

  18. Strong interactions, narrow bands, and dominant spin-orbit coupling in Mott insulating quadruple perovskite CaCo3V4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H. B.; Pickett, W. E.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic structures and the character and direction of spin and orbital moments of the recently synthesized quadruple perovskite compound CaCo3V4O12 using a selection of methods from density functional theory. Implementing the generalized gradient approximation and the Hubbard U correction (GGA+U ), ferromagnetic spin alignment leads to half-metallicity rather than the observed narrow gap insulating behavior. Including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leaves a Mott insulating spectrum but with a negligible gap. SOC is crucial for the Mott insulating character of the V d1 ion, breaking the dm =±1 degeneracy and also giving a substantial orbital moment. Evidence is obtained of the large orbital moments on Co that have been inferred from the measured susceptibility. Switching to the orbital polarization (OP) functional, GGA+OP+SOC also displays clear tendencies toward very large orbital moments but in its own distinctive manner. In both approaches, application of SOC, which requires specification of the direction of the spin, introduces large differences in the orbital moments of the three Co ions in the primitive cell. We study a fictitious but simpler cousin compound Ca3CoV4O12 (Ca replacing two of the Co atoms) to probe in a more transparent fashion the interplay of spin and orbital degrees of freedom with the local environment of the planar CoO4 units. The observation is made that the underlying mechanisms seem to be local to a CoO4 plaquette, and that there is very strong coupling of the size of the orbital moment to the spin direction. These facts strongly suggest noncollinear spins, not only on Co but on the V sublattice as well.

  19. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  20. Scatter in Cargo Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Erin A. Miller; Joseph A. Caggiano; Robert C. Runkle; Timothy A. White; Aaron M. Bevill

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beamin the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typicalmedical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-toprimary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  1. Laser light scattering review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzel, Klaus

    1989-08-01

    Since the development of laser light sources and fast digital electronics for signal processing, the classical discipline of light scattering on liquid systems experienced a strong revival plus an enormous expansion, mainly due to new dynamic light scattering techniques. While a large number of liquid systems can be investigated, ranging from pure liquids to multicomponent microemulsions, this review is largely restricted to applications on Brownian particles, typically in the submicron range. Static light scattering, the careful recording of the angular dependence of scattered light, is a valuable tool for the analysis of particle size and shape, or of their spatial ordering due to mutual interactions. Dynamic techniques, most notably photon correlation spectroscopy, give direct access to particle motion. This may be Brownian motion, which allows the determination of particle size, or some collective motion, e.g., electrophoresis, which yields particle mobility data. Suitable optical systems as well as the necessary data processing schemes are presented in some detail. Special attention is devoted to topics of current interest, like correlation over very large lag time ranges or multiple scattering.

  2. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  3. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  4. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern science

  5. Λ scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  6. Monopole-antimonopole scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-02-01

    We numerically study the head-on scattering of a 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole and antimonopole for a wide range of parameters. In contrast to the scattering of a λ ϕ4 kink and antikink in 1 +1 dimensions, we find that the monopole and antimonopole annihilate even when scattered at relativistic velocities. If the monopole and antimonopole have a relative twist, there is a repulsive force between them and they can initially be reflected. However, in every case we have examined, the reflected monopoles remain bound and eventually annihilate. We also calculate the magnetic helicity in the aftermath of monopole-antimonopole annihilation and confirm the conversion of relative twist to magnetic helicity as discussed earlier in the electroweak case.

  7. Scatter in Cargo Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Runkle, Robert C.; White, Timothy A.; Bevill, Aaron M.

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding. Detecting such objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beam, both in the cargo and surrounding objects, which degrades image contrast. Here, we work to determine the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers.

  8. Scattering with absorptive interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassing, W.; Stingl, M.; Weiguny, A.

    1982-07-01

    The S matrix for a wide class of complex and nonlocal potentials is studied, with special attention given to the motion of singularities in the complex k plane as a function of the imaginary coupling strength. Modifications of Levinson's theorem are obtained and discussed. Analytic approximations to the S matrix in the vicinity of narrow resonances are exhibited and compared to numerical results of resonating-group calculations. The problem of defining resonances in the case of complex interactions is discussed, making contact with the usual analysis of scattering in terms of Argand diagrams. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Scattering theory, S matrix for absorptive potentials.

  9. Stochastic methods for light propagation and recurrent scattering in saturated and nonsaturated atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mark D.; Jenkins, Stewart D.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-06-01

    We derive equations for the strongly coupled system of light and dense atomic ensembles. The formalism includes an arbitrary internal-level structure for the atoms and is not restricted to weak excitation of atoms by light. In the low-light-intensity limit for atoms with a single electronic ground state, the full quantum field-theoretical representation of the model can be solved exactly by means of classical stochastic electrodynamics simulations for stationary atoms that represent cold atomic ensembles. Simulations for the optical response of atoms in a quantum degenerate regime require one to synthesize a stochastic ensemble of atomic positions that generates the corresponding quantum statistical position correlations between the atoms. In the case of multiple ground levels or at light intensities where saturation becomes important, the classical simulations require approximations that neglect quantum fluctuations between the levels. We show how the model is extended to incorporate corrections due to quantum fluctuations that result from virtual scattering processes. In the low-light-intensity limit, we illustrate the simulations in a system of atoms in a Mott-insulator state in a two-dimensional optical lattice, where recurrent scattering of light induces strong interatomic correlations. These correlations result in collective many-atom subradiant and superradiant states and a strong dependence of the response on the spatial confinement within the lattice sites.

  10. Nucleon Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan Wojtsekhowski

    2006-06-04

    Review of Nucleon Compton Scattering in wide angle regime is presented. JLab experimental data strongly support dominance of handbag mechanism in the RCS process. The approved ALLRCS experiment with polarized target and future plans with 12 GeV beam are discussed.

  11. Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Volker S

    2012-01-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) probes structural details at the nanometer scale in a non-destructive way. This article gives an introduction to scientists who have no prior small-angle scattering knowledge, but who seek a technique that allows elucidating structural information in challenging situations that thwart approaches by other methods. SANS is applicable to a wide variety of materials including metals and alloys, ceramics, concrete, glasses, polymers, composites and biological materials. Isotope and magnetic interactions provide unique methods for labeling and contrast variation to highlight specific structural features of interest. In situ studies of a material s responses to temperature, pressure, shear, magnetic and electric fields, etc., are feasible as a result of the high penetrating power of neutrons. SANS provides statistical information on significant structural features averaged over the probed sample volume, and one can use SANS to quantify with high precision the structural details that are observed, for example, in electron microscopy. Neutron scattering is non-destructive; there is no need to cut specimens into thin sections, and neutrons penetrate deeply, providing information on the bulk material, free from surface effects. The basic principles of a SANS experiment are fairly simple, but the measurement, analysis and interpretation of small angle scattering data involves theoretical concepts that are unique to the technique and that are not widely known. This article includes a concise description of the basics, as well as practical know-how that is essential for a successful SANS experiment.

  12. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  13. Fluorescence and Light Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ronald J.; Oprysa, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the mentioned experiment is to aid students in developing tactics for distinguishing between signals originating from fluorescence and light scattering. Also, the experiment provides students with a deeper understanding of the physicochemical bases of each phenomenon and shows that the techniques are actually related.

  14. Deeply virtual Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marukyan, Hrachya

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the experimental measurements in the field of deeply virtual Compton scattering and related theoretical efforts aimed for the extraction of generalized parton distributions, objects, describing the three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei. The future experiments and theoretical expectations are also considered.

  15. Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Wong, Eric W. (Inventor); von Allmen, Paul (Inventor); Oyafuso, Fabiano A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and devices for spectroscopic identification of molecules using nanoscale wires are disclosed. According to one of the methods, nanoscale wires are provided, electrons are injected into the nanoscale wire; and inelastic electron scattering is measured via excitation of low-lying vibrational energy levels of molecules bound to the nanoscale wire.

  16. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  17. Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Helene Fonvieille

    2003-05-01

    Virtual Compton Scattering off the proton: {gamma}^+p --> {gamma}p is a new field of investigation of nucleon structure. Several dedicated experiments have been performed at low c.m. energy and various momentum transfers, yielding specific information on the proton. This talk reviews the concept of nucleon Generalized Polarizabilities and the present experimental status.

  18. Small angle neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice

    2015-10-01

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ˜ 1 nm up to ˜ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ˜ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area…) through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer), form factor analysis (I(q→0), Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system), structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates), and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast). It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of spectrometer

  19. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    This report is devoted to a discussion of applicability limits of Rayleigh’s scattering model. Implicitly, Rayleigh’s ideas are being used in a wide range of remote sensing applications. To begin with it must be noted that most techniques which have been developed to date for measurements by means of active instruments for remote sensing in case of the target is a set of distributed moving scatters are only hopes, to say so, on measurements per se. The problem is that almost all of such techniques use a priori information about the microstructure of the object of interest during whole measurement session. As one can find in the literature, this approach may happily be applied to systems with identical particles. However, it is not the case with respect to scattering targets that consist of particles of different kind or having a particle size distribution. It must be especially noted that the microstructure of most of such targets changes significantly with time and/or space. Therefore, the true measurement techniques designed to be applicable in such conditions must be not only adaptable in order to take into account a variety of models of an echo interpretation, but also have a well-developed set of clear-cut criteria of applicability and exact means of accuracy estimation. So such techniques will require much more parameters to be measured. In spite of the fact that there is still room for some improvements within classical models and approaches, it is multiwavelength approach that may be seen as the most promising way of development towards obtaining an adequate set of the measured parameters required for true measurement techniques. At the same time, Rayleigh’s scattering is an invariant in regard to a change of the wavelength as it follows from the point of view dominating nowadays. In the light of such an idea, the synergy between multivawelength measurements may be achieved - to a certain extent - by means of the synchronous usage of Rayleigh’s and

  20. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  1. Timelike Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    T. Horn, Y. Illieva, F. J. Klein, P. Nadel‐Turonski, R. Paremuzyan, S. Stepanyan

    2011-10-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) have become a key concept in our studies of hadron structure in QCD. The measurement of suitable experimental observables and the extraction of GPDs from these data is one of the high priority 12 GeV programs at Jefferson Lab. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is generally thought of as the most promising channel for probing GPDs in the valence quark region. However, the inverse process, Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) can provide an important complementary measurement, in particular of the real part of the Compton amplitude and power corrections at intermediate values of Q2. The first studies of TCS using real tagged and quasi-real untagged photons were performed in Hall B at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  3. Seamount acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  4. MOLSCAT: MOLecular SCATtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Jeremy M.; Green, Sheldon

    2012-06-01

    MOLSCAT is a FORTRAN code for quantum mechanical (coupled channel) solution of the nonreactive molecular scattering problem and was developed to obtain collision rates for molecules in the interstellar gas which are needed to understand microwave and infrared astronomical observations. The code is implemented for various types of collision partners. In addition to the essentially exact close coupling method several approximate methods, including the Coupled States and Infinite Order Sudden approximations, are provided.

  5. Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.

    1996-01-01

    We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Molecular-beam scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  7. Neutron scattering in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, R.B.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  8. Nanowire Electron Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian; Bronikowsky, Michael; Wong, Eric; VonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fablano

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy (NESS) has been proposed as the basis of a class of ultra-small, ultralow-power sensors that could be used to detect and identify chemical compounds present in extremely small quantities. State-of-the-art nanowire chemical sensors have already been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of compounds in femtomolar quantities. However, to date, chemically specific sensing of molecules using these sensors has required the use of chemically functionalized nanowires with receptors tailored to individual molecules of interest. While potentially effective, this functionalization requires labor-intensive treatment of many nanowires to sense a broad spectrum of molecules. In contrast, NESS would eliminate the need for chemical functionalization of nanowires and would enable the use of the same sensor to detect and identify multiple compounds. NESS is analogous to Raman spectroscopy, the main difference being that in NESS, one would utilize inelastic scattering of electrons instead of photons to determine molecular vibrational energy levels. More specifically, in NESS, one would exploit inelastic scattering of electrons by low-lying vibrational quantum states of molecules attached to a nanowire or nanotube.

  9. Light Scattering by Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ya-Ming; Ji, Xia

    Nowadays, with the development of technology, particles with size at nanoscale have been synthesized in experiments. It is noticed that anisotropy is an unavoidable problem in the production of nanospheres. Besides, nonspherical nanoparticles have also been extensively used in experiments. Comparing with spherical model, spheroidal model can give a better description for the characteristics of nonspherical particles. Thus the study of analytical solution for light scattering by spheroidal particles has practical implications. By expanding incident, scattered, and transmitted electromagnetic fields in terms of appropriate vector spheroidal wave functions, an analytic solution is obtained to the problem of light scattering by spheroids. Unknown field expansion coefficients can be determined with the combination of boundary conditions and rotational-translational addition theorems for vector spheroidal wave functions. Based on the theoretical derivation, a Fortran code has been developed to calculate the extinction cross section and field distribution, whose results agree well with those obtain by FDTD simulation. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 91230203.

  10. Uniaxial-Strain-Orientation Dependence of the Competition between Mott and Charge Ordered Phases and their Corresponding Superconductivity of β-(BDA-TTP)2I3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, Md.; Yokogawa, Keiichi; Yoshino, Harukazu; Yoshimoto, Haruo; Kikuchi, Koichi; Kaihatsu, Takayuki; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Murata, Keizo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the electronic transport properties of the charge transfer salt β-(BDA-TTP)2I3 [BDA-TTP: 2,5-bis(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene)-1,3,4,6-tetrathiapentalene] by applying uniaxial strains along the three crystallographic axes, and obtained three corresponding temperature-pressure phase diagrams. Three phase diagrams were quite dependent on the direction of compression. Following the preceding paper by Kikuchi et al., we speculate that the insulating states are of 1/2-filled Mott insulators for the a- and b-axes compressions, and of 1/4-filled charge ordered states for the c-axis compression as well as hydrostatic pressure. The superconducting phase under uniaxial strain was realized with Tc = 5 K at 1.9 GPa along the a-axis and with Tc = 5.6 K at 1.75 GPa along the b-axis. Superconductivity was also reproduced with a Tc of 9.5 K at 1.0 GPa for the c-axis compressions in the range of 0.85 to 1.53 GPa as previously reported. We studied tentative measurement on upper critical fields, Bc2's of these superconductivities and found that the extrapolated values, Bc2(0)'s, exceeded Pauli-limit by about 2--3 times. However, at least in terms of Bc2, the difference in superconductivity associated with two different insulating states was not clear.

  11. Electric-field-driven Mott metal-insulator transition in correlated thin films: An inhomogeneous dynamical mean-field theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalov, P.; Nasr Esfahani, D.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.; Tempere, J.; Locquet, J.-P.

    2016-04-01

    Simulations are carried out based on the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) in order to investigate the properties of correlated thin films for various values of the chemical potential, temperature, interaction strength, and applied transverse electric field. Application of a sufficiently strong field to a thin film at half filling leads to the appearance of conducting regions near the surfaces of the film, whereas in doped slabs the application of a field leads to a conductivity enhancement on one side of the film and a gradual transition to the insulating state on the opposite side. In addition to the inhomogeneous DMFT, a local density approximation (LDA) is considered in which the particle density n , quasiparticle residue Z , and spectral weight at the Fermi level A (ω =0 ) of each layer are approximated by a homogeneous bulk environment. A systematic comparison between the two approaches reveals that the less expensive LDA results are in good agreement with the DMFT approach, except close to the metal-to-insulator transition points and in the layers immediately at the film surfaces. LDA values for n are overall more reliable than those for Z and A (ω =0 ) . The hysteretic behavior (memory effect) characteristic of the bulk doping driven Mott transition persists in the slab.

  12. Efficient dipole-dipole coupling of Mott-Wannier and Frenkel excitons in (Ga,In)N quantum well/polyfluorene semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itskos, G.; Heliotis, G.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Lupton, J.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Pereira, S.; Watson, I. M.; Dawson, M. D.; Feldmann, J.; Murray, R.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate interactions between Mott-Wannier (MW) and Frenkel excitons in a family of hybrid structures consisting of thin organic (polyfluorene) films placed in close proximity (systematically adjusted by GaN cap layer thickness) to single inorganic [(Ga,In)N/GaN] quantum wells (QWs). Characterization of the QW structures using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and atomic force microscopy allows direct measurement of the thickness and the morphology of the GaN cap layers. Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments in the 8-75K temperature range confirm our earlier demonstration that nonradiative energy transfer can occur between inorganic and organic semiconductors. We assign the transfer mechanism to resonant Förster (dipole-dipole) coupling between MW exciton energy donors and Frenkel exciton energy acceptors and at 15K we find transfer efficiencies of up to 43%. The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the distance R between the inorganic QW donor dipole and organic film acceptor dipole indicates that a plane-plane interaction, characterized by a 1/R2 variation, best describes the situation found in our structures.

  13. Large orbital moment and spin-orbit enabled Mott transition in the Ising Fe honeycomb lattice of BaFe2(PO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joon; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Pickett, Warren E.

    2015-09-01

    BaFe2(PO4)2 is an unusual Ising insulating ferromagnet based on the Fe2 + spin S =2 ion, the susceptibility of which suggests a large orbital component to the Fe local moment. We apply density functional theory based methods to obtain a microscopic picture of the competing interactions and the critical role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in this honeycomb lattice system. The low-temperature ferromagnetic phase displays a half-semimetallic Dirac point pinning the Fermi level and preventing gap opening before consideration of SOC, presenting a case in which correlation effects modeled by a repulsive Hubbard U fail to open a gap. Simultaneous inclusion of both correlation and SOC drives a large orbital moment in excess of 0.7 μB (essentially L =1 ) for spin aligned along the c ̂ axis, with a gap comparable with the inferred experimental value. The large orbital moment accounts for the large Ising anisotropy, in spite of the small magnitude of the SOC strength on the 3 d (Fe) ion. Ultimately, the Mott-Hubbard gap is enabled by degeneracy lifting by SOC and the large Fe moments, rather than by standard Hubbard interactions alone. We suggest that competing orbital occupations are responsible for the structural transitions involved in the observed reentrant rhombohedral-triclinic-rhombohedral sequence.

  14. Frenkel to Wannier-Mott Exciton Transition: Calculation of FRET Rates for a Tubular Dye Aggregate Coupled to a CdSe Nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Plehn, Thomas; Ziemann, Dirk; Megow, Jörg; May, Volkhard

    2015-06-18

    The coupling is investigated of Frenkel-like exciton states formed in a tubular dye aggregate (TDA) to Wannier-Mott-like excitations of a semiconductor nanocrystal (NC). A double well TDA of the cyanine dye C8S3 with a length of 63.4 nm and a diameter of 14.7 nm is considered. The TDA interacts with a spherical Cd819Te630 NC of 4.5 nm diameter. Electronic excitations of the latter are described in a tight-binding model of the electrons and holes combined with a configuration interaction scheme to consider their mutual Coulomb coupling. To achieve a proper description of TDA excitons, a recently determined structure has been used, the energy transfer coupling has been defined as a screened interaction of atomic centered transition charges, and the site energies of the dye molecules have been the subject of a polarization correction. Even if both nanoparticles are in direct contact, the energy transfer coupling between the exciton levels of the TDA and of the NC stays below 1 meV. It results in FRET-type energy transfer with rates somewhat larger than 10(9)/s. They coincide rather well with recent preliminary experiments. PMID:25531181

  15. Predictive Capability for Strongly Correlated Systems: Mott Transition in MnO, Multielectron Magnetic Moments, and Dynamics Effects in Correlated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krakauer, Henry; Zhang, Shiwei

    2013-02-21

    There are classes of materials that are important to DOE and to the science and technology community, generically referred to as strongly correlated electron systems (SCES), which have proven very difficult to understand and to simulate in a material-specific manner. These range from actinides, which are central to the DOE mission, to transition metal oxides, which include the most promising components of new spin electronics applications as well as the high temperature superconductors, to intermetallic compounds whose heavy fermion characteristics and quantum critical behavior has given rise to some of the most active areas in condensed matter theory. The objective of the CMSN cooperative research team was to focus on the application of these new methodologies to the specific issue of Mott transitions, multi-electron magnetic moments, and dynamical properties correlated materials. Working towards this goal, the W&M team extended its first-principles phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method to accurately calculate structural phase transitions and excited states.

  16. Magnetism and electronic structure of La2ZnIrO6 and La2MgIrO6: Candidate Jeff=(1)/(2) Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guixin; Subedi, Alaska; Calder, S.; Yan, J.-Q.; Yi, Jieyu; Gai, Zheng; Poudel, Lekhanath; Singh, David J.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Christianson, A. D.; Sales, Brian C.; Mandrus, David

    2013-04-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the electronic and magnetic properties of two insulating double perovskites that show similar atomic and electronic structure but different magnetic properties. In magnetization measurements, La2ZnIrO6 displays weak ferromagnetic behavior below 7.5 K, whereas La2MgIrO6 shows antiferromagnetic behavior below TN = 12 K. Electronic structure calculations find that the weak ferromagnetic behavior observed in La2ZnIrO6 is in fact due to canted antiferromagnetism. The calculations also predict canted antiferromagnetic behavior in La2MgIrO6, but intriguingly, this was not observed. Neutron diffraction measurements confirm the essentially antiferromagnetic behavior of both systems but lack the sensitivity to resolve the small (0.22μB/Ir) ferromagnetic component in La2ZnIrO6. Overall, the results presented here indicate the crucial role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the on-site Coulomb repulsion on the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of both compounds. The electronic structure calculations show that both compounds, like Sr2IrO4, are Jeff = 1/2 Mott insulators. Our present findings suggest that La2ZnIrO6 and La2MgIrO6 provide a new playground to study the interplay between SOC and on-site Coulomb repulsion in a 5d transition-metal oxide.

  17. A study of X100 pipeline steel passivation in mildly alkaline bicarbonate solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under potentiodynamic conditions and Mott-Schottky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-12-01

    The key steps involved in X100 pipeline steel passivation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions from the pre-passive to transpassive potential regions have been analyzed here using a step-wise anodizing-electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) routine. Pre-passive steps involve parallel dissolution-adsorption in early stages followed by clear diffusion-adsorption control shortly before iron hydroxide formation. Aggressive NS4 chlorides/sulfate promote steel dissolution whilst inhibiting diffusion in pre-passive steps. Diffusive and adsorptive effects remain during iron hydroxide formation, but withdraw shortly thereafter during its removal and the development of the stable iron carbonate passive layer. Passive layer protectiveness is evaluated using EIS fitting, current density analysis, and correlations with semiconductive parameters, consistently revealing improved robustness in colder, bicarbonate-rich, chloride/sulfate-free conditions. Ferrous oxide formation at higher potentials results in markedly lower impedances with disordered behavior, and the involvement of the iron(III) valence state is observed in Mott-Schottky tests exclusively for 75 °C conditions.

  18. Rainbow scattering in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnoi-breve, Y.A.; Kuznichenko, A.V.; Onishchenko, G.M.; Pilipenko, V.V.

    1987-03-01

    The evolution of ideas about the rainbow phenomenon resulting from the refraction and reflection of light in water drops is briefly reviewed. The rainbow scattering of particles in quantum mechanics is treated on the basis of the semiclassical approximation, and the nuclear and Coulomb ''rainbows'' are discussed. Rainbow scattering of light ions by nuclei at energies Eapprox. >25--30 MeV/nucleon is considered. The results of theoretical analysis of experimental data on rainbow scattering are presented. The behavior of the nuclear part of the scattering phase shift deduced from experiment is discussed. The manifestation of rainbow scattering in quasielastic nuclear processes is considered.

  19. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  1. Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Modeling Lidar Multiple Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaori; Okamoto, Hajime; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    A practical model to simulate multiply scattered lidar returns from inhomogeneous cloud layers are developed based on Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) simulations. The estimated time delay of the backscattered intensities returning from different vertical grids by the developed model agreed well with that directly obtained from BMC calculations. The method was applied to the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite data to improve the synergetic retrieval of cloud microphysics with CloudSat radar data at optically thick cloud grids. Preliminary results for retrieving mass fraction of co-existing cloud particles and drizzle size particles within lowlevel clouds are demonstrated.

  3. A New Polyethylene Scattering Law Determined Using Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lavelle, Christopher M; Liu, C; Stone, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes such as MCNP rely on accurate data for nuclear physics cross-sections to produce accurate results. At low energy, this takes the form of scattering laws based on the dynamic structure factor, S (Q, E). High density polyethylene (HDPE) is frequently employed as a neutron moderator at both high and low temperatures, however the only cross-sections available are for T =300 K, and the evaluation has not been updated in quite some time. In this paper we describe inelastic neutron scattering measurements on HDPE at 5 and 300 K which are used to improve the scattering law for HDPE. We describe the experimental methods, review some of the past HDPE scattering laws, and compare computations using these models to the measured S (Q, E). The total cross-section is compared to available data, and the treatment of the carbon secondary scatterer as a free gas is assessed. We also discuss the use of the measurement itself as a scattering law via the 1 phonon approximation. We show that a scattering law computed using a more detailed model for the Generalized Density of States (GDOS) compares more favorably to this experiment, suggesting that inelastic neutron scattering can play an important role in both the development and validation of new scattering laws for Monte Carlo work.

  4. Electronic structure and magnetism in some transition metal nitrides: Manganese-doped scandium nitride, dilute magnetic semiconductor and chromium nitride, Mott insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwadkar, Aditi A.

    smaller than the first direct calculations indicated. Calculations for special quasirandom structures with different concentrations of Mn in large supercells of 256-432 atoms furthermore showed that randomness has a strong effect in suppressing the exchange interactions even further and in turning many longer-range interactions negative. This ultimately indicates that Mn-doped ScN is a spin-glass rather than a ferromagnet. Electronic structure of CrN: a borderline Mott insulator. Our LSDA+U calculations following the rotationally invariant approach of Liechtenstein et al. provide support for the idea that CrN may be close to a Mott-insulator transition. With reasonable values of U in the range 3-5 eV, estimated from the excited atom model we find that the density of states near the Fermi level is strongly depleted by the spin separation of the Cr d states and an actual gap of order a few 0.1 eV opens in the known AFM-[110] 2 ground state. From a critical examination of the experimental data, it also appears that CrN is at best a nearly zero gap semiconductor with a gap Eg < 0.1 eV but may have optical threshold for direct transition of about 0.5 eV. Nitrogen vacancies play a significant role in doping the material and the transport data strongly suggest that disorder induced localization phenomena occur above the antiferromagnetic phase transition.

  5. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  6. Coherent scattering of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that cosmic neutrino scattering can be non-negligible when coherence effects previously neglected are taken into account. The coherent neutrino scattering cross section is derived and the neutrino index of refraction evaluated. As an example of coherent neutrino scattering, a detector using critical reflection is described which in principle can detect the low energy cosmic neutrino background allowed by the measured cosmological red shift.

  7. Light Scattering at Various Angles

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Paul; Pyle, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Mie theory of scattering is used to provide new information on how changes in particle volume, with no change in dry weight, should influence light scattering for various scattering angles and particle sizes. Many biological cells (e.g., algal cells, erythrocytes) and large subcellular structures (e.g., chloroplasts, mitochondria) in suspension undergo this type of reversible volume change, a change which is related to changes in the rates of cellular processes. A previous study examined the effects of such volume changes on total scattering. In this paper scattering at 10° is found to follow total scattering closely, but scattering at 45°, 90°, 135°, and 170° behaves differently. Small volume changes can cause very large observable changes in large angle scattering if the sample particles are uniform in size; however, the natural particle size heterogeneity of most samples would mask this effect. For heterogeneous samples of most particle size ranges, particle shrink-age is found to increase large angle scattering. PMID:4556610

  8. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas E; Kim, Hyunjeong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  9. Born approximation, scattering, and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alex; Hu, Mengqi; Gu, Haicheng; Qiao, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    In the past few decades, there were many imaging algorithms designed in the case of the absence of multiple scattering. Recently, we discussed an algorithm for removing high order scattering components from collected data. This paper is a continuation of our previous work. First, we investigate the current state of multiple scattering in SAR. Then, we revise our method and test it. Given an estimate of our target reflectivity, we compute the multi scattering effects in the target region for various frequencies. Furthermore, we propagate this energy through free space towards our antenna, and remove it from the collected data.

  10. Polarimetric scattering from layered media with multiple species of scatterers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Hsu, C. C.; Tassoudji, M. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical media are usually heterogeneous and contain multiple species of scatterers. In this paper a model is presented to calculate effective permittivities and polarimetric backscattering coefficients of multispecies-layered media. The same physical description is consistently used in the derivation of both permittivities and scattering coefficients. The strong permittivity fluctuation theory is extended to account for the multiple species of scatterers with a general ellipsoidal shape whose orientations are randomly distributed. Under the distorted Born approximation, polarimetric scattering coefficients are obtained. These calculations are applicable to the special cases of spheroidal and spherical scatterers. The model is used to study effects of scatterer shapes and multispecies mixtures on polarimetric signatures of heterogeneous media. The multispecies model accounts for moisture content in scattering media such as snowpack in an ice sheet. The results indicate a high sensitivity of backscatter to moisture with a stronger dependence for drier snow and ice grain size is important to the backscatter. For frost-covered saline ice, model results for bare ice are compared with measured data at C band and then the frost flower formation is simulated with a layer of fanlike ice crystals including brine infiltration over a rough interface. The results with the frost cover suggest a significant increase in scattering coefficients and a polarimetric signature closer to isotropic characteristics compared to the thin saline ice case.

  11. Neutron Scattering Stiudies

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J

    2007-04-18

    This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.

  12. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rafanelli, G. L.; Capps, D. M.; Drutman, C.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of the optical trains of various strategic defense system scenarios; and discovering possible methods to eliminate, or at least reduce, the deleterious effects of SRRS on the energy deposition on target. The following topics are discussed: the motivation for the accomplishments of the DOE program; the Semiclassical Theory of Non-Resonant SRRS for Diatomic Homonuclear Molecules; and then the following appendices; Calculation of the Dipole Transition Reduced Matrix Element, Guided Tour of Hughes SRRS Code, Running the Hughes SRRS Code, and Hughes SRRS Code Listing.

  13. Elliptic scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using elliptic functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an elliptic algebraic curve embedded in a mathbb{C}{P}^2 space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n - gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ-algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.

  14. Dust properties from scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, C.; Pagani, L.; Min, M.; Poteet, C.; Whittet, D.; Cambrésy, L.

    2016-05-01

    Dust grains evolve during the life cycle of the interstellar matter. From their birth places to dense molecular clouds, they grow by coagulation and acquire ice mantles, mainly composed of water. These morphological changes affect their optical properties. However, it remains a highly degenerate issue to determine their composition, size distribution, and shape from observations. In particular, using wavelengths associated to dust emission alone is not sufficient to investigate dense cold cores. Fortunately, scattering has turned out to be a powerful tool to investigate molecular clouds from the outer regions to the core. In particular, it is possible to quantify the amount of dust aggregates needed to reproduce observations from 1.25 to 8 μm.

  15. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Wu, W. B.; Okamoto, J.; Lee, W. S.; Hashimoto, M.; et al

    2016-01-22

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast,more » the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.« less

  16. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Wu, W. B.; Okamoto, J.; Lee, W. S.; Hashimoto, M.; He, Y.; Shen, Z. X.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Mou, C. Y.; Chen, C. T.; Huang, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors. PMID:26794437

  17. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. Y.; Jia, C. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Wu, W. B.; Okamoto, J.; Lee, W. S.; Hashimoto, M.; He, Y.; Shen, Z. X.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Mou, C. Y.; Chen, C. T.; Huang, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  18. Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates.

    PubMed

    Huang, H Y; Jia, C J; Chen, Z Y; Wohlfeld, K; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P; Wu, W B; Okamoto, J; Lee, W S; Hashimoto, M; He, Y; Shen, Z X; Yoshida, Y; Eisaki, H; Mou, C Y; Chen, C T; Huang, D J

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O(8+δ). Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors. PMID:26794437

  19. Scattering corrections in neutron radiography using point scattered functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; de Beer, F.; Hassanein, R.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Scattered neutrons cause distortions and blurring in neutron radiography pictures taken at small distances between the investigated object and the detector. This defines one of the most significant problems in quantitative neutron radiography. The quantification of strong scattering materials such as hydrogenous materials—water, oil, plastic, etc.—with a high precision is very difficult due to the scattering effect in the radiography images. The scattering contribution in liquid test samples (H 2O, D 2O and a special type oil ISOPAR L) at different distances between the samples and the detector, the so-called Point Scattered Function (PScF), was calculated with the help of MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. Corrections of real experimental data were performed using the calculated PScF. Some of the results as well as the correction algorithm will be presented.

  20. A high-efficiency spin-resolved photoemission spectrometer combining time-of-flight spectroscopy with exchange-scattering polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, Chris M.; Graff, Jeff; Lebedev, Gennadi; Andresen, Nord; Schmid, Andreas; Fedorov, Alexei; El Gabaly, Farid; Wan, Weishi; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2010-04-13

    We describe a spin-resolved electron spectrometer capable of uniquely efficient and high energy resolution measurements. Spin analysis is obtained through polarimetry based on low-energy exchange scattering from a ferromagnetic thin-film target. This approach can achieve a similar analyzing power (Sherman function) as state-of-the-art Mott scattering polarimeters, but with as much as 100 times improved efficiency due to increased reflectivity. Performance is further enhanced by integrating the polarimeter into a time-of-flight (TOF) based energy analysis scheme with a precise and flexible electrostatic lens system. The parallel acquisition of a range of electron kinetic energies afforded by the TOF approach results in an order of magnitude (or more) increase in efficiency compared to hemispherical analyzers. The lens system additionally features a 90 degrees bandpass filter, which by removing unwanted parts of the photoelectron distribution allows the TOF technique to be performed at low electron drift energy and high energy resolution within a wide range of experimental parameters. The spectrometer is ideally suited for high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES), and initial results are shown. The TOF approach makes the spectrometer especially ideal for time-resolved spin-ARPES experiments.

  1. Scattering theory for arbitrary potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyrov, A.S.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.

    2005-09-15

    The fundamental quantities of potential scattering theory are generalized to accommodate long-range interactions. Definitions for the scattering amplitude and wave operators valid for arbitrary interactions including potentials with a Coulomb tail are presented. It is shown that for the Coulomb potential the generalized amplitude gives the physical on-shell amplitude without recourse to a renormalization procedure.

  2. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R. R.; Ray, S. L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  3. [Limb Scattering Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughman, Robert; Herman, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of this grant was to support analysis of the limb scattering data taken during the 1997 flight of the SOLSE (Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment) and LORE (Limb Ozone Retrieval Experiment) instruments. Work was done to assess the performance of the retrieval algorithms for cloudy and clear sky cases in preparation for a poster presentation. The nadir-viewing data were also compared to coincident GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) data and to radiative transfer calculations. An algorithm similar to the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) ozone retrieval algorithm was developed to infer the ozone column amount from the SOLSE nadir data. Comparison with coincident TOMS ozone column data confirmed that column ozone could be derived successfully from SOLSE nadir radiances, and also revealed significant changes in the SOLSE wavelength resolution and absolute radiometric calibration that were subsequently confirmed by comparing the post-flight instrument characterization to the pre-flight characterization, indicating a potentially useful method for monitoring instrument behavior in-flight.

  4. Temporal Scattering And Response

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-12-15

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided tomore » easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.« less

  5. Topics in Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, Tristan Lucas

    In Part 1, we combine on-shell methods with the six-dimensional helicity formalism of Cheung and O'Connell to construct tree-level and multiloop scattering amplitudes. As a nontrivial multiloop example, we confirm that the recently constructed four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions, is valid for dimensions less than or equal to six. We demonstrate that the tree-level amplitudes of maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in six dimensions, when stripped of their overall momentum and supermomentum delta functions, are covariant with respect to the six-dimensional dual conformal group. We demonstrate that this property is also present for loop amplitudes. In Part 2, we explore consequences of the recently discovered duality between color and kinematics, which states that kinematic numerators in a diagrammatic expansion of gauge-theory amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy Jacobi-like identities in one-to-one correspondence to the associated color factors. The related squaring relations express gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge-theory ingredients. We then present a Yang-Mills Lagrangian whose diagrams through five points manifestly satisfy the duality between color and kinematics. Finally, we compute the coefficient of the potential three-loop divergence in pure N=4 supergravity and show that it vanishes, contrary to expectations from symmetry arguments.

  6. Quantum theory of Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, B. J. B.; Gregori, G.

    2014-12-01

    The general theory of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation in atomic plasmas and metals, in the non-relativistic regime, in which account is taken of the Kramers-Heisenberg polarization terms in the Hamiltonian, is described from a quantum mechanical viewpoint. As well as deriving the general formula for the double differential Thomson scattering cross section in an isotropic finite temperature multi-component system, this work also considers closely related phenomena such as absorption, refraction, Raman scattering, resonant (Rayleigh) scattering and Bragg scattering, and derives many essential relationships between these quantities. In particular, the work introduces the concept of scattering strength and the strength-density field which replaces the normal particle density field in the standard treatment of scattering by a collection of similar particles and it is the decomposition of the strength-density correlation function into more familiar-looking components that leads to the final result. Comparisons are made with previous work, in particular that of Chihara [1].

  7. Standardization of light scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Sven; von Finck, Alexander; Duparré, Angela

    2015-10-01

    In every advanced optical system, light scattering caused by the imperfections of optical components sooner or later becomes an issue that needs to be addressed. Light scattering can be a critical factor for both the throughput and the imaging quality of optical systems. On a component level, the quantities to describe these effects are the scatter loss or total scattering (TS) and the scattering distribution function or angle-resolved light scattering (ARS). In the last decades, a number of instruments have been developed worldwide for the measurement of TS and ARS. However, numerous pitfalls have to be avoided to obtain objective, reliable, and reproducible measurement results. This is, in particular, true for low scatter levels of high-end optical components. Standard procedures that have to be both concise and easy to implement are thus of crucial importance for the optics community. This paper tries to give an overview on existing standards as well as an outlook on new standards that are still being developed. Special emphasis is put on ISO standards jointly developed, reviewed, and revised by the international experts in the field.

  8. Separating Scattering from Intrinsic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Scales, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The subsurface appears disordered at all length-scales. Therefore, wave propatation at seismic or ultrasonic frequencies is subject to complicated scatterings. A pulse propagating in the subsurface loses energy at each scattering off an impedance contrast, but also decreases in amplitude as the impulse interacts with fluids in the rock. We call the latter non-elastic effect "intrinsic Q", while the former is "scattering Q". It is often the fluids in the rocks that are of interest, but conventional reflection and transmission of the incident pulse only cannot deceipher the individual components of Q due to scattering and fluid movement in the pore-space. We present an approach that can unravel these two mechanisms, allowing a separate estimate of absorption. This method treats the propagation of the average intensity in the framework of radiative transfer (RT); the arrival of (what is left of) the incident pulse is modeled as the coherent energy, whereas the later arriving multiply scattered events form the incoherent intensity. The coherent pulse decays exponentially due to a combination of scattering and absorption, and so does the incoherent intensity. However, multiple scattering can re-direct energy back to the receiver, supplying a gain-term at later times that makes up the incoherent intensity. Strictly speaking, one can invert for scattering and absorption from the intensity at late times only, often modeled with the late-time equivalent of RT, diffusion. However, we will show that fitting both early- and late-time signal with RT constrains absorption and scattering constants more rigorously. These ideas are illustrated by laboratory and sonic-logging measurements.

  9. Transition of radiative recombination channels from delocalized states to localized states in a GaInP alloy with partial atomic ordering: a direct optical signature of Mott transition?

    PubMed

    Su, Z C; Ning, J Q; Deng, Z; Wang, X H; Xu, S J; Wang, R X; Lu, S L; Dong, J R; Yang, H

    2016-04-01

    Anderson localization is a predominant phenomenon in condensed matter and materials physics. In fact, localized and delocalized states often co-exist in one material. They are separated by a boundary called the mobility edge. Mott transition may take place between these two regimes. However, it is widely recognized that an apparent demonstration of Anderson localization or Mott transition is a challenging task. In this article, we present a direct optical observation of a transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from delocalized (i.e., local extended) states to Anderson localized states in the GaInP base layer of a GaInP/GaAs single junction solar cell by the means of the variable-temperature electroluminescence (EL) technique. It is found that by increasing temperature, we can boost a remarkable transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from the delocalized states to the localized states. The delocalized states are induced by the local atomic ordering domains (InP/GaP monolayer superlattices) while the localized states are caused by random distribution of indium (gallium) content. The efficient transfer and thermal redistribution of carriers between the two kinds of electronic states was revealed to result in both a distinct EL mechanism transition and an electrical resistance evolution with temperature. Our study gives rise to a self-consistent precise picture for carrier localization and transfer in a GaInP alloy, which is an extremely technologically important energy material for fabricating high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. PMID:26960547

  10. Transition of radiative recombination channels from delocalized states to localized states in a GaInP alloy with partial atomic ordering: a direct optical signature of Mott transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Deng, Z.; Wang, X. H.; Xu, S. J.; Wang, R. X.; Lu, S. L.; Dong, J. R.; Yang, H.

    2016-03-01

    Anderson localization is a predominant phenomenon in condensed matter and materials physics. In fact, localized and delocalized states often co-exist in one material. They are separated by a boundary called the mobility edge. Mott transition may take place between these two regimes. However, it is widely recognized that an apparent demonstration of Anderson localization or Mott transition is a challenging task. In this article, we present a direct optical observation of a transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from delocalized (i.e., local extended) states to Anderson localized states in the GaInP base layer of a GaInP/GaAs single junction solar cell by the means of the variable-temperature electroluminescence (EL) technique. It is found that by increasing temperature, we can boost a remarkable transition of radiative recombination dominant channels from the delocalized states to the localized states. The delocalized states are induced by the local atomic ordering domains (InP/GaP monolayer superlattices) while the localized states are caused by random distribution of indium (gallium) content. The efficient transfer and thermal redistribution of carriers between the two kinds of electronic states was revealed to result in both a distinct EL mechanism transition and an electrical resistance evolution with temperature. Our study gives rise to a self-consistent precise picture for carrier localization and transfer in a GaInP alloy, which is an extremely technologically important energy material for fabricating high-efficiency photovoltaic devices.

  11. Driving trajectories in chaotic scattering.

    PubMed

    Macau, Elbert E N; Caldas, Iberê L

    2002-02-01

    In this work we introduce a general approach for targeting in chaotic scattering that can be used to find a transfer trajectory between any two points located inside the scattering region. We show that this method can be used in association with a control of chaos strategy to drive around and keep a particle inside the scattering region. As an illustration of how powerful this approach is, we use it in a case of practical interest in celestial mechanics in which it is desired to control the evolution of two satellites that evolve around a large central body. PMID:11863640

  12. Pulsed Laser Nonlinear Thomson Scattering for General Scattering Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft; A. Doyuran; James Rosenzweig

    2005-05-01

    In a recent paper it has been shown that single electron Thomson backscatter calculations can be performed including the effects of pulsed high intensity lasers. In this paper we present a more detailed treatment of the problem and present results for more general scattering geometries. In particular, we present new results for 90 degree Thomson scattering. Such geometries have been increasingly studied as X-ray sources of short-pulse radiation. Also, we present a clearer physical basis for these different cases.

  13. Microwave scattering from laser spark in air

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Jordan; Zhang Zhili; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2012-09-15

    In this paper, microwave Mie scattering from a laser-induced plasma in atmospheric air is computed. It shows that the scattered microwave transitions from coherent Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering based on the relative transparency of the laser-induced plasma at the microwave frequency. The microwave penetration in the plasma alters from total transparency to partial shielding due to the sharp increase of the electron number density within the avalanche ionization phase. The transition from Rayleigh scattering to Mie scattering is verified by both the temporal evolution of the scattered microwave and the homogeneity of polar scattering plots.

  14. An investigation of the forward scattering theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    The calculation of an EM wave's extinction loss during propagation within an inhomogeneous medium, as in active and passive remote sensing modeling, can be undertaken either through the summation of the scattering and absorption losses or through the use of the forward scattering theorem. Attention is presently given to the similarities and differences of these two approaches as a function of dielectric properties of a spherical scatterer and the incident frequency. Scattering loss is obtainable by integrating the magnitude-squared of the scattered field over a spherical surface surrounding the scatterer; the scattered field and the field within the scatterer are computed according to Mie theory.

  15. Scattering theory with path integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfelder, R.

    2014-03-15

    Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

  16. Neutron scattering and models: Titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental titanium were measured from 4.5 {r_arrow} 10.0 MeV in incident energy increments of {approx} 0.5 MeV. At each energy the measurements were made at forty or more scattering angles distributed between {approx} 17 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential neutron inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured for observed excitations of 0.975 {+-} 0.034, 1.497 {+-} 0.033, 2.322 {+-} 0.058, 3.252 {+-} 0.043, 3.700 {+-} 0.093, 4.317 {+-} 0.075 and 4.795 {+-} 0.100 MeV. All of the observed inelastically-scattered neutron groups were composites of contributions from several isotopes and/or levels. The experimental results were used to develop energy-average optical, statistical and coupled-channels models.

  17. Transform approach to electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.; Ko, W. L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review of the Fourier transform technique as applied to the problem of high-frequency scattering is presented and the concepts of the spectral theory of diffraction (STD) are introduced. In contrast to the more commonly employed ray-optical method for high-frequency scattering, the STD approach interprets the scattered field as the spectrum, or the Fourier transform of the induced current on the scatterer. Such an interpretation offers several important advantages: uniform nature of representation, capacity to improve and extend the ray-optical formulas in a systematic manner, and convenient accuracy tests for the results. Methods for combining integral equation methods with the Galerkin procedure and asymptotic techniques in the transform domain are described, and representative examples illustrating the application of the spectral approach are included.

  18. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, E.

    1994-02-01

    Deep inelastic polarized lepton-nucleon scattering is reviewed in three lectures. The first lecture covers the polarized deep inelastic scattering formalism and foundational theoretical work. The second lecture describes the nucleon spin structure function experiments that have been performed up through 1993. The third lecture discusses implication of the results and future experiments aimed at high-precision measurements of the nucleon spin structure functions.

  19. Scattering characteristics of cylindrical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ruey-Bing; Huang, Hsien-Tung

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the scattering of electromagnetic plane wave by annular metamaterials composed of concentric regular dielectric layers of infinite length. Interestingly, in certain frequency ranges, their scattering properties are similar to those of a perfect electric conductor cylinder, except that the tangential electric field on their surfaces does not vanish. Moreover, the frequency bands of total reflection spectra can be rigorously predicted using Floquet-Bloch theorem.

  20. MOTT PROGRAM SUMMARIES (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    THE BETTER TOMORROW FOR THE URBAN CHILD PROGRAM (BTU) ATTEMPTS TO HELP INNER-CITY CHILDREN BECOME MORE EFFECTIVE CITIZENS, BOTH EDUCATIONALLY AND SOCIALLY, THROUGH THE USE OF ADDITIONAL HUMAN AND MATERIAL RESOURCES. THE GOALS ARE TO RAISE THE LEVEL OF SCHOOL READINESS, TO DEVELOP A GREATER MOTIVATION FOR LEARNING, AND TO IMPROVE STUDENT SELF-IMAGE…

  1. Analytical optical scattering in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phanord, Dieudonne D.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical optical model for scattering of light due to lightning by clouds of different geometry is being developed. The self-consistent approach and the equivalent medium concept of Twersky was used to treat the case corresponding to outside illumination. Thus, the resulting multiple scattering problem is transformed with the knowledge of the bulk parameters, into scattering by a single obstacle in isolation. Based on the size parameter of a typical water droplet as compared to the incident wave length, the problem for the single scatterer equivalent to the distribution of cloud particles can be solved either by Mie or Rayleigh scattering theory. The super computing code of Wiscombe can be used immediately to produce results that can be compared to the Monte Carlo computer simulation for outside incidence. A fairly reasonable inverse approach using the solution of the outside illumination case was proposed to model analytically the situation for point sources located inside the thick optical cloud. Its mathematical details are still being investigated. When finished, it will provide scientists an enhanced capability to study more realistic clouds. For testing purposes, the direct approach to the inside illumination of clouds by lightning is under consideration. Presently, an analytical solution for the cubic cloud will soon be obtained. For cylindrical or spherical clouds, preliminary results are needed for scattering by bounded obstacles above or below a penetrable surface interface.

  2. An analysis of scatter decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    A formal analysis of a powerful mapping technique known as scatter decomposition is presented. Scatter decomposition divides an irregular computational domain into a large number of equal sized pieces, and distributes them modularly among processors. A probabilistic model of workload in one dimension is used to formally explain why, and when scatter decomposition works. The first result is that if correlation in workload is a convex function of distance, then scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower average processor workload variance. The second result shows that if the workload process is stationary Gaussian and the correlation function decreases linearly in distance until becoming zero and then remains zero, scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower expected maximum processor workload. Finally it is shown that if the correlation function decreases linearly across the entire domain, then among all mappings that assign an equal number of domain pieces to each processor, scatter decomposition minimizes the average processor workload variance. The dependence of these results on the assumption of decreasing correlation is illustrated with situations where a coarser granularity actually achieves better load balance.

  3. Eikonal Scattering at Strong Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irizarry-Gelpi, Melvin Eloy

    The scattering of subatomic particles is a source of important physical phenomena. Decades of work have yielded many techniques for the computation of scattering amplitudes. Most of these techniques involve perturbative quantum field theory and thus apply only at weak coupling. Complementary to scattering is the formation of bound states, which are intrinsically nonperturbative. Regge theory arose in the late 1950s as an attempt to describe, with a single framework, both scattering and the formation of bound states. In Regge theory one obtains an amplitude with bound state poles after analytic continuation of a nonperturbative scattering amplitude, corresponding to a sum of an infinite number of Feynman diagrams at large energy and fixed momentum transfer (but with crossed kinematics). Thus, in order to obtain bound states at fixed energy, one computes an amplitude at large momentum transfer. In this dissertation we calculate amplitudes with bound states in the regime of fixed energy and small momentum transfer. We formulate the elastic scattering problem in terms of many-body path integrals, familiar from quantum mechanics. Then we invoke the semiclassical JWKB approximation, where the path integral is dominated by classical paths. The dynamics in the semiclassical regime are strongly coupled, as found by Halpern and Siegel. When the momentum transfer is small, the classical paths are simple straight lines and the resulting semiclassical amplitudes display a spectrum of bound states that agrees with the spectrum found by solving wave equations with potentials. In this work we study the bound states of matter particles with various types of interactions, including electromagnetic and gravitational interactions. Our work has many analogies with the work started by Alday and Maldacena, who computed scattering amplitudes of gluons at strong coupling with semiclassical quantum mechanics of strings in anti de-Sitter spacetime. We hope that in the future we can apply our

  4. Equilibrium Tail Distribution Due to Touschek Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    Single large angle Coulomb scattering is referred to as Touschek scattering. In addition to causing particle loss when the scattered particles are outside the momentum aperture, the process also results in a non-Gaussian tail, which is an equilibrium between the Touschek scattering and radiation damping. Here we present an analytical calculation for this equilibrium distribution.

  5. Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asano, S.; Sato, M.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the light scattering properties of randomly oriented, identical spheroidal particles is presented. A computation method was developed to integrate the Asano and Yamomoto solution (1975) for scattering from a homogeneous spheroid over all particle orientations; the extinction and scattering cross-sections, the asymmetry factor, and scattering matrix elements are calculated for randomly oriented prolate and oblate spheroids and compared with the calculations for spheres and laboratory measurements. The angular scattering behavior of spheroids is found to be different from that of the spheres for side scattering to backscattering directions, and prolate and oblate spheroids of the same shape parameter have similar angular scattering patterns.

  6. Thomson scattering from laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J D; Alley, W E; De Groot, J S; Estabrook, K G; Glenzer, S H; Hammer, J H; Jadaud, J P; MacGowan, B J; Rozmus, W; Suter, L J; Williams, E A

    1999-01-12

    Thomson scattering has recently been introduced as a fundamental diagnostic of plasma conditions and basic physical processes in dense, inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Experiments at the Nova laser facility [E. M. Campbell et al., Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] have demonstrated accurate temporally and spatially resolved characterization of densities, electron temperatures, and average ionization levels by simultaneously observing Thomson scattered light from ion acoustic and electron plasma (Langmuir) fluctuations. In addition, observations of fast and slow ion acous- tic waves in two-ion species plasmas have also allowed an independent measurement of the ion temperature. These results have motivated the application of Thomson scattering in closed-geometry inertial confinement fusion hohlraums to benchmark integrated radiation-hydrodynamic modeling of fusion plasmas. For this purpose a high energy 4{omega} probe laser was implemented recently allowing ultraviolet Thomson scattering at various locations in high-density gas-filled hohlraum plasmas. In partic- ular, the observation of steep electron temperature gradients indicates that electron thermal transport is inhibited in these gas-filled hohlraums. Hydrodynamic calcula- tions which include an exact treatment of large-scale magnetic fields are in agreement with these findings. Moreover, the Thomson scattering data clearly indicate axial stagnation in these hohlraums by showing a fast rise of the ion temperature. Its timing is in good agreement with calculations indicating that the stagnating plasma will not deteriorate the implosion of the fusion capsules in ignition experiments.

  7. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.; Hagen, W.F.; Boyd, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  8. Scattering apodizer for laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A.; Hagen, Wilhelm F.; Boyd, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for apodizing a laser beam to smooth out the production of diffraction peaks due to optical discontinuities in the path of the laser beam, such method comprising introduction of a pattern of scattering elements for reducing the peak intensity in the region of such optical discontinuities, such pattern having smoothly tapering boundaries in which the distribution density of the scattering elements is tapered gradually to produce small gradients in the distribution density, such pattern of scattering elements being effective to reduce and smooth out the diffraction effects which would otherwise be produced. The apodizer pattern may be produced by selectively blasting a surface of a transparent member with fine abrasive particles to produce a multitude of minute pits. In one embodiment, a scattering apodizer pattern is employed to overcome diffraction patterns in a multiple element crystal array for harmonic conversion of a laser beam. The interstices and the supporting grid between the crystal elements are obscured by the gradually tapered apodizer pattern of scattering elements.

  9. Electromagnetic wave scattering by Schwarzschild black holes.

    PubMed

    Crispino, Luís C B; Dolan, Sam R; Oliveira, Ednilton S

    2009-06-12

    We analyze the scattering of a planar monochromatic electromagnetic wave incident upon a Schwarzschild black hole. We obtain accurate numerical results from the partial wave method for the electromagnetic scattering cross section and show that they are in excellent agreement with analytical approximations. The scattering of electromagnetic waves is compared with the scattering of scalar, spinor, and gravitational waves. We present a unified picture of the scattering of all massless fields for the first time. PMID:19658920

  10. Scattering calculations and confining interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the research work performed under this grant were concerned with strong interaction processes ranging from kaon-nucleon interaction to proton-nucleus scattering calculations. Research performed under this grant can be categorized into three groups: (1) parametrization of fundamental interactions, (2) development of formal theory, and (3) calculations based upon the first two. Parametrizations of certain fundamental interactions, such as kaon-nucleon interaction, for example, were necessary because kaon-nucleon scattering amplitude was needed to perform kaon-nucleus scattering calculations. It was possible to calculate kaon-nucleon amplitudes from the first principle, but it was unnecessary for the purpose of the project. Similar work was also done for example for anti-protons and anti-nuclei. Formal developments to some extent were also pursued so that consistent calculations can be done.

  11. Nuclear Scattering from Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; McKeough, James; Valerio, Mario; Cathey, Tommy

    2016-03-01

    In view of the continued interest in the scattering of light projectiles by metallic nuclei, we present a computational study of the interactions between different nuclear species of atoms such as H through F (Z <= 9) and the nuclei of Silver, Palladium and other metals. Recent work has shown that neutron scattering can be used to record holographic images of materials. We have developed a FORTRAN computer program to compute stopping cross sections and scattering angles in Ag and other metals for the small nuclear projectiles, using Monte Carlo calculation. This code allows for different angles of incidence. Next, simulations were done in the energy interval from 50 to 210 keV. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant experimental data. The data are further analyzed to identify periodic trends in terms of the atomic number of the projectile. Such studies also have potential applications in nuclear physics and in nuclear medicine. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  12. Theory of waves incoherently scattered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    Electromagnetic waves impinging upon a plasma at frequencies larger than the plasma frequency, suffer weak scattering. The scattering arises from the existence of electron density fluctuations. The received signal corresponds to a particular spatial Fourier component of the fluctuations, the wave vector of which is a function of the wavelength of the radiowave. Wavelengths short with respect to the Debye length of the medium relate to fluctuations due to non-interacting Maxwellian electrons, while larger wavelengths relate to fluctuations due to collective Coulomb interactions. In the latter case, the scattered signal exhibits a spectral distribution which is characteristic of the main properties of the electron and ion gases and, therefore, provides a powerful diagnosis of the state of the ionosphere.

  13. Scattering Polarization in the Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. U.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering polarization from the photosphere observed close to the solar limb has recently become of interest to study turbulent magnetic fields, abundances, and radiative transfer effects. We extend these studies by measuring the scattering polarization off the limb, i.e. in the chromosphere. However, instrumental effects are much more pronounced and more complicated than those affecting on-disk measurements. In particular, scattered light from the telescope mirrors leads to a new type of instrumental polarization that we describe in detail. The differences between the linearly polarized spectra on the disk and off the limb are often very substantial. Here we show the profiles of HeI D(sub 3), the OI triplet at 777 nm, and the Nal D lines. The change in the latter is in reasonable agreement with the recent modeling efforts of atomic polarization in the lower level by Landi Degl'Innocenti (1998).

  14. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  15. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Shew, Chwen-Yang; He, Lilin; Meilleur, Flora; Myles, Dean A A; Liu, Emily; Zhang, Yang; Smith, Greg; Herwig, Kenneth W; Pynn, Roger; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The single-particle small-angle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including the tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are systematically investigated. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function, pair distance distribution function and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) are calculated and compared with the corresponding scattering function of a spherical reference system. From the theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of icosahedral and spherical shells with identical volume are investigated, and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural differences is presented and discussed.

  16. Scattering functions of Platonic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ren; Herwig, Kenneth W; Li, Xin; Liu, Emily; Pynn, Roger; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Smith, Gregory Scott; Myles, Dean A A; He, Lilin; Meilleur, Flora

    2011-01-01

    In this report the single-particle scattering properties of five Platonic solids, including tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, are investigated in a systematic manner. For each given geometry, the Debye spatial autocorrelation function (r), pair distance distribution function (PDDF) p (r) and intraparticle structure factor (form factor) P (Q) are respectively calculated and compared to the corresponding scattering function of the spherical referential system. Based on our theoretical models, the empirical relationship between the dodecahedral and icosahedral structural characteristics and those of the equivalent spheres is found. Moreover, the single-particle scattering properties of the icosahedral and the spherical shells with the same volume are further investigated and the prospect of using different data analysis approaches to explore their structural difference is also presented and discussed.

  17. Compton scattering and generalized polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.

    2005-05-06

    In recent years, real and virtual Compton scattering off the nucleon have attracted considerable interest from both the experimental and theoretical sides. Real Compton scattering gives access to the so-called electromagnetic polarizabilities containing the structure information beyond the global properties of the nucleon such as its charge, mass, and magnetic moment. These polarizabilities have an intuitive interpretation in terms of induced dipole moments and thus characterize the response of the constituents of the nucleon to a soft external stimulus. The virtual Compton scattering reaction e- p {yields} e- p{gamma} allows one to map out the local response to external fields and can be described in terms of generalized electromagnetic polarizabilities. A simple classical interpretation in terms of the induced electric and magnetic polarization densities is proposed. We will discuss experimental results for the polarizabilities of the proton and compare them with theoretical predictions.

  18. Quantifying entanglement with scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, O.; Epping, M.; Kampermann, H.; Bruß, D.; Plenio, M. B.; Cramer, M.

    2014-03-01

    We show how the entanglement contained in states of spins arranged on a lattice may be lower bounded with observables arising in scattering experiments. We focus on the partial differential cross section obtained in neutron scattering from magnetic materials but our results are sufficiently general such that they may also be applied to, e.g., optical Bragg scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices or from ion chains. We discuss resonating valence bond states and ground and thermal states of experimentally relevant models—such as the Heisenberg, Majumdar-Ghosh, and XY models—in different geometries and with different spin numbers. As a by-product, we find that for the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse field such measurements reveal factorization and the quantum phase transition at zero temperature.

  19. Entanglement entropy of scattering particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschanski, Robi; Seki, Shigenori

    2016-07-01

    We study the entanglement entropy between the two outgoing particles in an elastic scattering process. It is formulated within an S-matrix formalism using the partial wave expansion of two-body states, which plays a significant role in our computation. As a result, we obtain a novel formula that expresses the entanglement entropy in a high energy scattering by the use of physical observables, namely the elastic and total cross sections and a physical bound on the impact parameter range, related to the elastic differential cross-section.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.