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1

Corrosion and Degradation of Test Materials in the Mountain Fuel Resources 30 Ton/Day Coal Gasification Process Development Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One period of in-plant exposure (lower section of gasifier and steam superheater) of candidate alloys for gasification applications was completed in the Mountain Fuel Resources, Inc. (MFR) Process Development Unit (PDU). During this brief period of exposu...

R. Yurkewycz

1985-01-01

2

Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Mountain Fuel Resources 30 ton/day coal gasification Process Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

One period of in-plant exposure (lower section of gasifier and steam superheater) of candidate alloys for gasification applications was completed in the Mountain Fuel Resources, Inc. (MFR) Process Development Unit (PDU). During this brief period of exposure (294 h gasifying coal), temperatures at the test sites were 140/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) at the lower section of the gasifier and ranged from 350/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/F (177/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C) during steady-state periods in the steam superheater but were sometimes <300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C). These lower temperatures, encountered during process upsets, were in many cases lower than the dew point of the product gas. Operating pressures were 300 psi (2.1 MPa) in the gasifier and ranged from 50 to 200 psig (0.4 to 1.4 MPa gauge) in the superheater. Fouling of heat exchanger surfaces was also reported. At the lower section of the gasifier, A515 carbon steel, aluminized carbon steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, 1 1/4Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, and 410 SS suffered from heavy corrosion and they cannot be considered for use in this system. Types 304 SS and 316 SS showed acceptable general corrosion resistance, but they suffered from pitting. Incoloy 800 was the only one of the alloys tested that exhibited excellent resistance to overall corrosion and pitting. In the steam superheater, high alloy steels Type 310, 26-1, 18-2, and Type 304 incurred the least amount of corrosion damage; corrosion rates were <10 mpy (0.25 mm/y). Alloy Incoloy 800 performed nominally at 21 mpy (0.53 mm/y). The remaining alloys 1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, Type 410, 253MA and 9Cr-1Mo(Mod.) experienced unacceptable localized corrosion losses; corrosion rates were >150 mpy (3.81 mm/y). Pack-aluminized carbon steel A515 showed no evidence of diffusion zone penetration and was acceptable in corrosion performance. 14 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Yurkewycz, R.

1985-01-31

3

Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activ...

R. W. Stoffle M. J. Evans D. B. Halmo W. E. Niles J. T. O'Farrell

1989-01-01

4

Coalbed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet, provided by the US Geological Survey, summarizes the geology and production potential of sedimentary provinces that contain extensive coal deposits and significant coalbed methane gas resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The sheet supplies information about what coalbed methane is, where it occurs, how it is recovered and how geologists assess its distribution and quality. A map of resources within the Rocky Mountain region is provided with the text.

Survey, National A.

5

Hazardous Fuel Reduction in the Blue Mountains: Public Attitudes and Opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource managers in the Blue Mountains region of eastern Oregon and Washington are utilizing prescribed fire and mechanized thinning treatments to reduce hazardous fuel loads and restore forest health. This paper uses panel data from a mail survey administered to the same individuals in 1996 and 2000 to mea- sure change in public attitudes and opinions about fire management programs.

Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler

2003-01-01

6

Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

1989-11-01

7

Liquid fuels from renewable resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed citizens in many countries are concerned about the long-term effect of the release of fossilized carbon into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels. Of more immediate concern is the degradation of air quality in urban areas due to pollutants in vehicle exhaust. Fuel from renewable resources is a technology that addresses both these concerns. Combustion of annual-growth

Cundiff

1992-01-01

8

Yucca Mountain Remains Critical to Spent Nuclear Fuel Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent push to build new nuclear power plants in the United States is forcing some to con-sider alternatives to the Yucca Mountain geologic repository, located in Nevada, for spent nuclear fuel. These options include recycling nuclear fuel and opening interim storage facilities. Both options could play critical roles in any American nuclear power renaissance, but they simply cannot eliminate

Jack Spencer; Nicolas Loris

9

Alternative Fuel School Bus Information Resources  

SciTech Connect

This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of important resources for learning more about alternative fuels in school buses. It includes information regarding Alternative Fuel School Bus Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel HD Engine Manufacturers, Alternative Fuel School Bus Operators, and Key Web Resources for Alternative Fuels.

Not Available

2004-04-01

10

The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (;)

2004-07-01

11

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

12

Native American Interpretation of Cultural Resources in the Area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute ...

R. W. Stoffle M. J. Evans C. L. Harshbarger

1989-01-01

13

Hydrogen fuel from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

This article presents the results of an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibilities of producing and using hydrogen from renewable resources. Technologies evaluated include biomass gasification and electrolysis of water using electricity generated from a variety of renewable energy sources. It was found that biomass gasification is the most economical process for renewable hydrogen production with methanol generated from synthesis gas, a near-term variant useful as a ground transportation fuel. Electrolysis is the most attractive option for large-scale production of hydrogen, provided cost reductions for the basic expense associated with electricity can be realized. For the long term, photoconversion offers the greatest promise of providing inexpensive hydrogen.

McKinley, K.R.; Browne, S.H.; Neill, D.R.; Seki, A.; Takahashi, P.K. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (USA))

1990-01-01

14

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

15

Advanced fuel cycles and impacts On The Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals identified for advanced fuel cycles, such as that proposed by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, is to reduce the volume of wastes that would ultimately have to be disposed in a geologic repository. Besides reducing volume, techniques that recycle the vast majority of actinides along with the removal of key fission products also reduce the inventory of radionuclides that must ultimately be disposed and the thermal output of the wastes. Advanced recycling techniques may also generate waste forms having different characteristics than those that have been considered for disposal in a repository at Yucca Mountain to-date. These all have a potential impact on several aspects of a repository, such as the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, including surface and subsurface facility design, pre-closure and post-closure safety analyses, and ultimately licensing. These changes would all have to be performed in accordance with the requirements at 10 CFR 63 and approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a license amendment prior to the disposal of any wastes from an advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

Nutt, W.M.; Peters, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Swift, P.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2007-07-01

16

Natural Resources and Watershed Science Field Camps at Colorado State University's Pingree Park Mountain Campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost a century, the Natural Resources College (and its predecessors) has been offering field courses at the Colorado State University (CSU) Pingree Park Mountain Campus. This campus is located just north of Rocky Mountain National Park on the Little South of the Cache la Poudre River at an elevation of 2750 meters, approximately 40 kilometers west of Fort Collins.

S. R. Fassnacht; M. Laituri; S. K. Kampf; W. E. Sanford; R. Coleman; P. Layden

2009-01-01

17

Resource Recovery and Cavity Growth During the Rocky Mountain 1 Field Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resource recovery and cavity growth remain important issues affecting performance, scale-up and overall process efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG). Results from the recently completed dual-module Rocky Mountain I (RM I) UCG experiment give...

R. J. Cena J. A. Britten C. B. Thorsness

1988-01-01

18

Mineral Resources of the Trigo Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 29,095 acres of the Trigo Mountains Wilderness Study Area were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). An inferred subeconomic manganese resource of 210,0...

D. R. Sherrod R. M. Tosdal R. B. Vaughn D. B. Smith M. D. Kleinkopf

1989-01-01

19

Mineral resources of the Soda Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Jackson County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Soda Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources but does have moderate mineral resource potential for gold and silver. The area also has low resource potential for geothermal, oil and gas, placer gold, and building stone.

Pickthorn, W.J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Plouff, D.; Sutley, S.J.; Wilcox, M.D. (US Geological Survey (US)); Peters, T.J.; Willett, S.L. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1990-01-01

20

Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

Kessler, John H. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kemeny, John [University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); King, Fraser [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., 6732 Silverview Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ross, Alan M. [Alan M. Ross and Associates, 1061 Gray Fox Circle Pleasanton, CA 94566 (Canada); Ross, Benjamen [Disposal Safety, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2006-07-01

21

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences] [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

22

Mountain Pine Beetle-Induced Changes to Selected Lodgepole Pine Fuel Complexes within the Intermountain Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a forest insect that infests lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests in the Intermountain West. The often widespread mortality caused by the mountain pine beetle has been suggested to result in significant changes to stand structure, composition, and total fuel loading; however, little quantitative information that documents these changes

Wesley Green Page; Michael James Jenkins

2007-01-01

23

Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area.

Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Swischer, C.C. (Berkeley Geochronology Center (US)); Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

24

Biomass resources for alcohol fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol

J. E. MacDowell

1981-01-01

25

Kings Mountain Military Park, South Carolina Water Resources Scoping Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kings Mountain National Military Park (KIMO) is a historic site set aside to interpret an important battle in the Revolutionary War, marking the beginning of several British defeats that prevented Englands attempt to conquer the nation. KIMO is centered a...

D. P. Weeks

2002-01-01

26

Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity 8.3.1.9.2.1.5) under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoover, D.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1991-12-31

27

Mineral resources of the Bull Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Garfield and Wayne counties, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines conducted studies to appraise the mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Bull Mountain Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Jurassic and Triassic( ) to Cretaceous that have been intruded by Tertiary igneous stocks, lacoliths, and bysmaliths. No mines or prospects or

R. F. Dubiel; C. S. Bromfield; S. E. Church; W. M. Kemp; M. J. Larson; F. Peterson

1988-01-01

28

Managing natural resources in the West Usambara Mountains: A glimmer of hope in the horizon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past efforts in the management of natural resources in the West Usambara Mountains have not been successful mainly because the approaches were top - down and did not consider local communities important in natural resource management. Current initiatives active in the area have shown that participatory approaches involving all stakeholders as well as empowering local communities to take charge of

Jeremias G. Mowo; Stephen T. Mwihomeke; Justin B. Mzoo

29

Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved

Shikui Dong; James Lassoie; K. K. Shrestha; Zhaoli Yan; Ekalabya Sharma; D. Pariya

2009-01-01

30

Mineral resources of the Red Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Washington County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a study to assess the potential for undiscovered resources and appraise the identified resources of the Red Mountain Wilderness Study Area, southwestern Utah. There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas; however, inferred subeconomic resources of building stone and silica sand are present at the surface. The resource potential for metallic minerals and for oil and gas is low. The energy resource potential for high-temperature geothermal sources in the eastern part of the study area is moderate, whereas the entire study area has high potential for low-temperature geothermal sources. There is no energy resource potential for coal.

Houser, B.B.; Jones, J.L.; Kilbum, J.E.; Blank, H.R. Jr (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Wood, R.H. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US)); Cook, K.L. (Univ. of Utah, UT (US))

1988-01-01

31

Mineral resources of the Red Mountain Wilderness study Aea, Washington County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines conducted a collaborative study to assess the potential for undiscovered resources and appraise the identified resources of the Red Mountain Wilderness Study Area, southwestern Utah. There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas; however, inferred subeconomic resources of building stone and silica sand are present at the surface. The resource potential for metallic minerals and for oil and gas is low. The energy resource potential for high-temperature geothermal sources in the eastern part of the study area is moderate, whereas the entire study area has high potential for low-temperature geothermal sources. There is no energy resource potential for coal.

Houser, B.B.; Jones, J.L.; Kilburm, J.E.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; Wood, R.H. II; Cook, K.L.

1988-01-01

32

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01

33

Biomass resources for alcohol fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

MacDowell, J. E.

34

Mineral resources of the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lake County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources, but it has moderate mineral resource potential for soda ash, boron compounds, sodium sulfate, magnesium compounds, salts, potash, bromine, lithium, tungsten, and geothermal energy. The area also has low mineral resource potential for low-grade, high-tonnage, epithermal, hot-spring gold-silver deposits, for magnesium deposits, and for oil and gas.

Diggles, M.F.; King, H.D.; Gettings, ME.; Conrad, J.E.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Soreghan, G.S.

1990-01-01

35

Mineral resources of the Deep Canyon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Juab and Tooele counties, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Deep Creek Mountains Wilderness Study Area (UT-010-060\\/UT-050-020) which includes most of the Deep Creek Range in Utah and Tooele counties, Utah. Four areas near the study area contain identified resources: gold resources in the Goshute Canyon and Gold Bond areas, both immediately east of the study area: a gold resource at the Queen of Sheba

C. J. Nutt; D. R. Zimbelman; D. L. Campbell; J. S. Duval; B. J. Hannigan

1990-01-01

36

Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to increase sediment yield primarily through changes in

Jaime R. Goode; Charles H. Luce; John M. Buffington

37

Mineral resources of the Table Top Mountain Wilderness study Area, Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Table Top Mountain Wilderness Study Area is underlain by Proterozoic schist, quartz monzonite, Tertiary basalt, and clastic sedimentary rocks. Alluvium is present adjacent to the mountains. The area does not contain any identified resources. Areas of schist have low mineral resource potential for copper, gold, and silver in veins. The quartz monzonite has low potential for quartz, feldspar, mica, rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and beryllium in pegmatites and monazite. There is a low potential for evaporite minerals, placer tin, and geothermal energy, and oil and gas.

Peterson, J.A.; Nowlan, G.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; McDonnell, J.R. Jr.

1988-01-01

38

Rocky Mountain Natural Gas Resources - a potential gas committee perspective, 1984-1992  

SciTech Connect

Estimates by the Potential Gas Committee for the Rocky Mountain region have been compared for the time period 1984 to 1992. The Rocky Mountain area contains an abundant potential resource of technically recoverable natural gas in clastic, carbonate, and coalbed reservoirs. The assessed resource for the region is second only to the more mature producing regions of the Gulf Coast and Mid-Continent portions of the Lower 48 States. Although the magnitude and distribution among resource categories has shifted from 1984 to 1993, the overall trends have been to shallower, more assured resources, which comprise approximately 16% of the total U.S. estimates and 20% of the Lower 48 States. Changes in total resource estimates during the time period are discussed, together with changes within individual provinces. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Curtis, J.B. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

1994-04-01

39

Natural gas resources of the Rocky Mountains and considerations for future supply  

SciTech Connect

This overview of the natural gas resources believed to exist in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States is based on resource assessment studies completed by the Potential Gas Committee (PGC), US Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service of the US Department of Interior (DOI) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI). Each of the estimating organizations use different data sources and assessment methodologies to evaluate the remaining gas resource. Thus, the results complement each other and, most importantly, provide a range of possible resource values for this area of the country. The range of estimates illustrate the amount of gas, not including proved reserves, believed to be technically recoverable from the Rocky Mountain area. The gas that is economically recoverable at any given time is a much smaller subset of the technically recoverable resource (Curtis, 1995). Gas price differentials, primarily due to excess production capacity, will also affect the actual gas supply provided to the nation from this area.

Curtis, J.B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-01-01

40

Framing the Study of Mountain Water Resources: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial vulnerability the international community will face in the near future is access to fresh water in sufficient quantity\\u000a and of adequate quality to meet the needs of a growing global population. As a result, mountains, which have always held a\\u000a privileged relationship with water as the sources of the world's greatest rivers and the homes of huge glacier

Ellen Wiegandt

41

Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the South Providence Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the South Providence Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-262), California Desert Conservation Area, San Bernardino County, California. Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical and recent mining and prospecting activities, suggests that much of the South Providence Mountains Wilderness Study Area has a wide range of potential for the occurrence of several types of undiscovered mineral resources. Eight mines and prospects in the study area have potential for gold, silver, lead, or copper resources. A high potential for epithermal volcanogenic gold resources is indicated for one small area of altered metavolcanic, plutonic, and hypabyssal rocks, and a moderate potential for epithermal gold resources is indicated for three other small areas. A low potential for placer gold resources is indicated for all alluvium in the area with particularly strong support for two small areas. Radioactive-mineral resources are possible in one area of granite, which is ascribed a low resource potential. A low potential for hydrocarbon resources is indicated for basinal sediments in a small part of the study area. Mines in and immediately adjacent to the study area contain an estimated 200,000 tons of indicated and inferred marginal gold reserves and an additional 11,000 tons of marginally economic gold-bearing dump reserves. Thirteen mines have potential for additional resources. 30 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs. (ACR)

Miller, D.M.; Glick, L.L.; Goldfarb, R.; Simpson, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Detra, D.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Munts, S.R.

1984-01-01

42

Mineral resources of the Big Hatchet Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Hidalgo County, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Hatchet Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low resource potential for copper, lead, silver, zinc, uranium, oil and gas, coal, and industrial rocks and minerals. This study area includes two subeconomic deposits of lead, silver, and zinc; and is underlain primarily by Paleozoic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that are mildly folded, faulted, and are raised to form a prominent

H. Drewes; H. N. Barton; W. F. Hanna; D. C. Scott

1988-01-01

43

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? THE CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES OF CHONDUEA MOUNTAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limestone ecosystems are unique but not well studied. They are also under a continuous threat of disappearing through detrimental development projects, fires etc. In this research a participatory approach in collecting baseline data was used in order to develop guidelines and education material for the conservation and sustainable use of the natural resources of the limestone mountain range of Chonduea.

Suphawan Vongkamjan

44

Biological Resources Survey of Mountain Springs Canyon on the Naval Weapons Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A biological resource study of the 8500-acre Mountain Springs Canyon, located within the confines of the Naval Weapons Center, was conducted in May 1982 to update the general biological data base for the Center and to gain specific information about the s...

1983-01-01

45

Resource recovery and cavity growth during the Rocky Mountain 1 field test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery and cavity growth remain important issues affecting performance, scale-up and overall process efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG). Results from the recently completed dual-module Rocky Mountain I (RM I) UCG experiment give us firsthand information concerning these important parameters. During the RM I test, two gasifiers, the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) and the Extended Linked Well (ELW)

R. J. Cena; J. A. Britten; C. B. Thorsness

1988-01-01

46

Water-resources reconnaissance of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles in Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type, and nearly all sampled water contained enough iron to stain cooking and laundry utensils. The water ranged from soft to very hard, and only one well in the Breathitt Formation produced salty water. The absence of salty water may be due to abundant fractures which are associated with the Pine Mountain fault and which have allowed fresh water to enter the formation. The Lee Formation underlies the Cumberland Mountain section and is exposed along the crest and southeast slope of Pine Mountain. The Lee Formation consists of massive sandstone and conglomerate with thin beds of shale and a few thin coal seams. Although the Lee Formation is tapped by only a few wells in this area, it is potentially an important aquifer. Wells penetrating the Lee Formation in the Cumberland Mountain section would probably yield water under artesian pressure. Unlike most water from the Lee Formation in other parts of eastern Kentucky, all water from the Lee Formation in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area is fresh. All water from the Lee Formation contained more than 0.3 parts per million of iron and ranged from soft to moderately hard.

Albin, Donald R.

1965-01-01

47

Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically relevant variables such as streamflow and groundwater recharge. Fundamental limitations in both the understanding of hydrological processes in mountain regions (e.g., glacier melt, wetland attenuation, groundwater flows) and in data availability introduce large uncertainties. Lastly, assessing access to water resources is a major challenge. Topographical gradients and barriers, as well as strong spatiotemporal variations in hydrological processes, makes it particularly difficult to assess which parts of the mountain population is most vulnerable to future perturbations of the water cycle.

Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

2013-04-01

48

Disease Prognosis and Resource Allocation in a Haitian Mountain Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the pattern of family resource allocation for child illness in rural Haiti. Based on the theoretical framework of biocultural ecology, the study looks at how disease, individual, social and environmental factors interact to influen...

H. J. Weise

1979-01-01

49

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

50

Mountain Meadows and their contribution to Sierra Nevada Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human alterations of California's waterscape have exploited rivers, wetlands and meadows of the Sierra Nevada. A century of intensive logging, mining, railroad building, development, fire suppression, and grazing by sheep and cattle has left only 25 percent "intact" natural habitat in the Sierra Nevada (SNEP 1995). Much of this intact habitat occurs at higher elevations, often in non-forested alpine or in less productive forests and woodlands where mountain meadows exist. Mountain meadows serve many ecological functions including habitat for threatened and endangered terrestrial and aquatic species, and are considered to be essential physical components to watershed function and hydrology with significant water storage, filtration and flood attenuation properties. This study evaluates the physical characteristics and hydrologic function of Clarks Meadow located in northern Sierra Nevada, Plumas County, California. In 2001, Clarks Meadow received significant restoration work in the upstream half of the meadow which diverted the stream from an incised channel to a shallow remnant channel, creating a stable channel and reconnecting the groundwater table to the stream. No restoration work was done in the lower half of Clarks Meadow where the stream still flows through an incised channel. Clarks Meadow offers a unique opportunity to study both a restored, hydrologically functional meadow and an incised, hydrologically disconnected stretch of the same stream and meadow. The physical characteristics of Clarks Meadows that were measured include surface area, subsurface thickness, porosity and permeability of subsurface materials, potential water storage volume, and surface infiltration rates. The goal of this study is to refine hydrologic characterization methods, quantify water storage potential of a healthy, non-incised meadow and assess its role in attenuating flood flows during high discharge times. Initial results suggest that significant subsurface storage volume is available in the meadow. Incising conditions in the unstable lower channel tends to dewater the lower portion of the meadow which encourages bank erosion through piping and corrasion. This study addresses questions that have broad implications for water management throughout the state because much of California gets water from Sierra high elevation watersheds in which meadows are thought to play a critical role in sustained long-term hydrologic function. The results of this study will be used to inform Integrated Regional Water Management Plans throughout Northern California.

Cornwell, K.; Brown, K.; Monohan, C.

2007-12-01

51

Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY89 and FY90  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs. (MHB)

NONE

1991-01-01

52

Fuel characterization in the southern Appalachian Mountains: an application of Landscape Ecosystem Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire has been widely used in the south-eastern United States to meet forest management objectives, but has only recently been reintroduced to the southern Appalachian Mountains. Fuel information is not available to forest managers in this region and direct measurement is often impractical owing to steep, remote topography. The objective of the present study was to determine whether landscape

Aaron D. StottlemyerA; Victor B. ShelburneB; Thomas A. WaldropC; Sandra Rideout-HanzakD; William C. BridgesE

2009-01-01

53

Translating science into policy: using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park.  

PubMed

Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. PMID:17693003

Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan

2007-08-13

54

Mineral resources of the Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources.

Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Wood, R.H. (Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

55

Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

Upadhye, R S

2003-12-08

56

Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at RMA in 1986 and 1987. The major objectives of the vegetation studies were to: identify, map, and describe major and minor plant community types; Evaluate community composition, structure, and successional status; compare the vegetation of the arsenal with two offsite locations - Buckley Air National Guard Base and the Plains Conservation Center. The studies provided information useful for planning habitat enhancement and vegetation activities. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the extent to which the vegetation of RMA has been effected by contamination, physical disturbance, and previous agricultural history of the site. Appendices: species lists, data summaries for onsite and offsite vegetation types. Plates: vegetation map, natural resource areas of special interest.

Not Available

1989-10-01

57

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01

58

Valuing Natural Forest Resources: An Application of Contingent Valuation Method on Adaba-Dodola Forest Priority Area, Bale Mountains, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs a contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to gain use and control rights to a natural forest resource at the Adaba-Dodola Forest Priority Area (ADFPA) in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia. The analysis was based on data collected from 295 households residing in and around the forest resource. Both binary probit

Ayalneh Bogale

2011-01-01

59

Native American interpretation of cultural resources in the area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute (for a summary, see Pippin and Zerga, 1983; Pippin, 1984). Interpretations provided by Native American Indian people are not intended to refute other scientific studies, such as botanical, wildlife, and archaeological studies. Rather, they provide additional hypotheses for future studies, and they provide a more complete cultural understanding of the Yucca Mountain area. Representatives of sixteen American Indian tribes identified the cultural value of these resources as part of a consultation relationship with the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding initial consultation with the sixteen tribes, in-depth interviews with tribal elders, and findings from the first on-site visit with representatives of the sixteen tribes. As additional information is collected, it will be reviewed separately. An annual report will integrate all findings. 44 refs., 58 figs., 2 tabs.

Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Harshbarger, C.L.

1989-03-01

60

Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum

S. Bartsch-Winkler; R. P. Dickerson; H. W. Barton; A. E. McCafferty; V. J. S. Grauch; H. Koyuncu; K. Lee; J. S. Duval; S. R. Munts; D. A. Benjamin; T. J. Close; D. A. Lipton; T. R. Neumann; S. L. Willet

1990-01-01

61

Mountain oases in northern Oman: An environment for evolution and in situ conservation of plant genetic resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several botanical studies have been conducted in different parts of Oman, but knowl- edge about agro-biodiversity in the rapidly decay- ing ancient mountain oases of this country remains scarce. To fill this gap we assessed the genetic resources of three mountain oases in the al-Hajar range using a GIS-based field survey and farmer interviews. While arid conditions prevail through- out

Jens Gebauer; Eike Luedeling; Karl Hammer; Maher Nagieb; Andreas Buerkert

2007-01-01

62

Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The western U.S. derives its water resources predominantly from cold season precipitation and storage in snowpack along the narrow Cascades and Sierra ranges, and the Rocky Mountains. Hydroclimate is modulated by the diverse orographic features across the region. Precipitation, runoff, and water demand generally peaks during winter, spring, and summer respectively. Such phase differences between water supply and demand create a necessity for water management, which is reflected by major development in irrigation, hydropower production, and flood control during the past 50 years. Because water resources have been essential to the economic development and environmental well being of the western states, it is worrisome that recent studies suggest that global warming may exert significant impacts on snowpack and streamflow, which may seriously affect water resources in the western U.S. in the 21st century (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Leung and Ghan 1999; Mile et al. 2000; Leung et al. 2002a; Miller et al. 2002). To understand how climate change may affect mountain water resources, we have taken the approach of ?end-to-end? assessment where simulations of current and future climate produced by global climate models (GCMs) are downscaled using regional climate models (RCMs), which then provide atmospheric conditions for assessing water impacts using hydrologic models (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Miller et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2002) and water management models (e.g., Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Payne et al. 2002). This suite of models guides us through a comprehensive and global view of the effects of greenhouse warming on the atmosphere-ocean-land system to regional climate change, hydrologic response in river basins and watersheds, and reservoir management. The latter converts hydrologic response to impacts on water management objectives and enables the evaluation of adaptation strategies through modifications to existing reservoir operating rules.

Leung, Lai R.

2005-06-01

63

Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area  

SciTech Connect

This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

Neilson, J.A.

1981-09-01

64

Global energy resources. [Review, emphasizing fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in the somewhat paradoxical situation of having more confidence in the extent of our long- or very long-term energy resources than in our mid-term supply. This is why fossil-energy resources are emphasized in this article; we must rely on them for at least 80 to 90% of our energy supply until the end of the century (as far

Grenon

1977-01-01

65

Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California  

SciTech Connect

The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

1982-01-01

66

Evaluation of precipitation products over complex mountainous terrain: A water resources perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of in situ measurements of precipitation in remote locations is limited. As a result, the use of satellite measurements of precipitation is attractive for water resources management. Combined precipitation products that rely partially or entirely on satellite measurements are becoming increasingly available. However, these products have several weaknesses, for example their failure to capture certain types of precipitation, limited accuracy and limited spatial and temporal resolution. This paper evaluates the usefulness of several commonly used precipitation products over data scarce, complex mountainous terrain from a water resources perspective. Spatially averaged precipitation time series were generated or obtained for 16 sub-basins of the Paute river basin in the Ecuadorian Andes and 13 sub-basins of the Baker river basin in Chilean Patagonia. Precipitation time series were generated using the European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecasting (ECMWF) 40 year reanalysis (ERA-40) and the subsequent ERA-interim products, and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset 1 (NCEP R1) hindcast products, as well as precipitation estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 is also used for the Ecuadorian Andes. These datasets were compared to both spatially averaged gauged precipitation and river discharge. In general, the time series of the remotely sensed and hindcast products show a low correlation with locally observed precipitation data. Large biases are also observed between the different products. Hydrological verification based on river flows reveals that water balance errors can be extremely high for all evaluated products, including interpolated local data, in basins smaller than 1000 km2. The observations are consistent over the two study regions despite very different climatic settings and hydrological processes, which is encouraging for extrapolation to other mountainous regions.

Ward, E.; Buytaert, W.; Peaver, L.; Wheater, H.

2011-10-01

67

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

68

Impact of Spent Fuel Alteration Phases on Neptunium Mobility in Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Spent nuclear fuel is unstable under the moist oxidizing conditions expected in the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Incorporation of radionuclides into the uranyl phases that will form due to alteration of spent fuel may significantly reduce radionuclide mobility in the repository, but this scenario is not included in current performance assessment models for Yucca Mountain. The potential impact of uranyl minerals on the mobility of Np-237, which is one of the most important radionuclides for long-term repository performance, is being studied by synthesis of uranyl phases in contact with solutions containing 10 to 500 ppm Np(V). The impacts of time, temperature, pH and counter-ions on Np incorporation are being addressed. Analysis of crystals using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), conducted at APS with a bent-Laue analyzer crystal to separate the signal of Np from that of U, and by ICP-AES (U, Na, Ca) and ICP-MS (Np), have established that incorporation of Np into uranyl phases is likely to significantly impact repository performance.

Burns, Peter C.

2003-09-11

69

Evaluation of Thermal Capacity for Spent-Fuel Disposal at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two-dimensional TOUGH2 model for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. For each alternative design, two bounding cases are simulated using TOUGH2: (1) all waste packages are emplaced at the same time and (2) waste packages are emplaced in stages. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological design specifications. Cases with extended ventilation have also been studied. (authors)

Zhou, W.; Apted, M.J. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J.H. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2007-07-01

70

Guadalupe Mountains Symposium. Proceedings of the 25th anniversary conference on research and resource management in Guadalupe Mountains National Park.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The papers included in this volume are part of a research symposium devoted to studies associated with Guadalupe Mountains National Park. The symposium was held in Carlsbad, New Mexico, on April 22-25, 1998. It was the second such research conference and ...

F. R. Armstrong K. KellerLynn

2004-01-01

71

Energy: hydrocarbon fuels and chemical resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term energy dilemma is more meaningful than energy crisis because it suggests a predicament where the US's alternative solutions are equally unsatisfactory. The production of synthetic fuels from coal, oil shale, and tar sands faces the inherent problems of (1) water consumption and pollution, (2) health hazards in mining and combustion, (3) transportation and manpower, and (4) waste disposal.

Rider

1981-01-01

72

Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Edited by Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen D.; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

2007-01-01

73

Parameter selection for Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel to be used in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data is reported for representative fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported was not generated under any Q.A. Program.

Fillmore, D.L.

1998-06-01

74

Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil respiration closely resembles the pattern seen in the organic soil moisture declining in the recent age class, however it only slightly rebounds in the two older classes. This pattern is likely due to the immediate reduction in autotrophic respiration from surrounding trees in the recent class and then a slight increase from local decomposition of labile carbon pools in the older classes. Water potentials show a sizable increase between the control and the recent infestation class. Stomatal conductance also shows a large increase in the recent class. Both of these occurrences might be attributed to the increase in mineral soil moisture. We believe our analysis of soil samples, LAI photos, and tree cores later this summer will help give us an idea if any release response in the healthy trees trends toward light limitation or resource limitation.

Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

75

Potential {sup 14}CO{sub 2} releases from spent fuel containers at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The potential release of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from small perforations in spent fuel containers has been evaluated as a function of temperature, hole size, effective porosity of corrosion products within the hole, and time, based on the waste package design parameters and environmental conditions described in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Report (SCP). The SCP does not specify initial fill gas (argon) pressure and temperature. It is shown that, if significant {sup 14}C oxidation takes place during the initial, inert-gas phase, an incentive exists to initially underpressurize the containers. This will avoid large, spiked releases of gaseous {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and will result in delayed, smaller, and more uniform release rates over time. Therefore larger size perforations could be tolerated while meeting the applicable regulations. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

1991-03-01

76

Resource recovery and cavity growth during the Rocky Mountain 1 field test  

SciTech Connect

Resource recovery and cavity growth remain important issues affecting performance, scale-up and overall process efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG). Results from the recently completed dual-module Rocky Mountain I (RM I) UCG experiment give us firsthand information concerning these important parameters. During the RM I test, two gasifiers, the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) and the Extended Linked Well (ELW) modules, were operated simultaneously. These modules differed in well completion geometry and to a lesser extent in operating strategy. Using material balance, thermowell and tracer gas information, cavity development, gas production rates and yields, and general features of the two modules are discussed and compared. Also, the linking phase of the test is described, and effects of process parameter changes on system performance are discussed. The major conclusion obtained from data analysis is the importance of maintaining oxidant injection low in the coal seam at all times. Performance of the CRIP gasifier, for which the above condition was met, is shown to compare very favorably with performance of surface gasifiers. 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Cena, R.J.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.

1988-08-01

77

Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal.  

PubMed

Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations. PMID:18433982

Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D

2008-04-22

78

Ethnobotany of Sambucus nigra L. in catalonia (Iberian Peninsula): The integral exploitation of a natural resource in mountain regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotany of Sambucus nigraL. in Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula):The Integral Exploitation of a Natural Resource in Mountain Regions. Economic Botany 58(3):456-469, 2004. We present in this paper data about the popular uses of elder (Sambucus nigra) obtained\\u000a in two ethnobotanical studies carried out in the districts (comarques) of Pallars Jussà and Pallars Sobirà (Pyrenees) and\\u000a in the Montseny Massif (Catalan Prelittoral

Joan Vallès; Maria Àngels Bonet; Antoni Agelet

2004-01-01

79

Some cost, energy, environmental, and resource implications of synthetic fuels produced from coal for military aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the availability and economics of jet fuels derived from crude oil become less certain in the future, the United States Air Force will need to consider the implications of utilizing aviation fuels derived from alternative energy resources. This paper examines the most promising energy resource alternatives to crude oil and the most attractive aviation fuels derivable from the resource

1976-01-01

80

ORLEANS MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA (B5079), CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orleans Mountain Roadless Area (B5079) in California has substantiated mineral-resource potential for placer and lode gold. This conclusion is based on an investigation that included geologic mapping, study of known mines, prospects, and mineralized areas, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, and geochemical sampling. Gravel deposits along the Salmon River contain placer gold. Resources of lode gold exist at mines in the northwest and southwest portions of the roadless area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary, M.; Linne, J. Mitchell

1984-01-01

81

Sustainability of Mountain Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hindu Kush-Himalayas (HKH), the highest mountains of the world, act as water towers for major Asian rivers and also abodes of great diversity - cultural, climatic and biological. Since the early 1970s deforestation and loss of top soil, as well as their impacts on the livelihood of the poor farmers of the HKH mountains, have attracted global attention and

Suresh Raj CHALISE

2006-01-01

82

Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resources area, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage

M. J. Graham; J. E. Tooley; D. Price

1981-01-01

83

A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results

Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross

2001-01-01

84

Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to increase sediment yield primarily through changes in temperature and hydrology that promote vegetation disturbances (i.e., wildfire, insect/pathogen outbreak, drought-related die off). Here, we synthesize existing data from central Idaho to explore (1) how sediment yields are likely to respond to climate change in semi-arid basins influenced by wildfire, (2) the potential consequences for aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure, and (3) prospects for mitigating sediment yields in forest basins. Recent climate-driven increases in the severity and extent of wildfire suggest that basin-scale sediment yields within the next few years to decades could be greater than the long-term average rate of 146 T km - 2 year - 1 observed for central Idaho. These elevated sediment yields will likely impact downstream reservoirs, which were designed under conditions of historically lower sediment yield. Episodic erosional events (massive debris flows) that dominate post-fire sediment yields are impractical to mitigate, leaving road restoration as the most viable management opportunity for offsetting climate-related increases in sediment yield. However, short-term sediment yields from experimental basins with roads are three orders of magnitude smaller than those from individual fire-related events (on the order of 10 1 T km - 2 year - 1 compared to 10 4 T km - 2 year - 1 , respectively, for similar contributing areas), suggesting that road restoration would provide a relatively minor reduction in sediment loads at the basin-scale. Nevertheless, the ecologically damaging effects of fine sediment (material < 6 mm) chronically produced from roads will require continued management efforts.

Goode, Jaime R.; Luce, Charles H.; Buffington, John M.

2012-02-01

85

Use of Virtual Globes Resources in Periglacial and Climatic Geomorphology: Blockfield Elevation Gradients in the Appalachian Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locational data were obtained for 96 periglacial blockfields in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern USA using TerraServer, a Virtual Globes (VGs) resource for viewing air-photo and satellite imagery. The elevation of Appalachian blockfields south of the Last Glacial Maximum border parallels regional gradients of mean July, summer, and annual temperature inferred from paleoecological studies. The median elevations of blockfields throughout the Appalachians lay above timberline during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Most blockfields in the study area were formed in association with permafrost. Periglacial blockfields in the Appalachian Mountains serve effectively as indicators of Pleistocene permafrost conditions. Internet-based VGs can be used to create generalized reconnaissance-level data bases of large-scale periglacial landforms and hillslope features over large areas. Complementary use of Virtual Globes technology and spatial-analytic techniques holds considerable potential for addressing the broad-scale problems with which traditional climatic geomorphology is concerned.

Nelson, F. E.; Park Nelson, K. J.; Walegur, M. T.

2006-12-01

86

Dose Rate Evaluation for Spent Fuel Aging Areas at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository will provide site-specific casks and aging pads for thermal management of commercial SNF with a heat rate in excess of the waste package thermal output limit. An aging pad can accommodate 1,000 MTHM of SNF, containing a total of 100 aging casks with a horizontal module of 20 casks, and 80 vertical site-specific casks arranged in a 2 x 40 array. The proposed aging system will provide five aging areas in two separate locations. The first location will contain a single pad designated as Aging Area 17A (1,000 MTHM capacity). The second location will contain Aging Areas 17B through 17E (20,000 MTHM total capacity), each consisting of five aging pads arranged in a compact rectangular configuration. This paper presents calculated dose rates as a function of distance from Aging Areas 17A and 17B through 17E. In addition, the paper evaluates the effect of design parameter variations on dose rates with focus on spacing between casks and spacing between pads in Aging Areas 17B through 17E.

G. Radulescu; Shiaw-Der Su

2005-01-07

87

Developing a chemicals/fuels industry from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing cost and scarcity of nonrenewable resources, the motivation for substituting biomass-derived chemicals for certain key petro-chemicals is likely to grow. Two goals for research and development are recommended: 1) a near-term objective to revive the older fermentation technology based on readily fermentable substrates and to reduce the cost of production to a competetive level; and 2) the longer-term development of a new biotechnology for producing chemicals and fuels efficiently from biomass of various kinds. Current developments in this area are reviewed. (Refs. 28).

Villet, R.H.

1981-01-01

88

A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study combined hierarchical cluster analysis and classification and regression tree algorithms to quantify vegetation and fuel characteristics and to generate spatially explicit vegetation and fuels maps for forest and fire management in the Davis Mountains of west Texas, USA. We used field data, landscape metrics derived from digital elevation models, and spectral information from remotely sensed imagery to (1)

Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp; Richard G. Gatewood; Lynn Loomis

2007-01-01

89

Predicting Mountain Pine Beetle Impacts on Lodgepole Pine Stands and Woody Debris Characteristics in a Mixed Severity Fire Regime Using Prognosis BC and the Fire and Fuels Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of Prognosis BC (the BC variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator) and the Northern Idaho variant of the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to project changes in stand structure, fuel loading, snag density, and potential fire behaviour following a mountain pine beetle outbreak in a mixed severity fire regime on the Chilcotin Plateau in central

Brad Hawkes; Steve Taylor; Chris Stockdale; Terry Shore; Sarah Beukema; Donald Robinson

90

National Uranium-Resource Evaluation: Genesis of the Bokan Mountain, Alaska Uranium-Thorium Deposits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research project is to develop a model that can be used in evaluating peralkaline granitic-syenitic rocks for uranium potential. The deposits at Bokan Mountain (also known as Kendrick Bay) were studied to generate a specific model as...

J. R. Pierson T. Lyttle T. B. Thompson

1980-01-01

91

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1995-07-01

92

Seasonal Effects on Ground Water Chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly samp...

K. F. Steele W. M. Fay P. N. Cavendor

1982-01-01

93

Climate change impacts on water resources in tropical mountain regions: an Andean perspective (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical mountain areas provide a plethora of environmental services of which water supply is among the most important. There is currently a strong political interest in developing compensation and incentivization schemes for farmers or landowners to integrate these services in their land management. Quantifying the impact of human activities such as local land use changes and global climate change on

W. Buytaert; M. Vuille; A. V. Karmalkar; R. Urrutia; R. Celleri

2010-01-01

94

The "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English" as a Resource for Southern Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that one important reflection of a culture's status is the existence of general reference books on it. To this end, it discusses the forthcoming "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English," a book designed to address the lack of a comprehensive reference work on Appalachian speech and language patterns in this region. The paper…

Montgomery, Michael

95

National Uranium-Resource Evaluation: genesis of the Bokan Mountain, Alaska uranium-thorium deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project is to develop a model that can be used in evaluating peralkaline granitic-syenitic rocks for uranium potential. The deposits at Bokan Mountain (also known as Kendrick Bay) were studied to generate a specific model as to their mode of formation. To achieve the objective several types of data have been obtained: (1) Distinction by

T. B. Thompson; T. Lyttle; J. R. Pierson

1980-01-01

96

Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles.

Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

2002-02-28

97

Mineral resources of the Trigo Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Geologic mapping and chemical sampling show that the north-central part of this wilderness study area in Southwest Arizona has inferred subeconomic manganese resources and a high potential for undiscovered manganese resources of limited extent. Small amounts of placer gold were found along the north border of this study area, and there is a low resource potential for gold and silver in several areas. The resource potential for natural gas is low along the northwest border.

Sherrod, D.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Vaughn, R.B.; Smith, D.B.; Kleinkopf, M.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1989-01-01

98

Climate change and water resources in arid mountains: an example from the bolivian andes.  

PubMed

Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers. PMID:23949894

Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

2013-08-15

99

Seasonal effects on ground water chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly sampling was conducted at a single site over a 7-hour period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity,

K. F. Steele; W. M. Fay; P. N. Cavendor

1982-01-01

100

Future petroleum resource potential of northern Rocky Mountain-Great Plains area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern Rocky Mountain-Great Plains area includes nine main petroleum exploration provinces: (1) Wyoming-Utah-Idaho thrust belt; (2) southwestern Wyoming basins, (3) Big Horn basin, (4) Wind River basin, (5) Powder River basin, (6) western Montana province, (7) Sweetgrass arch province, (8) central Montana province, and (9) Williston basin-Sioux uplift province. More than 2,500 oil and gas fields have been discovered

1989-01-01

101

Mineral resources of the Baboquivari Peak and Coyote Mountains wilderness study areas, Pima County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area which is underlain by Jurassic sedimentary, volcanic, and granitic rocks which were intruded by a network of middle Tertiary rhyolite dikes. This wilderness study area has no identified resources. This wilderness study area has a high potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barium, bismuth, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten in veins associated with felsic to intermediate intrusions. A low potential for resources of thorium, beryllium, and bismuth in pegmatites; a low potential for gold and silver resources in paleo-placer deposits; and a low potential for molybdenum resources in an inferred porphyry molybdenum deposit exists in this wilderness study area.

Nowlan, G.A.; Haxel, G.B.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Diveley-White, D.V.; McDonnell, J.R.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

102

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25

103

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K.F.

1982-08-01

104

Integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas: a case study of Renhe district, Sichuan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric and radiometric correction, image processing, information extraction and the integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS in the specific approach for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas are discussed. A synthesized method combining the image difference approach with comparison post classification is employed and a monitoring system based on remote sensing, GIS and GPS are set up.

Ziyu Wang; Xiuwan Chen; Shuhe Zhao; Yuanhua Luo

2005-01-01

105

Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

2007-05-01

106

Gold resources potential assessment in eastern Kunlun Mountains of China combining weights-of-evidence model with GIS spatial analysis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resources potential assessment is one of the fields in geosciences, which is able to take great advantage of GIS technology\\u000a as a substitution of traditional working methods. The gold resources potential in the eastern Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province,\\u000a China was assessed by combining weights-of-evidence model with GIS spatial analysis technique. All the data sets used in this\\u000a paper were derived

Binbin He; Cuihua Chen; Yue Liu

2010-01-01

107

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

108

National Uranium-Resource Evaluation: genesis of the Bokan Mountain, Alaska uranium-thorium deposits  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project is to develop a model that can be used in evaluating peralkaline granitic-syenitic rocks for uranium potential. The deposits at Bokan Mountain (also known as Kendrick Bay) were studied to generate a specific model as to their mode of formation. To achieve the objective several types of data have been obtained: (1) Distinction by mapping and core logging of multiple intrusive phases within the Bokan Mountain Granite complex; (2) Detailed chemical and petrographic data on each igneous phase; (3) Extent of and mineralogical/chemical characteristics of the associated wallrock alteration; (4) Radiometric dates on magmatic and hydrothermal products; (5) Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz, calcite, and fluorite from mineralized rock; (6) Ore and sulfide mineralogy; (7) C, O, and S isotope analyses of minerals from mineralized rock; (8) Trace element dispersion with respect to mineralized zones; and (9) Structural data for interpretation of emplacement mechanisms as well as post-magmatic events important to ore localization. The U/Th mineralization is localized in shear zones as vein-like bodies or in irregular cylindrical bodies formed by concentrations of microfractures. The ore zones are localized within or on top of syenitic masses and have intense albitization and chloritization, with subordinate amounts of calcite, fluorite, quartz, sulfides, and tourmaline. Hematite occurs peripherally to the higher-grade ore zones. Uranothrorite and uraninite are the main ore minerals.

Thompson, T.B.; Lyttle, T.; Pierson, J.R.

1980-01-01

109

Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels

James L. Easterly; Margo Burnham

1996-01-01

110

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Winter 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imaginative learning resources of various types are reported in this catalog under the subject headings of process learning, education environments, classroom materials and methods, home learning, and self discovery. Books reviewed are on the subjects of superstition, Eastern religions, fairy tales, philosophy, creativity, poetry, child care,…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

111

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Winter 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Imaginative learning resources of various types are reported in this catalog under the subject headings of process learning, education environments, classroom materials and methods, home learning, and self discovery. Books reviewed are on the subjects of superstition, Eastern religions, fairy tales, philosophy, creativity, poetry, child care,…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

112

Lessons Learned From a Regional Approach to Route Selection for Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the landmark route identification project of the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked four state regional groups to produce a regional suite of rail and highway routes to Yucca Mountain, Nevada. DOE will use the regional suites of routes as a primary input into the national route selection process. The Midwest's project used federal guidelines and regional input to develop route comparison criteria for rail and highway routes from Midwestern reactors. With this project, the Midwest not only tested the viability of a regional approach to route selection, but also tested the practicality of the federal route selection guidelines. The results and lessons learned from this project will affect future spent fuel route selection processes at both a national and regional level. (authors)

Wochos, S.K. [The Council of State Governments - Midwest, 701 E. 22nd St, Suite 110, Lombard, IL 60148 (United States)

2006-07-01

113

[Landscape pattern variation of forest resources in typical forest zone of Changbai Mountains].  

PubMed

Based on GIS and RS data of 1985 and 1999 and the ground information from Lushuihe Forest Bureau, this paper studied the forest landscape pattern and its changes in typical forest zone of Changbai Mountains. According to the standard variance of patch areas in 1985 and 1999, the patch area distribution of mature conifer forest, mature broad-leaved forest, middle-aged conifer forest, and middle-aged broad-leaved forest was less symmetrical, showing that these land covers had landscape diversity and species diversity. According to landscape similarity index, the mature conifer forest, mature broad-leaved forest, middle-aged conifer forest and middle-aged broad-leaved forest, which were relatively stable than other land covers, made the majority of the landscape in the study area. According to patch density, the porosity of wetland was high in 1985 and 1999, indicating that wetland had little homogenization and formed more mosaics. The fragmentation extent of farming land, due to multiple cultivating types, azimuths and shapes, was high in both phases. Attributing greatly to anthropogenic factors, the fragmentation extent of wetland was high all along. In brief, the forest landscape pattern was changed greatly in the studied phases, and human activities affected heavily on it. PMID:15624813

Yu, Deyong; Hao, Zhanqing; Jiang, Ping; Xiong, Zaiping; Yang, Hui

2004-10-01

114

Climate interpolation for land resource and land use studies in mountainous regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the field of land resources and land use are increasingly faced with a serious data constraint. New techniques like simulation models require detailed and quantitative data on climate and soils. Large mapping units with representative weather stations or representative soil profiles ignore an important part of the inherent spatial variability of the landscape.New techniques involving geographical information

G. A. Baigorria

2005-01-01

115

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

N /A

2002-10-25

116

a Fuel-Cell Distributed Energy Resource with Integrated Energy Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a fuel-cell distributed energy resource with integrated energy storage. A compatible power electronic interface to couple the fuel-cell with the grid and/or a local load is introduced. Details of the energy storage module, the power electronic interface and the corresponding controls are described. A control strategy for the power electronic interface is developed to manage the flow of power between the fuel-cell, the energy storage and the grid. A dynamic model for the fuel-cell distributed resource is developed and is used for the systematic design of the distributed resource control system. Performance of the fuel-cell distributed energy resource is evaluated based on digital time-domain simulations in the (Electromagnetic Transient Program) EMTP-RV software environment. Effectiveness of the energy storage module, the compatible interface and the corresponding controls in enhancing the fuel-cell distributed resource performance is verified. The results demonstrate the developed power electronic interface and control strategy provide the fuel-cell with the load-following capability, the plug-and-play feature and high qualities of voltage and power that are required for the microgrid application.

Nikkhajoei, Hassan

2009-08-01

117

Effects of mountain pine beetle on fuels and expected fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests, Colorado, USA.  

PubMed

In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1-3 yrs], Grey [4-10 yrs], and Old-MPB [?30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30-55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25-35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior. PMID:22272268

Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Negron, José F; Smith, Jeremy M

2012-01-17

118

ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

McKee, Edwin, H.; Schmauch, Steven, W.

1984-01-01

119

Some Cost, Energy, Environmental, and Resource Implications of Synthetic Fuels Produced from Coal for Military Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the availability and economics of jet fuels derived from crude oil become less certain in the future, the United States Air Force will need to consider the implications of utilizing aviation fuels derived from alternative energy resources. This paper e...

W. L. Stanley

1976-01-01

120

The role of nuclear energy in the more efficient exploitation of fossil fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy input\\/output relations for nuclear and solar systems which interact with fossil fuel use are examined in terms of the energy theory of value. According to this theory, the value of a resource is defined more or less completely by the energy that that resource can produce. An analysis of potential energy production suggests that nuclear power generation offers an

W. Seifritz

1978-01-01

121

Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal ...

122

Integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS techniques for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas: a case study of Renhe district, Sichuan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric and radiometric correction, image processing, information extraction and the integration of remote sensing, GIS and GPS in the specific approach for dynamic monitoring of land resources in mountainous areas are discussed. A synthesized method combining the image difference approach with comparison post classification is employed and a monitoring system based on remote sensing, GIS and GPS are set up. Different illumination conditions are key factors influencing the spectral features in mountainous areas, thus the comprehensive analysis of DEM and NDVI are employed to restrain the influence of terrain. Errors also commonly generate in the registration of different temporal images and much change information is usually lost when the mean-value smoothing template is employed in the image processing in mountainous areas. To reduce the information lost, a regional auto-adaptive smoothing template is employed. As a case study, according to the specific characteristics of mountainous areas, the TM images acquired from both 1994 and 1996 are processed for land change detection in Renhe District, Sichuan. Field experiments for radiometric correction are conducted in the areas of 25 Km2 in this district. The changed areas are precisely surveyed and validated after the fieldwork in which the database of detailed land survey is acquired. Combined with Geological Information System (GIS) technology and Global Position System (GPS), a 3S-based dynamic monitoring system of land resources change information in Renhe District is established, which helps the data renewal and daily management. Finally, the key factors influencing the accuracy of information extracting in mountainous areas are discussed.

Wang, Ziyu; Chen, Xiuwan; Zhao, Shuhe; Luo, Yuanhua

2005-01-01

123

NRC approves spent-fuel cask for general use: Who needs Yucca Mountain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on April 7, 1993, added Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates`s (PSNA`s) VSC-24 spent-fuel container to its list of approved storage casks. Unlike previously approved designs, however, the cask was made available for use by utilities without site-specific approval. The VSC-24 (ventilated storage cask) is a 130-ton, 16-foot high vertical storage container composed of a ventilated concrete

1993-01-01

124

Investigation of Yucca Mountain repository capacity for the US spent nuclear fuel inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical decay heat model was developed to evaluate the US inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The model was benchmarked against the results from ORIGEN-ARP 5.01. The new analytical SNF decay heat model was applied to actual (thru 2002) and projected SNF data. The total decay heat from the 63,000 MT commercial SNF at year 2012 was estimated

Mike P. Stahala; Man-Sung Yim; David N. McNelis

2008-01-01

125

Evaluating Consequences of Volcanism for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The likelihood that a volcanic dike could intersect a high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mt. is very small, 1E-9/yr to 1E-7/yr. The intersection of a cone-forming conduit is even less likely. Realistic insights about the fate of HLW in a volcanic conduit suggest that fewer waste packages may be affected and particle sizes of ejected spent fuel may be larger than previously assumed. Most HLW consists of fractured ceramic pellets of UO2 about a cm in diameter, with a melting point >2800C, much higher than magma temperatures of 1000-1200C. Spent fuel would not dissolve in magma; therefore the size range of transported fragments would largely be determined by pre-existing particle sizes in fuel rods. This range would differ from that of volcanic ejecta. The expected travel time in a conduit from repository depth to the surface would be short, allowing little time for erosion of ceramic pellets but permitting rapid quenching of magma on the relatively cold waste packages and their contents. Quench rinds would protect waste fragments during rapid transit to the surface in a column of frothy magma. Xenoliths and crush-impact studies constrain the size of spent fuel particles that may be incorporated in volcanic ash. Estimates of fuel particle size have used a log triangular distribution from 1-100 microns. For comparison, grains of table salt are 100 microns across. Talcum powder is 10 microns. One micron is the wavelength of near infrared light. However, it is unlikely that spent fuel could be reduced to this minute size range. At Lathrop Wells, tuff xenoliths eroded from conduit walls are common in the scoria cone. They vary in size from a fraction of a cm up to 30 cm and have quenched basalt rinds, providing evidence that large spent fuel fragments could survive intact over the short travel distance to the surface. Crush-impact studies at energies up to 1000 J/gram on spent fuel show less than 30% of the fuel mass reduced to <100 microns and less than 10% to <10 microns. Hypothetical doses are sensitive to assumptions about particle size because respirability decreases sharply as particles increase beyond 10 microns. In performance assessment, using a particle size range of 100-10000 microns reduces dose 200-fold compared to a range of 1-100 microns. There is a strong basis to assume that only a fraction of spent fuel entrained in a conduit would be ejected as tephra. The relative volume of ash vs. scoria cone and lava flows can be used to estimate practical limits on the fraction of ejected waste in ash that could be transported by water and wind. Compared with ash, waste in lava flows or scoria cones would be protected from erosion and transport for hundreds of thousands of years, as shown by the million-year-old cones and flows in Crater Flat near Yucca Mt. Also, it is likely that only a limited number of waste packages could be entrained because volcanic conduits would be smaller at the repository depth of 300 m than at ground surface. Lithostatic pressure keeps conduits smaller at depth, possibly <10 m in diameter. It is also possible that a conduit could form between drifts, and no waste would be entrained. Dikes are more likely to intrude pre-existing faults. Conduits form along dikes, so keeping drifts set back from larger faults would reduce the chance of a conduit intersecting the repository. In sum, only a limited number of waste packages is likely be entrained in a volcanic conduit, and there is strong evidence that a large fraction of the HLW content would not be reduced to very small particles. For more information, see the report by NRC's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials [http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/acnw/letters/2007/].

Coleman, N.; Marsh, B.

2007-12-01

126

Mountaineer’s heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineers are at risk of skin lesions caused by constant boot friction. This is the case of a 35 year old mountaineer who presented with large and deeply ulcerated lesions over the medial aspects of both heels after a two and a half day climb using crampons. A number of factors such as the length of the climb in cold

R M Strauss

2004-01-01

127

Mountain Tourism: Toward a Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine tourism and recreation issues in mountainous regions. First, six mountain-specific resource characteristics are discussed, which include diversity, marginality, difficulty of access, fragility, niche and aesthetics. It is argued that these characteristics are unique to mountainous regions and, as such, have specific implications for mountain recreation and tourism development. The paper then examines the

Raymond Chipeniuk

2005-01-01

128

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a

1980-01-01

129

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

130

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-02-01

131

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

132

Forecasting the impact of global changes on the water resources of a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to simulate the complex interrelationships between climate forcing, human pressure and dynamics of groundwater and surface water of the upper Elqui catchment (5 660 km2) in the Chilean Andes. The water resources of this mountainous, semi-arid catchment has been undergoing a growing pressure because of high climate variability and of the economic mutations of various sectors (agriculture, tourism), which have impacted water availability of the area. Due to the agriculture-based development in the region, water scarcity is thus a matter of great concern for this basin. Hydrological simulations were performed with a conceptual model that takes into account a shallow reservoir supplied by precipitation and feeding evapotranspiration, surface/sub-surface runoff and infiltration, and (ii) a deep reservoir fed by infiltration and generating the baseflow. A third reservoir, in which fluxes are controlled by temperature, has been introduced to account for the snowmelt regime of the catchment. A 30-year period (1979-2008) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability due to alternating ENSO and LNSO events. Then water uses (dam functioning, agricultural and domestic withdrawals) were integrated into the model. The model was calibrated and validated with streamflow data on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective climatic and anthropogenic scenarios were finally elaborated and forced into the model in order to propose midterm (2050 horizon) simulations. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. Depending on the modelling complexity, NSE coefficients are about 0.82-0.90 over the calibration period (1979-1990) and 0.78-0.84 over the validation period (1991-2008). The volume error between observation and simulation is lower than 15% over the whole period studied. The dynamics of both the water level in the deep conceptual reservoir and the water table in a piezometer at the basin outlet are also in good agreement. The model thus provides encouraging simulations of groundwater and surface water dynamics when applied to various climatic conditions. Simulations are improved when a dam located in the upstream catchment is considered into the model. In contrast, integrating agricultural and domestic water withdrawals does not improve significantly the simulations. However, it allows assessing the ability of water resources to supply water demands by computing a water allocation index. The climatic scenarios forecast an increase in temperature of about 1-2°C and a 20-30% reduction in precipitation by the 2050 horizon. According to the hydrological simulations, the mean annual discharge of the upper Elqui River may decline by 30-40%, and the seasonal peak flow would occur earlier than in current conditions. As a result, the agricultural demands (90% of the water uses) may not be always satisfied, especially during the summer season, as shown by the future trends in the water allocation index. This calls for evaluating the efficiency of adaptation strategies consisting in an improvement of the irrigation system and of water management, which is the subject of ongoing research.

Ruelland, D.; Campéon, C.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

2012-04-01

133

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability

Konstantinos I. Vatalis

2010-01-01

134

Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance, Orientation Study, Ouachita Mountain Area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-thr...

K. F. Steele

1982-01-01

135

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite,

Steele

1982-01-01

136

Criteria for evaluating small-scale rural energy technologies: the FLERT (Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks) approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a complex and highly structured analytic framework - the Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks (FLERT) approach - for evaluating and comparing SSET's in relation to specific village needs. To provide sufficient data so that planners can balance the various social, environmental, and economic costs and benefits represented by alternative SSET's within a particular setting, the FLERT framework tabulates physical, social, and environmental resource requirements. A set of accounting rules for determining resources is provided. The FLERT framework also tabulates task categories, specifically, fuel form, fuel equivalent measures, spatial (geographic) and temporal fuel availability, and fuel co-products. Finally, a specification plate approach is used to distill the resource and task categories down to the most important and measurable few.

Smith, K.R.; Santerre, M.T.

1980-09-04

137

Integration of 3D MT Resistivity Imaging With Borehole Petrology, Temperature and Resistivity Log Data to Characterize the Geothermal Resource at Glass Mountain, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistivity images from magnetotelluric (MT) surveys with supporting geophysics, geology and borehole data shows that the resistivity pattern to depths of at least 3000 m in the Glass Mountain geothermal resource area is primarily controlled by interface conduction in temperature-dependent hydrothermal clays. Over 200 MT stations, 350 TDEM stations and 500 gravity stations are integrated into the analysis along with temperature and petrology data from 26 boreholes from 500 to 3000 m and a resistivity well log from 340 to 2800 m depth. These data cover the Glass Mountain geothermal area within the 7 by 12 km ring fracture at the summit of Medicine Lake Volcano and extend down its flanks. The integration of the geophysical data illustrates the relative effectiveness of 1D, 2D and 3D MT inversions and highlights limitations of some conventional joint analyses such as the use of TDEM to correct MT static distortion. The most effective conceptual integration is a comparative analysis of the 3D MT resistivity imaging with respect to detailed borehole petrology, resistivity and temperature logs. The 3D MT inversion images and well data illustrate the petrophysical origin of two prominent resistivity transitions in the Glass Mountain geothermal resource area. Near surface, unaltered volcanics have relatively high resistivity, over 200 ohm-m. At depths from 100 m to 700 m, there is a transition from the resistive unaltered volcanics to a 2 to 10 ohm-m zone correlated with low resistivity zeolite and smectite hydrothermal clay alteration found at temperature lower than 200°C. Where temperature exceeds 200°C, smectite clay becomes unstable and alters to more resistive illite, accounting for a transition to 10 to 100 ohm-m resistivity at 500 to 1400 m depth. The correlation of resistivity with temperature-sensitive clay alteration provides a basis for interpreting subsurface temperature throughout the volume imaged by the 3D MT inversion to 3000 m depth in the Glass Mountain area, as confirmed by data from the 26 boreholes.

Cumming, W. B.; Mackie, R. L.

2007-12-01

138

SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

Frizzell, Jr. , Virgil, A.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

139

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

140

Uranium in Precambrian granitic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains, southeastern Missouri, with comments on uranium resource potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red granites of the St. Francois Mountains are highly radioactive and contain 4 to 34 ppM uranium. The most radioactive is the Graniteville Granite which contains an average of 16.9 ppM U and 42.6 ppM Th. The Butler Hill and Breadtray Granites also contain anomalous amounts, averaging 6.2 and 5.6 ppM U and 23.5 and 20.5 ppM Th respectively. Other

1977-01-01

141

A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as well as non-radioactive traffic fatalities. The Yucca Mountain EIS Transportation Database was developed using Microsoft Access 97{trademark} software and the Microsoft Windows NT{trademark} operating system. The database consists of tables for storing data, forms for selecting data for querying, and queries for retrieving the data in a predefined format. Database queries retrieve records based on input parameters and are used to calculate incident-free and accident doses using unit risk factors obtained from RADTRAN results. The next section briefly provides some background that led to the development of the database approach used in preparing the Yucca Mountain DEIS. Subsequent sections provide additional details on the database structure and types of impacts calculated using the database.

Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

2001-08-17

142

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

Vatalis, Konstantinos I

2010-12-01

143

Possible Impacts of Warming-Induced Changes in Groundwater Recharge in Western Mountains on Surface-Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is an important resource in the West. In addition to accounting for a significant portion of human consumption, groundwater sustains many wetlands ecosystems. Groundwater is also an important contributor to surface-water resources: groundwater inflows make significant contributions to western streamflow, sustaining flows during long dry seasons and contributing significant fractions even during intense rainfall and snowmelt episodes. As a

S. Earman; M. Dettinger

2006-01-01

144

Fuels and energy from renewable resources; Proceedings of the Symposium, Chicago, Ill., August 29September 2, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative estimates of energy requirements for the longer term are considered, taking into account the rationale for estimating energy requirements, the approaches used for obtaining energy targets, and the relation of conservation to employment. Attention is given to the present contribution of renewable resources, the anticipated competition for available wood fuels in the U.S., a thermal analysis of forest fuels,

D. A. Tillman; K. V. Sarkanen; L. L. Anderson

1977-01-01

145

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-04-07

146

Mountain restoration: Soil and surface wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much wildlife habitat is being destroyed by extractive resource industries in mountain environments. This article illustrates how mountain wildlife habitat was restored in a devastated area. A strip mine for coal on the east slopes of the Alberta Rockies, occupied during its operations by Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, Shaw 1803), was reclaimed as bighorn habitat. By considering

B. N. MacCullum; V. Geist

1992-01-01

147

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies), and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions), as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions) marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI).

Ward, J. D.; Werner, A. D.; Nel, W. P.; Beecham, S.

2011-03-01

148

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies), and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions), as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions) marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI).

Ward, J. D.; Werner, A. D.; Nel, W. P.; Beecham, S.

2011-06-01

149

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

150

Mountains Flowing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains look solid, but actually they flow like molasses under their own weight, according to a new study. This radio broadcast introduces research into the forces on mountains, and how they can best be explained by mountains flowing like a liquid. The study is changing the way scientists think about how the American landscape was formed. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

151

Mountain Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

152

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

153

Economics of resource supplementation: the development of an ethanol fuel industry  

SciTech Connect

Technological supplementation is introduced into the intertemporal resource allocation problem. Supplementation allows a renewable resource to be partially substituted for a nonrenewable resource in a fixed production. The reduced input quantity of the nonrenewable in the end product increases its uselife. There is an inverse relationship between the supplementation date and uselife. Using the ethanol fuel industry as an example, supplementation benefits take three forms: (1) the uselife of petroleum to produce gasoline is increased; (2) when petroleum's exponentially growing price exceeds ethanol's constant price, refiners earn an economic profit by pricing fuel at petroleum's opportunity cost; and (3) a harmful externality is reduced as ethanol replaces lead in gasoline. The private switch point occurs when a relative price advantage exists. However, this may not be the optimal switch point. Supplementation prior to the private switch will require a subsidy equal to the input price differential. A unique level of production capacity is required for the optimal switch point. Capacity development requires identification of an investment path. Attempts to compress the investment interval will increase total capacity cost per unit, the final price of ethanol, and hence, the total subsidy cost for any switch point.

Underwood, D.A.

1986-01-01

154

Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.  

PubMed

The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis on UST program for ensuring adequate enforcement and compliance with existing UST regulations. PMID:14740715

Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

2004-01-01

155

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

156

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

2011-01-01

157

Any Way You Cut It! Molehills Out of Mountains. A Resource and Activity Guide for the Developmentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A resource and activity guide for the developmentally disabled that focuses on fine motor skills is presented. Attention is directed to fine motor behavior during the first year (vision, grasp, and release and reaching), and behaviors developing at 13 months (the interaction of fine motor and cognitive skills). An introductory section considers…

Barringer, M. D.; Kosal-Smither, C.

158

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

159

Transportation fuels and engines for optimum energy utilization: An assessment of energy consumption from resources through end use: Final report, Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an assessment of the potential energy savings that could accrue from the use of alternative fuels in future transportation engines. Alternative fuels are defined in this study as hydrocarbon fuels which possess characteristics that assure user safety and satisfaction, but require less energy to produce than conventional specification fuels produced from the same resource. In particular, the

R. L. Thomas; J. J. Cornell

1985-01-01

160

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

161

Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

2007-08-01

162

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

163

COYOTE SOUTHEAST AND TABLE MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the contiguous Coyote Southeast and Table Mountain Roadless Areas, California have one area of probable and two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential. Mineral occurrences in these areas are in tactite deposits with tungsten as the most important metal; copper, molybdenum, and gold occur in small amounts in the same deposits. One area in the southwestern part of the Coyote Southeast Roadless Area has anomolous amounts of uranium in stream-sediment samples but no resource potential was identified. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources. More detailed geochemical sampling of rocks and eroded material in the areas with metamorphic rock might reveal additional small tungsten resources at or near the surface in tactite deposits.

McKee, Edwin, H.; Capstick, Donald, O.

1984-01-01

164

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

165

Transition from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy: Evidence from a Dynamic Simulation Model with Endogenous Resource Substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies an economic model of climate change that is based on endogenous substitution of energy resources to determine the effect of advances in renewable technology on aggregate and sectoral fossil fuel use and energy prices. It uses a Nordhaus type partial equilibrium model of the energy sector with four demand sectors - electricity, transportation, residential and industrial energy

Ujjayant Chakravorty; Kin-Ping Tse

2000-01-01

166

Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

2010-01-01

167

Thermodynamic metrics for aggregation of natural resources in life cycle analysis: insight via application to some transportation fuels.  

PubMed

While methods for aggregating emissions are widely used and standardized in life cycle assessment (LCA), there is little agreement about methods for aggregating natural resources for obtaining interpretable metrics. Thermodynamic methods have been suggested including energy, exergy, and emergy analyses. This work provides insight into the nature of thermodynamic aggregation, including assumptions about substitutability between resources and loss of detailed information about the data being combined. Methods considered include calorific value or energy, industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) and its variations, and ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) or emergy. A hierarchy of metrics is proposed that spans the range from detailed data to aggregate metrics. At the fine scale, detailed data can help identify resources to whose depletion the selected product is most vulnerable. At the coarse scale, new insight is provided about thermodynamic aggregation methods. Among these, energy analysis is appropriate only for products that rely primarily on fossil fuels, and it cannot provide a useful indication of renewability. Exergy-based methods can provide results similar to energy analysis by including only nonrenewable fuels but can also account for materials use and provide a renewability index. However, ICEC and its variations do not address substitutability between resources, causing its results to be dominated by dilute and low-quality resources such as sunlight. The use of monetary values to account for substitutability does not consider many ecological resources and may not be appropriate for the analysis of emerging products. ECEC or emergy explicitly considers substitutability and resource quality and provides more intuitive results but is plagued by data gaps and uncertainties. This insight is illustrated via application to the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, corn ethanol, and soybean biodiesel. Here, aggregate metrics reveal the dilemma facing the choice of fuels: high return on investment versus high renewability. PMID:20020741

Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2010-01-15

168

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M. S.; Nichols, D. J.

2002-01-01

169

A TRANSPORTATION RISK ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ANALYZING THE TRANSPORT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TO THE PROPOSED YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis addressed the potential for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 origins for 34 types of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, and 10,911 rail shipments. The analysis evaluated transportation over 59,250 unique shipment links for travel outside Nevada (shipment segments in urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 links in Nevada. In addition, the analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The analysis also used mode-specific accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. This complex mix of data and information required an innovative approach to assess the transportation impacts. The approach employed a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database tool that incorporated data from many sources, including unit risk factors calculated using the RADTRAN IV transportation risk assessment computer program. Using Microsoft{reg_sign} Access, the analysts organized data (such as state-specific accident and fatality rates) into tables and developed queries to obtain the overall transportation impacts. Queries are instructions to the database describing how to use data contained in the database tables. While a query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one sequence of queries that is used to calculate a particular transportation impact. For example, the incident-free dose to off-link populations in a state is calculated by a query that uses route segment lengths for each route in a state that could be used by shipments, populations for each segment, number of shipments on each segment, and an incident-free unit risk factor calculated using RADTRAN IV. In addition to providing a method for using large volumes of data in the calculations, the queries provide a straight-forward means used to verify results. Another advantage of using the MS Access database was the ability to develop query hierarchies using nested queries. Calculations were broken into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing unit risk factors calculated using RADTRAN IV to produce radiological impacts. Through the use of queries, impacts by origin, mode, fuel type or many other parameters can be obtained. The paper will show both the flexibility of the assessment tool and the ease it provides for verifying results.

NA

2001-02-15

170

The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database was created. In the Microsoft{reg_sign} Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation. Temporarily restricting the query to one origin, one shipment, or one state and validating that the query calculation is returning the expected result allows simple validation. The paper will show the flexibility of the assessment tool to consider a wide variety of impacts. Through the use of pre-designed queries, impacts by origin, mode, fuel type or many other parameters can be obtained.

McSweeney; Thomas; Winnard; Ross; Steven B.; Best; Ralph E.

2001-02-06

171

Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

Scuderi, Louis A.

172

Fuels outlook I - Transportation and the U.S. petroleum resource, an aviation perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. commercial aviation industry is meeting the continuing challenges of reduced fuel consumption, higher fuel prices, and increased passenger traffic. A disturbing fact is that the country has become increasingly dependent on imported petroleum fuels. In the event that import restrictions are imposed or that some form of rationing is required, federal fuel-allocation policies should be based on an

M. P. Miller; R. A. Mays

1978-01-01

173

Rocky Mountain Research Station 1999 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization-the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories througho...

2000-01-01

174

Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) promotes the sharing and dissemination of laboratory tested technologies and reagents to benefit and promote research across the world.  To this regard, several key resources (i.e. data, software

175

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Resources General Information Regarding CTRP AACI-NCI Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Strategic Subcommittee Report: CTRP Reporting Objectives and Implementation Timeline, July 2011 (PDF, 1 MB) Helpful Tools CTRP User's Guides Troubleshooting

176

Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where

M. Steinberg; Y. Dong

2004-01-01

177

FUEL SUBSIDIES TO GLOBAL FISHERIES: MAGNITUDE AND IMPACTS ON RESOURCE SUSTAINABILITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that global fisheries are grossly overcapitalized, resulting in overfishing in most of the world's fisheries. Fuel prices have recently seen significant increases. Given that fuel constitutes a significant component of fishing costs, it is obvious that, other things being equal, increasing fuel prices will reduce overcapacity and overfishing, because they will reduce the profits that can

Ussif Rashid Sumaila; Louise Teh; Reg Watson; Peter Tyedmers; Daniel Pauly

178

Magnificent Mountains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.|

Anderson, Heather

2004-01-01

179

Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE just come back from a journey in the region of the Andes, and in looking over the numbers of NATURE, which had accumulated during my absence, I came across the extract, which you make in your notes of February 21, from the Revue Scientifique, on the subject of mountain sickness. I cannot agree with M. Kronecker's statement that

George Griffith

1895-01-01

180

A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Visualizing the distribution of rare or threatened species is necessary for effective implementation of conservation initiatives. Generalized linear models and geographical information systems (GIS) are now powerful tools for conservation planning, but issues of data availability, scale and model extrapolation complicate some applications. 2. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou that occurs

Chris J. Johnson; Dale R. Seip; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

181

Compilation and interpretation of water-quality and discharge data for acidic mine waters at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, 1940-1991. Water resources investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report contains a compilation and interpretation of the historical records of water quality and discharge for the period 1940-91 from the two most significant discharge points for acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California--the Richmond and Lawson portals. The primary objectives are (1) to clarify whether or not there is a hydrologic connection between the Richmond and

C. N. Alpers; D. K. Nordstrom; J. M. Burchard

1992-01-01

182

Electric power and synthetic fuels industries in the southwest: production and environmental control technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is concerned with the technologies most likely to be employed in the development of the vast coal and oil shale resources that underlie the arid and mountainous lands of the American Southwest. These technologies--electric power production, gasification and liquefaction of coal, and liquid fuels production from oil shale--evoke a concern with the potential environmental impacts, particularly those relating

W. Harrington; D. Abbey; J. W. Jr Sawyer

1977-01-01

183

Basic research opportunities for lasting fuel gas supplies from inorganic resources. Final report 15 Feb 81-28 Feb 82  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six participants (twenty-five faculty members from U.S. universities and one private consultant) reviewed the status of current research problems relating to the production of fuel gases from inorganic resources using indefinitely sustainable energy sources during a workshop held during the period June 8 to August 14, 1981 at Texas AandM University, College Station, Texas. Photobiological, biomimetic, photochemical, photoelectrochemical, radiolytic and thermochemical pathways leading to the generation of hydrogen from water and hydrogen sulfide, of carbon monoxide and methane from carbon dioxide, and of nitrogen-based fuel gases from atmospheric nitrogen were assessed. The most likely energy sources to drive the endergonic, fuel-producing reactions are solar radiation, and heat and radiation from nuclear reactors. Recommendations at the end of each chapter outline the basic research needed to improve the fuel gas-producing reactions and to provide the basis for developments leading to the practical application of these processes. It was suggested that equal emphasis should be placed on research in photobiology, biomimetic chemistry, photochemistry and photoelectrochemistry pertinent to fuel-gas production. Thermochemical and radiolytic methods appear to deserve less attention at the present time. The report contains 840 literature citations.

Not Available

1982-02-01

184

Transportation fuels and engines for optimum energy utilization: An assessment of energy consumption from resources through end use: Final report, Volume 1, August 1985 for the project, Technical assessment of future engines and alternative fuels  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to investigate the potential for improving the resource utilization efficiency in the manufacture and end-use of fuels for transportation. While emphasis is placed on the development of fuels from coal and oil shale and on the engine technologies most suitable for those fuels, petroleum-derived fuels are considered as well. A necessary part of this study was to develop information about the energy efficiency of various steps of fuel processing, both with synthetic fuels and petroleum. The configurations of synthetic fuel processes and petroleum refineries are, of course, seemingly endless in number, so, in order to keep the study at a manageable and affordable scope, only a very limited number of synthetic fuel processes were investigated in detail and only major upgrading process operations were included.

Thomas, R.L.; Cornell, J.J.

1985-08-01

185

Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

1994-02-01

186

Transportation Fuels and Engines for Optimum Energy Utilization: An Assessment of Energy Consumption from Resources Through End Use: Final Report, Volume 1, August 1985 for the Project, Technical Assessment of Future Engines and Alternative Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was initiated to investigate the potential for improving the resource utilization efficiency in the manufacture and end-use of fuels for transportation. While emphasis is placed on the development of fuels from coal and oil shale and on the eng...

R. L. Thomas J. J. Cornell

1985-01-01

187

Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)|

Aviation/Space, 1980

1980-01-01

188

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

189

Methanol from urban refuse: a liquid fuel from a renewable resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent glut in world oil markets the long run need to develop alternatives to petroleum derived fuels is still apparent. The long lead times required to alter the economy's energy infrastructure and inherent uncertainties about future developments point to the need for alternatives with built-in flexibilities. Methanol can be produced from any carbonaceous matter (natural gas, heavy fuel

Arnason

1983-01-01

190

YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

2005-08-26

191

Transportation fuels and engines for optimum energy utilization: An assessment of energy consumption from resources through end use: Final report, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of the potential energy savings that could accrue from the use of alternative fuels in future transportation engines. Alternative fuels are defined in this study as hydrocarbon fuels which possess characteristics that assure user safety and satisfaction, but require less energy to produce than conventional specification fuels produced from the same resource. In particular, the energy requirements for producing such fuels from domestic coal and oil shale resources are examined from the standpoint of their adaptability to engine types having a high potential for achieving significant efficiency gains over existing transportation engines. Incentives for specific types of engine development are identified in terms of energy savings above those obtainable with current specification fuels. While engine research and development incentives historically are based on economic trade-offs between the fuel and the engine, no attempt is made in this study to establish the costs of alternative fuels because of the many economic factors involved. Currently, approximately 50% of US petroleum consumption is used to fuel automotive engines for passenger car, bus, and truck transportation. Therefore, developments directed toward the use of more efficient engines that operate on alternative fuels will have a major impact on the future energy security of the US. 71 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Thomas, R.L.; Cornell, J.J.

1985-08-01

192

DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T. J.

1984-01-01

193

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

194

Do Clonal and Bud Bank Traits Vary in Correspondence with Soil Properties and Resource Acquisition Strategies? Patterns in Alpine Communities in the Scandian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant traits associated with resource acquisition strategies (specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf\\u000a size and plant height) change along gradients of soil properties, being the most conservative in a resource-poor environment\\u000a and the most dynamic in a resource-rich environment. Clonal attributes also vary along soil and other environmental conditions.\\u000a We hypothesized that in alpine communities in

Graciela M. Rusch; Bodil Wilmann; Jitka Klimešová; Marianne Evju

2011-01-01

195

Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources: Feasibility Study. Volume A. Demand Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The unique features of the liquid fuels market are outlined within the overall energy scene, the problems created by anticipated petroleum shortages and price escalation during the 1985-2025 time period, and general policy options available to meet these ...

1978-01-01

196

Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

2004-07-01

197

Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological\\/social benefits have to be taken into

Sanjay Kaul; Raphael Edinger

2004-01-01

198

Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

Sheffield, J.

2001-08-30

199

Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at

Gary Shaffer

2009-01-01

200

Perspectives of renewable energy resources utilization in Karelian fuel-energy balance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains 11 papers presented at First International Seminar dealing with application of renewable source of energy in Karelian fuel-energy balance, held at the Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences on the 4.-7. April, 1993. The...

P. Pelkonen G. Sidorenko

1993-01-01

201

Biofuels and fossil fuels: Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) optimisation through productive resources maximisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life Cycle Analyses (LCA) are used to compare biofuels to fossil fuels. These analyses are made according to the ISO 14040-43 standards, which using a defined unit compare mass and energy balances for two or more comparison objects.In Spain, the Spanish government Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT, has performed two LCA's in order to compare ethanol and

Fernando Hernández Sobrino; Carlos Rodríguez Monroy; José Luís Hernández Pérez

2011-01-01

202

Yucca Mountain and The Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

NA

2005-04-12

203

Economic development with a modicum of fossil-fuel and foreign-exchange resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that backwardness is an advantage in adapting available technology may no longer be relevant because less-developed countries (LDCs) cannot afford to adapt and maintain capital-intensive technologies based on depleting fossil fuels. An analysis of the economic strain on LDC economies suggests the need to reevaluate development strategies and technology-transfer policies to allow for a gradual shift to renewable

Parvin

2009-01-01

204

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-06-01

205

Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

Matzie, R A [ed.

1980-04-01

206

Residential fuel-wood production and sources from round-wood in Missouri, 1987. Forest Service resource bulletin  

SciTech Connect

A study of Missouri fuelwood production from roundwood in 1987 was required to provide estimates of fuelwood production for the fourth Missouri forest inventory and to determine the impact of fuelwood production on the forest resource. To answer these and related questions in Missouri, a cooperative study was completed in 1987. Total fuel production from roundwood in 1987 was 924 thousand cords. More than 99 percent of the fuelwood was cut by households. Oak comprised 60 percent of the fuelwood cut. Private land supplied 98 percent of the fuelwood cut. Rural woodlands furnished 53 percent of the fuelwood. The remaining 47 percent of fuelwood harvested came from other land classes. Growing stock on timberland was a minor source of fuelwood. Dead trees on timberland provided 35 percent of the fuelwood. Commercial producers cut five times as much from growing stock on timberland as did households.

Hackett, R.L.; Witter, D.J.; Smith, W.B.

1991-01-01

207

Changes in fuelbed characteristics and resulting fire potentials after fuel reduction treatments in dry forests of the Blue Mountains, northeastern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many fire-prone forests in the United States, changes occurring in the last century have resulted in overstory structures, conifer densities, down woody structure and fuel loads that deviate from those described historically. With these changes, forests are presumed to be unsustainable. Broad-scale treatments are proposed to reduce fuels and promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Yet

Andrew Youngblood; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; James D. McIver

2008-01-01

208

Stand structure, fuel loads, and fire behavior in riparian and upland forests, Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA; a comparison of current and reconstructed conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire plays an important role in shaping many Sierran coniferous forests, but longer fire return intervals and reductions in area burned have altered forest conditions. Productive, mesic riparian forests can accumulate high stem densities and fuel loads, making them susceptible to high-severity fire. Fuels treatments applied to upland forests, however, are often excluded from riparian areas due to concerns about

Kip Van de Water; Malcolm North

2011-01-01

209

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated estimates (as of year-end 1981) are presented for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also included for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth

1983-01-01

210

Survey of US and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium, as of December 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

IGT presents updated estimates (as of year-end 1978) for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also presented for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth

1980-01-01

211

Solubility Limits on Radionuclide Dissolution at a Yucca Mountain Repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that are characteristic of a Yucca Mountain ...

J. F. Kerrisk

1984-01-01

212

Three-Dimensional Fractal Mountains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a guide to a series of systematic techniques used to create fractal mountains. The fractal mountains are created through an Interactive System for Fractal Mountains (ISFM). To create the fractal mountains in ISFM a modified midpoint di...

P. J. Collins

1988-01-01

213

Snow depletion modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow depletion modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco is part of an interdisciplinary project for the efficient management of scarce water resources in West Africa (IMPETUS). The quantity, timing and persistance of solid precipitation in the mountains determines the water cycle and water availability in the lowlands. The study area comprises a 1500km2 subcatchment of the upper Draa

O. Schulz; C. de Jong; M. Winiger

2003-01-01

214

Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-20

215

Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

216

Lesson 1: Mountains Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a lesson that enables students to explain the global importance of mountains by applying the five themes of geography (location, place, relationships within places, movement, and regions) to a particular mountain range. Explains that students work in teams to prepare a brochure about their mountain range. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

217

Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle ...  

Treesearch

Title: Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of ... pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management ... wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in ...

218

Napalm as an energy resource: a study of the molecular weight distribution of polystyrene in napalm and its use in middle distillate fuels.  

PubMed

The large quantity of napalm that is currently being treated as hazardous waste represents a viable energy resource that is too valuable to waste. However, there are significant problems to be overcome before this material can be used as an energy source. The scientific and environmental problems include: the broad molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, solubility and compatibility in a fuel matrix, methods to ensure complete combustion, high benzene concentration, low flash point due to the presence of gasoline, and safety in transportation and handling. In this paper, we present data on the molecular weight distribution of the polystyrene present in the napalm mixture, extraction of the gasoline and benzene from napalm, solubility of napalm in middle distillate fuels, simulated burner characteristics of napalm fuel mixtures, and accelerated storage stability studies of napalm fuel mixtures. PMID:10502603

Mushrush; Beal; Hardy; Hughes

1999-09-01

219

Subalpine conifer fuel dynamics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Litter and woody fuel accumulation rates over 4 years for 4 subalpine Sierra Nevada conifer species, including western white pine, lodgepole pine, whitebark pine and mountain hemlock. Data are for four size classes per species. Nonspatial, georeferenced.

van Wagtendonk, J. W.; Moore, P. E.

2000-01-01

220

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and

Ebert

2006-01-01

221

Mountains Majesty: Ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traveling from the East, one can see the towering snow-covered peaks of the Rocky Mountains long before reaching foothills. But to fully appreciate these mountains, one must venture into them and experience up close the colorful bursts of summer wildflowers, the glittering leaves of the quaking aspen, the cold clear alpine streams and lakes, and the distinctive sweet scent of the ponderosa pine. Scientists from the Bureau of Land Management provide an in-depth look at the management issues and diversity of plants, animals, and habitats of the Rocky Mountains.

Wooster, Betsy; Rieben, Elizabeth; Quesenberry, Leah

2004-11-01

222

MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric, E.

1984-01-01

223

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01

224

Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980–2002 based on exergy—Part 1: Fossil fuels and energy minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource inflow to the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002 is investigated based on exergy as a unified quantifier of natural resources. The major resources entering the society are divided into 17 sectors, with the annual policy for the individual group is analyzed corresponding to the exergy resource inflow. This study is divided into five consequential parts. This paper

G. Q. Chen; B. Chen

2007-01-01

225

Mountain Home Municipal Airport, Mountain Home, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for land acquisition, and realignment and improvement of a general utility runway, Mountain Home, Idaho. The adverse environmental effects are noise exposure, and air pollution. (Author)

1972-01-01

226

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

227

Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability  

SciTech Connect

The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

Not Available

1980-09-01

228

Energy Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy fuels our planet. Find out where we get our energy and how we have developed technologies to fulfill our energy needs. Learn how our increasing demand for energy affects the environment and how we are addressing the negative effects of that demand through conservation efforts. How will we search for energy to fuel the twenty-first century? Explore these subjects through looking at the energy resources available for use, the history and development of technologies that use these energy resources, and the effect on the environment when we use these resources.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

229

CERET Web Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy list of online resources is provided by the Consortium for Education in Renewable Energy Technology (CERET) and the resources include information and links on Alternative Vehicles & Fuels, Biomass, Energy Environment & Society, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics & Solar Thermal, and Wind Energy. The site also contains learning objects in Fuel Cell Technology, Solar Technology, and Curriculum Modules.

2012-10-17

230

Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain runoff that infiltrates at the mountain front (mountain-front recharge), and percolation through the mountain bedrock that reaches the basin via the movement of deep groundwater (mountain-block recharge). The rate of MFR can be estimated from a water balance, a Darcy's law analysis, or inverse modeling of groundwater processes. Despite the large volume of research on water resources in the basin and the critical importance of MFR to the water budget, the best estimates of MFR obtained using these methods may have errors as large as 100%. We find that geochemical tracers address mechanistic questions regarding recharge seasonality, location, and rates as well as addressing groundwater flowpaths and residence times. The gradient of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in groundwater with elevation mirrors that of regional precipitation, providing a constraint on the location and seasonality of recharge. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MFR is dominated by winter precipitation but has 1/3 or more contribution from monsoon precipitation. Detectable tritium and 14C values greater than 100 pMC for springs, shallow groundwater in mountain canyons, and from wells along the mountain front indicate decade-scale residence times. Away from the mountain front 14C values rapidly decrease, reaching 12.3±0.2 pMC near the river. This suggests total basin residence times greater than 10,000 years, consistent with past measurements. Ongoing analysis of noble gas concentrations will provide an indication of recharge conditions. The solubility of noble gases in water depends on temperature and pressure; thus, noble gas concentrations provide a means to distinguish water samples recharged at different elevations.

Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

2005-05-01

231

Evaluating Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to submit a license application in 2008 to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to construct a repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One challenge of the NRC's licensing decision is the evaluation of the potential risk from release of radioactive material by igneous activity at Yucca Mountain during the approximately 1 million year lifetime of the repository. A volcano such as the nearby Lathrop Wells volcano (Figure 1) could erupt through the repository (extrusive scenario), or an igneous dike could intersect it (intrusive scenario). Although the likelihood of either at Yucca Mountain is very low, each is being evaluated.

Hinze, William J.; Marsh, Bruce D.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Coleman, Neil M.

2008-01-01

232

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

233

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the

James J. Dooley; Robert T. Dahowski; Casie L. Davidson

2009-01-01

234

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.

1999-01-01

235

Injuries in mountain biking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite still growing attraction mountain biking as a matter of sports traumatology still lacks relevant data based on large cross-sectional surveys. To obtain an overview of risk factors, types, and main body sites of injuries occurring in mountain biking we assessed the results of a questionnaire answered by 3873 athletes. A total of 8133 single lesions were reported by 3474

H. Gaulrapp; A. Weber; B. Rosemeyer

2001-01-01

236

Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Module synopses and resource lists are provided for eight adult basic education modules on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts, each designed to utilize basic skills and develop avocational or vocational skills (see Note). Included are explanations of the skills incorporated in each module and a resource list, including local people and…

Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

237

Cultural and environmental response to drought among the mountain Pima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mountain Pima of Chihuahua, Mexico, were adversely affected by a severe drought in late 1987 and 1988 which greatly reduced crop yields. The people responded by sale of livestock, temporary migration for wage labor, and increased utilization of noncultivated plant resources. Changes in availability of wild resources differed from species to species. Arctostaphylos pungens showed zero yield in 1988;

Joseph E. Laferrière

1992-01-01

238

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to

A. Linden; R. S. Saunders; R. J. Boutin; P. G. Harrington; K. D. Lachman; L. J. Trautner

2002-01-01

239

Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities

Y. Larkin; J. Hartley; J. Scott

2002-01-01

240

E-mountains and progress of digital mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human being has experienced five stages on the mountainous study, in which the form of mountain information presented like a cycle, i.e. starts from data, and changed to information, knowledge, finally returned back to data. Similarly, attribute of mountain information also experienced a cycle of objective information-subjective information-objective information. There is no essential difference between e-mountains and digital mountains. Based on the analyzing of the progression of e-mountains studies in China and abroad, this work proposed three key points to build digital mountains (China): 1) integration and sharing mountain information; 2) methods and models of mountain data mining; 3) visualization and 3-D simulation of mountain surface processes.

Jiang, Xiaobo; Ji, Wei; Zeng, Hongcheng

2009-09-01

241

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass degradation model developed for use in repository licensing, and HLW glass can be used as a surrogate for both CWF and MWF in performance assessment calculations. Test results indicate that the radionuclide release from CWF and MWF is adequately described by other relevant performance assessment models, such as the models for the solution chemistries in breached waste packages, dissolved concentration limits, and the formation of radionuclide-bearing colloids.

Ebert, W. E.

2006-01-31

242

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

243

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Monnes, Colleen

2004-10-01

244

Mountains of Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mountains of Fractals" article in the Math DL develops algorithms to produce coastlines and mountains in two dimensions by adapting mathematical ideas related to the construction of such fractals as Koch's curve. EJS is used to create a hands-on activity that allows a reader to create a coastline with a rubberband, six-sided die, and thumb tacks. Java applications allow for exploration of these algorithms and the influence of their associated parameters. After discussing 2D fractal mountains, this article extends the 2D algorithm to produce 3D mountains. Finally, mathematical issues in random number generation are discussed. More specifically, linear congruential generators are considered and shown to be suitable as a random number generator for the 3D fractal landscape algorithm. The use of fractal landscapes in movies is also discussed.

Chartier, Tim

2009-09-11

245

Yucca Mountain and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership  

SciTech Connect

Renewed U.S. interest in advanced nuclear fuel cycles involving reprocessing and recycling, embodied in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative, has raised questions about the role of a Yucca Mountain repository - what it will be used for, and when. While the repository is widely recognized as a key part of U.S. waste management strategy, the potential for advanced fuel cycles to improve the capacity and performance of a repository have led some to question whether its development can be deferred pending resolution of questions about the fuel cycle and the fate of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This paper discusses the rationale for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goal of completing the proposed Yucca Mountain repository by 2017 in parallel with pursuit of its goals for GNEP, as well as issues posed for the repository program by deployment of the initial facilities of an advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

Kim, D. [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cotton, A.T. [JK Research Associates, Inc./, Bechtel SAIC Co., LLC, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01

246

Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With project headquarters at the University of Tennessee Libraries, the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project is designed to serve as both a physical and digital collection of resources for researchers studying the Smokies and their surrounding communities. From the homepage, visitors can view a selection of finding aids (if they are planning to conduct research), browse through the Project's newsletters dating back to 2002, and look through a list of other organizations (with hyperlinks to their respective homepages, where available). Currently, there are two nice digital collections available here, both of which are worth more than just a glance. The first is a digitized collection of 898 photographs taken by the late Albert "Dutch" Roth. Roth was an amateur photographer who spent six decades photographing the Great Smoky Mountains' Greenbrier and Mount Le Conte sections. Here visitors can peruse these images by subject heading and a variety of other fields; in doing so, visitors will get a real feel for the landscape of the region. The second digital collection is of the flora of Tennessee, and allows visitors to search through images of native and introduced flora throughout the state by plant name, family and genus.

247

US\\/FRG joint report on the pebble bed high temperature reactor resource conservation potential and associated fuel cycle costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent analyses at ORNL and KFA have led to the general conclusion that the flexibility in design and operation of a high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor (PBR) can result in favorable ore utilization and fuel costs in comparison with other reactor types, in particular, with light-water reactors (LWRs). Fuel reprocessign and recycle show considerable promise for reducing ore consumption, and even

E. Teuchert; H. J. Ruetten; B. A. Worley; D. R. Vondy

1979-01-01

248

Pennsylvania's dead mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most first-time visitors to Blue Mountain are never quite prepared for it. They don't expect to see 2000 acres of dead mountain-especially land looking like that. The defoliation started in 1898 when New Jersey Zinc Company opened the first of two plants to process zinc silicate (and later zinc sulfide) from nearby New Jersey. While the acid rain worked on

Lalo

2009-01-01

249

The nations largest fuel cell project, a 1 MW fuel cell power plant deployed as a distributed generation resource, Anchorage, Alaska project dedication August 9, 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest among US electric utilities in distributed generation resources in both deregulated and regulated service territories has become intense. Many within the industry believe that the most aggressive competition will most likely come from new technologies capable of meeting customer energy needs on site. Electric service providers, cooperatives in particular, are uniquely situated to take full advantage of using distributed

S. Gilbert

2001-01-01

250

Rocky Mountain acidification study  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

1983-10-01

251

Summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 Resource Assessment of Selected Coal Zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statu...

D. J. Nichols M. S. Ellis

2002-01-01

252

Geology of the Blue Mountains Region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and Tectonic Evolution of Pre-Tertiary Rocks of the Blue Mountains Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals...

T. L. Vallier H. C. Brooks

1995-01-01

253

The Child in the Community: Some Ghanaian Children's Perceptions of Local Water and Fuel Resources and Consumption.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The environmental awareness of village and rural children in Ghana differed from that of urban children. This study explores the knowledge of some Ghanaian children about water and full resources and their relationship to local development issues. (Author/RE)|

Knamiller, Gary W.; Obeng-Asamoah, John

1979-01-01

254

The Fuel Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has an abundance of energy resources; fossil fuels (mostly coal and oil shale) adequate for centuries, fissionable nuclear fuels adequate for millenia, and solar energy that will last indefinitely. Current fuel shortages reflect a shortage of productive capacity, not the depletion of resources. Shortages can be alleviated by the development of additional mineral reserves and the construction

J. C. Fisher

1974-01-01

255

BELL MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-occurrence studies of the Bell Mountain Wilderness study area, Missouri indicate little promise for the occurrence of major base-metal resources. Abandoned prospects on the west side of Shut-in Creek were opened on narrow sulfide-bearing quartz veins in Precambrian volcanic rocks. These veins contain lead, copper, and trace amounts of silver, but they do not constitute a resource at present, and evidence from this study suggests little promise for resources at depth. Unusually high amounts of trace metals in panned concentrates from several drainages on the west side of the area indicate areas of probable resource potential for low-grade lead-zinc deposits buried at depths of a few hundred feet.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

256

Course Resource Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

England, Robert G.

257

Application of the Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks (FLERT) approach to rural household and community-scale anaerobic-digestion systems  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of anaerobic digesters into rural households and communities in Asia and the Pacific has often been unsuccessful due to the failure to assess not only local energy needs and resources, but also the social and environmental appropriateness of the new technology. The Fuel-Linked Energy Resources and Tasks (FLERT) approach presented here provides a well-defined and replicative framework for examining the physical, social, and environmental resources used and the products generated by anaerobic digesters and for predicting whether digesters will or will not be appropriate in specific situations. With limited data derived from literature review, the anaerobic digestion system is analyzed in terms of construction, operations and maintenance, management of feedstock raw materials and of residues, and energy distribution and use. Three types of digesters are included in the analysis - floating-dome, fixed-dome, and bag-type digesters. Tasks that might be promoted in rural areas by the energy and other products provided by digesters are appraised and some implications of using these products are discussed, based on actual experiences. A model for comparing condensed sets of data from alternative energy technologies is presented. A five-page bibliography (1956-80) is included.

Santerre, M.T.; Smith, K.R.

1980-09-01

258

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

259

Molten carbonate fuel cells as distributed-generation resources: Case studies for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this report are: (1) to assist the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP) in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of market-entry carbonate fuel cells; (2) to develop a framework and a methodology to explicitly evaluate all types of distributed-generation technologies.

El-Gassier

1992-01-01

260

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the

Ralph E. H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01

261

Conservation of crop diversity for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro-ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region. The results indicate that mountain farming has the potential to produce good output from a low input system where farmers still use local resources

Sunil Nautiyal; Harald Kaechele

2007-01-01

262

Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

263

The Mountaineers Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an eye towards conservation and documentation, The Mountaineers outdoor club has been in existence since 1906. Since that time, the group has been actively engaged in and around the Pacific NorthwestÂs many wilderness areas in a variety of capacities. Recently, the University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections project saw fit to digitize some of their extensive photographic collections. The result is this fine online archive which contains delightful documentation of some of their early expeditions, such as a 1912 trek to Mount Rainier and a 1951 sojourn to Mount Olympus in the Olympic Mountain range. The site also includes a detailed map of their 1920 outing to Mount Olympus and an introductory essay about the history of the organization. Finally, the site also contains 28 bulletins from the organizationÂs history that document some of their outings and mountaineering accomplishments.

264

Ranch business planning and resource monitoring for rangeland ...  

Treesearch

Jul 21, 2013 ... Description: Aligning a rancher's business plan goals with the capability of the ... resources improves the viability and sustainability of family ranches. ... Rocky Mountain Research Station, Natural Resources Conservation ...

265

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

266

Yucca Mountain could face greater volcanic threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locating a radioactive waste repository in the United States has been the subject of over 20 years of scientific research, political wrangling, and court decisions. If a nuclear waste repository is constructed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, 70,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel will be buried 300 m below the surface.Because eight Quaternary basalt volcanoes erupted within 50 km of the proposed repository in the past million years, future volcanism is an important issue. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently using an expert panel to evaluate current models [Perry et al., 1998] and consider alternative models. This article presents an alternative model, developed independently of DOE and the expert panel, and reviews new information pertinent to volcanic hazard studies. Additionally, this article suggests that the size of the Yucca Mountain volcanic field is not presently well known.

Smith, Eugene I.; Keenan, Deborah L.

267

Climate and Wildfire in Mountains of the Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the area burned in wildfires in mountain forests of the western United States, with mean annual area burned nearly three and a half times higher compared to the preceding one and a half decades.(1) Concomitant increases in variability in annual area burned and in fire suppression costs pose a serious challenge for land management in the mountainous West. The variance in annual area burned since 1987 is nineteen times its previous level. Since managers must be prepared for the worst possible scenarios in every fire season, increased uncertainty about the scale of the western fire season each year imposes high costs on public agencies. Annual real suppression costs in western forests have more than doubled for the Forest Service since 1987, while the variance in annual suppression costs is over four times higher. Although federal agencies' fire suppression budgets have increased recently, they are still close to what would be spent in an "average" year that seldom occurs, while costs tend to fluctuate between low and high extremes. Modeling area burned and suppression costs as a function of climate variability alone, Westerling (2004, unpublished work) found that the probability of the Forest Service's suppression expenses exceeding the current annual suppression budget has exceeded 50% since 1987, a substantial increase from the one-in-three chance over the preceding 40 years. Recent progress in our understanding of the links between climate and wildfire, and in our ability to forecast some aspects of both climate and wildfire season severity a season or more in advance, offers some hope that these costs might be ameliorated through the integration of climate information into fire and fuels management. In addition to the effects of climate variability on wildfire, long-term biomass accumulations in some western ecosystems have fueled an increasing incidence of large, stand-replacing wildfires where such fires were previously rare. These severe large fires can result in erosion and changes in vegetation type, with consequences for water quality, stream flow, future biological productivity of the affected areas, and habitat loss for endangered species. Apart from their deleterious ecological consequences, severe fires can also dramatically affect amenity values for public lands and for homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. In the National Fire Plan, land management agencies have committed to reducing fuels on millions of hectares of public lands. The primary means are mechanical removal, prescribed fire and wildland fire use. The Forest Service estimates they will need to spend hundreds of millions of dollars per year to meet their fuel reduction targets, while efforts in recent years have not kept up with the current rate of biomass increase. Use of climate information for targeting resources and scheduling prescribed burns could increase the efficiency of these efforts. In this study we review the fire history since 1970 for western mountain forests, and demonstrate apparent links between regional climate variability and decadal-scale changes in annual area burned. This analysis explores how wildfire size and frequency have varied over the past thirty-five years by elevation and latitude, and how climate indices such as precipitation, temperature, drought indices and the timing of spring runoff vary in importance for fire season severity by elevation in forests around the western United States.

Alfaro, E.; Westerling, A. L.; Cayan, D. R.

2004-12-01

268

Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

Voegtly, Nickolas E.

1981-01-01

269

Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

270

Human impacts to mountain streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the

Ellen Wohl

2006-01-01

271

SACRED MOUNTAINS WHERE BEING OF \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since primeval days to date, the Japanese have regarded certain mountains as objects of worship believing that mountains are places where multitudinous gods reside. This belief in mountains as sacred places still lives on and is practiced in the Japanese traditional religion, Shinto, which is based on animism and ancestor worship. Today, this notion of sacredness is generally accepted and

Kazuyuki Yano

272

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit

Hong-Nian Jow; R. C. Moore; K. B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A. R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-01

273

Can Nuclear Waste Be Stored Safely at Yucca Mountain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 the federal government narrowed to one its long-term options for disposing of nuclear waste: storing it permanently in a series of caverns excavated out of the rock deep below Yucca mountain in southern Nevada. Whether it makes sense at this time to dispose permanently of spent fuel and radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository is hotly disputed.

Chris G. Whipple

1996-01-01

274

Composite vegetable waste as renewable resource for bioelectricity generation through non-catalyzed open-air cathode microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC; non-catalyzed electrodes) was operated to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity generation from the treatment of composite waste vegetables (EWV) extract under anaerobic microenvironment using mixed consortia as anodic biocatalyst. The system was operated with designed synthetic wastewater (DSW; 0.98kgCOD\\/m3-day) during adaptation phase and later shifted to EWV and operated at three substrate load

S. Venkata Mohan; G. Mohanakrishna; P. N. Sarma

2010-01-01

275

Synthetic Fuels Corporation nominations. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress  

SciTech Connect

Nominations to the Board of Directors and the nomination of John C. Sawhill as Chairman of the Board of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation were made on September 18 and 24, 1980. The texts of nominating statements and those of the nominees (Cecil D. Andrus, Catherine Blanchard Cleary, John D. deButts, Joseph Lane Kirdland, and Frank Savage) are followed by biographical sketches and additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

276

Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, Fire Management Plan Environmental Assessment, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guadalupe Mountains National Park needs to update its fire management plan (FMP) to incorporate new policies and advances in fire research and operations. FMP goals regard safety as the highest priority, then focus on protection of sensitive resources fro...

2005-01-01

277

Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

NONE

1996-08-01

278

DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

279

Melting Mountain Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

280

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

281

Yucca Mountain Review Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yucca Mountain Review Plan provides guidance for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to evaluate a U.S. Department of Energy license application for a geologic repository. It is not a regulation and does not impose regulatory requirements. Th...

2003-01-01

282

Mountain-Plains Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

283

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

284

CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF MOUNTAIN BIODIVERSITY THROUGH COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

highest mountain peaks in the world and have some of the richest natural and cultural heritage. The ecosystem is fragile and its biodiversity vulnerable to irreversible loss and degradation, due to both natural and man-made processes. Therefore, conservation of biological resources poses a special challenge in the HKH range. The HKH region in South Asia has less than 10 percent

Javed Ahmed; Nikhat Sattar

285

Modeling Gray Wolf Habitat in the Northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The reintroduction of the gray wolf into the Northern Rocky Mountains has created many difficult management issues; ranchers fear for their livestock, hunters worry about game populations, ecologists and biologists support the reintroduction, and resource management agencies are caught in the middle. To date (2000), the one hundred plus wolves in the Yellowstone National Park area and approximately 200

Michael E. Houts

2001-01-01

286

USACE Participation in the Pole Mountain Advanced Classification Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes in detail the procedures, methods, and resources used to complete the demonstration project at the former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area. The objective of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) participation was to learn to use...

R. Grabowski

2012-01-01

287

The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site offers a review of the agricultural devastation and eventual extinction, in about 1902, of the Rocky Mountain Locust, a once phenomenally abundant insect. The site includes bibliographical references. The author (C. R. Bomar) includes nine study questions for discussion on issues of social responsibility, extinction, and conservation. This resource is also available in PDF format.

0002-11-30

288

IGT world reserves survey: A survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report is an updating of previous IGT surveys of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates.

Not Available

1989-01-01

289

ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

Pratt, Walden, P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

290

Transportation Fuels and Engines for Optimum Energy Utilization: An Assessment of Energy Consumption from Resources Through End Use: Final Report, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an assessment of the potential energy savings that could accrue from the use of alternative fuels in future transportation engines. Alternative fuels are defined in this study as hydrocarbon fuels which possess characteristics that as...

R. L. Thomas J. J. Cornell

1985-01-01

291

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness transmitted to man by ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Usually sudden in onset, it is characterized by chills, headache, and fever lasting 2 or more weeks. A characteristic rash\\u000a appears on the extremities on about the 4th febrile day and spreads to the trunk. The exanthem and other anatomical manifestations\\u000a result

Aaron Milstone; J. Stephen Dumler

292

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

293

ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

2003-02-27

294

Determinants of mountaineers' decision to climb: An innovative marketing for mountaineering tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine the determinants of the mountaineers' decision to climb. First, the four mountain-specific motivational factors are discussed, which include: mountain landscape; organization role, accessibility and perceived risk. It is argued that these factors are unique to the mountaineering tourism and as such, has an implication on the mountaineers' decision to climb a selected mountain.

Siti Hajar Mohamad Taher; Salamiah A. Jamal

2012-01-01

295

Composite vegetable waste as renewable resource for bioelectricity generation through non-catalyzed open-air cathode microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC; non-catalyzed electrodes) was operated to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity generation from the treatment of composite waste vegetables (EWV) extract under anaerobic microenvironment using mixed consortia as anodic biocatalyst. The system was operated with designed synthetic wastewater (DSW; 0.98 kg COD/m(3)-day) during adaptation phase and later shifted to EWV and operated at three substrate load conditions (2.08, 1.39 and 0.70 kg COD/m(3)-day). Experimental data illustrated the feasibility of bioelectricity generation through the utilization of EWV as substrate in MFC. Higher power output (57.38 mW/m(2)) was observed especially at lower substrate load. The performance of MFC was characterized based on the polarization behavior, cell potentials, cyclic voltammetric analysis and sustainable resistance. MFC operation also documented to stabilize the waste by effective removal of COD (62.86%), carbohydrates (79.84%) and turbidity (55.12%). PMID:19818602

Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Sarma, P N

2009-10-08

296

Mountain Waves and Downslope Windes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module will describe the features of mountain wave and explore the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module will start with a forecast scenario and conclude with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Spangler, Tim

2004-01-01

297

Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module will describe the features of mountain wave and explore the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module will start with a forecast scenario and conclude with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Spangler, Tim

2006-12-11

298

Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region; Yucca Mountain Project, Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research

1990-01-01

299

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2011-10-01

300

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2012-10-01

301

Oxygen isotopes and trace elements in the Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. Because Yucca Mountain is located in a resource-rich geologic setting, one aspect of the site characterization studies is an evaluation of ...

B. D. Marshall T. K. Kyser Z. E. Peterman

1996-01-01

302

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)|

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

303

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

304

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Pearson, Gene

305

Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project  

SciTech Connect

Hydropower regulations, particularly those which must be met during the pre-construction phase, have become considerably more extensive and complicated over the last few years. This article, which outlines the pre-construction phase of the Arbuckle Mountain Hydroelectric project, provides a good example of the steps developers should be prepared to take before construction commences. The Department of Energy is funding $750,000 of the project's $1,200,000 budget to gain meaningful and reliable information for the public regarding the development and operation of an inexpensive, low head, domestically manufactured cross-flow turbine. To satisfy their requirements several studies and reports are being prepared for the DOE.

Peterson, J.C.

1986-02-01

306

The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain.

Ostler, W.K.; O`Farrell, T.P.

1994-06-01

307

Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina rail alignment. The Department would use the selected common segments and alternative segments to identify the public lands to be included in right-of-way applications; - Decide where to construct proposed railroad operations support facilities; - Decide whether to restrict use of the rail line to DOE trains, or whether to allow commercial shippers to operate over the rail line; and - Determine what mitigation measures to implement. (authors)

Lanthrum, G. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gunnerson, J. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2008-07-01

308

Forest expansion in mountain ecosystems: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main threats that mountain areas in industrialised countries are nowadays facing, land abandonment is by far the most important. Land abandonment is mainly due to marginalisation trends and it is closely associated with other processes such as depopulation and decline of mountain farming. The most evident consequence of such a situation is the phenomenon of forest expansion, due

Giorgio Conti; Laura Fagarazzi

309

A Day on Bare Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

310

{Contribution of mountainous flow to the lateral recharge of downstream sedimentary aquifer}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is one of the most important and indispensable water resources. Groundwater consists of 40% of the total water resources utilization in Taiwan. Among 10 groundwater regions, Choushui river alluvial fan is the largest region which supplies 1.2-1.5 billion tons of water annually. The mountainous catchment located in the upstream of Choushui river alluvial fan, and Wuchi river basin, plays

Y. H. Kao; C. W. Liu; T. Y. Lin; K. H. Lin

2009-01-01

311

Contribution of mountainous flow to the lateral recharge of downstream sedimentary aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater is one of the most important and indispensable water resources. Groundwater consists of 40% of the total water resources utilization in Taiwan. Among 10 groundwater regions, Choushui river alluvial fan is the largest region which supplies 1.2-1.5 billion tons of water annually. The mountainous catchment located in the upstream of Choushui river alluvial fan, and Wuchieh river basin, plays

Yu-Hsuan Kao; Chen-Wuing Liu; Tz-Yun Lin; Kao-Hung Lin

312

Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

2005-03-14

313

Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.  

PubMed

The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

2002-07-22

314

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

315

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

316

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available

2007-05-01

317

Glacial effects limiting mountain height.  

PubMed

The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

2009-08-13

318

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

319

Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition are affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at high elevations in Rocky Mountain National Park and adjacent areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Federal and state agencies are now working together to develop cost-effective means for reducing atmospheric N deposition. A discussion on N saturation covers the need for better understanding of N emission source areas and source types that contribute to N deposition in the Rocky Mountains Front Range of Colorado; reductions in NO emissions that resulted from Clean Air Act Amendments, which caused NO3 deposition to decrease between 1984 and 2003; factors contributing to N deposition, e.g., rapid population growth and energy development; origins of NO3, e.g., as NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including stationary sources (e.g. emission from coal combustion in electric generating units), and mobile sources (vehicle emissions); disperse stationary sources from energy resource development, e.g., natural gas production; and the importance of incorporating local source characterization and finer spatial and temporal sampling into future studies, which could provide additional insight into N deposition source attribution. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Pittsburgh, PA 6/26-29/2007).

Campbell, D. H.; Nanus, L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Harlin, K.; Collett, J.

2007-01-01

320

Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation  

SciTech Connect

In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public.

Y. Larkin; J. Hartley; J. Scott

2002-11-14

321

Epilithic diatoms of mountain lakes of the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the international project EMERGE, species composition of epilithic diatoms of 34 selected high mountain\\u000a lakes of Slovak part of the Tatra Mountains were investigated. In all, 127 taxa of diatoms belonging to 26 genera were recorded.\\u000a Comparison of the epilithic assemblages of the investigated lakes showed differences both in relative abundance and taxa present\\u000a in the

Elena Štefková

2006-01-01

322

Participatory resource mapping for adaptive collaborative management at Mt. Kasigau, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive collaborative management (ACM) is an interactive planning approach that involves local communities as important stakeholders in resource conservation. This study investigated how participatory research methods may be used to validate ethnoecological knowledge on the distribution of forest resources as an important first step toward ACM at Mt. Kasigau, the most northeastern mountain in the biologically rich Eastern Arc Mountains.

Humphrey W. Kalibo; Kimberly E. Medley

2007-01-01

323

Mining activity and habitat use by mountain sheep ( Ovis canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mountain sheep in the vicinity of three high-wall limestone mines in San Bernardino County, CA, USA to evaluate\\u000a factors that influenced habitat use and, specifically, to investigate the influence of mining activity on distribution of\\u000a those specialized ungulates. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate a resource selection function by fitting a logistic\\u000a regression model and then comparing

Vernon C. Bleich; James H. Davis; Jason P. Marshal; Steven G. Torres; Ben J. Gonzales

2009-01-01

324

Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

325

Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

326

Engineered barrier environment, Yucca Mountain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy is studying the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential nuclear waste repository site. Environmental conditions are important to engineered barrier system (EBS) design, materials testing, selection, design criteria, w...

D. G. Wilder

1993-01-01

327

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

328

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

329

YUCCA Mountain project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel

W. L. Ebert; J. A. Fortner; R. J. Finch; J. L. Jerden; J. C. Cunnane

2005-01-01

330

ROCKY: an energy-environment model of coal and electricity supple in Rocky Mountain West. [Rocky Mountain states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Mountain states of the American West are frequently cited as a potential breadbasket of domestic energy resources. This eight-state region contains about half of the US coal reserves, most of the high-grade uranium ores, almost all of the prime-grade oil shale deposits, and very large reservoirs of geothermal energy. In addition, existing oil and gas production contributes significantly

R. Bivins; C. Kolstad; V. Loose; R. Pendley; M. Stein

1979-01-01

331

Cathedral Mountain debris flows, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic debris flow activity along the north side of Cathedral Mountain in the southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia,\\u000a began in 1925 and has increased in frequency up to 1985. A typical debris flow event involves approximately 100,000 m3 of material. Debris flow velocities and discharges above the head of the fan crossed by the Trans-Canada Highway and the\\u000a C.P.R.

L. E. Jackson; O. Hungr; J. S. Gardner; C. Mackay

1989-01-01

332

Plate tectonics and mountain building  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the greatest strengths of the modern plate tectonics theory is its ability to explain the origin of virtually all of\\u000a the present and most ancient mountain belts on Earth. In other words, mountain building (orogeny) stands in strong causal\\u000a interrelation with the global plate drift pattern. The motor of orogeny is subduction. To enable subduction, a basin floored

Wolfgang Frisch; Martin Meschede; Ronald Blakey

333

+ Happy (Hypothetical) Trails to You: The Impact of Trail Characteristics and Access Fees on a Mountain Biker's Trail Selection and Consumer's Surplus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately thirty million North Americans own mountain bikes, and three million of them are avid trail riders. Some consequences are trail degradation and conflicts with other users. Resource managers often respond by closing trails and\\/or entire sites to mountain biking. When mountain biking is allowed, it is often on four-wheel drive roads rather than the narrow single-track trails many bikers

Terry Buchanan; Edward R. Morey; Donald M. Waldman

334

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to “conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.” However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. “We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain,” the draft report states.

Showstack, Randy

2011-11-01

335

Spent fuel receipt scenarios study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during

L. B. Ballou; D. N. Montan; M. A. Revelli

1990-01-01

336

Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging hikers to date, the ratio of resource expenditures in recruiting volunteers and QA/QCing their data for actual research application has been high. Mountain Watch staff are now refining the program to achieve education and research goals a manner that is sustainable into the future with limited fiscal and staff resources. The quality of our citizen phenology observations, in comparison to staff monitoring, has lead to refinements including directing general audience hikers to well-defined trailside observation stations, growing our more skilled amateur botanist volunteer base, and use of remote cameras for quality controls and better temporal coverage. Visibility monitoring at four mountain vistas has recently been analyzed in the context of policy applications. Refinements will be presented that will further inform natural resource management of air quality in relation to Clean Air Act Air Quality Related Values and a potential visibility focused particulate matter secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Overall lessons learned, regarding audience considerations, resource needs, and long-term sustainability, from our 5-year field based geoscience programs will be discussed.

Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

2010-12-01

337

The Mountain that Moved  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication is part of a series entitled "Geologic Wonders of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests". It discusses the landslides in Montgomery and Craig counties of Virginia. These are the largest known landslides in eastern North America, known as rock back slides. The brochure discusses how they were discovered, when they occurred, where they are visible, why they happened, and if there will be more in the future. Additional resources are suggested for more information.

338

Parameterization of incoming longwave radiation in high-mountain environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some ecological applications and energy budget calculations of the earth's surface require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation, As cloud cover observations are not conducted frequently in high-mountain environments, a new model for the parameterization of daily mean incoming longwave radiation is proposed based on global radiation instead of cloud cover. Besides global radiation, the new model requires data for air temperature, relative humidity, and an estimate of daily mean cloudless global radiation. The model was calibrated with data from high-mountain and lowland stations and the results are compared with existing models. The new model yielded consistent results under all cloud-cover conditions, for different sites, and for all seasons. For the conditions tested, the absolute mean bias error was generally less than 10 Wm(-2) and the root mean square error was always between 11 Wm-(2) and 16 Wm(-2). Of the other models tested, some did not perform well under cloudless conditions and others yielded large errors under overcast conditions or were not applicable to high mountain sites. The new model is a viable alternative to the existing longwave parameterization models, especially for high-mountain environments, and it can be applied without the resource-consuming observation of cloud cover.

Gabathuler, M.; Marty, C. A.; Hanselmann, K. W.

2001-03-01

339

Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

1995-12-31

340

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

341

Automobile fuel efficiency standards. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, April 4, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Corporate fuel economy standards can save twice the amount of oil spilled in the Prince William Sound by the Exxon tanker, and it can save that much every day. Witnesses discuss the availability of gasoline saving technologies, such as the four-valve per cylinder engines. Testimony was heard from the assistant secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Center for Auto Safety, an energy analyst from International Resources Group, the Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental and Safety Engineering manager from Ford Motor Company, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Public Affairs staff from General Motors Corp, and Senators from Tennessee, Idaho, Ohio, Alaska, Oklahoma, and Colorado.

Not Available

1989-01-01

342

Fuel Cell Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells Today is a useful online resource with a very diverse range of materials about fuel cell technology. Possibly the most interesting part of the site is the Reference Centre, where users can find information on different types of fuel cells, their applications, history of their development, possible materials to use in their design, and more. All educational and technical descriptions are intended to promote the global adoption of fuel cells as a clean, efficient energy source. There is also plenty of literature in the Knowledge Bank. Fuel cell news and emerging technologies are covered, and the site is updated often.

2001-01-01

343

YUCCA Mountain project.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that had been subjected to corrosion testing for up to 10 years under hydrologically unsaturated conditions was undertaken to elucidate radionuclide release pathways and mechanisms.

Ebert, W. L.; Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Jerden, J. L.; Cunnane, J. C.

2005-03-28

344

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates as of year-end 1980 are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, cumulative production, and life index of the nonrenewable energy sources of the United States and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided where possible. Reserve and resource data are given in conventional US units - cubic feet, short tons, and barrels; and

1982-01-01

345

A New Comprehensive Dataset on Glacier Area Changes From 1960s to 2008 in Altai-Sayan, Tien Shan And Pamir Mountain Systems of Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain glaciers are a vital source of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. To quantify glacier loss due to climate change during the last 42 years and use this information in water resources estimation, we have completed a comprehensive database of the glacier area changes in Altai-Sayan (AS), Tien Shan (TS) and Pamir (PA) mountains. A

A. Surazakov; V. B. Aizen; E. Aizen; S. Nikitin

2010-01-01

346

Estimating the benefits and costs to mountain bikers of changes in trail characteristics, access fees, and site closures: choice experiments and benefits transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain biking is an increasingly popular leisure pursuit. Consequences are trail degradation and conflicts with hikers and other users. Resource managers often attempt to resolve these problems by closing trails to mountain biking. In order to estimate the impact of these developments, a model has been devised that predicts the effects of changes in trail characteristics and introduction of access

Edward R. Morey; Terry Buchanan; Donald M. Waldman

2002-01-01

347

A Basin-Averaged Water Balance Approach to Estimate Catchment-Scale Groundwater Flow in a Semi-arid Mountainous Catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of the contribution of groundwater flow from highland areas of mountainous watersheds to semi-arid and arid valley bottom unconsolidated aquifers is increasingly needed for the assessment of water resources in many populated areas. In mountainous environments, however, data for Darcy equation parameters are limited, leading to uncertainty in estimates of groundwater flow of up to two or more orders

L. A. Neilson-Welch; R. Allard; D. Geller; D. M. Allen

2008-01-01

348

US nonrenewable energy resources as of December 31, 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remaining recoverable fossil fuels are estimated and summarized in four tables, namely: (1) conventional natural gas resources; (2) conventional crude oil resources; (3) summary of all nonrenewable resources, based on publications of agencies reporting in (1) and (2); and (4) life of US fossil-fuel resources at various demand growth rates. No claim is made for the accuracy of disputed

1980-01-01

349

Economic aspects of natural resource exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low entropy accumulations of matter and energy are more economic for humans to exploit as natural resources. This accumulation of a resource takes place over time and the most concentrated resources, such as fossil fuels, are created over geological ages. As the most concentrated resources become depleted it may be possible for technology to enable the exploitation of less concentrated

Ernie Jowsey

2009-01-01

350

MountainQuest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science quest is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this quest, students work in teams to make recommendations for building a new observatory for NASA. Students evaluate scientific and cultural data for five potential sites and then make presentaions to a formal review panel. This collaborative group project requires 4 to 10 class hours and integrates themes and unifying concepts in science with astronomy objectives.

Tuthill, George; Obbink, Kim

351

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2013-04-01

352

[Organization and management of mountain rescues].  

PubMed

Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains. PMID:23951620

Maupin, Thierry

353

Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan outlines steps for recovery of gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations in portions of their former range in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Historical evidence documents the presence of gray wo...

1987-01-01

354

Mountain Warfare: The Need for Specialist Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study focuses on the need for specialist training for mountain warfare. It analyzes the special characteristics of mountain and high altitude terrain which affect conduct of military operations. It identifies the differences between low and high moun...

M. A. Malik

2003-01-01

355

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

356

Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

Voegtly, N.E.

1981-01-01

357

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

358

Mountains of the world, water towers for humanity: Typology, mapping, and global significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountains are important sources of freshwater for the adjacent lowlands. In view of increasingly scarce freshwater resources, this contribution should be clarified. While earlier studies focused on selected river systems in different climate zones, we attempt here a first spatially explicit, global typology of the so-called "water towers" at the 0.5° × 0.5° resolution in order to identify critical regions where disproportionality of mountain runoff as compared to lowlands is maximum. Then, an Earth systems perspective is considered with incorporation of lowland climates, distinguishing four different types of water towers. We show that more than 50% of mountain areas have an essential or supportive role for downstream regions. Finally, the potential significance of water resources in mountains is illustrated by including the actual population in the adjacent lowlands and its water needs: 7% of global mountain area provides essential water resources, while another 37% delivers important supportive supply, especially in arid and semiarid regions where vulnerability for seasonal and regional water shortage is high.

Viviroli, Daniel; Dürr, Hans H.; Messerli, Bruno; Meybeck, Michel; Weingartner, Rolf

2007-07-01

359

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

360

Large-Scale Change: Mountain-Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is designed to help students learn how mountains form, identify the components of mountain systems, and explore the transfer of matter and the role of energy during mountain building. It employs links to three other websites to lead students to information about the evolution of mountains, provide background information on the continent-continent collisions that resulted in the Himalayas, and explore geomorphology from space.

361

Mineral resources of the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness study area, Garfield County, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Fiddler Butte (East) Wilderness Study Area which comprises 5,700 acres east of the Henry Mountains, Garfield County, Utah, between the Dirty Devil River and the Colorado River. Field and laboratory studies investigated the identified (known) resources and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered resources). This study area has identified resources of tar sands (heavy oil-impregnated sandstones)

R. F. Dubiel; G. K. Lee; P. P. OrKild; D. D. Gese

1989-01-01

362

Predicted Fire Behavior in Selected Mountain Pine Beetle–Infested Lodgepole Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Using custom fuel models developed for use with Rothermel’s surface fire spread model, we predicted and compared,fire behavior in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) stands with endemic, current epidemic, and postepidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations using standardized sets of wind speeds and fuel moistures. We also compared,our fire behavior results with those from

Wesley Page; Michael J. Jenkins

2007-01-01

363

Can traditional forest management buffer forest depletion? Dynamics of Moroccan High Atlas Mountain forests using remote sensing and vegetation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the south shore of the western Mediterranean Basin, mountain forest ecosystems are degraded, mainly due to their overexploitation. Topographic, edaphic and climatic conditions create stressful growing conditions and sensitive ecosystems. Nonetheless, in these ecosystems, forests remain an important resource for the subsistence of local populations. Historically the vulnerability of this resource has prompted mankind to establish traditional control forms

Sanae Hammi; Vincent Simonneaux; Jean Baptiste Cordier; Didier Genin; Mohamed Alifriqui; Nicolas Montes; Laurent Auclair

2010-01-01

364

Alternative Paths to Commercialising Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in a Community of the High Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at alternative paths to commercialising aromatic and medicinal plants of a community in the High Atlas Mountains. As the demand for phytotherapies and other herbal medicines increases so is the pressure on natural resources and traditional cultures. This raises major issues of sustainability, conservation of plant resources and welfare of communities. The integration of strong partnerships with

Bernadette Montanari

365

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âBell Mountain.â (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

366

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âBell Mountain.â (b) Approved map. The...

2009-04-01

367

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

368

Interferometry SAR in Antarctic Grove Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grove Mountains locates to the southwest of Princess Elizabeth Land, inland areas of east Antarctica. Field Work in Grove Mountains is very difficult. Interferometric SAR is a powerful tool in DEM generation, vertical change detection and determining the velocities and directions of ice streams. After the field GPS\\/RTK surveying work in Grove Mountains during the 1999\\/2000 summer season, we got

Xiao Cheng; Chunxia Zhou; Qulin Tan; Guanhua Xu; Yun Shao

2002-01-01

369

Vapor-Phase Transport in the Near-Drift Environment at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yucca Mountain, located 160 km north of Las Vegas, Nevada, is currently being assessed as a potential site for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A key issue regarding repository performance is the likelihood of precipitation percolating a vertical distance of ~300 m through unsaturated rock into drifts containing the waste packages. The amount of water that

R. Salve; T. J. Kneafsey

2003-01-01

370

Biopower generation from mountain pine infested wood in Canada: An economical opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is considered carbon neutral, and displacement of fossil fuel-based power by biomass-based power is one means to mitigate greenhouse gases. Large forest areas in British Columbia (BC), Canada, are infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB). Dead wood from the infestation is expected to vastly exceed the ability of the pulp and lumber industry to utilize it; current estimates

Amit Kumar; Peter Flynn; Shahab Sokhansanj

2008-01-01

371

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

372

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

373

Proceedings, 94th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the six convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, as well as fuel substitution, belt conveyors, and technology advances in coal mining. A summary of coal production data is also given.

1998-01-01

374

The Natural History of the San Gabriel Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately published Web site functions as a detailed natural history guide to California's San Gabriel Mountains. Users can access a wealth of detailed information regarding the region's plants, animals, weather conditions, etc. The road guides are so detailed that the reader may almost feel as if he or she is actually there. While the text is dense and images are few and far between, almost every page of this Web site contains numerous links to other sites that offer useful photos. The incredible detail of this Web site may be off-putting for those seeking a casual glimpse at the San Gabriel Mountains, but for those more actively interested in the region, this site would be a rich natural history resource filled with careful observations and well-referenced information.

375

Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.  

PubMed

Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. PMID:19702780

Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

2009-08-20

376

Isentropic Pressure and Mountain Torques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of pressure torques and mountain torques is investigated on the basis of observations for the polar caps, two midlatitude and two subtropical belts, and a tropical belt by evaluating the lagged covariances of these torques for various isentropic surfaces. It is only in the polar domains and the northern midlatitude belts that the transfer of angular momentum to

Joseph Egger; Klaus-Peter Hoinka

2009-01-01

377

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae.

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

378

The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

Young, Jeff

1997-01-01

379

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

380

Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)|

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

381

Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

Geographic, National

382

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

383

Potential for improved automobile fuel economy between 1985 and 1995. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, April 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The April 30 statements of 13 witnesses and their responses to questions from the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources address the contribution automobile fuel economy can make to the overall energy conservation effort. The feasibility of requiring a 40-mile-per-gallon standard for cars by 1995 will determine whether a new post-1985 standard is justified. The present economic problems of US automakers are attributed by the committee members to foreign competition which has already reached the proposed level of fuel economy. The importance of the automobile and related industries to the US economy justifies federal assistance to help raise the capital needed to improve US cars. The legislative package offers an accelerated depreciation allowance to domestic manufacturers who surpass the applicable standard by at least five miles per gallon. It is also desirable for the oil industry to assume some of the research responsibility for reaching the goal. Auto industry spokesmen blame price control policies which insulated the American public from world market prices for much of the uncertainty in forecasting consumer demands and suggest letting free market prices provide a flexible framework for fuel economy competition. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

384

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

Detman, R.F.

1982-12-30

385

Coal resources of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

Sanders, R.B.

1982-01-01

386

Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Regionalized industry; social impact; coal resource depletion. [For eight US regions change in cost of extraction as resources are depleted  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is used to predict for eight U.S. regions the cost of coal extraction and how it will change as resources are depleted. Then the effects of site selection of coal liquefaction plants are calculated. Minemouth siting seeks the lowest cost of coal liquids but is predicted to result in severe boom-bust cycles in the west; dispersion of

E. M. Dickson; I. W. Yabroff; C. A. Kroll; R. K. White; B. L. Walton; M. E. Ivory; R. E. Fullen; L. W. Weisbecker; R. L. Hays

1977-01-01

387

The role of pasture management for sustainable livestock production in semi-arid subtropical mountain regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing livestock is an important asset to the livelihoods of people in most semi-arid environments, where natural resources cannot be used directly for human consumption. However, overgrazing commonly reduces pasture productivity and therefore threaten people's long-term food security. Ligneous and herbaceous vegetation on grazed and ungrazed sites in the Hajar Mountains, Oman, was studied to evaluate the possibilities of improving

U. Dickhoefer; A. Buerkert; K. Brinkmann; E. Schlecht

2010-01-01

388

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing public awareness of the increasing number of large wildfires across forested landscapes, coupled with needs of resource base management has accelerated research into forest reference conditions and the historical role of fire in coniferous ecosystems. This work investigates historical fire regimes of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California using fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this

Richard G. Everett

2008-01-01

389

Spatial modelling of mountainous basins; An integrated analysis of the hydrological cycle, climate change and agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the most essential substance on earth and a changing climate has an important impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of water availability. Mountain ranges provide an important “water tower' function and over 20% of the global population depends on fresh water resources provided by the Himalayan range in critical periods of the year. The hydrological cycle is

W. W. Immerzeel

2008-01-01

390

Characterisation of smallholder pig production systems in mountainous areas of North Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situation of farmers in Vietnam's mountainous areas is hampered by low and unsteady resource availabil- ity and less developed infrastructure. Smallholders seek to improve their livelihood by extending livestock husbandry with main focus on pig keeping. Local pig breeds are progressively replaced by genotypes with higher production potential. Keeping high-yielding genotypes may generate higher revenues from pig production but also

U. Lemke; L. T. Thuy; A. Valle Zárate; B. Kaufmann; N. D. Vang

2002-01-01

391

Calibration of AN Acoustic Sensor (geophone) for Continuous Bedload Monitoring in Mountainous Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of bedload rates is a crucial component in the study of alluvial processes in mountainous streams. Stream restoration efforts, the validation of morphodynamic models and the calibration empirical transport formulae rely on accurate bedload transport measurements. Bedload measurements using traditional methods (e.g. samplers, traps) are time consuming, resource intensive and not always feasible, especially at higher flow conditions. These

A. G. Tsakiris; T. Papanicolaou

2010-01-01

392

Inventory of world energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide inventories of crude oil, shale oil, natural gas, coal, and nuclear fuels published in the early and mid 1970s are reviewed. These data indicate a rapidly worsening fuel situation for Western Europe and Japan. In addition, alternative energy resources, including liquid hydrocarbons, (produced by the Fischer-Tropsch process), solar energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, fast breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion

M. van Rysselberge

1977-01-01

393

Material corrosion issues for nuclear waste disposition in Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two decades, an extensive scientific effort has been underway to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a suitable site for a deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Even though the geologic site is stable, additional engineered barriers are planned, including waste packages, drip shields, and tunnel inverts that will be within the emplacement tunnels. Research is under way into the best materials for corrosion prevention in those engineered barriers to ensure their long-term mechanical integrity.

Rebak, Raul B.

2008-01-01

394

Potential contaminant transport in the regional Carbonate Aquifer beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the proposed US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The repository is to be a mine, sited approximately 300 m below the crest of the mountain, in a sequence of variably welded and fractured mid-Miocene rhylolite tuffs, in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. Beneath the proposed repository, at a depth of 2 km, is a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks that contain the highly transmissive Lower Carbonate Aquifer. In the area of Yucca Mountain the Carbonate Aquifer integrates groundwater flow from north of the mountain, through the Amargosa Valley, through the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek in Death Valley, California where the groundwater discharges in a set of large springs. Data that describe the Carbonate Aquifer suggest a concept for flow through the aquifer, and based upon the conceptual model, a one-layer numerical model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow in the Carbonate Aquifer. Advective transport analyses suggest that the predicted travel time of a particle from Yucca Mountain to Death Valley through the Carbonate Aquifer might be as short as 100 years to as long 2,000 years, depending upon the porosity.

Bredehoeft, John; King, Michael

2010-05-01

395

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01

396

Geothermal resources of the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resouces considered are exclusively hydrothermal, and the study was confined to the 35 states east of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the Dakotas. Resource definition in these areas is based entirely on data found in the literature and in the files of a number of state geological offices. The general geology of the eastern United States is outlined. Since the

J. L. Renner; T. L. Vaught

1979-01-01

397

Possible Solution for the U.S. Navy's Addiction to Petroleum: A Business Case Analysis for Transitioning the U.S. Navy From Petroleum to Synthetic Fuel Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considering the variable cost of petroleum, it is fiscally prudent for the Department of the Navy (DON) to consider alternative energy sources for propulsion. The cost of petroleum fuels for the DON have increased fifty-five percent from 2004 to 2005 and ...

M. Benedetto

2007-01-01

398

Sustainable Agricultural Paradigm Of mountain-Oasis-Ecotone-Desert System in Inland Manasi River Basin, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manasi River basin is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain, south edge of Zhunger Basin, central-north Xinjiang province, with typical aridfeatures of northern China. As the pressure on water resources in Manasi river basin is mounting because of rapid economic development, its conservation becomes ever more important. Climate change is another major threat to the future of water resources of Manasi river basin. How the water resourcechanges in Manasi river basin caused by glacial ablation, will affect the typical mountain-basin terrestrial ecosystems and agricultural production in Manasi river basin? What can we cope with the ecological issues caused by glacial ablation? In this paper we show how the water-saving stratagem such asconstructing reservoir in the mountainous region, building water pipes and be used in combination with the potential of water-saving resources, and build up sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert system to coping with the glacier retreat and ablation. The potential of water-saving instudy area were calculated which presumed that if mountainous reservoirs and water pipes were built and water-saving technology were adopted, optimized eco-productive paradigm for mountain-basin system in Manasi river basin is proposed in desertification controlling, constructing artificial grassland in the oasis is the measure to protect vegetation in the downstream desert in Manasi river basin, and stopping grazing or forbidding grazing in the downstream of serious degradation in Manasi river basin.

Liu, Huiming; Chen, Weiming; Dong, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xinshi

399

World nonrenewable conventional energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up-to-date estimates are given for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil are not included. 2 figures, 4

1984-01-01

400

World nonrenewable conventional energy resources  

SciTech Connect

Up-to-date estimates are given for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also presented for several annual growth rates. Nonconventional gas and oil are not included. 2 figures, 4 tables.

Parent, J.D.

1984-04-02

401

Natural Resource Management Strategy. Eastern Europe and Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arable land, deserts, mountains, forests, rivers, and coastal zones characterize the diverse regions in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA). As varied as the geography is so are the policy directions taken by the region's governments concerning natural resource management. A lack of conservation measures, misuse, and poor management have impaired many of the natural resources now available in these

2000-01-01

402

Competition for natural resources in California's Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of competitive forces on natural resources in California's Sierra Nevada and neighboring areas. This hilly and mountainous region extends for more than 700 kilometers from north and south in the eastern part of California. It comprises an area of 80,000 square kilometers, rich in resources, including 50 percent of the State's water supply, extensive but

Frank G. Mittelbach; Dennis B. Wambem

2002-01-01

403

Mountain Meadows and their contribution to Sierra Nevada Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human alterations of California's waterscape have exploited rivers, wetlands and meadows of the Sierra Nevada. A century of intensive logging, mining, railroad building, development, fire suppression, and grazing by sheep and cattle has left only 25 percent \\

K. Cornwell; K. Brown; C. Monohan

2007-01-01

404

The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute: partnerships that ...  

Treesearch

The BMNRl plays a unique role as a facilitator of relationships among managers, scientists, and the public, and has a structure ideal for demonstrating the role of ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

405

Napalm as an energy resource: a study of the molecular weight distribution of polystyrene in napalm and its use in middle distillate fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large quantity of napalm that is currently being treated as hazardous waste represents a viable energy resource that is too valuable to waste. However, there are significant problems to be overcome before this material can be used as an energy source. The scientific and environmental problems include: the broad molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, solubility and compatibility in a

George W Mushrush; Erna J Beal; Dennis R Hardy; Janet M Hughes

1999-01-01

406

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

407

Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.  

PubMed

This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

Markovi?, Dubravko; Kovacevi?, Hasan

2002-03-01

408

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

409

Prediction of mountain stream morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable

Ellen Wohl; David Merritt

2005-01-01

410

Optimum gradient of mountain paths.  

PubMed

By combining the experiment results of R. Margaria (Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Memorie 7: 299-368, 1938), regarding the metabolic cost of gradient locomotion, together with recent insights on gait biomechanics, a prediction about the most economical gradient of mountain paths (approximately 25%) is obtained and interpreted. The pendulum-like mechanism of walking produces a waste of mechanical work against gravity within the gradient range of up to 15% (the overall efficiency is dominated by the low transmission efficiency), whereas for steeper values only the muscular efficiency is responsible for the (slight) metabolic change (per meter of vertical displacement) with respect to gradient. The speeds at the optimum gradient turned out to be approximately 0.65 m/s (+0.16 m/s vertical) and 1.50 m/s (-0.36 m/s vertical), for uphill and downhill walking, respectively, and the ascensional energy expenditure was 0.4 and 2.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1.vertical m-1 climbed or descended. When the metabolic power becomes a burden, as in high-altitude mountaineering, the optimum gradient should be reduced. A sample of real mountain path gradients, experimentally measured, mimics the obtained predictions. PMID:8594031

Minetti, A E

1995-11-01

411

Automobile fuel economy standards. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, May 14, 1985  

SciTech Connect

Representatives of the automobile industry, safety and transportation agencies, conservation and consumer groups, and legislators from several states testified at a hearing held to review fuel economy standards for automobiles. The standards were established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, but may no longer be appropriate if their net effect is to jeopardize the auto industry's health. Critics of the auto industry found their request to remove penalties irresponsible in light of the continuing need to conserve natural resources, but others supported the industry's proposal to roll back minimum mileage requirements from 27.5 to 26 miles per gallon. Two appendices with additional responses and material submitted for the record follow the testimony and statements of 16 witnesses.

Not Available

1985-01-01

412

Western Mountain Initiative. A Network of Mountain Protected Areas for Global Change Research. Program Report 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is to understand and predict the responses emphasizing sensitivities, thresholds, resistance, and resilience of Western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. The rate and magnitude o...

2006-01-01

413

Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric circulation models predict an irrigation-rainfall feedback. However, actual field evidences for local evaporation recycling (moisture feedback) are weak. We present strong field evidence for an increase in rainfall at the mountains located downwind of irrigated zones. We chose two regions, located in semiarid southern Spain, where irrigation started at a well defined date, and we analyzed rainfall statistics before and after the beginning of irrigation. Analyzed statistics include the variation of (1) mean rainfall ? P, (2) ratio of monthly precipitation to annual precipitation ? r, and (3) number of months with noticeable rainfall episodes ? Pmin after a shifting from unirrigated to irrigated conditions. All of them show statistically significant increases. ? P and ? r show larger and more statistically significant variations in June and July than in August. They also tend to increase with the annual volume of water applied in the neighbouring upwind irrigation lands. Increases in ? Pmin are statistically significant during the whole summer. That is, the number of noticeable rainfall events displays a relevant increase after irrigation. In fact, it is this number, rather than sporadic large rainfall episodes what makes the summers wetter. The increase in rainfall, while statistically significant, is distributed over a broad region, so that it is of little relevance from a water resources perspective, although it may enhance vegetation yield.

Jódar, J.; Carrera, J.; Cruz, A.

2010-10-01

414

Project Title: The Western Mountain Initiative: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Western Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is affecting Western mountain ecosystems, directly through changes in water dynamics and indirectly through altered disturbance regimes. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI; http:\\/\\/www.cfr.washington.edu\\/research.fme\\/wmi) team explores the effects of climate change on ecological disturbance, responses of forest vegetation, mountain hydrology, and the coupled hydro-ecological responses that determine vulnerability of Western mountain ecosystems to change. Extensive data sets, empirical studies,

Nathan L. Stephenson

415

Managing Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

416

Mountain women’: silent contributors to the global agenda for sustainable mountain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we examine the transnational and international discourses and initiatives focused on and\\/or carried out by the so-called ‘mountain women.’ Tracking the growing reference to ‘mountain women’, we analyze the way in which the construction and the claim of a gendered identity has developed within the general debate on the international recognition of the global importance of mountain

Gilles Rudaz; Bernard Debarbieux

2011-01-01

417

Batch Tests with unirradiated uranium metal fuel program report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the general environment of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is expected to be oxidizing in nature, the local chemistry within fuel canisters may be otherwise. The combination of low dissolved oxygen and corrosion of metallic fuels, such as Hanford's N-Reactor inventory, may produce reducing conditions. This condition may persist for periods sufficient to affect the corrosion and paragenesis

Kaminski

2002-01-01

418

FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

D.F. Vanica

1995-06-14

419

Assessing spatial patterns of forest fuel using AVIRIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montane coniferous forests and woodlands in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains have been subject to increased wildfire in recent years. The area and intensity of these fires is strongly dependent upon the spatial variability and type of fuels as they are arrayed across the landscape. Considering the size of the patches and the mosaic of fuel materials,

Gensuo J. Jia; Ingrid C. Burke; Alexander F. H. Goetz; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Bruce C. Kindel

2006-01-01

420

United States and world resources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy resources must be viewed as a range extending from reserves in known deposits minable at present prices to resources that may become usable in the future through further exploration and technologic advance. Appraised in this framework, domestic resources of the fossil fuels of the types now considered usable contain 5.5 to more than 130 Q and if very low

V. E. McKelvey; D. C. Duncan

1965-01-01

421

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

422

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2013-01-01

423

Trade with polluting nonrenewable resources  

SciTech Connect

A major part of accumulating pollution, such as acidification or atmospheric carbon dioxide, orginates from nonrenewable resources. Uses of fossil fuels must take the long-term pollution damage into account; at the same time owners of nonrenewable resource face the problem of maximizing the resource rent. The implications on the global market are very complex, raising questions about the international incidence effects of a carbon dioxide tax and about who receives the revenues, especially if fossil fuels are supplied by resource cartels like OPEC. This paper considers an extended version of the problem in which pollution decays and extraction costs depend on the resource stock level. Buyers and sellers optimization problems are introduced in section 2. Section 3 solves the simplified version of the model. A generalized version of the model is analyzed in section 4, and section 5 summarizes the main results.

Tahvonen, O. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

1996-01-01

424

Fuel and energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sources of energy for human use are reviewed, with consideration given to energy forms, conversion, efficiencies of conversion systems, identification of the sources and resources of energy, and the capabilities for various systems to meet enumerated estimates of energy demands. Primary fuels such as solids (coal), liquids (oil), and natural gas are examined for resource availability and methods of use. Processes to alter the form of primary fuels to form secondary fuels for specific applications are outlined, and methods of testing fuels for suitability are elaborated. Energy conversion with and without combustion is discussed for solar, wind, geothermal, nuclear, and chemical energy systems, and calculations of energy conversion efficiencies and economics are given, including energy conservation and recovery in industry.

Harker, J. H.; Backhurst, J. R.

425

Coal quality in area of Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, southern Appalachian Mountains, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 coal beds of Pennsylvanian age crop out around Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These beds were deposited in barrier and fluvial environments. Few determinations of modern coal-quality data have been made for these coals, although they have been mined for more than 100 years. To evaluate their quality, 47 coal samples from

T. L. Crawford

1986-01-01

426

Tectonics, Climate, and Mountain Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By regressing simple, independent variables that describe climate and tectonic processes against measures of topography and relief of 69 mountain ranges worldwide, we quantify the relative importance of these processes in shaping observed landscapes. Climate variables include latitude (as a surrogate for mean annual temperature and insolation, but most importantly for the likelihood of glaciation) and mean annual precipitation. To quantify tectonics we use shortening rates across each range. As a measure of topography, we use mean and maximum elevations and relief calculated over different length scales. We show that the combination of climate (negative correlation) and tectonics (positive correlation) explain substantial fractions (> 25%, but < 50%) of mean and maximum elevations of mountain ranges, but that shortening rates account for smaller portions, <25%, of the variance in most measures of topography and relief (i.e. with low correlations and large scatter). Relief is insensitive to mean annual precipitation, but does depend on latitude, especially for relief calculated over small (~1 km) length scales, which we infer to reflect the importance of glacial erosion. Larger-scale (averaged over length scales of ~10 km) relief, however, correlates positively with tectonic shortening rate. Moreover, the ratio between small-scale and large-scale relief, as well as the relative relief (the relief normalized by the mean elevation of the region) varies most strongly with latitude (strong positive correlation). Therefore, the location of a mountain range on Earth and corresponding climatic conditions, not just tectonic forcing, appears to be a key factor in determining its shape and size. In any case, the combination of tectonics and climate, as quantified here, can account for approximately half of the variance in these measures of topography. The failure of present-day shortening rates to account for more than 25% of most measures of relief raises the question: Is active tectonics overrated in attempts to account for present-day relief and exhumation rates of high terrain? The following points are of particular importance: 1) Elevations of ranges directly reflect the interaction between tectonics, which thickens the crust, and therefore increases elevations, and climate (through erosion), which thins the crust, and hence decreases the elevation. The importance of tectonics appears to be modest in most cases, and suggests that although tectonics is obviously essential for mountain building, but the shapes of mature ranges appear to be controlled mostly by climate factors, that cause a large scatter. 2) Relief is not sensitive to mean annual precipitation amounts, but increases with shortening rates and latitude (hence glacial erosion). Relief averaged over large areas is not affected much by climatic factors, and more by tectonics, but relief measured on short distance scales correlates best with a combination of tectonics and latitude. Relief in high-latitude mountain ranges result largely from glacial excavation at valley scale of the topography created by tectonics. 3) The location of a mountain range on Earth appears to be an important factor in determining its elevation. Latitude also correlates with relief measured on short distance scales and the relative relief (the amount of relief scaled to the mean elevation of the range). Presumably, the climatic differences that vary with latitude, glaciers in particular, play a crucial role in shaping that relief.

Champagnac, J.-D.; Molnar, P.; Sue, C.; Herman, F.

2012-04-01

427

Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009  

PubMed Central

Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents.

Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

2012-01-01

428

The Global Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Armenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The global climate change impact on water resources of Armenia is shortly reviewed. The mountainous character of Armenia causes\\u000a the great differentiation in landscape types, as well as geological characteristics, climate, soils and water resources. The\\u000a present day Armenia is disposed to significant ecological risks and becomes a country which economy is based on the intensive\\u000a use of natural resources

Anahit Adanalyan; Suren Gevorgyan

429

Mountain building and mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the supercontinental cycle.

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

2013-01-01

430

Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

431

Production of jet fuel from alternative sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant potential source of aviation gas turbine fuels in the continental United States is the western oil shale located in the Rocky Mountain States of Colorado, Utah, and Yoming. Nearly 600 billion barrels of recoverable oil is located in this area. This paper discusses the availability of oil shale and reviews the recovery, upgrading and refining schemes necessary

H. R. Jr. Lander; H. E. Reif

1986-01-01

432

Water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes aspects of water resource systems and the human agencies that affect them. Defines the basics of successful resource management, addresses problems that confront water resource managers, and identifies a range of solutions for more efficient and equitable resource control and use. Covers quality of water supply, flood control, hydroelectric power, national and regional water authorities, and international aspects, with

A. McDonald; D. Kay

1989-01-01

433

Toward alternative transportation fuels  

SciTech Connect

At some time in the future the U.S. will make a transition to alternative fuels for transportation. The motivation for this change is the decline in urban air quality and the destruction of the ozone layer. Also, there is a need for energy independence. The lack of consensus on social priorities makes it difficult to compare benefits of different fuels. Fuel suppliers and automobile manufacturers would like to settle on a single alternative fuel. The factors of energy self-sufficiency, economic efficiency, varying anti-pollution needs in different locales, and global warming indicate a need for multiple fuels. It is proposed that instead of a Federal command-and-control type of social regulation for alternative fuels for vehicles, the government should take an incentive-based approach. The main features of this market-oriented proposal would be averaging automobile emission standards, banking automobile emissions reductions, and trading automobile emission rights. Regulation of the fuel industry would allow for variations in the nature and magnitude of the pollution problems in different regions. Different fuels or fuel mixture would need to be supplied for each area. The California Clean Air Resources Board recently adopted a fuel-neutral, market-oriented regulatory program for reducing emissions. This program will show if incentive-based strategies can be extended to the nation as a whole.

Sperling, D. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-01-01

434

Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of marginal burning in live chaparral fuel beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive experimental and numerical study was completed to analyze the marginal burning behavior of live chaparral shrub fuels that grow in the mountains of southern California. Laboratory fire spread experiments were carried out to determine the effects of wind, slope, moisture content, and fuel characteristics on marginal burning in fuel beds of common chaparral species. Four species (Manzanita sp.,

Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise; Shankar Mahalingam

2005-01-01

435

Mountain medical mystery. Unwitnessed death of a healthy young man, caused by lightning.  

PubMed

A healthy 20-year-old man failed to return home after a jog in the Colorado mountains. His lifeless body was found the next day on an exposed mountain slope. The differential diagnosis in such mysterious, unwitnessed mountain deaths includes cardiac arrhythmia, cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, seizures, trauma, high-altitude sickness, and hypothermia. The cause of death in this case was established on postmortem examination. The findings of ruptured tympanic membranes and a melted shoe established this as a case of lightning strike fatality. The National Lightning Detection Network can be a valuable resource to investigators by providing information on the location and date of lightning strikes in the vicinity of the victim. PMID:11563744

Cherington, M; Kurtzman, R; Krider, E P; Yarnell, P R

2001-09-01

436

Continent elevation, mountains, and erosion: Freeboard implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the simplest approximation, Earth's continental crust is a floating aggregate on the planet's surface that is first attracted to subduction zones and, upon arrival, thickened by mountain building (then producing some extension). Thickened regions are thinned again by erosion. A comparison between 65 Ma and the present shows that the modern state is significantly more mountainous. An estimated average

J. A. Whitehead; Peter D. Clift

2009-01-01

437

SENSITITVITY OF MOUNTAIN REGIONS TO CLIMATIC CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains are also a key element of the hydrological cycle, being the source of many of the world's major river systems. Shifts in climatic regimes, particularly precipitation, in space or seasonally in a changing global climate, would impact heavily on the river systems originating in mountain areas, leading to disruptions of the existing socio-economic structures of populations living within the

Martin Beniston; Wilfried Haeberli

438

Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

Renner, Hans-Georg

2011-01-01

439

In situ pneumatic testing at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is a potential site for a geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. The proposed repository location is in the unsaturated zone in the mountain. Fluid flow through the fractured tuff repository rock is the potential transport mechanism for radionuclides from nuclear waste to the environment. This flow is believed to be predominantly confined to the

P. Cook

2000-01-01

440

The geohydrologic setting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a geologic and hydrologic framework of the Yucca Mountain region for the geochemical papers in this volume. The regional geologic units, which range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, are briefly described. Yucca Mountain is composed of dominantly pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The principal focus of study has been

John S. Stuckless; William W. Dudley

2002-01-01

441

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

442

Maslov's method for stationary hydrostatic mountain waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The ray solution for stationary hydrostatic mountain waves has a singularity along the vertical axis directly over the mountain. We use Maslov' s method to improve the ray prediction. The ray solution is determined in the wave-number domain and is then mapped by inverse Fourier transform to give a spatial description of the wave é eld that approximates the

Dave Broutman; James W. Rottman; Stephen D. Eckermann

2002-01-01

443

The field tradition in mountain geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldwork has a long and honored tradition in mountain geomorphology, and justifiably so. Many features and processes present in mountains occur at fine to very fine spatial scales that simply do not lend themselves well to analyses via remote methods. The nature of the sampling of data in mountain environments also constrains the use of computational techniques, such as GIS, in favor of on-site data collection. In addition, when one is present in the field in mountains, the dynamic nature of the landscape often provides unexpected rewards that could not be planned for in a campaign of remote analysis. These aspects of scale, sampling, and serendipity make on-site fieldwork still the preferred method for geomorphological research in mountain environments. Several examples of features occurring at fine spatial scale that could only be effectively examined in the field are presented in this paper, as well as examples of data sampling occurring at fine scale. I also illustrate several instances where being on-site, at a specific unexpected moment, in the dynamic mountain environment provided scientific insight that could only be obtained through the serendipity of being there. Why continue to conduct geomorphological fieldwork in mountains? "Because the mountains are there"!

Butler, David R.

2013-10-01

444

Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemiology in Lodgepole Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following brief synthesis of mountain pine beetle epidemiology is based on host-beetle interaction. In the first part I briefly describe the relationship between the dynamics of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetle. The second part describes the phases in the infestation cycle and their main characteristics. This synthesis is based on published information on infestation behaviour in western Canada,

Les Safranyik

445

27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205 Section 9.205 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.205 Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âChehalem Mountainsâ. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2009-04-01

446

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âSnipes Mountainâ. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

447

27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205 Section 9.205 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.205 Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âChehalem Mountainsâ. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

448

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is âSnipes Mountainâ. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2009-04-01

449

Montane wetland water chemistry, Uinta Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to determine the relationship between surface and groundwater chemistry and wetland characteristics within the Reader Lakes watershed, Uinta Mountains. The dominant rock type in the study area is quartz sandstone of the Hades Pass formation, Unita Mountain Group (Middle Proterozoic). Minor amounts of interbedded arkose and illite-bearing shale are also present. Water chemistry data have been collected

K. S. Severson; M. Matyjasik; R. L. Ford; M. W. Hernandez; S. B. Welsh; S. Summers; L. M. Bartholomew

2009-01-01

450

Mountain Infantry - Is There a Need?  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study uses the past as a basis for establishing the need for mountain infantry units by comparing the combat operations of the 88th Infantry Division and the 10th Mountain Division during World War II on the Italian peninsula. An analysis of current ...

J. D. Greer

1988-01-01

451

Approximate clustering via the mountain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a simple and effective approach for approximate estimation of the cluster centers on the basis of the concept of a mountain function. We call the procedure the mountain method. It can be useful for obtaining the initial values of the clusters that are required by more complex cluster algorithms. It also can be used as a stand alone

R. R. Yager; D. P. Filev

1994-01-01

452

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

453

Historic American Engineering Record, Stewart Mountain Dam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a written narrative of the events leading to the construction of Stewart Mountain Dam on the Salt River, in Central Arizona. Stewart Mountain Dam was constructed by the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association between 1928 and 1930. ...

D. C. Jackson

1992-01-01

454

A Mountain Cultural Curriculum: Telling Our Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the development and implementation of a six-week curriculum to expose denigrating Appalachian Mountain stereotypes and supplant them with images that children create after investigating their West Virginia mountain cultural history of oppression and rebellion. Bases the development of the curriculum on multiple conceptions of multicultural…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1997-01-01

455

Development of a photo guide for fuels in the Southern Appalachian ...  

Treesearch

Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research ... of assessing the characteristics of forest fuels are time-consuming, expensive, and impractical in the mountainous terrain of the southeastern United States.

456

Mountain coniferous forests, refugia and butterflies.  

PubMed

The boreal coniferous forests form the most extended vegetation zone of the Northern Hemisphere. As opposed to North America, they are disconnected from the mountain coniferous forests in Europe, because of the dominant east-west direction of the mountain chains. Consequently, the mountain forests show some unique characteristic features of glacial survival and postglacial history, as well. The mountain coniferous forests have numerous common floral and faunal elements with the boreal zone. However, the few unique faunal elements of the European mountain coniferous forests can be used to unravel the peculiar patterns and processes of this biome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thomas Schmitt and Karola Haubrich (2008) use the relatively common and taxonomically well-studied butterfly, the large ringlet (Erebia euryale) to identify the last glacial refugia and postglacial expansion routes. PMID:18397217

Varga, Zoltán

2008-04-02

457

Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the impacts of climate change and variability on water resources within the context of energy and fuel development in the upper Colorado River basin. WARMF performs physics based energy and water balances on a sub-watershed basis and routes flow through soils and a network of streams, lakes and reservoirs to a watershed outlet. A climate change module has been developed to modify historical meteorological data in order to examine the impacts of climate change scenarios in the basin. The model is parameterized and calibrated for the White, Upper Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in Colorado from their headwaters to the Utah border. These rivers are the most likely to be impacted by new extractions of water for oil shale development in the Piceance Basin in Western Colorado. The model predicts that a three degree Celsius change in temperature could result in an average annual reduction in stream flow by 15 to 20 percent and a shift toward earlier snowmelt runoff. In addition, model output is used within a systems dynamics modeling framework to examine water resource management strategies for a range of energy production growth scenarios and the interdependencies between water use, energy production, carbon management, population growth, infrastructure, and economics in western basins.

Wilson, C.; Levitt, D.; Herr, J.; Geza, M.; Middleton, R.; Nealon, T.; Wolfsberg, A.

2008-12-01

458

California's Coastal Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

Commission, California C.

459

Initial Process and Expected Outcomes for Preliminary Identification of Routes to Yucca Mountain, Nevada - 8487 A. Thrower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing and implementing a safe, secure and efficient transportation system to ship spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from commercial and DOE sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. The Office of Logistics Management (OLM) within OCRWM has begun to work with

L. Finewood

460

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2008-06-01

461

Quantifying Mountain Block Recharge by Means of Catchment-Scale Storage-Discharge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the hydrologic significance of mountainous catchments in providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes in these systems, such as mountain block recharge (MBR). We developed an empirical approach based on the storage sensitivity function introduced by Kirchner (2009) to develop storage-discharge relationships from stream flow analysis. We investigated sensitivity of MBR estimates to uncertainty in the derivation of the catchment storage-discharge relations. We implemented this technique in a semi-arid mountainous catchment in South-east Arizona, USA (the Marshall Gulch catchment in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson) with two distinct rainy seasons, winter frontal storms and summer monsoon separated by prolonged dry periods. Developing storage-discharge relation based on baseflow data in the dry period allowed quantifying change in fractured bedrock storage caused by MBR. Contribution of fractured bedrock to stream flow was confirmed using stable isotope data. Our results show that 1) incorporating scalable time steps to correct for stream flow measurement errors improves the model fit; 2) the quantile method is more suitable for stream flow data binning; 3) the choice of the regression model is more critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment and 4) application of daily versus hourly flow did not affect the storage-discharge relationship. This methodology allowed quantifying MBR using stream flow recession analysis from within the mountain system.

Ajami, H.; Troch, P. A.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Eastoe, C. J.

2009-12-01

462

Does high indebtedness increase natural resource exploitation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debt-resource-hypothesis suggests that high indebtedness leads to increased natural resource exploitation as well as more unsustainable patterns of resource use. Countries with high debt burdens supposedly increase their extraction of fossil fuels and mineral resources as well as their production of so-called cash crops in order to service their debt obligations. In spite of its popularity, there have been

ERIC NEUMAYER

2005-01-01

463

The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development and climate change scenarios. The multi-scale modeling approach involves a systems dynamics (SD) modeling framework linked with more detailed models such as one for basin-scale hydrology investigating the spatial relationships of water rights and requirements, reservoir locations, and climate change impacts (the details of the SD model and the hydrologic model are presented in other contributions by Pasqualini et al. and Wilson et al.). A link to a CO2 sequestration performance assessment model is also being built to enable analysis of alternative carbon management options. With these evolving capabilities, our analyses consider interdependent demands and impacts placed on the region for various development scenarios.

Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

2008-12-01

464

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report.

A. Linden; R.S. Saunders; R.J. Boutin; P.G. Harrington; K.D. Lachman; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-19

465

Fuel Alcohol Opportunities for Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indi...

1980-01-01

466

Alternative Fuel Options in Aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aviation has come a long way over the past century, but the largest challenge may still lie ahead. The planet is running out of the one thing an airplane needs to stay in flight: fuel. Fossil fuels are the only resource being used to power aircraft at a higher level than a testing phase. With scholars, scientists, geologists, and politicians

Nathan DeLisle

2006-01-01

467

Hydrogen quality from decarbonized fossil fuels to fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased focus on curbing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and a limited and unstable supply of fossil fuel resources make diversification of energy resources a priority. Hydrogen has emerged as a promising energy vector for solving these issues. However, there are numerous challenges related to production, distribution and end use of hydrogen. Of particular importance is the link between hydrogen purity

Brian M. Besancon; Vladimir Hasanov; Raphaëlle Imbault-Lastapis; Robert Benesch; Maria Barrio; Mona J. Mølnvik

2009-01-01

468

Rocky Mountain Coordination Center: Fire Information (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of information on fire hazards and prediction for the Rocky Mountain area. Users can access information on current fires and fire restrictions for this area. Other materials include predictive services (intelligence, weather forecasts, fuels and fire danger ratings), logistics and dispatch information for aviation and fire crews, and administrative information for RMCC personnel (safety, training, employment opportunities). There are also links to other agencies with related information.

469

Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators in the southeast United States will find links to resources for ocean science instruction on this website. The resource topics include general ocean and earth science education materials, ocean observing systems, water quality, wetlands and remote sensing data.

470

Depression - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

471

Karstic mountain almost conquered. [Guatemala  

SciTech Connect

International design and construction teams building a 300-Mw hydroelectric system high in central Guatemala's rugged mountains since 1977 have persevered through karstic-limestone nightmares, logistical bottlenecks and political upheaval to bring the $700-million Rio Chixoy project close to completion. The costly power push, requiring the largest construction effort in Guatemala's modern history, plays a critical role for the future. When all five Pelton-wheel turbines are spinning late next year, their output will more than double electricity production in Central America's poorest, most populous country. Despite numerous delays, design changes and cost increases above the original $240-million bid package, work has progressed to the final stages on a 360-ft-high rockfill dam, 16-mile power tunnel and aboveground powerhouse.

Not Available

1982-06-10

472

Consequences of herbivory in the mountain birch ( Betula pubescens ssp tortuosa ): importance of the functional organization of the tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of experiments indicate that the functional organization of the mountain birch may influence the ways in which the tree responds to simulated or natural herbivory. The first experiment showed that herbivory to both short and long shoot leaves affects plant development but, because growth largely proceeds by resources of the previous year, is manifested only in the year

Erkki Haukioja; Kai Ruohomäki; Josef Senn; Janne Suomela; Mari Walls

1990-01-01

473

A Design and Implementation of Forest-Fires Surveillance System based on Wireless Sensor Networks for South Korea Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) become an important issue such as environmental monitoring, home or factory automation, logistics and so on. Many wild fires cause to damage on forest and a mountain which have valuable natural resources during the dry winter season. Current surveillance systems use a camera, an infrared sensor system and a satellite system. These systems can not

Byungrak Son; Yong-sork Her

2006-01-01

474

Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks

B. J. Bentz; J. A. Powell; J. A. Logan

1996-01-01

475

A Comparative Study of Impacts to Mountain Bike Trails in Five Common Ecological Regions of the Southwestern U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: A rapid increase in mountain biking partici- pation over the past thirty years has led to concerns about ecological impacts to recreation environments, especially trails. It is widely accepted that recreational use of natural areas inevitably results in some degree of change to resource conditions, and managers must consider the social acceptability and ecological significance of such changes

Dave D. White; M. Troy Waskey; Grant P. Brodehl; Pamela E. Foti

476

Resource Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formalism for specifying component interfaces that expose component requirements on limited resources. The formal- ism permits an algorithmic check if two or more components, when put together, exceed the available resources. Moreover, the formalism can be used to compute the quantity of resources necessary for satisfying the requirements of a collection of components. The formalism can be

Arindam Chakrabarti; Luca De Alfaro; Thomas A. Henzinger; Mariëlle Stoelinga

2003-01-01

477

Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?  

PubMed

Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff T; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J

2013-01-08

478

Can Individual and Social Patterns of Resource Use Buffer Animal Populations against Resource Decline?  

PubMed Central

Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater’s possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1?1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species’ biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff T.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

2013-01-01

479

Fuels and chemicals from novel seed oils  

SciTech Connect

A review with several refs. of oilseeds as fuel and chemical resources. Oilseeds offer the promise of supplementing and replacing exhaustible, nonrenewable resources for a variety of applications. However, they are not without their problems and, with few exceptions, they are not widely used for fuel and chemical feedstocks. Land-use issues, food-fuel trade-offs and economic issues loom as major barriers to widespread cultivation.

Morgan, R.P.; Shultz, E.B.

1981-01-01

480

Natural crude oil as an alternate fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural crude oil is presently the principal energy source in the USA but is considered an alternate fuel under certain conditions. The oil is excluded from the category of primary fuel due to lack of availability. Both the residue left in producing fields and the undiscovered deposits are classed as alternate fuels. The development of such resources is discussed and

F. S. Crane

1976-01-01