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1

Mountain fuel resources 30 tons per day entrained flow coal gasification process development unit  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized gasification of coal in experimental entrained flow gasifiers was studied rather extensively during the period between 1953 and 1962 at the U.S. Bureau of Mines Morgantown Coal Research Center. A laboratory-scale gasifier with some similarity to the Bureau of Mines unit was operated by the Eyring Research Institute (MFI) between 1974 and 1978. This work was followed by extensive process design studies carried out by Mountain Fuel Resources which also led to the issuance of a U.S. patent. One of the important conclusions from this study was that feeding the dry coal to an entrained flow gasifier with recycle product gas was inherently more efficient than feeding the coal as a water slurry. A 30 tons per day process development unit (PDU) was designed, constructed and operated between 1980 and 1984 to provide data for further scale-up of system components. Controlled continuous dry-feeding of pulverized coal into the gasifier at pressures between 100 and 260 psia (600 and 1700 kPa) was achieved. The unit was operated for more than 2000 hours on six different feedstocks. Most of the tests were conducted with Utah bituminous coal, achieving above 90 percent carbon conversion without char recycle.

Chen, C.; Coates, R.L.

1986-01-01

2

The Rocky Mountain Institute: Home Resource Efficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Institute offers an informational Web site entitled Home Resource Efficiency. Visitors can learn several tips and tricks on how to keep their home as energy efficient as possible with link titles such as Energy Efficiency: First Things First; Appliances and Lighting; Home Cooling; Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Savings Measures; Household Water Efficiency; Resource-Efficient New Home Construction; Environmentally Friendly Building Materials; Renewable Energy: Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro; Indoor Air Quality; and Recycling. Each page contains some basic information about the subject, what we can do to help with energy efficiency, and additional helpful links.

3

Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activ...

R. W. Stoffle M. J. Evans D. B. Halmo W. E. Niles J. T. O'Farrell

1989-01-01

4

Guadalupe Mountains National Park - Historic Resource Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes basic historical data relating to Guadalupe Mountains National Park. While the report was written to assist the park planners, much of the information is also of general interest. The study identifies the historical themes relevant to ...

1971-01-01

5

White Mountain Apache Tribe assesses fuel potential of forestry waste  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a study of the potential of wood wastes for an energy supply for sawmill operations. The waste would provide fuel for a cogeneration plant at a lumber mill owned by the White Mountain Apache Tribe.

Whittier, J.

1994-12-31

6

Liquid fuels from renewable resources  

SciTech Connect

Informed citizens in many countries are concerned about the long-term effect of the release of fossilized carbon into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels. Of more immediate concern is the degradation of air quality in urban areas due to pollutants in vehicle exhaust. Fuel from renewable resources is a technology that addresses both these concerns. Combustion of annual-growth biomass recycles carbon. Alcohol fuels are blended with petroleum to add oxygen, and the resulting fuel reduces internal combustion engine emissions. Vegetable oil as a replacement for diesel fuel has a similar advantage of reducing engine emissions. In the United States and many industrialized nations, government is seeking ways to reduce the cost of farm support programs. Liquid fuel and other alternative products from biomass offer a significant new market for agriculture. An ancillary benefit is the opportunity to stimulate depressed rural economies. The Biomass Energy and Alternative Products Committee (FPE-709) planned the Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources Conference to provide an opportunity for engineers, scientists, and policy makers with a range of interests and viewpoints to meet together and assess current liquid fuel from renewable resources technology. The planning committee was very gratified to receive papers prepared by engineers and scientists from a broad range of disciplines representing both the feedstock production and conversion groups. It is hoped that interaction of the two groups will highlight systems issues which need to be addressed, and stimulate interest in addressing these issues.

Cundiff, J.S. (ed.)

1992-01-01

7

Fuels from renewable resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

8

Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.  

PubMed

As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

2014-09-15

9

Sensor-based computer assists Mountain Fuel's gas dispatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IBM System\\/7 Sensor-Based computer is helping dispatchers at Mountain Fuel Supply Co.'s Rock Spring, Wyoming, field headquarters monitor and regulate pipeline flow and deliveries to 275,000 customers in northern Utah and SW Wyoming. The System\\/7 computer is linked to a larger host computer (an IBM 370\\/155) in Salt Lake City and to all remote video terminals in service at

1974-01-01

10

Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

Ewert, Alan

11

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

12

A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have strong restoration opportunities: Big Thompson River West, Cache la Poudre South, Colorado River North, and Onahu Creek. Ten watersheds were found to have substantial near-term issues: Aspen Brook, Big Thompson River West, Black Canyon Creek, Cabin Creek, Cache la Poudre South, Fall River, Hague Creek, La Poudre Pass Creek, North Fork Big Thompson (East), and Colorado River North.

Theobald, D. M.; Baron, J. S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S. E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K. E.; Hartman, M.

2010-01-01

13

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences] [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

14

Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved

Shikui Dong; James Lassoie; K. K. Shrestha; Zhaoli Yan; Ekalabya Sharma; D. Pariya

2009-01-01

15

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1992-01-01

16

Mineral resources of the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lake County, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources, but it has moderate mineral resource potential for soda ash, boron compounds, sodium sulfate, magnesium compounds, salts, potash, bromine, lithium, tungsten, and geothermal energy. The area also has low mineral resource potential for low-grade, high-tonnage, epithermal, hot-spring gold-silver deposits, for magnesium deposits, and for oil and gas.

Diggles, M.F.; King, H.D.; Gettings, ME.; Conrad, J.E.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Soreghan, G.S.

1990-01-01

17

Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area. An area surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the extreme northwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The area surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and all but the southwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large area around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study areas, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area, and to all but the southwest corner of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study area. Sand and gravel are present in both study areas, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.

Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.

1990-01-01

18

Disposal of Shippingport LWBR spent Nuclear Fuel in Yucca Mountain: Waste Package Internal Criticality Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the disposal criticality analysis for the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) being considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. The methodology for disposal criticality analysis includes the evaluation of the potential configurations--intact through degraded--based on the supporting analyses of the physical and geochemical processes that degrade the fuel over time.

H.R. Radulescu; J.W. Davis

2000-09-27

19

Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy. After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields. We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

Viviroli, D.; Archer, D. R.; Buytaert, W.; Fowler, H. J.; Greenwood, G. B.; Hamlet, A. F.; Huang, Y.; Koboltschnig, G.; Litaor, M. I.; López-Moreno, J. I.; Lorentz, S.; Schädler, B.; Schreier, H.; Schwaiger, K.; Vuille, M.; Woods, R.

2011-02-01

20

Mountain Meadows and their contribution to Sierra Nevada Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human alterations of California's waterscape have exploited rivers, wetlands and meadows of the Sierra Nevada. A century of intensive logging, mining, railroad building, development, fire suppression, and grazing by sheep and cattle has left only 25 percent "intact" natural habitat in the Sierra Nevada (SNEP 1995). Much of this intact habitat occurs at higher elevations, often in non-forested alpine or in less productive forests and woodlands where mountain meadows exist. Mountain meadows serve many ecological functions including habitat for threatened and endangered terrestrial and aquatic species, and are considered to be essential physical components to watershed function and hydrology with significant water storage, filtration and flood attenuation properties. This study evaluates the physical characteristics and hydrologic function of Clarks Meadow located in northern Sierra Nevada, Plumas County, California. In 2001, Clarks Meadow received significant restoration work in the upstream half of the meadow which diverted the stream from an incised channel to a shallow remnant channel, creating a stable channel and reconnecting the groundwater table to the stream. No restoration work was done in the lower half of Clarks Meadow where the stream still flows through an incised channel. Clarks Meadow offers a unique opportunity to study both a restored, hydrologically functional meadow and an incised, hydrologically disconnected stretch of the same stream and meadow. The physical characteristics of Clarks Meadows that were measured include surface area, subsurface thickness, porosity and permeability of subsurface materials, potential water storage volume, and surface infiltration rates. The goal of this study is to refine hydrologic characterization methods, quantify water storage potential of a healthy, non-incised meadow and assess its role in attenuating flood flows during high discharge times. Initial results suggest that significant subsurface storage volume is available in the meadow. Incising conditions in the unstable lower channel tends to dewater the lower portion of the meadow which encourages bank erosion through piping and corrasion. This study addresses questions that have broad implications for water management throughout the state because much of California gets water from Sierra high elevation watersheds in which meadows are thought to play a critical role in sustained long-term hydrologic function. The results of this study will be used to inform Integrated Regional Water Management Plans throughout Northern California.

Cornwell, K.; Brown, K.; Monohan, C.

2007-12-01

21

Yucca Mountain Biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY89 and FY90  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (US DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geological repository for high-level radioactive waste. To ensure site characterization activities do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program, the Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program, has been implemented monitor and mitigate environmental impacts and to ensure activities comply with applicable environmental laws. Potential impacts to vegetation, small mammals, and the desert tortoise (an indigenous threatened species) are addressed, as are habitat reclamation, radiological monitoring, and compilation of baseline data. This report describes the program in Fiscal Years 1989 and 1990. 12 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs. (MHB)

NONE

1991-01-01

22

APPLIED SOCIOLOGY AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES A PROJECT IN APUSENI MOUNTAINS (ROMANIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some findings of a sociological research of the connections between applied sociology and potential development programs. The aim is to provide better guidance to the socio-economic program implementation strategy design process. The project€™s scope included human resource development objectives, encompassing 51 rural communities from the Apuseni Mountains Area of western Romania. An ample research study has been

Calina Ana BUTIU; Mihai PASCARU

2012-01-01

23

75 FR 77652 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNVSO0000.L16100000.DO0000...Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District...Statement, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-12-13

24

Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (Rare II), Randolph County, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monomgahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virgina. 28 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Weed, E.G.A.

1981-01-01

25

Fuel for the Future: Unlocking New Fuel Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With worldwide production of light crude oil reserves expected to last ~50 years, a global energy crisis may ensue. In fact, a recent report by the UK Energy Research Centre stated that 'conventional oil production may peak before 2030 with a significant risk of a peak before 2020' (October, 2009). Therefore, there is an increasing need to look towards the use of alternative fuel resources like the heavy/ super heavy crude oils and oil sands. In Canada and Venezuela there are vast oil sands (containing 2,100 billion barrels) that are already being exploited (Clemente and Fedorak, 2005). During oil sand refining, bitumen is extracted, which results in large amounts of contaminated waters (known as tailings pond water, TPW) being generated.

Johnson, Richard; Whitby, Corinne

26

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01

27

Assessment of Accident Risk for Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel to Yucca Mountain Using Radtran 5.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yucca Mountain Final Environmental Impact Statement (YMEIS) included an analysis of the radiological impacts associated with the transport of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from multiple locations across the US to Yucca Mountain for both incident-free and accident conditions.[1] While the transportation risks calculated in the YMEIS were small, it is important to recognize the many conservatisms that were utilized

E. M. Supko; J. H. Kessler

2007-01-01

28

Valuing Natural Forest Resources: An Application of Contingent Valuation Method on Adaba-Dodola Forest Priority Area, Bale Mountains, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research employs a contingent valuation method (CVM) to estimate the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) to gain use and control rights to a natural forest resource at the Adaba-Dodola Forest Priority Area (ADFPA) in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia. The analysis was based on data collected from 295 households residing in and around the forest resource. Both binary probit

Ayalneh Bogale

2011-01-01

29

Mapping the Distribution of Wildfire Fuels Using AVIRIS in the Santa Monica Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catastrophic wildfires, such as the 1990 Painted Cave Fire in Santa Barbara or Oakland fire of 1991, attest to the destructive potential of fire in the wildland/urban interface. For example, during the Painted Cave Fire, 673 structures were consumed over a period of only six hours at an estimated cost of 250 million dollars (Gomes et al., 1993). One of the primary sources of fuels is chaparral, which consists of plant species that are adapted to frequent fires and may actually promote its ignition and spread of through volatile organic compounds in foliage. As one of the most widely distributed plant communities in Southern California, and one of the most common vegetation types along the wildland urban interface, chaparral represents one of the greatest sources of wildfire hazard in the region. An ongoing NASA funded research project was initiated in 1994 to study the potential of AVIRIS for mapping wildfire fuel properties in Southern California chaparral. The project was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains, an east-west trending range in western Los Angeles County that has experienced extremely high fire frequencies over the past 70 years. The Santa Monica Mountains were selected because they exemplify many of the problems facing the southwest, forming a complex mosaic of land ownership intermixed with a diversity of chaparral age classes and fuel loads. Furthermore, the area has a wide diversity of chaparral community types and a rich background in supporting geographic information including fire history, soils and topography. Recent fires in the Santa Monica Mountains, including several in 1993 and the Calabasas fire of 1996 attest to the active fire regime present in the area. The long term objectives of this project are to improve existing maps of wildland fuel properties in the area, link AVIRIS derived products to fuel models under development for the region, then predict fire hazard through models that simulate fire spread. In this paper, we describe the AVIRIS derived products we are developing to map wildland fuels.

Roberts, Dar; Gardner, M.; Regelbrugge, J.; Pedreros, D.; Ustin, S.

1998-01-01

30

Water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment using a geographical information system and remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources assessment, which is an essential task in making development plans managing water resources, is considerably difficult to do in a data-poor region. In this study, we attempted to conduct a quantitative water resources assessment in a poorly gauged mountainous catchment, i.e. the River Indrawati catchment (1233 km2) in Nepal. This catchment is facing problems such as dry-season water

Roshan Shrestha; Kaoru Takara; Yasuto Tachikawa; Raghu N. Jha

2004-01-01

31

Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California  

SciTech Connect

The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

1982-01-01

32

Parameter Selection for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel to be Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain license application. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data are reported for representative fuels and bounding fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported were not generated under any quality assurance program.

D. L. Fillmore

2003-10-01

33

Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines to assess the undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan between 2006 and 2007. This report presents the results of this work and contains chapters describing and assessing the mineral resources of Afghanistan. An accompanying Geographical Information System (GIS) is an accompanying disk that includes supporting data. Funding for this effort was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Edited by Peters, Stephen G.; Ludington, Stephen D.; Orris, Greta J.; Sutphin, David M.; Bliss, James D.; Rytuba, James J.

2007-01-01

34

Parameter selection for Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel to be used in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data is reported for representative fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported was not generated under any Q.A. Program.

Fillmore, D.L.

1998-06-01

35

Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal.  

PubMed

Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations. PMID:18433982

Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D

2009-02-01

36

Seasonal variation in the honeydew, invertebrate, fruit and nectar resource for bellbirds in a New Zealand mountain beech forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the seasonal availability of the major bellbird (Anthornis melanura) food sources in a mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) forest at Craigieburn, the invertebrate, honeydew, and mistletoe (Peraxilla tetrapetala and Alepis flavida) fruit and nectar resources were sampled over 12 months. The total available food varied 2.6-fold from a low in October (8798 kJ\\/ha) to a high in

David J. Murphy; Dave Kelly

2003-01-01

37

Some cost, energy, environmental, and resource implications of synthetic fuels produced from coal for military aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the availability and economics of jet fuels derived from crude oil become less certain in the future, the United States Air Force will need to consider the implications of utilizing aviation fuels derived from alternative energy resources. This paper examines the most promising energy resource alternatives to crude oil and the most attractive aviation fuels derivable from the resource

1976-01-01

38

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applications to Unconventional Fossil Fuel Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical and economic projections strongly suggest that fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the global energy market through at least the mid twenty-first century. However, low-cost conventional oil and gas will be depleted in that time frame. Therefore new sources of energy will be needed. We discuss two relatively untapped unconventional fossil fuels: heavy oil and gas hydrate. In both cases, nuclear magnetic resonance plays a key role in appraising the resource and providing information needed for designing production processes.

Kleinberg, R. L.; Leu, G.

2008-12-01

39

Natural Resources and Watershed Science Field Camps at Colorado State University’s Pingree Park Mountain Campus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For almost a century, the Natural Resources College (and its predecessors) has been offering field courses at the Colorado State University (CSU) Pingree Park Mountain Campus. This campus is located just north of Rocky Mountain National Park on the Little South of the Cache la Poudre River at an elevation of 2750 meters, approximately 40 kilometers west of Fort Collins. In 1912, an Act of Congress provided national forest land for the formation of the mountain campus, and the first forestry summer camp was held in 1917. The infrastructure of the Pingree Park campus was established in part by the Forestry camp, with the first student cabins being built in 1941. In the early 1960s as part of the International Hydrological Decade, the Cooperative Watershed Management Unit coordinated efforts to understand and analyse the basic resources of the Little South Fork, with an emphasis on the geology, hydrology, and climate. Twice each summer, CSU offers the NR 220 Natural Resources Ecology and Measurements course. Students are instructed on five topics: forestry, rangeland ecosystem science, fisheries and wildlife, recreation and tourism, and watershed science and geology. Group assignments integrate the different disciplines through field measurements and develop a management plan for the ecosystems present in the area. In increasing elevation these are the mountain shrub, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, spruce-fir, and alpine communities. The re-establishment of hydrological and meteorological monitoring at Pingree Park presents the students with historical and current hydrometeorological conditions. Starting in late May 2010, these stations will be the basis for a new graduate level watershed measurements field course. This paper presents an overview of the two CSU field courses, the potential for additional courses, and research opportunities at CSU’s Pingree Park.

Fassnacht, S. R.; Laituri, M.; Kampf, S. K.; Sanford, W. E.; Coleman, R.; Layden, P.

2009-12-01

40

ORLEANS MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA (B5079), CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orleans Mountain Roadless Area (B5079) in California has substantiated mineral-resource potential for placer and lode gold. This conclusion is based on an investigation that included geologic mapping, study of known mines, prospects, and mineralized areas, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, and geochemical sampling. Gravel deposits along the Salmon River contain placer gold. Resources of lode gold exist at mines in the northwest and southwest portions of the roadless area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary, M.; Linne, J. Mitchell

1984-01-01

41

Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to increase sediment yield primarily through changes in temperature and hydrology that promote vegetation disturbances (i.e., wildfire, insect/pathogen outbreak, drought-related die off). Here, we synthesize existing data from central Idaho to explore (1) how sediment yields are likely to respond to climate change in semi-arid basins influenced by wildfire, (2) the potential consequences for aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure, and (3) prospects for mitigating sediment yields in forest basins. Recent climate-driven increases in the severity and extent of wildfire suggest that basin-scale sediment yields within the next few years to decades could be greater than the long-term average rate of 146 T km - 2 year - 1 observed for central Idaho. These elevated sediment yields will likely impact downstream reservoirs, which were designed under conditions of historically lower sediment yield. Episodic erosional events (massive debris flows) that dominate post-fire sediment yields are impractical to mitigate, leaving road restoration as the most viable management opportunity for offsetting climate-related increases in sediment yield. However, short-term sediment yields from experimental basins with roads are three orders of magnitude smaller than those from individual fire-related events (on the order of 10 1 T km - 2 year - 1 compared to 10 4 T km - 2 year - 1 , respectively, for similar contributing areas), suggesting that road restoration would provide a relatively minor reduction in sediment loads at the basin-scale. Nevertheless, the ecologically damaging effects of fine sediment (material < 6 mm) chronically produced from roads will require continued management efforts.

Goode, Jaime R.; Luce, Charles H.; Buffington, John M.

2012-02-01

42

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1994-05-01

43

Dose Rate Evaluation for Spent Fuel Aging Areas at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository will provide site-specific casks and aging pads for thermal management of commercial SNF with a heat rate in excess of the waste package thermal output limit. An aging pad can accommodate 1,000 MTHM of SNF, containing a total of 100 aging casks with a horizontal module of 20 casks, and 80 vertical site-specific casks arranged in a 2 x 40 array. The proposed aging system will provide five aging areas in two separate locations. The first location will contain a single pad designated as Aging Area 17A (1,000 MTHM capacity). The second location will contain Aging Areas 17B through 17E (20,000 MTHM total capacity), each consisting of five aging pads arranged in a compact rectangular configuration. This paper presents calculated dose rates as a function of distance from Aging Areas 17A and 17B through 17E. In addition, the paper evaluates the effect of design parameter variations on dose rates with focus on spacing between casks and spacing between pads in Aging Areas 17B through 17E.

G. Radulescu; Shiaw-Der Su

2005-01-07

44

Marine macroalgae: an untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals.  

PubMed

As world energy demand continues to rise and fossil fuel resources are depleted, marine macroalgae (i.e., seaweed) is receiving increasing attention as an attractive renewable source for producing fuels and chemicals. Marine plant biomass has many advantages over terrestrial plant biomass as a feedstock. Recent breakthroughs in converting diverse carbohydrates from seaweed biomass into liquid biofuels (e.g., bioethanol) through metabolic engineering have demonstrated potential for seaweed biomass as a promising, although relatively unexplored, source for biofuels. This review focuses on up-to-date progress in fermentation of sugars from seaweed biomass using either natural or engineered microbial cells, and also provides a comprehensive overview of seaweed properties, cultivation and harvesting methods, and major steps in the bioconversion of seaweed biomass to biofuels. PMID:23245657

Wei, Na; Quarterman, Josh; Jin, Yong-Su

2013-02-01

45

The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program : guide to information contained in folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Philip Smith Mountains quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geology and mineral resources of the Philip Smith Mountains quadrangle were virtually unexplored until the investigations for oil began in northern Alaska. Construction of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System has now made the quadrangle accessible by road. In 1975 and 1976 a team of geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists investigated the quadrangle in order to assess its mineral resource potential. This report is a guide to the resulting folio of twelve maps that describe the geology, stream sediment geochemistry, aeromagnetic features, Landsat imagery, and mineral resources of the area. The bedrock geology and aeromagnetic surveys show that mineral deposits associated with intrusive rocks are probably absent. However, the geology and geochemical anomalies do indicate the possibility of vein and strata-bound deposits of copper, lead, and zinc in the Paleozoic shale and carbonate rocks in the southern part of the quadrangle and of stratabound deposits of zinc and copper in the Permian and Mesozoic shales along the mountain front. The northwestern part of the quadrangle has a low to moderate potential for oil or gas; Mississippian carbonate rocks are the most likely reservoir. The only minerals produced to date have been construction materials.

Reiser, H. N.; Brosge, W. P.; Hamilton, T. D.; Singer, D. A.; Menzie, W. D., II; Bird, K. J.; Cady, J. W.; Le Compte, J. R.; Cathrall, J. B.

1983-01-01

46

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

Club, Appalachian M.

47

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1995-07-01

48

The "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English" as a Resource for Southern Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that one important reflection of a culture's status is the existence of general reference books on it. To this end, it discusses the forthcoming "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English," a book designed to address the lack of a comprehensive reference work on Appalachian speech and language patterns in this region. The paper…

Montgomery, Michael

49

Data on ground-water resources of the Spring Mountains area, Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report lists data on ground-water levels for 16 wells and discharge for 18 springs in the Spring Mountain area of the Tolyabe National Forest. Water levels in wells ranged from 325 to 519 feet below land surface. The highest spring discharge listed is 107 gallons per minute. In addition, data on the chemical quality of the water from selected wells and springs are listed.

Nichols, William D.; Davis, Louise E.

1979-01-01

50

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25

51

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Summer 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subtitled "Resources for Our Education", this catalog is aimed not only at the professional educator, but at anyone, young or old, who is interested in learning in its broadest sense. Items listed in the catalog include books, toys, structures, furniture, instructional aids, magazines, films, and any other resource which contains data about or…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

52

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K. F.

1982-08-01

53

Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

2007-05-01

54

Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels

James L. Easterly; Margo Burnham

1996-01-01

55

75 FR 43138 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...preparing an environmental impact statement (EIS) to analyze the effects of managing fuels...Notice of Availability (NOA) of the draft EIS in the Federal Register. The final...

2010-07-23

56

Biophysical controls on surface fuel litterfall and decomposition in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litterfall and decomposition rates of the organic matter that comprise forest fuels are important to fire manage- ment, because they define fuel treatment longevity and provide parameters to design, test, and validate ecosystem models. This study explores the environmental factors that control litterfall and decomposition in the context of fuel management for several major forest types in the northern Rocky

Robert E. Keane

2008-01-01

57

Linking models of land use, resources, and economy to simulate the development of mountain regions (ALPSCAPE).  

PubMed

We present a framework of a scenario-based model that simulates the development of the municipality of Davos (Swiss Alps). We illustrate our method with the calculation of the scenario for 2050 "Decrease in subsidies for mountain agriculture and liberalization of markets." The main objective was to link submodels of land-use allocation (regression-based approach), material and energy flows submodels (Material and Energy Flux Analysis), and economic submodels (Input-Output Analysis). Letting qualitative and quantitative information flow from one submodel to the next, following the storyline describing a scenario, has proven to be suitable for linking submodels. The succession of the submodels is then strongly dependent on the scenario. Qualitative information flows are simulated with microsimulations of actor choices. Links between the submodels show different degrees of robustness: although the links involving microsimulations are the weakest, the uncertainty introduced by the land-use allocation model is actually advantageous because it allows one possible change in the landscape in the future to be simulated. The modeling results for the scenario here presented show that the disappearance of agriculture only marginally affects the region's factor income, but that the consequences for the self-sufficiency rate, for various landscape-related indicators and ecosystem services, and for the economy in the long term may be considerable. These benefits compensate for agriculture's modest direct economic value. The framework presented can potentially be applied to any region and scenario. This framework provides a basis for a learning package that allows potential detrimental consequences of regional development to be anticipated at an early stage. PMID:17638053

Lundström, Corinne; Kytzia, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; Gret-Regamey, Adrienne; Bebi, Peter

2007-09-01

58

Lessons Learned From a Regional Approach to Route Selection for Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the landmark route identification project of the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked four state regional groups to produce a regional suite of rail and highway routes to Yucca Mountain, Nevada. DOE will use the regional suites of routes as a primary input into the national route selection process. The Midwest's project used federal guidelines and regional input to develop route comparison criteria for rail and highway routes from Midwestern reactors. With this project, the Midwest not only tested the viability of a regional approach to route selection, but also tested the practicality of the federal route selection guidelines. The results and lessons learned from this project will affect future spent fuel route selection processes at both a national and regional level. (authors)

Wochos, S.K. [The Council of State Governments - Midwest, 701 E. 22nd St, Suite 110, Lombard, IL 60148 (United States)

2006-07-01

59

Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer - resources Cerebral palsy - resources Celiac disease - resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - resources Cleft palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic ...

60

Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D  

SciTech Connect

To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

Villet, R.H.

1980-04-01

61

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

62

Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA  

PubMed Central

In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [?30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior.

Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Negron, Jose F.; Smith, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

63

Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

2013-01-01

64

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin

Shen, Yongping; Wang, Guoya; Ding, Yongjian; Mao, Weiyi; Liu, Shiyin; Wang, Shunde; Mamatkanov, Duishen M.

2010-05-01

65

Inventory and analysis of rangeland resources of the state land block on Parker Mountain, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High altitude color infrared (CIR) photography was interpreted to provide an 1:24,000 overlay to U.S.G.S. topographic maps. The inventory and analysis of rangeland resources was augmented by the digital analysis of LANDSAT MSS data. Available geology, soils, and precipitation maps were used to sort out areas of confusion on the CIR photography. The map overlay from photo interpretation was also prepared with reference to print maps developed from LANDSAT MSS data. The resulting map overlay has a high degree of interpretive and spatial accuracy. An unacceptable level of confusion between the several sagebrush types in the MSS mapping was largely corrected by introducing ancillary data. Boundaries from geology, soils, and precipitation maps, as well as field observations, were digitized and pixel classes were adjusted according to the location of pixels with particular spectral signatures with respect to such boundaries. The resulting map, with six major cover classes, has an overall accuracy of 89%. Overall accuracy was 74% when these six classes were expanded to 20 classes.

Jaynes, R. A. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

66

NRC approves spent-fuel cask for general use: Who needs Yucca Mountain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on April 7, 1993, added Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates`s (PSNA`s) VSC-24 spent-fuel container to its list of approved storage casks. Unlike previously approved designs, however, the cask was made available for use by utilities without site-specific approval. The VSC-24 (ventilated storage cask) is a 130-ton, 16-foot high vertical storage container composed of a ventilated concrete

1993-01-01

67

A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

68

Evaluating Consequences of Volcanism for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The likelihood that a volcanic dike could intersect a high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mt. is very small, 1E-9/yr to 1E-7/yr. The intersection of a cone-forming conduit is even less likely. Realistic insights about the fate of HLW in a volcanic conduit suggest that fewer waste packages may be affected and particle sizes of ejected spent fuel may be larger than previously assumed. Most HLW consists of fractured ceramic pellets of UO2 about a cm in diameter, with a melting point >2800C, much higher than magma temperatures of 1000-1200C. Spent fuel would not dissolve in magma; therefore the size range of transported fragments would largely be determined by pre-existing particle sizes in fuel rods. This range would differ from that of volcanic ejecta. The expected travel time in a conduit from repository depth to the surface would be short, allowing little time for erosion of ceramic pellets but permitting rapid quenching of magma on the relatively cold waste packages and their contents. Quench rinds would protect waste fragments during rapid transit to the surface in a column of frothy magma. Xenoliths and crush-impact studies constrain the size of spent fuel particles that may be incorporated in volcanic ash. Estimates of fuel particle size have used a log triangular distribution from 1-100 microns. For comparison, grains of table salt are 100 microns across. Talcum powder is 10 microns. One micron is the wavelength of near infrared light. However, it is unlikely that spent fuel could be reduced to this minute size range. At Lathrop Wells, tuff xenoliths eroded from conduit walls are common in the scoria cone. They vary in size from a fraction of a cm up to 30 cm and have quenched basalt rinds, providing evidence that large spent fuel fragments could survive intact over the short travel distance to the surface. Crush-impact studies at energies up to 1000 J/gram on spent fuel show less than 30% of the fuel mass reduced to <100 microns and less than 10% to <10 microns. Hypothetical doses are sensitive to assumptions about particle size because respirability decreases sharply as particles increase beyond 10 microns. In performance assessment, using a particle size range of 100-10000 microns reduces dose 200-fold compared to a range of 1-100 microns. There is a strong basis to assume that only a fraction of spent fuel entrained in a conduit would be ejected as tephra. The relative volume of ash vs. scoria cone and lava flows can be used to estimate practical limits on the fraction of ejected waste in ash that could be transported by water and wind. Compared with ash, waste in lava flows or scoria cones would be protected from erosion and transport for hundreds of thousands of years, as shown by the million-year-old cones and flows in Crater Flat near Yucca Mt. Also, it is likely that only a limited number of waste packages could be entrained because volcanic conduits would be smaller at the repository depth of 300 m than at ground surface. Lithostatic pressure keeps conduits smaller at depth, possibly <10 m in diameter. It is also possible that a conduit could form between drifts, and no waste would be entrained. Dikes are more likely to intrude pre-existing faults. Conduits form along dikes, so keeping drifts set back from larger faults would reduce the chance of a conduit intersecting the repository. In sum, only a limited number of waste packages is likely be entrained in a volcanic conduit, and there is strong evidence that a large fraction of the HLW content would not be reduced to very small particles. For more information, see the report by NRC's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials [http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/acnw/letters/2007/].

Coleman, N.; Marsh, B.

2007-12-01

69

Letter Report: Looking Ahead at Nuclear Fuel Resources  

SciTech Connect

The future of nuclear energy and its ability to fulfill part of the world’s energy needs for centuries to come depend on a reliable input of nuclear fuel, either thorium or uranium. Obviously, the present nuclear fuel cycle is completely dependent on uranium. Future thorium cycles will also depend on 235U or fissile isotopes separated from used fuel to breed 232Th into fissile 233U. This letter report discusses several emerging areas of scientific understanding and technology development that will clarify and enable assured supplies of uranium and thorium well into the future. At the most fundamental level, the nuclear energy community needs to appreciate the origins of uranium and thorium and the processes of planetary accretion by which those materials have coalesced to form the earth and other planets. Secondly, the studies of geophysics and geochemistry are increasing understanding of the processes by which uranium and thorium are concentrated in various locations in the earth’s crust. Thirdly, the study of neutrinos and particularly geoneutrinos (neutrinos emitted by radioactive materials within the earth) has given an indication of the overall global inventories of uranium and thorium, though little indication for those materials’ locations. Crustal temperature measurements have also given hints of the vertical distribution of radioactive heat sources, primarily 238U and 232Th, within the continental crust. Finally, the evolving technologies for laser isotope separation are indicating methods for reducing the energy input to uranium enrichment but also for tailoring the isotopic vectors of fuels, burnable poisons and structural materials, thereby adding another tool for dealing with long-term waste management.

J. Stephen Herring

2013-09-01

70

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

71

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a

1980-01-01

72

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-02-01

73

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

74

Report to the LMFBR Steering Committee on Resources, Fuel and Fuel Cycles, and Proliferation Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report attempts to bound the range of approaches to resolving the issues associated with the nuclear fuel cycle by presenting opposing views in a common format. It discusses alternatives within the nuclear fuel cycle and does not discuss nonnuclear e...

1977-01-01

75

Production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel from nonpetroleum resources  

SciTech Connect

In late 1985, the New Zealand Gas-to-Gasoline Complex was successfully streamed producing high octane gasoline from natural gas. The heart of this complex is the Mobil fixed-bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) section which represents one of several newly developed technologies for production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels. All of these technologies are based on production of methanol by conventional technology, followed by conversion of the methanol to transportation fuel. The fixed-bed (MTG) process has been developed and commercialized. The fluid-bed version of the MTG process, which is now also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane number advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant in Wesseling, Federal Republic of Germany. The project was funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and by the industrial participants: Mobil, Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. This fluid-bed MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid-bed process for selective conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO). The MTO process can be combined with Mobil's commercially available olefins conversion process (Mobil-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate, MOGD) for coproduction of high quality gasoline and distillate via methanol. This MTO process was also successfully demonstrated at the Wesseling semiworks with this project being completed in late 1985.

Tabak, S.A.; Avidan, A.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

1986-04-01

76

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

77

National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A. M.; Stricker, G. D.; Ellis, M. S.; Roberts, S. B.; Keighin, C. W.; Murphy, E. C.; Cavaroc, V. V., Jr.; Johnson, R. C.; Wilde, E. M.

1999-01-01

78

Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-01

79

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

80

Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B. M.

1986-01-01

81

Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): The role of synoptic climatology on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interannual variability of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow is influenced by large-scale atmospheric pressure gradients, which dictate the direction of air mass movement and magnitude of moisture transport. Classifying synoptic circulation patterns facilitates analysis to determine dominant patterns that influence surface climate. This research identifies and evaluates the atmospheric drivers of water availability on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and is being conducted with companion analyses of climatic and streamflow trends to determine the climatic redistribution of western Canadian water resources. The study area for this project includes the north-flowing Liard, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers, which are tributaries to the Mackenzie River, and the east-flowing North Saskatchewan, Red Deer, Bow, and Oldman Rivers, which have experienced greater variability, including periods of droughts and pluvials. Winter snowpack represents a water-storage component that is released during spring freshet and provides the largest contribution of the annual streamflow of rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Summer water availability is influenced by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, and in some cases glacier melt or release of water from reservoirs built for hydroelectricity generation. Summer demand is highest in this region, where a high percentage of water is allocated for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Understanding and forecasting water availability are fundamental for the management of resources, flood mitigation, and an indicator of climate change. Synoptic circulation patterns are classified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), an unsupervised, iterative learning process that clusters and projects data onto an organized output array. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with high and low precipitation and temperature during winter (Nov-Apr) and summer (May-Oct) seasons are evaluated. The top and bottom quartiles of precipitation and temperature are identified and compared with frequency and persistence of mid-tropospheric circulation patterns. Results are used in conjunction with surface climate and streamflow trends as indicators of hydroclimatic variability and trends associated with western Canadian water resources.

Newton, B.; Prowse, T. D.; Bonsal, B. R.

2012-12-01

82

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

83

Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

84

Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

Hoffer, R. M.

1974-01-01

85

Fuels and energy from renewable resources; Proceedings of the Symposium, Chicago, Ill., August 29September 2, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative estimates of energy requirements for the longer term are considered, taking into account the rationale for estimating energy requirements, the approaches used for obtaining energy targets, and the relation of conservation to employment. Attention is given to the present contribution of renewable resources, the anticipated competition for available wood fuels in the U.S., a thermal analysis of forest fuels,

D. A. Tillman; K. V. Sarkanen; L. L. Anderson

1977-01-01

86

Spring stopover food resources and land use patterns of Rocky Mountain population Sandhill Carnes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Virtually the entire Rocky Mountain population (RMP) of greater sandhill cranes uses the San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado as a spring stopover area. RMP cranes in the SLV depend on unharvested grain provided on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, and on waste grain in privately owned fields. In recent years, however, fall tillage and irrigation of grain fields has become increasingly widespread in the SLV. These changes in farming practices have resulted in an unmeasured reduction in waste grain availability for RMP cranes during spring and have prompted concern over whether current or projected foods are adequate to meet spring demands of the target population size of 18,000-20,000 RMP cranesa?|

Laubhan, M.K.; Gammonley, J.H.

2001-01-01

87

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel can benefit the nuclear fuel cycle by destroying actinides or extending fissionable resources if uranium supplies become limited. The purpose of this study was to assess reprocessing and recycling in both fast and thermal reactors to determine the effectiveness for actinide destruction and resource utilization. Fast reactor recycling will reduce both the mass and heat load of actinides by a factor of 2, but only after 3 recycles and many decades. Thermal reactor recycling is similarly effective for reducing actinide mass, but the heat load will increase by a factor of 2. Economically recoverable reserves of uranium are estimated to sustain the current global fleet for the next 100 years, and undiscovered reserves and lower quality ores are estimated to contain twice the amount of economically recoverable reserves--which delays the concern of resource utilization for many decades. Economic analysis reveals that reprocessed plutonium will become competitive only when uranium prices rise to about %24360 per kg. Alternative uranium sources are estimated to be competitive well below that price. Decisions regarding the development of a near term commercial-scale reprocessing fuel cycle must partially take into account the effectiveness of reactors for actnides destruction and the time scale for when uranium supplies may become limited. Long-term research and development is recommended in order to make more dramatic improvements in actinide destruction and cost reductions for advanced fuel cycle technologies.The original scope of this work was to optimize an advanced fuel cycle using a tool that couples a reprocessing plant simulation model with a depletion analysis code. Due to funding and time constraints of the late start LDRD process and a lack of support for follow-on work, the project focused instead on a comparison of different reprocessing and recycling options. This optimization study led to new insight into the fuel cycle. AcknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 125862 for funding this research.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Smith, James D.

2008-09-01

88

Survey of US and total world production, proved resources, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The report updates previous IGT reports on US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. The US is endowed with roughly 22% of the world's proved reserves of conventional fossil fuels and about 9% of the uranium in the free world. It is particularly fortunate in having vast amounts of coal, oil shale, and peat. Although they present difficult economic and environmental problems in mining and utilization, a serious effort should be made to use these resources to a much greater extent.

Parent, J.D.

1984-01-01

89

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

90

Mountains Flowing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains look solid, but actually they flow like molasses under their own weight, according to a new study. This radio broadcast introduces research into the forces on mountains, and how they can best be explained by mountains flowing like a liquid. The study is changing the way scientists think about how the American landscape was formed. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

91

Mountain restoration: Soil and surface wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much wildlife habitat is being destroyed by extractive resource industries in mountain environments. This article illustrates how mountain wildlife habitat was restored in a devastated area. A strip mine for coal on the east slopes of the Alberta Rockies, occupied during its operations by Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, Shaw 1803), was reclaimed as bighorn habitat. By considering

B. N. MacCullum; V. Geist

1992-01-01

92

Any Way You Cut It! Molehills Out of Mountains. A Resource and Activity Guide for the Developmentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A resource and activity guide for the developmentally disabled that focuses on fine motor skills is presented. Attention is directed to fine motor behavior during the first year (vision, grasp, and release and reaching), and behaviors developing at 13 months (the interaction of fine motor and cognitive skills). An introductory section considers…

Barringer, M. D.; Kosal-Smither, C.

93

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

94

Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

Anderson, J. H. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

95

YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO{sub 2} in contact with small volumes of water within a several month period when the radiolysis product H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is added to the groundwater solution. The test setup has been mocked up for operation with spent fuel in the hot-cell.

Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

1998-09-18

96

Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.  

PubMed

Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group (178 g/day). The input output ratio was 1:1.7 for both crossbred and Burmese pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system. PMID:19101816

Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

2009-10-01

97

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

98

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

99

Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The second part presents probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract. The study also provides tables showing the location, tract number, and age (if available) of discovered deposits and prospects. For each of the 26 permissive tracts delineated in this study, summary information is provided on: (1) the rationale for delineating the tract; (2) the rationale for choosing the mineral deposit model used to assess the tract; (3) discovered deposits and prospects; (4) exploration history; and (5) the distribution of undiscovered deposits in the tract. The scale used to evaluate geologic information and draw tracts is 1:1,000,000.

Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

2008-01-01

100

Geology Fieldnotes: Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Guadalupe Mountains National Park site contains park geology information, park maps, photographs, related links, visitor information, multimedia resources, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The park geology section discusses the geologic history of Guadalupe Mountains' ancient marine fossil reef and the structural geology of the Mountains' Western Escarpment (including the Frijole Ranch area, the Pine Springs area, and the Capitan Limestone structures). The park maps section includes a map of the Capitan Reef today.

101

Apennine Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Montes Apenninus, the Apennine Mountains are the largest and longest of the lunar mountains. The southern section is imaged\\u000a on the photo. The peaks rise rapidly on the west from the Sea of Rains and slowly taper off to foothills toward the east.\\u000a A must sight for you and your guest under a rising sun.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Mons Wolff, Wolff Mountain, Mons

Don Spain

102

Mountain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

103

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

104

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

105

Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)  

PubMed Central

Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-?-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

2013-01-01

106

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a simultaneous reduction in the rate of growth of the economy. The continual increase in world oil prices should encourage commercialization of the vast oil shale and tar sands resources if environmental problems can be solved. Efforts must be made to improve safety, efficiency, and public acceptance of nuclear power and to minimize storage problems of radioactive materials. 115 references, 18 figures, 62 tables.

Parent, J.D.

1980-01-01

107

Yucca Mountain repository approved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a quiet White House ceremony on 23 July, U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law House Joint Resolution 87, which approves the site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the development of a repository for disposing of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.White House spokesman Ari Fleischer called the signing “an important step forward on the way to a comprehensive policy for dealing with our nation's nuclear waste.”

Showstack, Randy

108

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

109

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert, C.

1984-01-01

110

Thermodynamic metrics for aggregation of natural resources in life cycle analysis: insight via application to some transportation fuels.  

PubMed

While methods for aggregating emissions are widely used and standardized in life cycle assessment (LCA), there is little agreement about methods for aggregating natural resources for obtaining interpretable metrics. Thermodynamic methods have been suggested including energy, exergy, and emergy analyses. This work provides insight into the nature of thermodynamic aggregation, including assumptions about substitutability between resources and loss of detailed information about the data being combined. Methods considered include calorific value or energy, industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) and its variations, and ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) or emergy. A hierarchy of metrics is proposed that spans the range from detailed data to aggregate metrics. At the fine scale, detailed data can help identify resources to whose depletion the selected product is most vulnerable. At the coarse scale, new insight is provided about thermodynamic aggregation methods. Among these, energy analysis is appropriate only for products that rely primarily on fossil fuels, and it cannot provide a useful indication of renewability. Exergy-based methods can provide results similar to energy analysis by including only nonrenewable fuels but can also account for materials use and provide a renewability index. However, ICEC and its variations do not address substitutability between resources, causing its results to be dominated by dilute and low-quality resources such as sunlight. The use of monetary values to account for substitutability does not consider many ecological resources and may not be appropriate for the analysis of emerging products. ECEC or emergy explicitly considers substitutability and resource quality and provides more intuitive results but is plagued by data gaps and uncertainties. This insight is illustrated via application to the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, corn ethanol, and soybean biodiesel. Here, aggregate metrics reveal the dilemma facing the choice of fuels: high return on investment versus high renewability. PMID:20020741

Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2010-01-15

111

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, current estimates are presented for US and world nonrenewable energy sources. The data are presented in summary form due to space limitations. The full power, available on request from the authors, presents full details of the resource estimates. US fossil fuel resources are reported as of December 1977. However, for the summary world resource tables, 1976 US

J. D. Parent; J. G. Seay; H. R. Linden

1979-01-01

112

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

113

Mountain Mash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

114

Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.  

PubMed

Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

Preston, T Reg

2009-10-01

115

Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.  

PubMed

Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

Preston, T Reg

2009-08-01

116

Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the

C. Wilson; D. Levitt; J. Herr; M. Geza; R. Middleton; T. Nealon; A. Wolfsberg

2008-01-01

117

Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) promotes the sharing and dissemination of laboratory tested technologies and reagents to benefit and promote research across the world.  To this regard, several key resources (i.e. data, software

118

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Resources General Information Regarding CTRP AACI-NCI Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Strategic Subcommittee Report: CTRP Reporting Objectives and Implementation Timeline, July 2011 (PDF, 1 MB) Helpful Tools CTRP User's Guides Troubleshooting

119

Land, Life, and Environmental Change in Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest challenges facing mountain scholars is to separate environmental change caused by human activities from change that would have occurred without human interference. Linking cause and effect is especially difficult in mountain regions where physical processes can operate at ferocious rates and ecosystems are sensitive to rapid degradation by climate change and resource development. In addition, highland

Richard A. Marston

2008-01-01

120

Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

2004-01-01

121

Mountains: top down.  

PubMed

Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration. PMID:15575181

Woodwell, George M

2004-11-01

122

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by

J. M. Horn; A. Meike

1995-01-01

123

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing re...

J. M. Horn A. Meike

1995-01-01

124

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

125

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Posted: 06/23/2014 Posted: 06/23/2014 Resources Helpful Tools International Collaboration in Clinical Trials Portal Find out how to collaborate with U.S. based research groups and get answers to commonly asked questions about collaborating with NCI International

126

Final Report. EU project Olivero: The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Roman times, the olive orchards on sloping and mountainous land in Southern Europe have formed a major source of income and employment, with the production systems being economically and environmentally sustainable. This situation has now been disturbed by factors such as migration, competition from intensive lowland production and from non-European Union countries. This project will undertake a thorough analysis

L. Fleskens; L. Stroosnijder; Graaff de J

2006-01-01

127

The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation, First Annual Report. EU project Olivero  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project will devote itself to the future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land in southern Europe. These systems have been affected by emigration of local populations and fierce competition from low land plantations and from non-EU countries, and are currently neither productive nor sustainable. The project will undertake a thorough analysis of production, ecological and socio-economic

L. Fleskens; L. Stroosnijder; Graaff de J

2004-01-01

128

Basic research opportunities for lasting fuel gas supplies from inorganic resources. Final report 15 Feb 81-28 Feb 82  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six participants (twenty-five faculty members from U.S. universities and one private consultant) reviewed the status of current research problems relating to the production of fuel gases from inorganic resources using indefinitely sustainable energy sources during a workshop held during the period June 8 to August 14, 1981 at Texas AandM University, College Station, Texas. Photobiological, biomimetic, photochemical, photoelectrochemical, radiolytic and thermochemical pathways leading to the generation of hydrogen from water and hydrogen sulfide, of carbon monoxide and methane from carbon dioxide, and of nitrogen-based fuel gases from atmospheric nitrogen were assessed. The most likely energy sources to drive the endergonic, fuel-producing reactions are solar radiation, and heat and radiation from nuclear reactors. Recommendations at the end of each chapter outline the basic research needed to improve the fuel gas-producing reactions and to provide the basis for developments leading to the practical application of these processes. It was suggested that equal emphasis should be placed on research in photobiology, biomimetic chemistry, photochemistry and photoelectrochemistry pertinent to fuel-gas production. Thermochemical and radiolytic methods appear to deserve less attention at the present time. The report contains 840 literature citations.

Not Available

1982-02-01

129

Long-Term Habitat Use by Mountain Gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla beringei ). 2. Reuse of Foraging Areas in Relation to Resource Abundance, Quality, and Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource depression caused by current feeding and the rate of resource renewal should influence foragers' decisions about when to revisit foraging areas. Adjustment of foraging paths and revisit rates should be particularly important when resources renew slowly. Foragers can also benefit by returning more often to highly profitable than to less profitable foraging areas. Many highly frugivorous primates seem to

David P. Watts

1998-01-01

130

GEARHART MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource appraisal of the Gearhart Mountain Wilderness and contiguous roadless area in Oregon indicates that it is devoid of mines and mineral prospects and that there is little likelihood that metallic mineral resources occur in the area. Higher than normal heat flow characterizes the region containing Gearhart Mountain, indicating that it may have some potential, as yet undefined, for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources, but no geothermal resources were identified in this study.

Walker, George, W.; Ridenour, James

1984-01-01

131

Biotechnology for a Renewable Resources Chemicals and Fuels Industry, Biochemical Engineering R and D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals...

R. H. Villet

1980-01-01

132

Nuclear fuels for low-beta fusion reactors: Lithium resources revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In searching to attain optimum conditions for the controlled release of nuclear energy by fusion processes, the stationary confinement of low-pressure ring-shaped plasmas by strong magnetic fields is now regarded as the most promising approach. We consider a number of fuel combinations that could be operated in such low-beta reactor systems and look upon the relevant fuel reserves. The “classical”

Dieter Eckhartt I

1995-01-01

133

DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T. J.

1984-01-01

134

Mountain Barriers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. This lesson focuses on the changes that occur when mountains rise, thus changing the climate of the area and the plants and animals that live there. Students perform an experiment to observe differences in hot and cold air that help cause this phenomenon. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

135

Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources: Feasibility Study. Volume D. Agricultural Studies. Volume E. Municipal Waste Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume D provides an overview of the agricultural biomass resource in Canada and estimates the potential supply and cost of acquiring these reources for use as an energy feedstock. The chapters examine farm area under consideration; ultimate biomass poten...

1978-01-01

136

Fifty years in synthetic fuels information: Have we lost a strategic national resource  

SciTech Connect

The recent 50-year history of the synthetic fuels industry is a long saga of fluctuating national interest, funding, and precipitous world events. The goal of a unified information set has been seriously compromised by war and shortages, prosperity and apathy, economic conflict and OPEC, and a return to abundant supply. On the horizon looms the dismal prospect of a real and permanent energy shortage, a prospect that easily justifies the need for keeping important technical information for the future. This paper tells the tale of the research literature from the German experience during World War II through the disbanding of the Synthetic Fuels Corporation.

Roseberry, L.M.

1987-01-01

137

Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at

Gary Shaffer

2009-01-01

138

A process concept for utilizing fossil fuel resources with reduced CO sub 2 emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence of the probability of a global carbon dioxide greenhouse warming effect. The concentration of COâ in the atmosphere at the turn of the century was 280 ppM; presently it is 345 ppM, an increase of 23%. This increase has resulted mainly from human activity in burning increasing amounts of fossil fuel -- coal, oil, gas and

Steinberg

1989-01-01

139

REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

140

Geologic Mapping and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains Quadrangles, Alaska Using Minimal Cloud- and Snow-Cover ASTER Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 8, 2003, ASTER acquired satellite imagery of a 60 km-wide swath of parts of two 1:250,000 Alaska quadrangles, under favorable conditions of minimal cloud- and snow-cover. Rocks from eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the swath of data, several of which define permissive tracts for various mineral deposit types such as: volcanic-hosted massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry copper and molybdenum. Representative rock samples collected from 13 different lithologic units from the Bonnifield mining district within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), plus hydrothermally altered VMS material from the Red Mountain prospect, were analyzed to produce a spectral library spanning the VNIR-SWIR (0.4 - 2.5 ?m) through the TIR (8.1 - 11.7 ?m). Comparison of the five-band ASTER TIR emissivity and decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT display the greatest range and diversity of silica composition of the mapped terranes, ranging from mafic rocks to silicic quartzites. The nine-band ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map several lithologic sequences characterized by distinct suites of minerals that exhibit diagnostic spectral features (e.g. chlorite, epidote, amphibole and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals); other sequences were distinguished by their weathering characteristics and associated hydroxyl- and ferric-iron minerals, such as illite, smectite, and hematite. Smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and/or other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (< 250 m diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation- or snow-cover, or were too small to be resolved.

Hubbard, Bernard E.; Rowan1, Lawrence C.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Eppinger, Robert G.

2007-01-01

141

CONDREY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource study indicates that the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area has areas of probable resource potential for copper, zinc, gold, and silver in the westernmost extremities of the area. Although there are no presently exposed chromite concentrations in the serpentinite bodies within the roadless area, the possibility that chromite occurs in the subsurface within these bodies should not be overlooked and they are shown as areas of probable chromite resource potential. No potential for energy resources was identified in the study. The common association of the silver schist and copper-zinc mineralization suggests the two are genetically related. Further study of favorable lithologies in the westernmost part of the roadless area are warranted to refine the estimate of resource potential. 4 refs.

Coleman, R. G.; Mayerle, Ron

1984-01-01

142

Assessment of forest-fuel resources in Denmark: technical and economic availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigating the effects of climate change has lead to an increasing use of biofuels in Denmark, including fuelwood from the forests. This has raised concern about the future supply of fuelwood. This paper presents a method for estimating potential fuelwood resources from forests larger than 0.5ha based on national forest inventory data. The first part of the study addresses the

Thomas Nord-Larsen; Bruce Talbot

2004-01-01

143

Pollution-free, resource recovery, garbage disposal\\/fuel burning plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of burning solid combustibles containing potential atmospheric pollutants and of recovering valuable resources from the combustibles while preventing the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, including the steps of introducing the combustibles through an airlock into a furnace substantially sealed against the atmosphere; introducing combustion-supporting fluid into the furnace; burning the combustibles at a temperature high

Nielson

1989-01-01

144

Evaluation of fuel resources and requirements for the magnetic fusion energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential tritium requirements in the presently formulated development plan were assessed and possible sources for the required tritium were identified. The availability of lithium was surveyed also because the only practical production method for tritium is the neutron irradiation of lithium. The estimates of world-wide resources of lithium available to supply such an industry are reviewed. Additionally, the isotopic

T. B. Rhinehammer; L. J. Wittenberg

1978-01-01

145

Coal resources of the United States, January 1, 1974. [69% of all estimated recoverable fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal resources of the U. S. remaining in the ground on January 1, 1974 are estimated to total 3,968 billion tons. The new estimate is a 23-percent increase over previous estimates (Averitt, 1969, 1973), made possible by an increased program of geologic mapping, exploration, and study during the past few years by Federal and State agencies and by private

Averitt

1976-01-01

146

Assessment of the Potential to Reduce Emissions from Road Transportation, Notably NOx, Through the Use of Alternative Vehicles and Fuels in the Great Smoky Mountains Region  

SciTech Connect

Air pollution is a serious problem in the region of the Great Smoky Mountains. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may designate non-attainment areas by 2003 for ozone. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and particulate matter (PM), which are health hazards, damage the environment, and limit visibility. The main contributors to this pollution are industry, transportation, and utilities. Reductions from all contributors are needed to correct this problem. While improvements are projected in each sector over the next decades, the May 2000 Interim Report issued by the Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) suggests that the percentage of NO{sub x} emissions from transportation may increase.

Sheffield, J.

2001-08-30

147

Energy (and Resource) Recovery from Paper Pulp Waste through Residue Derived Fuel and Plasma Gasification Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the condition for reutilization of derived energy and melting ash, the plasma gasification process was adopted to use high temperature of plasma furnace to gasify wastes (e.g., paper reject, paper sludge and hydro-cleaner residues). Processing paper pulp to residue derived fuel (RDF) can enhance physical stability and improve gasification efficiency. Paper pulp derived RDF has 12% ash, 15~20%

Jai-Houng Leu; Ay Su

2011-01-01

148

Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

Matzie, R A [ed.

1980-04-01

149

Use of TG-FTIR analysis for the characterization of fuels and resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis combined with Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis of evolved products has proven to be a powerful technique for characterization of coal, source rock, heavy hydrocarbons, biomass, waste materials, and plastics. The TG-FTIR method can be used to determine the resource potential of a material, i.e., the types of products a material is likely to produce when subjected

M. A. Serio; R. Bassilakis; P. R. Solomon

1996-01-01

150

Conjunctive use of water resources as an alternative to a leaky reservoir in a mountainous, semiarid area (Adra River basin, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regulatory actions taken in the Adra River basin (746 km2), located south of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (SE Spain), are analyzed. The Benínar Reservoir (60 hm3), which entered into service in 1983, has suffered from severe leakage from the outset, preventing it from performing the water management functions originally foreseen for it; however, it has also made it possible to determine the response of the underlying carbonate aquifer into which the reservoir water is draining. This response has been studied based on historical data as well as the occurrence of an extraordinary recharge produced by a period of exceptionally heavy rainfall. A conceptual model of the system’s functioning has been established by analyzing leakage rates, piezometric variations, the discharge through the only spring in the area (the Fuentes de Marbella spring) and the physical-chemical characteristics of the aquifer water. Geological and structural aspects of the carbonate formation were also included. An alternative solution for water regulation in the river basin is proposed: the construction of a smaller dam downstream from the spring. This dam would induce recharge through the permeable base of the reservoir, raise the piezometric level and thus increase its storage capacity, as well as control and regulate the water discharged from the spring.

García-López, S.; Benavente, J.; Cruz-Sanjulián, J. J.; Olías, M.

2009-11-01

151

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report updates previous IGT reports on U.S. and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. The US is fortunate in possessing vast amounts of coal and shale oil. Although both

1979-01-01

152

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Institute of Gas Technology update of US and world fossil and uranium reserves and recoverable resources also provides data on current and cumulative production and their life expectancies at selected consumption growth rates. The US has roughly 23% of world proven fossil fuel reserves and 10% of uranium. The report concludes that a serious effort should be made to

1983-01-01

153

Briquetting today`s waste for tomorrow`s fuel and resources  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Technologies Group International (ETG) has developed technology that appears to allow revert materials to be successfully recycled in the steelmaking process. ETG has presented research indicating revert materials can be processed to maintain thermal integrity, thus enabling them to be reduced in the steelmaking process. Additional research has been undertaken to define briquetted revert material performance in an electric arc furnace environment. Briquettes made from several revert materials with a variety of component spectrums were introduced into an experimental arc furnace to determine reduction rates and iron recovery. It was found that the iron recovery was dependent on the iron content of the revert, but all reverts yielded between 70 to 80% of the iron units present. Coke was used in the briquettes as a fuel and a carbon source for reduction. It was found that a minimum level of coke at approximately 20% was required to provide sufficient fuel and carbon to recover the available iron units. Iron recovered form the revert materials ranged from 92 to 96% with varying amounts of carbon and other materials present.

Ford, G.W. Jr.; Lambert, R.C.; Young, K.M. [Environmental Technologies Group International, Lehi, UT (United States)

1995-09-01

154

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-06-01

155

Haiti: Behind Mountains, more mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vera Rubin and Richard P. Schaedel, eds. The Haitian Potential: Research and Resources of Haiti. Center for Education in Latin America, Institute of International Studies. New York: Teachers College Press, 1975. xxiv + 284 pp. Figures, tables, and references. $15.00.

Ira P. Lowenthal

1976-01-01

156

Acute mountain sickness  

MedlinePLUS

... Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral and pulmonary oedema. Expert Opin Pharmacother . 2008;9(1):119-127. ...

157

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

1995-09-25

158

How Mountains are Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate how mountains are formed. Concepts include the composition and structure of the Earth's tectonic plates and tectonic plate boundaries, with an emphasis on plate convergence as it relates to mountain formation. Students learn that geotechnical engineers design technologies to measure movement of tectonic plates and mountain formation, as well as design to alter the mountain environment to create safe and dependable roadways and tunnels.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

159

Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-20

160

Forest Health in the Blue Mountains: Social and Economic Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington are among the most insect- and disease-infested forests of North America. The communities, industries, rural residents, and economies that are highly dependent on the flow of natural resource...

T. M. Quigley

1992-01-01

161

Yucca Mountain, a Likely Geologic Repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy is evaluating whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is likely to meet applicable radiation protection standards established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency to become the geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A number of engineered and natural barriers, among them the saturated zone (SZ), are expected

R. Andrews

2003-01-01

162

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

163

Extractable resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

1975-01-01

164

YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in

J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck; J. W. Emery; R. J. Finch; P. A. Finn; J. Fortner; J. C. Hoh; C. Mertz; L. A. Neimark; S. F. Wolf; D. J. Wronkiewicz

1998-01-01

165

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and

Ebert

2006-01-01

166

Mountains Majesty: Ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traveling from the East, one can see the towering snow-covered peaks of the Rocky Mountains long before reaching foothills. But to fully appreciate these mountains, one must venture into them and experience up close the colorful bursts of summer wildflowers, the glittering leaves of the quaking aspen, the cold clear alpine streams and lakes, and the distinctive sweet scent of the ponderosa pine. Scientists from the Bureau of Land Management provide an in-depth look at the management issues and diversity of plants, animals, and habitats of the Rocky Mountains.

Wooster, Betsy; Rieben, Elizabeth; Quesenberry, Leah

2004-11-01

167

[Chinese medicinal culture in Tianmu Mountain before 1949].  

PubMed

According to the Annals of Western Tianmu Mountain, the medicinal plants in Tianmu Mountain reached as many as 1 200 types, with diversified species and excellent qualities, hence, the titles of "valuable thesaurus of Tianmu Mountain." The rich medicinal resources promotes the flourishing of local trading of crude medicines. From 1931 to 1940, based on the survey of the rural economy in Lin'an, Yuqian, and Changhua counties, there were 97 drugstores. Moreover, there are lots of folk stories and poems about medical herbs in Tianmu Mountain. Therefore, Tianmu Mountain is world-renowned because of its abundant resources of medical herbs, and the prosperous medicinal trading offered rich source materials for literature writings. PMID:24524635

Zhang, Peng-Fei; Zhu, De-Ming

2013-11-01

168

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

169

Cultural Resources Overview of the Colorado Desert Planning Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This overview pulls together existing data relating to the cultural resources of the Imperial, Santa Rosa, Orocopia, Twenty-Nine Palms, Bristol/Cadiz, Palen, Turtle Mountain, Whipple Mountain, Big Maria, and Picacho planning units of the Colorado Desert. ...

E. T. Warren R. H. Crabtree C. N. Warren M. Knack R. McCarty

1981-01-01

170

Precision and accuracy of manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1988--1990; Water-resources investigations report 93-4025  

SciTech Connect

Water-level measurements have been made in deep boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, since 1983 in support of the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, which is an evaluation of the area to determine its suit-ability as a potential storage area for high-level nuclear waste. Water-level measurements were taken either manually, using various water-level measuring equipment such as steel tapes, or they were taken continuously, using automated data recorders and pressure transducers. This report presents precision range and accuracy data established for manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, 1988--90.

Boucher, M.S.

1994-05-01

171

The Verkhoyansk Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Verkhoyansk Mountains mark the eastern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Russia. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows the mountains (top and right) covered in snow. Following the curve of the mountains, the frozen Aldan River traces an east, then north, then westward path across the landscape, which brings it to the Lena River, the much larger river beginning at image left. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

172

Mountain weather and climate  

SciTech Connect

Mountain environments are reaching the world environmental agenda of concern. The first edition of this book provided a well organized set of principles on how weather and climate processes operate in mountain environments; it was and remains the major reference on the subject. This second edition remains in the original format but adds new material, including updates and increased bibliography and stressing the importance of the temporal dimension of mountain climates and the potential sensitivity of these environments to global change processes.

Barry, R.G.

1992-01-01

173

Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

2011-01-01

174

LANDS WITH WILDERNESS CHARACTERISTICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN CONSTRAINTS, AND LAND EXCHANGES: CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND IMPACTS ON UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN UTAH’S UINTA BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Supporters argue that the Order merely provides guidance regarding implementation of existing legal obligations without creating new rights or duties. Opponents describe Order 3310 as subverting congressional authority to designate Wilderness Areas and as closing millions of acres of public lands to energy development and commodity production. While opponents succeeded in temporarily defunding the Order’s implementation and forcing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to adopt a more collaborative approach, the fundamental questions remain: Which federal public lands possess wilderness characteristics and how should those lands be managed? The closely related question is: How might management of such resources impact unconventional fuel development within Utah? These questions remain pressing independent of the Order because the BLM, which manages the majority of federal land in Utah, is statutorily obligated to maintain an up-to-date inventory of federal public lands and the resources they contain, including lands with wilderness characteristics. The BLM is also legally obligated to develop and periodically update land use plans, relying on information obtained in its public lands inventory. The BLM cannot sidestep these hard choices, and failure to consider wilderness characteristics during the planning process will derail the planning effort. Based on an analysis of the most recent inventory data, lands with wilderness characteristics — whether already subject to mandatory protection under the Wilderness Act, subject to discretionary protections as part of BLM Resource Management Plan revisions, or potentially subject to new protections under Order 3310 — are unlikely to profoundly impact oil shale development within Utah’s Uinta Basin. Lands with wilderness characteristics are likely to v have a greater impact on oil sands resources, particularly those resources found in the southern part of the state. Management requirements independent of l

Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

2012-10-01

175

Precision and accuracy of manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1988--1990; Water-resources investigations report 93-4025  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-level measurements have been made in deep boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, since 1983 in support of the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, which is an evaluation of the area to determine its suit-ability as a potential storage area for high-level nuclear waste. Water-level measurements were taken either manually, using various water-level measuring equipment

Boucher

1994-01-01

176

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

177

National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Gen 2 Progress. California Air Resources Board 2009 ZEV Symposium. Session 2: Automotive Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project Objectives and Targets; Industry Partners: Four Automaker/Energy-Supplier Teams; Vehicle Deployment Complete at 140 FCVs, Some Early Vehicles Retired; DOE Learning Demo Fleet Has Surpassed...

J. Garbak J. Kurtz K. Wipke S. Sprik T. Ramsden

2009-01-01

178

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

179

The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

2009-12-01

180

A multi-sensor, three-dimensional analysis of San Juan Mountain snowpack for modeling Rio Grande headwater streamflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southwest United States, the majority of the usable water resources come from melted snow in the Rocky Mountains. Specifically, in New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains in southern Colorado contribute much of the snowpack that forms spring and summer river flows in the tributaries of the Rio Grande. The analysis of mountain snowpack is often done with a

J. Hulka

2008-01-01

181

Survey of US and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium, as of December 31, 1978  

SciTech Connect

IGT presents updated estimates (as of year-end 1978) for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also presented for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth rates of energy consumption. Proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 200 trillion CF in the US and 2329-2594 TCF worldwide; the total remaining recoverable, however, could be as high as 1219 TCF in the US and 9200 TCF worldwide.

Parent, J.D.

1980-01-01

182

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass degradation model developed for use in repository licensing, and HLW glass can be used as a surrogate for both CWF and MWF in performance assessment calculations. Test results indicate that the radionuclide release from CWF and MWF is adequately described by other relevant performance assessment models, such as the models for the solution chemistries in breached waste packages, dissolved concentration limits, and the formation of radionuclide-bearing colloids.

Ebert, W. E.

2006-01-31

183

Shaping the Rwenzori Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rwenzori Mountains are a high alpine mountain chain, about 40x80 km in size, just north of the equator in the western branch of the East African Rift System in Africa. The central part of the mountain chain is located in Uganda, and the highest peak, the Margherita Peak with 5119 m, lies on the border to the Democratic Republic of Kongo. Topography is very pronounced, with steeply incised valleys and clear glacial landforms in the upper part of the mountain chain. The Rwenzori Mountains are an unusually high mountain chain located in the extensional setting of the East African Rift System, and the huge elevation poses a challenging problem for geodynamists to explain. We use the numerical model Ultima Thule to simulate the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountain chain over the period of around 800,000 years with a temperature variation derived from ice-core data. Processes considered are ice-sheet evolution, hillslope diffusion, fluvial incision, glacial abrasion, surface deformation, and tectonic uplift. With a set of numerical experiments, we estimate the temperature drop between the present day and the last glacial maximum needed to glaciate to high parts of the Rwenzori in accordance to field data. We then provide estimates on the morphological processes decreasing the relief, and the amount of tectonic uplift needed to counter-act the decrease in topographic height.

Kaufmann, Georg

2010-05-01

184

Mountains of Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mountains of Fractals" article in the Math DL develops algorithms to produce coastlines and mountains in two dimensions by adapting mathematical ideas related to the construction of such fractals as Koch's curve. EJS is used to create a hands-on activity that allows a reader to create a coastline with a rubberband, six-sided die, and thumb tacks. Java applications allow for exploration of these algorithms and the influence of their associated parameters. After discussing 2D fractal mountains, this article extends the 2D algorithm to produce 3D mountains. Finally, mathematical issues in random number generation are discussed. More specifically, linear congruential generators are considered and shown to be suitable as a random number generator for the 3D fractal landscape algorithm. The use of fractal landscapes in movies is also discussed.

Chartier, Tim

2009-09-11

185

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

186

KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

Nokleberg, Warren, J.; Longwell, Warren, D.

1984-01-01

187

Mountain Home Geothermal Project: geothermal energy applications in an integrated livestock meat and feed production facility at Mountain Home, Idaho. [Contains glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mountain Home Geothermal Project is an engineering and economic study of a vertically integrated livestock meat and feed production facility utilizing direct geothermal energy from the KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) southeast of Mountain Home, Idaho. A system of feed production, swine raising, slaughter, potato processing and waste management was selected for study based upon market trends, regional practices,

A. B. Longyear; W. R. Brink; L. A. Fisher; R. H. Matherson; J. A. Neilson; S. K. Sanyal

1979-01-01

188

Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of educational and interpretive programs within Federal, State, and private agencies; and tourists and residents of the Southern Appalachian region who want to know more about the area. The map is companion to the DVD, 'The Southern Appalachians, a Changing World' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/so_app/) and the Teacher's Guide and brochure, 'Birth of the Mountains' (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/birth). The map shows the location of sites that are featured in these publications.

Clark, Sandra H. B.

2008-01-01

189

HAWK MOUNTAIN SANCTUARY, PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTlCT.--Bimodal migration patterns occur in many raptor species but have not been conclusively documented for American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) along their Appalachian migration route. Kestrels migrating past Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania had a bimodal fall migration pattern when data were averaged over a 26-year period (1963-1988). Peaks at Hawk Mountain centered around 11 September and 2 October. Proportion of males

NANCY G. STOTZ; LAURIE J. GOODRICH

190

Yucca Mountain and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership  

SciTech Connect

Renewed U.S. interest in advanced nuclear fuel cycles involving reprocessing and recycling, embodied in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative, has raised questions about the role of a Yucca Mountain repository - what it will be used for, and when. While the repository is widely recognized as a key part of U.S. waste management strategy, the potential for advanced fuel cycles to improve the capacity and performance of a repository have led some to question whether its development can be deferred pending resolution of questions about the fuel cycle and the fate of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This paper discusses the rationale for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goal of completing the proposed Yucca Mountain repository by 2017 in parallel with pursuit of its goals for GNEP, as well as issues posed for the repository program by deployment of the initial facilities of an advanced fuel cycle. (authors)

Kim, D. [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cotton, A.T. [JK Research Associates, Inc./, Bechtel SAIC Co., LLC, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-07-01

191

SKY LAKES ROADLESS AREA AND MOUNTAIN LAKES WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on a mineral survey of the Sky Lakes Roadless Area and the Mountain Lakes Wilderness, Oregon, the areas have little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral resources or geothermal energy resources. Nonmetallic resources exist in the areas, but other areas outside the roadless area and wilderness also contain resources of volcanic cinders, scoria, ash, breccia, and sand and gravel which are easier to obtain and closer to markets. The roadless area and wilderness are not geologically favorable for metallic deposits, or for coal, oil, or gas resources.

Smith, James, G.; Benham, John, R.

1984-01-01

192

Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (COâ) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of COâ, cement manufacture involves

Marland G; T. Boden

1989-01-01

193

Near-Term Goals for Alcohol Fuels from Biomass: An Overview of Resource Requirements, Land Use, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 11, 1980, the President set a target for domestic alcohol fuel production capability of 500 million gallons per year by 1981. Current domestic production capability is about 120 million gallons per year. If the entire amount of 1981 alcohol fue...

J. Halsey D. Hazard K. Kawaoka K. Stephens G. D'Alessio

1980-01-01

194

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

195

ORLEANS MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA (C5079, B5079), CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orleans Mountain Roadless Area (C5079, B5079) located along the Siskiyou-Trinity County line in the Salmon Mountains of northern California was studied for mineral-resource potential. Several areas with probable gold resource potential were identified based on examination of mines and prospects, analytical values of selected elements, and historical records of gold and silver production. Gold, silver, and to a lesser extent lead and copper occur in vein systems that cut all the different lithologies in the roadless area.

Jayko, A. S.; Marks, L. Y.

1984-01-01

196

Composite vegetable waste as renewable resource for bioelectricity generation through non-catalyzed open-air cathode microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC; non-catalyzed electrodes) was operated to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity generation from the treatment of composite waste vegetables (EWV) extract under anaerobic microenvironment using mixed consortia as anodic biocatalyst. The system was operated with designed synthetic wastewater (DSW; 0.98kgCOD\\/m3-day) during adaptation phase and later shifted to EWV and operated at three substrate load

S. Venkata Mohan; G. Mohanakrishna; P. N. Sarma

2010-01-01

197

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Mcmillan, Margaret

198

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

199

Climate and Wildfire in Mountains of the Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the area burned in wildfires in mountain forests of the western United States, with mean annual area burned nearly three and a half times higher compared to the preceding one and a half decades.(1) Concomitant increases in variability in annual area burned and in fire suppression costs pose a serious challenge for land management in the mountainous West. The variance in annual area burned since 1987 is nineteen times its previous level. Since managers must be prepared for the worst possible scenarios in every fire season, increased uncertainty about the scale of the western fire season each year imposes high costs on public agencies. Annual real suppression costs in western forests have more than doubled for the Forest Service since 1987, while the variance in annual suppression costs is over four times higher. Although federal agencies' fire suppression budgets have increased recently, they are still close to what would be spent in an "average" year that seldom occurs, while costs tend to fluctuate between low and high extremes. Modeling area burned and suppression costs as a function of climate variability alone, Westerling (2004, unpublished work) found that the probability of the Forest Service's suppression expenses exceeding the current annual suppression budget has exceeded 50% since 1987, a substantial increase from the one-in-three chance over the preceding 40 years. Recent progress in our understanding of the links between climate and wildfire, and in our ability to forecast some aspects of both climate and wildfire season severity a season or more in advance, offers some hope that these costs might be ameliorated through the integration of climate information into fire and fuels management. In addition to the effects of climate variability on wildfire, long-term biomass accumulations in some western ecosystems have fueled an increasing incidence of large, stand-replacing wildfires where such fires were previously rare. These severe large fires can result in erosion and changes in vegetation type, with consequences for water quality, stream flow, future biological productivity of the affected areas, and habitat loss for endangered species. Apart from their deleterious ecological consequences, severe fires can also dramatically affect amenity values for public lands and for homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. In the National Fire Plan, land management agencies have committed to reducing fuels on millions of hectares of public lands. The primary means are mechanical removal, prescribed fire and wildland fire use. The Forest Service estimates they will need to spend hundreds of millions of dollars per year to meet their fuel reduction targets, while efforts in recent years have not kept up with the current rate of biomass increase. Use of climate information for targeting resources and scheduling prescribed burns could increase the efficiency of these efforts. In this study we review the fire history since 1970 for western mountain forests, and demonstrate apparent links between regional climate variability and decadal-scale changes in annual area burned. This analysis explores how wildfire size and frequency have varied over the past thirty-five years by elevation and latitude, and how climate indices such as precipitation, temperature, drought indices and the timing of spring runoff vary in importance for fire season severity by elevation in forests around the western United States.

Alfaro, E.; Westerling, A. L.; Cayan, D. R.

2004-12-01

201

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

202

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China – challenges for sustainable development  

EPA Science Inventory

Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

203

Localized Spatial and Temporal Attack Dynamics of the Mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Be...

B. J. Bentz J. A. Powell J. A. Logan

1996-01-01

204

Forest Resources of the Gila National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Gila National Forest u...

J. D. Shaw

2008-01-01

205

Forest Resources of the Kaibab National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Kaibab National Forest...

T. S. Frescino

2003-01-01

206

Forest Resources of the Fishlake National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Fishlake National Fore...

R. A. O'Brien S. H. Waters

1998-01-01

207

Forest Resources of the Flathead National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Flathead National Fore...

R. A. O'Brien

1999-01-01

208

Factors Influencing Burning by Prescription in Mountain Fynbos Catchment Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fynbos vegetation of the Cape mountains is managed by applying what is termed prescribed burning. Burns are carried out under conditions of weather and fuel that are selected to ensure a safe and efficient burn. Formal prescriptions for burning in fynbos do not exist, but air temperature and days since last rain are the most important factors currently used

B. W. van Wilgen; D. M. Richardson

1985-01-01

209

Severe acute mountain sickness.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of acute mountain sickness (AMS) as it has presented to a physician working in a general hospital at 1370 m in Kathmandu, nepal, are described. The features of 39 cases are analysed. It is suggested that AMS should be classified into benign and malignant forms.

Dickinson, J. G.

1979-01-01

210

Wuyi mountains 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

Julian Landa

2006-01-01

211

Wuyi mountains 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

Julian Landa

2006-01-01

212

Wuyi mountains 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

Julian Landa

2006-01-01

213

Wuyi mountains 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

Julian Landa

2006-01-01

214

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Order publications Related Links Tickborne Diseases Vector Biology Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain ...

215

Melting Mountain Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Learn, Nbc

2010-10-07

216

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

217

Agua Caliente Mountains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agua Caliente Mountains, located in southeastern Yuma County represent a spectacular example of Cenozoic volcanism. The proposed natural area is an extensive flow of black basaltic lava that appears to the observer to be only centuries old. It is reco...

E. L. Smith G. L. Bender

1973-01-01

218

The hydrological response of baseflow in fractured mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of baseflow in mountainous areas of basin headwaters, where the characteristics of the often fractured materials are very different to the standard issues concerning porous material applied in conventional hydrogeology, is an essential element in the characterization and quantification of water system resources. Their analysis through recession fragments provides information on the type of response of the sub-surface

A. Millares; M. J. Polo; M. A. Losada

2009-01-01

219

The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site offers a review of the agricultural devastation and eventual extinction, in about 1902, of the Rocky Mountain Locust, a once phenomenally abundant insect. The site includes bibliographical references. The author (C. R. Bomar) includes nine study questions for discussion on issues of social responsibility, extinction, and conservation. This resource is also available in PDF format.

0002-11-30

220

USACE Participation in the Pole Mountain Advanced Classification Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes in detail the procedures, methods, and resources used to complete the demonstration project at the former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area. The objective of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) participation was to learn to use...

R. Grabowski

2012-01-01

221

Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area, Montana and Idaho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mineral survey conducted in 1979 within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggests that there is little promise for the

I. J. Witkind; J. Ridenour

1984-01-01

222

WILDERNESSES AND ROADLESS AREAS IN WHITE MOUNTAIN NATIONAL FOREST NEW HAMPSHIRE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey, a geologic terrane in north-central New Hampshire having an area of at least 300 sq mi has probable potential for the occurrence of tin resources. This terrane covers all of the Sandwich Range Roadless Area, approximately the eastern two thirds of the Pemigewasset Roadless Area, a large part of the Presidential Range-Dry River Wilderness, and the southern part of the Dry River Extension Roadless Area. If major tin deposits occur in New Hampshire, they are probably associated with the Mesozoic Conway Granite. Tin resources in the New Hampshire terrane may also occur in small but high-grade veins, as at the old Jackson tin mine; and in iron-beryllium deposits that are low grade with respect to tin but richer in iron, beryllium, lead, zinc, and silver, as at the old Iron Mountain mine. The resource potential for uranium, tungsten, and niobium in the same and other parts of the area investigated cannot be evaluated frpm present data. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates little likelihood of the occurrence of organic fuels.

Moench, Robert, H.; Gazdik, Gertrude, C.

1984-01-01

223

Mountain West Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

224

Composite vegetable waste as renewable resource for bioelectricity generation through non-catalyzed open-air cathode microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Single chambered mediatorless microbial fuel cell (MFC; non-catalyzed electrodes) was operated to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity generation from the treatment of composite waste vegetables (EWV) extract under anaerobic microenvironment using mixed consortia as anodic biocatalyst. The system was operated with designed synthetic wastewater (DSW; 0.98 kg COD/m(3)-day) during adaptation phase and later shifted to EWV and operated at three substrate load conditions (2.08, 1.39 and 0.70 kg COD/m(3)-day). Experimental data illustrated the feasibility of bioelectricity generation through the utilization of EWV as substrate in MFC. Higher power output (57.38 mW/m(2)) was observed especially at lower substrate load. The performance of MFC was characterized based on the polarization behavior, cell potentials, cyclic voltammetric analysis and sustainable resistance. MFC operation also documented to stabilize the waste by effective removal of COD (62.86%), carbohydrates (79.84%) and turbidity (55.12%). PMID:19818602

Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Sarma, P N

2010-02-01

225

An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate and Environmental Change on Alpine Lakes in the Uinta Mountains, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic systems in alpine and sub-alpine areas of the western United States are potentially impacted by atmospheric pollution and climate change. Because these mountainous regions are an important water resource for the western United States, it is critical to monitor and protect these systems. The Uinta Mountains are an east- west trending mountain range located on the border between Utah, Wyoming and Colorado and downwind of the Wasatch Front, Utah, which is characterized by a rapidly expanding population, as well as mining and industry. This alpine area provides water to many areas in Utah, and contributes approximately nine percent of the water supply to the Upper Colorado River. Our research is focused on determining the impacts of climate change and pollution on alpine lakes in the Uinta Mountains. The results presented here are based on limnological measurements made at 64 Uinta Mountain lakes spanning a longitude gradient of one degree and an elevation gradient of 3000 feet. At each lake maximum depth, conductivity, salinity, pH, Secchi depth, temperature, alkalinity, and concentrations of major anions, cations and trace metals were measured. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to determine relationships between these variables and to examine the variability of the values of these variables. Our results indicate that steep climate gradients related to elevation and longitude result in clear differences in limnological properties of the study sites, with high elevation lakes characterized by greater amounts of nitrate and nitrite compared to low elevation sites. As well, diatoms in these lakes indicate that many high elevation sites are mesotrophic to eutrophic, which is unexpected for such remote aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesize that elevated nitrate and nitrite levels at high elevation sites are related to atmospherically derived nitrogen, but are being exacerbated relative to lower elevation sites by greater snow cover and reduced plant cover. Paleolimnological analyses of well dated sediments from selected lakes indicate that some of these high elevation sites have undergone rapid and dramatic change beginning in the late 1800s to early 1900s. Many of these lakes have become more productive as indicated by loss-on-ignition and diatom analyses. Although the exact mechanism of these changes is uncertain, the timing closely follows recent increases in air and chironomid-inferred surface water temperatures, and increased fossil fuel burning in the region. Regardless of the exact mechanism, our results clearly indicate dramatic changes at these high elevation sites, which threaten critical water resources.

Moser, K. A.; Hundey, E. J.; Porinchu, D. F.

2007-12-01

226

Fuel ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

Not Available

1989-02-01

227

Blowup at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

A theory raising the possibility of atomic explosions in a nuclear waste dump is almost universally dismissed by researchers. But front-page newspaper coverage has turned it into a major part of public debate. This article describes the concerns as detailed in the 5 March New York Times and by the researcher in the center of the debate, Charles Bowman an expert on neutron physics at Los Alamos. The resulting reactions from Congress, from other scientists, from the press, and from US DOE are included, and the possible effect on the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste disposal site.

Taubes, G.

1995-06-30

228

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Pearson, Gene

229

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

230

Oxygen isotopes and trace elements in the Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. Because Yucca Mountain is located in a resource-rich geologic setting, one aspect of the site characterization studies is an evaluation of ...

B. D. Marshall T. K. Kyser Z. E. Peterman

1996-01-01

231

Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina rail alignment. The Department would use the selected common segments and alternative segments to identify the public lands to be included in right-of-way applications; - Decide where to construct proposed railroad operations support facilities; - Decide whether to restrict use of the rail line to DOE trains, or whether to allow commercial shippers to operate over the rail line; and - Determine what mitigation measures to implement. (authors)

Lanthrum, G. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gunnerson, J. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2008-07-01

232

Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-04-01

233

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

234

Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.  

PubMed

The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

2002-07-22

235

ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

236

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

237

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

238

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

IGT's estimates of world and U.S. proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are given. In no case should current resource estimates be considered final, since production, exploration, and development cause continuous changes. Exploration has been very uneven geographically. The values assigned to proved reserves and potential additional resources depend on technological and economic considerations as well as on physical characteristics

J. D. Parent; H. R. Linden

1977-01-01

239

Glacial effects limiting mountain height.  

PubMed

The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

2009-08-13

240

Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

241

Water resources in the Japanese Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed. Land area of the Japanese Islands is 377,000 square kilometers, which is equivalent to the area of the state of Montana, but extends for 3,600 kilometers along the margin of the Eurasian continent. Mountainous areas separated by isolated, narrow plains make up 80 % of the land area. Due to the topography of Japan, rivers are generally short with steep grades, the longest being only 367 kilometers in length. Average annual precipitation is 1,600 millimeters but is highly seasonal. The annual water demand was approximately 87 billion cubic meters during the past 25 years, which represents 21 % of the total usable water. The water demand for agriculture makes up 66 % of the total water demand, and 96 % of the water for agricultural uses is used for the irrigation of rice paddies. Municipal and industrial uses make up 15.4 and 18.9 % of the demand, respectively (as of 2000). Nearly 80 % of the water used by industry in recycled. Approximately 87 % of the water demand is supplied from surface water with the rest from ground water. Because of its mountainous topography, the extent of individual aquifers is far smaller than in United States. Groundwater basins in the Japanese Islands are classified into the following six types: plain type (thick Quaternary strata); basin type (intermontane terraces and fans; hill type (highly eroded old volcanoes); volcano type (permeable lava and pyroclasitc flows comprising Quaternary strato volcanoes); pyroclastic type (thick tuff associated with large caldera formations); and limestone type (limestone blocks with karsts). Of the above types, the only major groundwater aquifers are the plain type (e.g., Kanto plain) and the volcano type (e.g., Mount Fuji). Ground water usage in 1998 was divided between 28 % domestic, 31 % industrial, and 23 % agricultural, and 18 % other. In the Japanese Islands, due to the small drainage areas of rivers, limited storage volume of aquifers, and variable seasonal and annual precipitation, droughts are common in some regions. Excessive pumping of groundwater in the 1950s to 1970s caused local land subsidence and salt water intrusion.

Takagi, T.

2005-12-01

242

Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as

W. Dan Hausel

1983-01-01

243

Assessing accuracy of a probabilistic model for very large fire in the Rocky Mountains: A High Park Fire case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the western United States, the largest wildfires account for a major proportion of the area burned and substantially affect mountain forests and their associated ecosystem services, among which is pristine air quality. These fires commandeer national attention and significant fire suppression resources. Despite efforts to understand the influence of fuel loading, climate, and weather on annual area burned, few studies have focused on understanding what abiotic factors enable and drive the very largest wildfires. We investigated the correlation between both antecedent climate and in-situ biophysical variables and very large (>20,000 ha) fires in the western United States from 1984 to 2009. We built logistic regression models, at the spatial scale of the national Geographic Area Coordination Centers (GACCs), to estimate the probability that a given day is conducive to a very large wildfire. Models vary in accuracy and in which variables are the best predictors. In a case study of the conditions of the High Park Fire, neighboring Fort Collins, Colorado, occurring in early summer 2012, we evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Rocky Mountain model.

Stavros, E.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Larkin, N.; McKenzie, D.; Steel, A.

2012-12-01

244

Nitrogen saturation in the Rocky Mountains: Linking emissions, deposition, and ecosystem effects using stable isotopes of nitrogen compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition are affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems at high elevations in Rocky Mountain National Park and adjacent areas of the Front Range of Colorado. Federal and state agencies are now working together to develop cost-effective means for reducing atmospheric N deposition. A discussion on N saturation covers the need for better understanding of N emission source areas and source types that contribute to N deposition in the Rocky Mountains Front Range of Colorado; reductions in NO emissions that resulted from Clean Air Act Amendments, which caused NO3 deposition to decrease between 1984 and 2003; factors contributing to N deposition, e.g., rapid population growth and energy development; origins of NO3, e.g., as NO emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including stationary sources (e.g. emission from coal combustion in electric generating units), and mobile sources (vehicle emissions); disperse stationary sources from energy resource development, e.g., natural gas production; and the importance of incorporating local source characterization and finer spatial and temporal sampling into future studies, which could provide additional insight into N deposition source attribution. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 100th Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Air and Waste Management Association (Pittsburgh, PA 6/26-29/2007).

Campbell, D. H.; Nanus, L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Harlin, K.; Collett, J.

2007-01-01

245

Snowmelt and sublimation: field experiments and modelling in the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow in the High Atlas Mountains is a major source for freshwater renewal and for water availability in the semi-arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. Snowfall- and snow-ablation monitoring and modelling is important for estimating potential water delivery from the mountain water towers to the forelands. This study is part of GLOWA-IMPETUS, an integrated management project dealing with scarce water resources

O. Schulz; C. de Jong

2004-01-01

246

Impact of climate change on runoff from a mid-latitude mountainous catchment in central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic balance in high-altitude, mid-latitude mountain areas is important in terms of the water resources available to associated lowlands. This study examined how current and historical shifts in precipitation (P) patterns and concurrent increases in temperature (T) affected runoff (Q) and other hydrologic components in a mid-latitude mountain catchment of central Japan, using a combination of long-term data and a

Yoshinori Shinohara; Tomo'omi Kumagai; Kyoichi Otsuki; Atsushi Kume; Naoya Wada

2009-01-01

247

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State (Danes, 1975, 1979, 1981; Korosec and others, 1981). The purpose of the work has been to gather baseline gravity data for eventual contribution to geothermal resource evaluation. However, it is expected that the Cascade gravity data will prove useful in a number of future endeavors such as fossil fuel and mineral exploration, as the gravity method is a basic tool of the exploration geophysicist. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington. This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections. It is hoped that release of this report will encourage analysis of Cascade gravity data beyond the standard treatment (complete Bouguer gravity anomaly at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cm{sup 2}) presented in Danes and Phillips, (1983).

Danes, Z.F.; Phillips, William M.

1983-02-01

248

The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

2011-12-01

249

Pathology of chronic mountain sickness  

PubMed Central

Arias-Stella, J., Krüger, H., and Recavarren, S. (1973).Thorax, 28, 701-708. Pathology of chronic mountain sickness. Pathological data on chronic mountain sickness are scarce due to the fact that the disease is ameliorated or cured by descent to a low altitude. In this report we describe a case of chronic mountain sickness occurring in a woman of 48 years at Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m above sea level). The necropsy findings are compared with the limited pathological observations reported by others. It is apparent from our findings that in fatal cases the main changes are located within the pulmonary circulation. So far histological studies have been reported only in cases of the secondary form of chronic mountain sickness. The basic pathology of the primary form (Monge's disease) remains to be defined. Images

Arias-Stella, Javier; Kruger, Hever; Recavarren, Sixto

1973-01-01

250

Forest Resources of the Medicine Bow National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Medicine Bow National ...

J. Steed

2008-01-01

251

Exhibit B: Agreement on Wolford Mountain Reservoir and Green Mountain Reservoir Exchanges. Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Exhibit B Agreement was created to avoid shortages and/or to mitigate any existing shortage caused by an operating limitation at Green Mountain Reservoir (Green Mountain) by using available storage space and stored water at Wolford Mountain Reservoir ...

2007-01-01

252

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary, H.

1984-01-01

253

Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database  

DOE Data Explorer

Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

254

Alcohol Fuels from Biomass: Well-to-Wheel Energy Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol fuels provide the opportunity to displace petroleum fuels based on a variety of energy resources and production pathways. Production from biomass also provides renewable resources with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, to some degree, fossil fuels are used in the feedstock production and transport, alcohol conversion, and fuel delivery process for all alcohol fuels. This paper examines the

Stefan Unnasch; TIAX LLC

255

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates as of year-end 1980 are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, cumulative production, and life index of the nonrenewable energy sources of the United States and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided where possible. Reserve and resource data are given in conventional US units - cubic feet, short tons, and barrels; and

1982-01-01

256

Fuels. (California Energy Commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fuels Report is prepared in response to legislative requirements specified in Public Resources Code Section 25310(a). The statute calls for the California Energy Commission to submit to the Governor and Legislature a comprehensive report describing em...

1994-01-01

257

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to “conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.” However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. “We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain,” the draft report states.

Showstack, Randy

2011-11-01

258

Water resources in the Japanese Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its limited land area and limited range of natural resources (particularly fuel), Japan has developed a highly efficient economy in terms of resource utilization. This also applies to water resources. For sustainable use of water resources in the Japanese Islands, integrated and unified analyses of the data of groundwater by the nation and local governments have been needed.

T. Takagi

2005-01-01

259

Parameterization of incoming longwave radiation in high-mountain environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some ecological applications and energy budget calculations of the earth's surface require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation, As cloud cover observations are not conducted frequently in high-mountain environments, a new model for the parameterization of daily mean incoming longwave radiation is proposed based on global radiation instead of cloud cover. Besides global radiation, the new model requires data for air temperature, relative humidity, and an estimate of daily mean cloudless global radiation. The model was calibrated with data from high-mountain and lowland stations and the results are compared with existing models. The new model yielded consistent results under all cloud-cover conditions, for different sites, and for all seasons. For the conditions tested, the absolute mean bias error was generally less than 10 Wm(-2) and the root mean square error was always between 11 Wm-(2) and 16 Wm(-2). Of the other models tested, some did not perform well under cloudless conditions and others yielded large errors under overcast conditions or were not applicable to high mountain sites. The new model is a viable alternative to the existing longwave parameterization models, especially for high-mountain environments, and it can be applied without the resource-consuming observation of cloud cover.

Gabathuler, M.; Marty, C. A.; Hanselmann, K. W.

2001-03-01

260

Hydrometeorology of Rocky Mountain floods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatology and flood hydrology of the Rocky Mountains were the topics of a workshop held in Lakewood, Colo., October 4-5, 1990. Ninety-one people participated in the workshop, which was organized by Robert Jarrett, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver; John Liou, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Denver; and Doug Laiho, Delta Environmental Consultants, Boulder, representing the American Society of Civil Engineers.The workshop was held to address some of the recognized complexities in the hydrometeorology of floods in the Rocky Mountains. The complexities are caused by the effects of rough mountain terrain on meteorology, snowmelt and rainfall flooding, and limited rainfall and streamflow data. The current theories and methods used to estimate flood flows in the Rocky Mountains, particularly estimation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and the probable maximum flood (PMF), have been questioned by hydrologists and engineers for some time. Purposes of the workshop were to review the current understanding and ongoing research of floods—both frequent and extreme, including the PMF, in the Rocky Mountains; to bring together scientists, engineers, and flood-plain managers in government, industry, consulting firms, and universities; and to provide a mechanism for the exchange of ideas and technology between climatologists, meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers, and managers.

Jarrett, Robert D.

261

Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

1995-12-31

262

[Relating briefly the natural resources and the population problems of China].  

PubMed

Problems in population, manifested primarily as either "over" or "under" population, are ultimately related to the development of natural resources. Land is the most basic of natural resources. China's land mass is largely mountainous, with 56% of its more than 2000 counties, 1/3 of its population, 40% of its cultivated land and a majority of its forests, situated in mountainous regions. The quality and the distribution of the various kinds of land are complex and uneven. Although China is rich in forests, grazing, and arable land compared to the rest of the world, its 1 billion population makes the land a limited resource. The limitations of the land are also seen in soil erosion, soil that is increasingly turning into sand, and deforestation. Water resources are not considered scarce, yet compared to the rest of the world, it is limited. Its distribution is very uneven, with more water in the east and west, and less in the north and south. In the southwest mountainous border regions, for instance, water is abundant, but the population and arable land there is such that the demand for water is low. Moreover, droughts and heavy precipitation make the annual water supply unpredicatable. The demand for water becomes increasingly greater as agricultural production develops further, the population increases and as the cities continue to expand. living matter as a resource includes all the animal and plant life that is necessary for livelihood, but only forests and grasslands are discussed here. China's forests, if their use is not abused, can serve as a continuous supply for manufactured products. But its distribution is uneven and sparse. Population control will be ineffective if the forests are not replenished and developed. Grasslands are the primary source for animal products. The natural grasslands, found mainly in the north and west, are not as productive as that of other nations due to the nature of China's topography, the vagaries of climate, and deterioration. Energy, the source for fuel, includes such natural resources as coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydraulic, and solar power. China is among the world's richest in energy resources, yet the supply is sometimes insufficient when spread among 1 billion people. PMID:12312933

Lian, Y

1983-01-29

263

First Survey of Disruption Scenarios for a High-Level-Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-level-waste repository located in unsaturated welded tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would rely on six different, although not entirely independent, barriers to prevent escape of radioactivity. These barriers are the waste canister, fuel cladding, ...

B. Ross

1987-01-01

264

Energy and resource consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

1973-01-01

265

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

266

Estimating the benefits and costs to mountain bikers of changes in trail characteristics, access fees, and site closures: choice experiments and benefits transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain biking is an increasingly popular leisure pursuit. Consequences are trail degradation and conflicts with hikers and other users. Resource managers often attempt to resolve these problems by closing trails to mountain biking. In order to estimate the impact of these developments, a model has been devised that predicts the effects of changes in trail characteristics and introduction of access

Edward R. Morey; Terry Buchanan; Donald M. Waldman

2002-01-01

267

78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation...that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation...intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2013-05-20

268

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

269

THE FOREST AVIFAUNA OF GORONGOSA MOUNTAIN, MOZAMBIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oatley, T.B. & Tinley, K.L. 1987. The forest avifauna of Gorongosa Mountain, Mozambique. Ostrich SUppl. 14:57-61.Gorongosa Mountain in central Mozambique supports the largest block of Afromontane forest south of the Zambesi River. A description of the mountain and its life zones is provided, and a total of 81 birds which have been recorded in forest on the mountain are grouped

T. B. Oatley; K. L. Tinley

1989-01-01

270

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94...American Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is âHowell Mountain.â (b) Approved...

2009-04-01

271

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94...American Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of...viticultural area described in this section is âHowell Mountain.â (b) Approved...

2010-04-01

272

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2013-10-01

273

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

274

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2010-10-01

275

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2009-10-01

276

Optimum Mountain Catchment Management in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of concepts of systems analysis to mountain catchment management. Mountain catchments are defined as subsystems which have a specified minimum rate of runoff and are situated above a certain height above sea level. Mountain catchments, so defined, occupy 12% of Southern Africa but deliver 53% of the runoff. Certain systems techniques, such as goal

D. W. van der Zel

1981-01-01

280

Coal resources of Alaska  

SciTech Connect

In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

Sanders, R.B.

1982-01-01

281

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a co...

Z. F. Danes W. M. Phillips

1983-01-01

282

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

283

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current data and understanding about the site conditions at Yucca Mountain provide a basis for calculating the likely range of performance of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1984-01-01

284

Fire effects on infiltration rates after prescribed fire in Northern Rocky Mountain forests, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration rates in undisturbed forest environments are generally high. These high infiltration rates may be reduced when forest management activities such as timber harvesting and\\/or prescribed fires are used. Post-harvest residue burning is a common site preparation treatment used in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, to reduce forest fuels and to prepare sites for natural and artificial tree regeneration. Prescribed

P. R. Robichaud

2000-01-01

285

Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

286

The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

Young, Jeff

1997-01-01

287

Lone Mountain processing boosts recovery  

SciTech Connect

A new deslime column flotation circuit installed at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain preparation plant in St. Charles, Va., USA recovers an additional 20 tph. The article describes how this column technology was selected. It explains the circuit design, start-up and post upgrade distant testing. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Baumgarth, T.; Bethell, P.; Gupta, B.K. [Arch Coal (United States). Lone Mountain Processing Inc.

2005-08-01

288

Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes

Stump

1987-01-01

289

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

290

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence In Educational Development, Inc.

291

How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species.

Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

2014-01-01

292

How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

2014-07-01

293

Physiology of ski mountaineering racing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the exercise intensity of ski mountaineering racing, and to identify the best physiological predictors of ski mountaineering racing. Before participating in the race in which heart rate (HR) and speed were continuously recorded, 10 trained ski-mountaineers performed a field maximal test to determine the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) in order to establish 3 exercise intensity zones (Z1: below VT1, Z2: between VT1 and RCT, and Z3: above RCT). Energy cost (EC) of each subject was estimated on the HR/ V?O2 relationship obtained during the field maximal test. VT1 and RCT threshold were equal to 84.2±3.0 and 94.5±1.7% of HR (max). Race time was significantly correlated with V?O2max (r = -0.87), VT1 (r = -0.82) and RCT (r = -0.85) expressed for body mass unit. The mean race time and the mean HR were 101±11?min and 93.4±1.8% of HR (max). The % race time spent in Z1, Z2 and Z3, were 7.0±4.8, 51.3±4.7 and 42.0±6.5%, respectively. The mean value of EC during the two uphill of the race was 14.3±2.6 J x kg(-1) x m(-1). HR and speed decreased significantly during the second uphill whereas EC increased significantly by ?15%. Data obtained in the present study represent the first qualitative description of physiology demand of ski mountaineering racing. The long period of time spent just below and above RCT suggest that ski-mountaineering can be viewed as one of the most strenuous endurance sports like cross-country skiing, running and off-road biking. In addition to high aerobic capacities, body mass seems to appear as a key factor given that performance in ski mountaineering is strongly correlated to relative common physiological variables. The changes of HR, speed and EC during the second uphill, which indicate the prevalence of fatigue, confirm the exhaustive character of ski mountaineering. PMID:22012642

Duc, S; Cassirame, J; Durand, F

2011-11-01

294

Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.  

PubMed

The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936

Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji

2012-01-01

295

Possible Solution for the U.S. Navy's Addiction to Petroleum: A Business Case Analysis for Transitioning the U.S. Navy From Petroleum to Synthetic Fuel Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considering the variable cost of petroleum, it is fiscally prudent for the Department of the Navy (DON) to consider alternative energy sources for propulsion. The cost of petroleum fuels for the DON have increased fifty-five percent from 2004 to 2005 and ...

M. Benedetto

2007-01-01

296

Implications of changes to the transhumance system for conservation of the mountain catchments in eastern Lesotho  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain catchments above 2 750 m a.s.l. in eastern Lesotho are a proclaimed Managed Resource Area (MRA) as a result of official concern about degradation of the grasslands of the alpine belt, and of recent parastatal interventions in the local livestock economy. However, the demarcation of the MRA may be inappropriate because it ignores recent changes in the transhumance

T. Quinlan; C. D. Morris

1994-01-01

297

Evaluation of the Tin-Tungsten Greisen Mineralization and Associated Granite at Sleitat Mountain, Southwestern Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June, 1989, the U.S. Bureau of Mines, undertook a 9-day evaluation of the tin resource potential of the Sleitat Mountain tin deposit. Significant tin-tungsten mineralization is associated with quartz-topaz-white mica-tourmaline greisen alteration of a ...

R. E. Burleigh

1991-01-01

298

THE USE OF SATELLITE IMAGERY IN LANDSLIDE STUDIES IN HIGH MOUNTAIN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslides represent a serious threat to human life and activities in most high mountain chains. However, due to the difficult nature of such terrain, it is often difficult to assess directly the susceptibility of slopes to landsliding. Hence, remote sensing offers many attractions for the examination of landslide potential in such environments, especially in less developed nations in which resources

David N. PETLEY; William D. O. CRICK; Andrew B. HART

299

Shallow groundwater in a middle mountain catchment of Nepal: quantity and quality issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of shallow groundwater in middle mountain catchments of Nepal is a recent development. It was only in early 1998 that a number of dug wells had been constructed in the Jhikhu Khola catchment. But their numbers are rapidly increasing. While it seems to be a good way of accessing additional water resources both for domestic (current) and agricultural

Bhawani S. Dongol; Juerg Merz; Monika Schaffner; Gopal Nakarmi; Pravakar B. Shah; Smita K. Shrestha; Pradeep M. Dangol; Madhav P. Dhakal

2005-01-01

300

Hudson River Natural Resource Damage Assessment Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hudson River flows from its source in the Adirondack Mountains to its confluence with New York Harbor at the Battery in Manhattan, a distance of about 315 miles. The Hudson River has provided important natural resources and services to the residents o...

2002-01-01

301

Alaska Resource Data File, Talkeetna Mountains quadrangle, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

Rogers, Robert K.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

2003-01-01

302

Coal resources of Rocky Mountains and their future utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. is estimated to contain 1.7 trillion tons of in place coal of all ranks. Of this, 868 billion tons are in the Rocky Mt. area; 693 billion tons along are in 3 states: Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota. These numbers may be misleading for the following reasons: (1) most of the estimated reserves are in the ''indicated'' or

Perkins

1969-01-01

303

Forest Area, Fragmentation, and Loss in the Eastern Arc Mountains: Implications For the Conservation of Biological Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of forest area, fragmentation and loss is central to developing strategies to conserve biological diversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains. Using recent 1:250,000 land cover and use maps (Tanzanian Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, 1996) and 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 topographic maps, I examine natural forest area, fragmentation, and loss in the Eastern Arc Mountains. I estimate the

W. D. Newmark

1998-01-01

304

Combustion of Coal-Gas Fuels in a Staged Combustor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources have been considered for use in industrial gas turbines. Such fuels generally have heating values much lower than the typical gaseous fuel, natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficie...

T. J. Rosfjord J. B. McVey R. A. Sederquist D. F. Schultz

1982-01-01

305

Investigator Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Investigator Resources Investigator

306

Herpes - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...

307

Preliminary Investigations of the Distribution and Resources of Coal in the Kaiparowits Plateau, Southern Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report on the coal resources of the Kaiparowits Plateau, Utah is a contribution to the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) 'National Coal Resource Assessment' (NCRA), a five year effort to identify and characterize the coal beds and coal zones that could potentially provide the fuel for the Nation's coal-derived energy during the first quarter of the twenty-first century. For purposes of the NCRA study, the Nation is divided into regions. Teams of geoscientists, knowledgeable about each region, are developing the data bases and assessing the coal within each region. The five major coal-producing regions of the United States under investigation are: (1) the Appalachian Basin; (2) the Illinois Basin; (3) the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain; (4) the Powder River Basin and the Northern Great Plains; and (5) the Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau. Six areas containing coal deposits in the Rocky Mountain and Colorado Plateau Region have been designated as high priority because of their potential for development. This report on the coal resources of the Kaiparowits Plateau is the first of the six to be completed. The coal quantities reported in this study are entirely 'resources' and represent, as accurately as the data allow, all the coal in the ground in beds greater than one foot thick. These resources are qualified and subdivided by thickness of coal beds, depth to the coal, distance from known data points, and inclination (dip) of the beds. The USGS has not attempted to estimate coal 'reserves' for this region. Reserves are that subset of the resource that could be economically produced at the present time. The coal resources are differentiated into 'identified' and 'hypothetical' following the standard classification system of the USGS (Wood and others, 1983). Identified resources are those within three miles of a measured thickness value, and hypothetical resources are further than three miles from a data point. Coal beds in the Kaiparowits Plateau are laterally discontinuous relative to many other coal bearing regions of the United States. That is, they end more abruptly and are more likely to fragment or split into thinner beds. Because of these characteristics, the data from approximately 160 drill holes and 40 measured sections available for use in this study are not sufficient to determine what proportion of the resources is technologically and economically recoverable. The Kaiparowits Plateau contains an original resource of 62 billion short tons of coal in the ground. Original resource is defined to include all coal beds greater than one foot thick in the area studied. None of the resource is recoverable by surface mining. However, the total resource figure must be regarded with caution because it does not reflect geologic, technological, land-use, and environmental restrictions that may affect the availability and the recoverability of the coal. At least 32 billion tons of coal are unlikely to be mined in the foreseeable future because the coal beds are either too deep, too thin to mine, inclined at more than 12?, or in beds that are too thick to be completely recovered in underground mining. The estimated balance of 30 billion tons of coal resources does not reflect land use or environmental restrictions, does not account for coal that would be bypassed due to mining of adjacent coal beds, does not consider the amount of coal that must remain in the ground for roof support, and does not take into consideration the continuity of beds for mining. Although all of these factors will reduce the amount of coal that could be recovered, there is not sufficient data available to estimate recoverable coal resources. For purposes of comparison, studies of coal resources in the eastern United States have determined that less than 10 percent of the original coal resource, in the areas studied, could be mined economically at today's prices (Rohrbacher and others, 1994).

Hettinger, Robert D.; Roberts, L. N. R.; Biewick, L. R. H.; Kirschbaum, M. A.

1996-01-01

308

Managing Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

309

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

310

Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

311

Managing Heat in a Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

When radioactive elements decay, one result is heat. Because it will contain waste packages with many tons of decaying spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, the underground repository proposed for Yucca Mountain will generate heat for thousands of years. Engineers with the Yucca Mountain Project call the amount of heat generated by this radioactive decay within a particular area a ''thermal load''. The number, size and contents of the waste packages placed in the repository will help determine the actual concentrations of heat within the facility. How these waste packages are arranged will determine which parts of the repository will become hottest. Many packages placed closely together will concentrate considerable heat nearby. This is similar to how heaping the coals in a grill at the center focuses more intense heat there than at the edges. Placing these same packages farther apart--a low thermal load--results in lower temperatures over a greater area. Scientists consider heat management to be an essential design element for a repository This is because the way heat moves through a repository could affect its rock floors and walls, and therefore the facility's ability to do its job. Each possible arrangement comes with its own potential advantages and disadvantages. Scientists have conducted extensive underground and laboratory tests of the man-made materials and the rock at Yucca Mountain to determine which method of spacing will best contribute to the safe disposal of highly radioactive materials there.

DOE

2000-06-01

312

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

2001-12-12

313

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases. Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

Wilson, M. L.; Ho, C. K.

2002-02-26

314

Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

315

Mountain rescue stretchers: usability trial.  

PubMed

In the UK mountain rescues are carried out by highly trained volunteers in all weather conditions and at any time of the day/night. They interface with other services when they hand over the casualty to either land or air ambulances. The design of the stretcher is important to the safety of both the volunteers and casualties. This paper reports a usability trial to evaluate the features of mountain rescue stretchers and identify characteristics for future design. Two mountain rescue teams in the English Lake District participated in a five week field experiment. Data were collected using postural analysis with Rapid Entire Body Analysis, Body Part Discomfort Surveys, Rated Perceived Exertion and focus groups to compare the performance of four stretchers: Split Thomas, Ferno Titan, MacInnes mark 6 and MacInnes mark 7. None of the stretchers had an overall advantage, with benefits for some features counterbalanced by disadvantages resulting from others. All the stretchers produced shoulder discomfort with the Split Thomas and MacInnes 6 lowering the postural risks through the use of skids/wheel in the carrying phase. The key design features for future MR stretchers include: reduced unloaded weight (e.g. light weight materials and mesh platforms); undercarriage system to reduce the carrying load; adjustable handles at the front and back positions; flexible carrying system with an optional harness attachment; ease of assembly in adverse environmental conditions; large carrying capacity. It is suggested that military emergency evacuation should be considered in addition to mountain rescue tasks to identify a larger commercial market for development. PMID:20037233

Hignett, Sue; Willmott, Joseph Wayne; Clemes, Stacy

2009-01-01

316

Aquatic Insects in Mountain Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan from Clemson University, middle school students learn to recognize, characterize, and describe the microhabitats (riffle, run, and pool) of a mountain stream. They identify the abiotic (non-living) factors that might affect the insects living in different habitats within the stream and discuss morphological adaptations that insects need to prosper in each habitat. Armed with this information, students go into the field to collect insects, and then identify them in the lab.

Randy Newton (Belton-Honea Path High School;); Honea Path (Belton-Honea Path High School,;)

2010-05-27

317

Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

318

Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1988-12-01

319

Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past.

Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

2008-01-01

320

San Antonio Mountain Experiment (SAMEX).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Antonio Mountain Experiment (SAMEX) involves a 3325 m. conically shaped, isolated mountain in north-central New Mexico where hourly observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation are being taken at nine locations over a three- to five-year period that began in 1980. The experiment is designed to isolate the effect of topography on these meteorological variables by using a geometric configuration sufficiently simple to lead to generalized results. One remote automatic weather station (RAWS) is located at the peak (3322 m); four are located at midslope (3033 m) on southwest, southeast, northeast, and northwest aspects; and four are at the base (2743 m) on southwest, southeast, northeast, and northwest aspects. The surface observations are supplemented by rawinsonde, pibal, tethersonde, and constant-level balloon observations at selected times during each year. The unique set of meteorological data collected in the experiment will be used to 1) determine the effect of elevation and aspect on the meteorological variables; 2) compare the temperature, humidity, and wind components on the mountain with observations and/or predictions of these variables in the free air nearby; and 3) validate temperature, humidity, and wind models in complex terrain.

McCutchan, Morris H.; Fox, Douglas G.; Furman, R. William

1982-10-01

321

The structure of mountain fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly the part of a mountain front which is visible at the surface consists of foreland-dipping thrust belt rocks elevated above their regional structural position and overlain more or less conformably by molasse. Several explanations for their geometry are possible. (1) Major detachments exist within or beneath the molasse resulting in transport of the foreland basin. Examples of this geometry come from the Swiss Molasse Plain, the Southern Pyrenees and the Mackenzie Mountains of Canada. (2) Displacement is lost on major backthrusts beneath the frontal monocline. Examples cited here are the Rockies of Alberta, the Sulaiman Ranges of Pakistan, the Mackenzies, and the Andes in Peru. (3) Thrust sheets travelled over an old land surface and syntectonic molasse contemporaneously offlaps the topographic high of the thrust front. This phenomenon occurs along the Alpine thrust front in Haute Provence. (4) The frontal fold represents deformation above a large-scale thrust tip. No unequivocal example of tip line strain at this scale has been recorded although this type of deformation may occur in the Brooks Range of Alaska. In many areas mountain fronts show a combination of these idealized geometries.

Vann, I. R.; Graham, R. H.; Hayward, A. B.

322

Solar fuels: vision and concepts.  

PubMed

The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and 'endless' resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involving direct, semi-direct and indirect approaches to produce solar fuels, are overviewed. PMID:22434445

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

323

Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 49 x 37 kilometers (30 x 23 miles) Location: 38.8 deg. North lat., 78.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Anaglyph of SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2003-01-01

324

Alternative Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Introduction: Transportation Market Evolution; Tactical Mobility Fuel. Single Fuel in the Battlefield: What is the Single Fuel. Certification/Qualification Pipeline; DARPA Alternative Jet Fuels Program. Coordinating the Overall Alternative Fuel Qualificat...

P. Muzzell

2009-01-01

325

Fueling systems  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with concepts of the Tiber II tokamak reactor fueling systems. Contained in this report are the fuel injection requirement data, startup fueling requirements, intermediate range fueling requirements, power range fueling requirements and research and development considerations. (LSR)

Gorker, G.E.

1987-01-01

326

Radionuclide transport from yucca Mountain and Inter-basin Flow in Death Valley  

SciTech Connect

Hydrodynamics and the U.S. Geological survey conducted studies to evaluate far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, of radionuclide into Inyo County from Yucca Mountain, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. The specific purpose of our research was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: 1. Establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin, 2. Characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and 3. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA. 4. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and Franklin Lake Playa. The hydraulic characterization of the LCA is of critical interest to Inyo County and the U.S. Department of Energy because: 1. The upward gradient in the LCA at Yucca Mountain provides a natural barrier to radionuclide transport, 2. The LCA is a necessary habitat resource for the endangered Devil's Hole pup fish, and 3. The LCA is the primary water supply and source of water to the major springs in Death Valley National Park. This paper presents the results of our study program to evaluate if inter-basin flow exists between the Amargosa and Death Valley Basins through the LCA. The study presents the results of our structural geology analysis of the Southern Funeral Mountain range, geochemical source analysis of spring waters in the region, and a numerical groundwater model to simulate inter-basin flow in the Southern Funeral Mountain range. (authors)

Bredehoeft, J. [The Hydrodynamics Group (United States); Fridrich, C. [U.S. Geological Survey-Denver (United States); King, C.HG.M. [The Hydrodynamics Group, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01

327

Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

Donato, M. M.

1987-01-01

328

Western Mountain Initiative. A Network of Mountain Protected Areas for Global Change Research. Program Report 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Western Mountain Initiative (WMI) is to understand and predict the responses emphasizing sensitivities, thresholds, resistance, and resilience of Western mountain ecosystems to climatic variability and change. The rate and magnitude o...

2006-01-01

329

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02

330

Earth's energy and mineral resources  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-one papers examine the questions of world resources as they relate to the energy problem. The idea of resource limitations is gaining credence as people become aware of local depletion and the idea that substitution can only delay the depletion of global supplies. The papers examine the political security, economic, and environmental dangers of the major energy resources. They analyze the technological as well as the sociological problems of each. The papers are grouped under five major headings: The Energy Problem; Fossil and Synthetic Fuels; Nuclear Power; Solar and Other Energy Sources; and Mineral Resources. 504 references, 79 figures, 44 tables. (DCK)

Skinner, B.J. (ed.)

1980-01-01

331

United States transportation fuel economics (1975 - 1995)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States transportation fuel economics in terms of fuel resources options, processing alternatives, and attendant economics for the period 1975 to 1995 are evaluated. The U.S. energy resource base is reviewed, portable fuel-processing alternatives are assessed, and selected future aircraft fuel options - JP fuel, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen - are evaluated economically. Primary emphasis is placed on evaluating future aircraft fuel options and economics to provide guidance for future strategy of NASA in the development of aviation and air transportation research and technology.

Alexander, A. D., III

1975-01-01

332

Mountain building and mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the supercontinental cycle.

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

2013-01-01

333

Folding above faults, Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Asymmetric folds formed above basement faults can be observed throughout the Rocky Mountains. Several previous interpretations of the folding process made the implicit assumption that one or both fold hinges migrated or rolled'' through the steep forelimb of the fold as the structure evolved (rolling hinge model). Results of mapping in the Bighorn and Seminoe Mountains, WY, and Sangre de Cristo Range, CO, do not support this hypothesis. An alternative interpretation is presented in which fold hinges remained fixed in position during folding (fixed hinge model). Mapped folds share common characteristics: (1) axial traces of the folds intersect faults at or near the basement/cover interface, and diverge from faults upsection; (2) fold hinges are narrow and interlimb angles cluster around 80--100[degree] regardless of fold location; (3) fold shape is typically angular, despite published cross sections that show concentric folds; and, (4) beds within the folds show thickening and/or thinning, most commonly adjacent to fold hinges. The rolling hinge model requires that rocks in the fold forelimbs bend through narrow fold hinges as deformation progressed. Examination of massive, competent rock units such as the Ord. Bighorn Dolomite, Miss. Madison Limestone, and, Penn. Tensleep Sandstone reveals no evidence of the extensive internal deformation that would be expected if hinges rolled through rocks of the forelimb. The hinges of some folds (e.g. Golf Creek anticline, Bighorn Mountains) are offset by secondary faults, effectively preventing the passage of rocks from backlimb to forelimb. The fixed hinge model proposes that the fold hinges were defined early in fold evolution, and beds were progressively rotated and steepened as the structure grew.

McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

334

Numerical Simulation of the Thermally Generated Mountain-Foreland Circulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrostatic mesoscale model is used for numerical simulation of the thermally generated mountain-foreland circulation. For an idealized large mountain valley especially the influence of different mountain shapes and various surface properties is investi...

F. Somieski

1987-01-01

335

Coal quality in area of Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain, southern Appalachian Mountains, Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10 coal beds of Pennsylvanian age crop out around Sand Mountain and Lookout Mountain in Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These beds were deposited in barrier and fluvial environments. Few determinations of modern coal-quality data have been made for these coals, although they have been mined for more than 100 years. To evaluate their quality, 47 coal samples from

T. L. Crawford

1986-01-01

336

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

337

Rainfall Controls Cascade Mountains' Erosion and Bedrock Uplift Patterns  

NSF Publications Database

... nsf.gov Rainfall Controls Cascade Mountains' Erosion and Bedrock Uplift Patterns Arlington, Va ... University. "Geologists usually think of erosion wearing away mountains," says David Fountain ...

338

Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

1973-01-01

339

TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-ter...

J. P. Morris W. H. Hansmire

1995-01-01

340

Physiological Predictors of Performance in Mountaineering Ski  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineering ski contains elements from the alpine ski and cross-country ski. The aim of the present research was to determine the factors which contribute to performance at the phase of the uphill skiing in moun- taineering ski. Ten mountaineering ski athletes took part in the present research. Pearson correlation coefficient investigated for correlation between race performance and maximal oxygen uptake

Vasileios Voutselas; Dimitrios Soulas; Alexandros Kritikos

2005-01-01

341

Mountain wetlands: Efficient uranium filters — potential impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are common in montane and subalpine settings in the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, and other mountainous regions of the western U.S. Because they are efficient filters, many contain anomalous concentrations of uranium and other metals. Sorption by organic matter, complexing of the uranyl ion, (UO2) 2+, with humic and fulvic acids, and action by bacteria has produced geochemical enrichment

Douglass E. Owen; James K. Otton

1995-01-01

342

Mountain building in Taiwan: A thermokinematic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan mountain belt is classically viewed as a case example of a critical wedge growing essentially by frontal accretion and therefore submitted to distributed shortening. However, a number of observations call for a significant contribution of underplating to the growth of the orogenic wedge. We propose here a new thermokinematic model of the Taiwan mountain belt reconciling existing kinematic,

Martine Simoes; Jean Philippe Avouac; Olivier Beyssac; Bruno Goffé; Kenneth A. Farley; Yue-Gau Chen

2007-01-01

343

Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

Renner, Hans-Georg

2011-01-01

344

Historic American Engineering Record, Stewart Mountain Dam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a written narrative of the events leading to the construction of Stewart Mountain Dam on the Salt River, in Central Arizona. Stewart Mountain Dam was constructed by the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association between 1928 and 1930. ...

D. C. Jackson

1992-01-01

345

The field tradition in mountain geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldwork has a long and honored tradition in mountain geomorphology, and justifiably so. Many features and processes present in mountains occur at fine to very fine spatial scales that simply do not lend themselves well to analyses via remote methods. The nature of the sampling of data in mountain environments also constrains the use of computational techniques, such as GIS, in favor of on-site data collection. In addition, when one is present in the field in mountains, the dynamic nature of the landscape often provides unexpected rewards that could not be planned for in a campaign of remote analysis. These aspects of scale, sampling, and serendipity make on-site fieldwork still the preferred method for geomorphological research in mountain environments. Several examples of features occurring at fine spatial scale that could only be effectively examined in the field are presented in this paper, as well as examples of data sampling occurring at fine scale. I also illustrate several instances where being on-site, at a specific unexpected moment, in the dynamic mountain environment provided scientific insight that could only be obtained through the serendipity of being there. Why continue to conduct geomorphological fieldwork in mountains? "Because the mountains are there"!

Butler, David R.

2013-10-01

346

The Bauhaus and Black Mountain College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the sixteen-year tenure (1933-1949) at Black Mountain College of Josef Albers, a former Bauhaus Master, and his wife, Anni, a Bauhaus graduate and teacher, exploration of the influence of the Bauhaus on this small, progressive, art-centered college in the mountains of North Carolina is warrented. (Author)

Ellert, JoAnn C.

1972-01-01

347

U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering

Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

348

Kansas Students Enjoy Summertime "Mountain Ventures"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an elective biology program offered at Lawrence High School (Kansas) that emphasizes basic field biology, ecology, conservation, camping, first aid, mountaineering, and map reading. Groups of students spend two weeks in the Rocky Mountains developing knowledge and skills in these areas. (JR)

Highfill, Kenneth M.

1974-01-01

349

Flow resistance in alluvial and mountain rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open channel flow resistance has been fruitfully studied in alluvial rivers. However, due to the complex dynamics of shallow water flow, there remains difficulties in the flow resistance study of mountain rivers. Most of studies about resistance in mountain rivers inherit the modifications of resistance relations in alluvial rivers despite significant differences existing in the mechanisms of flow resistance. Resistance relationships of mountain rivers are almost semi-experienced relying on field data. To the author's best knowledge, there is no unified description of the resistance relation covering both mountain and alluvial rivers. In this study, we aim to propose the first attempt on the uniform of the resistance relation. Fluid resistance is partitioned into skin friction and bed form drag through the partitioning of hydraulic radius. Corresponding to the skin friction and the bed form drag, the grain roughness and the bed form roughness are considered separately. We formulate the equations of the energy losses due to bed form drag in mountain rivers e.g. step-pool structures, considering its consistency with bed form drag of alluvial rivers. Thus bed form roughness of mountain rivers could be estimated referring to those of alluvial rivers. The consistent expression of bed form roughness allows a unified form drag formula suitable to both alluvial and mountain rivers by a modified Einstein flow intensity parameter. The formula agrees with the field survey data very well, demonstrating the inherent uniformity in the resistance relations of mountain and alluvial rivers to some extent.

Fu, X.; Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Li, T.; Guo, D.

2013-12-01

350

Montane wetland water chemistry, Uinta Mountains, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to determine the relationship between surface and groundwater chemistry and wetland characteristics within the Reader Lakes watershed, Uinta Mountains. The dominant rock type in the study area is quartz sandstone of the Hades Pass formation, Unita Mountain Group (Middle Proterozoic). Minor amounts of interbedded arkose and illite-bearing shale are also present. Water chemistry data have been collected

K. S. Severson; M. Matyjasik; R. L. Ford; M. W. Hernandez; S. B. Welsh; S. Summers; L. M. Bartholomew

2009-01-01

351

Pillar Mountain Landslide, Kodiak, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pillar Mountain landslide on the southeast face of Pillar Mountain is about 915 m (3,000 ft) southwest of the city of Kodiak, Alaska. The landslide is about 520 m (1,700 ft) wide at its base and extends approximately from sea level to an altitude of about 343 m (1,125 ft). The slide developed on an ancient and apparently inactive landslide. Renewed movement was first detected on December 5, 1971, following removal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of material from the base of the slope. Although movement of the landslide has decreased since December, 1971, movement continues and the possibility exists that it could increase as a result of an earthquake, water saturation of the landslide mass, or other causes. In the most extreme case, as much as 3.8 to 7.6 million m (5-10 million ) of debris could fall into the sea at Inner Anchorage. If this took place suddenly, it could generate a wave comparable in height to the tsunami that damaged Kodiak during the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. Therefore, we believe that the Pillar landslide is a potential hazard to the city of Kodiak and its environs that merits a thorough investigation and evaluation.

Kachadoorian, Reuben; Slater, Willard H.

1978-01-01

352

Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

2011-01-01

353

Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the help of forestry data, the wind regime data and the topographic features of the mountain area (elevation, slope declivity, slope aspect). The analysis also consider the insolation degree of mountain slopes, that creates favourable conditions for fire propagation between different canopies. These data layers are integrated within a simple GIS analysis in order to intersect the ignition zones with the fire propagation zones in order to obtain the potential areas to be affected by fire. The digital map show three levels of forest fire susceptibility, differenced on the basis of expert knowledge. The map can be validated from the statistical point of view with the polygons of the forest fire affected areas mapped from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI satellite imagery. The mapping results could be integrated within the forest management strategies and especially within the forest cadastre and development maps (updated every ten years). The result can confirm that the data gap in terms of forest fire events can be filled with expert knowledge. References Chuvieco, E, Aguado, I., Jurdao, S., Pettinari, M., Yebra, M., Salas, J., Hantson, S., de la Riva, J., Ibarra, P., Rodrigues, M., Echeverria, M., Azqueta, D., Roman, M., Bastarrika, A., Martinez, S., Recondo, C., Zapico, E., Martinez-Vega F.J. (2012) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2,2, 69-86. Hantson, S., Padilla, M., Corti., D, Chuvieco, E. (2013) Strenghts and weaknesses of MODIS hotspots to characterize Global fire occurence, Remote Sensing of Environment, 131, 1, 152-159. Mihai, B., Savulescu, I.,Sandric, I. (2007) Change detection analysis (1986/2002) for the alpine, subalpine and forest landscape in Iezer Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Mountain Research and Development, 27, 250-258.

Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

2014-05-01

354

Depression - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

355

ALS - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association - http://mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

356

SIDS - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute - www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

357

Epilepsy - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : American Epilepsy Society - www.aesnet.org Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA) - www.efa.org National Institute of ...

358

Cancer - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society - www.cancer.org Cancer Care - www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute - www.cancer.gov

359

Autism - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - autism ... The following organizations and links are good resources for information on autism : Association for Science in Autism Treatment | www.asatonline.org Autism Society of America | www.autism-society.org Autism Speaks | ...

360

Blindness - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind - www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness - www.blindness.org National Eye Institute - ...

361

Psoriasis - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - psoriasis ... The following organization is a good resource for information on psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology - www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of Arthritis ...

362

Ostomy - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons - www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments_and_screenings/ostomy United Ostomy ...

363

Lupus - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America - www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

364

Scleroderma - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology - http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National ...

365

Migraine - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation - www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation - www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

366

Infertility - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

367

Scoliosis - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00236 National Institute of Arthritis ...

368

Breastfeeding - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. - www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

369

Incontinence - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

370

Alcoholism - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Al-Anon/Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

371

Resource Stewardship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Managing Our Resources (Managing Resources, Sharing Expertise, Creating Solutions, Modifying Facilities and Operations); Meeting the Challenges Ahead (Making Water Available, Helping Endangered Species, Improving Water Quality, Combatin...

2000-01-01

372

Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators in the southeast United States will find links to resources for ocean science instruction on this website. The resource topics include general ocean and earth science education materials, ocean observing systems, water quality, wetlands and remote sensing data.

373

Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the impacts of climate change and variability on water resources within the context of energy and fuel development in the upper Colorado River basin. WARMF performs physics based energy and water balances on a sub-watershed basis and routes flow through soils and a network of streams, lakes and reservoirs to a watershed outlet. A climate change module has been developed to modify historical meteorological data in order to examine the impacts of climate change scenarios in the basin. The model is parameterized and calibrated for the White, Upper Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in Colorado from their headwaters to the Utah border. These rivers are the most likely to be impacted by new extractions of water for oil shale development in the Piceance Basin in Western Colorado. The model predicts that a three degree Celsius change in temperature could result in an average annual reduction in stream flow by 15 to 20 percent and a shift toward earlier snowmelt runoff. In addition, model output is used within a systems dynamics modeling framework to examine water resource management strategies for a range of energy production growth scenarios and the interdependencies between water use, energy production, carbon management, population growth, infrastructure, and economics in western basins.

Wilson, C.; Levitt, D.; Herr, J.; Geza, M.; Middleton, R.; Nealon, T.; Wolfsberg, A.

2008-12-01

375

Ocean's resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resources of the oceans may be broadly grouped as tangible or material, and intangible. The tangible resources group includes petroleum and related substances, such as sulfur; many other minerals, involving partically all of the elements; the biological resources, in which the greatest investments of marine industry to date have been made and where the vast potentials for the future

1968-01-01

376

Improved fuel designs for an uncertain fuel cycle climate  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of improving uranium resource utilization, while maintaining and improving the existing excellent fuel integrity and reliability record, is discussed. The improvements have attainable economic benefits in the present once through cycle or in future nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycle operating mode.

Boman, L.H.; Cadek, F.F.; Hollein, D.A.

1981-01-01

377

Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

Howard, K. A.; Nielson, J. E.; Wilshire, W. G.; Nakata, J. K.; Goodge, J. W.; Reneau, S. L.; John, B. E.; Hansen, V. L.

1999-01-01

378

A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

2014-05-01

379

Quantifying Mountain Block Recharge by Means of Catchment-Scale Storage-Discharge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the hydrologic significance of mountainous catchments in providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes in these systems, such as mountain block recharge (MBR). We developed an empirical approach based on the storage sensitivity function introduced by Kirchner (2009) to develop storage-discharge relationships from stream flow analysis. We investigated sensitivity of MBR estimates to uncertainty in the derivation of the catchment storage-discharge relations. We implemented this technique in a semi-arid mountainous catchment in South-east Arizona, USA (the Marshall Gulch catchment in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson) with two distinct rainy seasons, winter frontal storms and summer monsoon separated by prolonged dry periods. Developing storage-discharge relation based on baseflow data in the dry period allowed quantifying change in fractured bedrock storage caused by MBR. Contribution of fractured bedrock to stream flow was confirmed using stable isotope data. Our results show that 1) incorporating scalable time steps to correct for stream flow measurement errors improves the model fit; 2) the quantile method is more suitable for stream flow data binning; 3) the choice of the regression model is more critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment and 4) application of daily versus hourly flow did not affect the storage-discharge relationship. This methodology allowed quantifying MBR using stream flow recession analysis from within the mountain system.

Ajami, H.; Troch, P. A.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Eastoe, C. J.

2009-12-01

380

255 Agreements, not 293 Unresolved Issues, on the Proposed High-Level Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent regulatory agency whose mission is to ensure that public health, safety, and the environment are protected when nuclear materials are used. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) authorized NRC to develop licensing criteria for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain,

B. W. Leslie

2002-01-01

381

The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development and climate change scenarios. The multi-scale modeling approach involves a systems dynamics (SD) modeling framework linked with more detailed models such as one for basin-scale hydrology investigating the spatial relationships of water rights and requirements, reservoir locations, and climate change impacts (the details of the SD model and the hydrologic model are presented in other contributions by Pasqualini et al. and Wilson et al.). A link to a CO2 sequestration performance assessment model is also being built to enable analysis of alternative carbon management options. With these evolving capabilities, our analyses consider interdependent demands and impacts placed on the region for various development scenarios.

Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

2008-12-01

382

Environmental Considerations for a Geothermal Development in the Jemez Mountains of Central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration nature of the Baca Geothermal Project and the contractual arrangements between Public Service Company of New Me (PNM) and Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico (Union) with the Department of Energy mandate on environmental monitoring effort previously not seen for an energy development of this size. One of the most often stated goals of the Baca Project is to demonstrate the acceptability and viability of geothermal energy in an environmentally responsible manner. If this statement is to be followed, then a program would have to be developed which would (1) identify all the environmental baseline parameters, (2) monitor them during construction and operation, and (3) alleviate any possible negative impacts. The situation of the Baca project in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico offers a challenging vehicle with which to demonstrate the acceptability of geothermal energy. A few of the reasons for this are: these mountains are one of the most heavily used recreational resource areas in the state, numerous prehistoric people utilized the canyons and have left considerable archeological resources, the mountains are home for a number of individuals who prefer their serenity to the hustle and bustle of urban dwelling, and finally, the mountains are considered sacred by a number of local Indian tribes, a few of which use the mountaintop as religious sites.

Sabo, David G.

1980-12-01

383

Synthetic fuels research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this briefing reviews the significant factors and trends in energy production and consumption in the United States, as well as the major energy resources. In the United States, conventional production of oil and gas is expected to decrease with time, so that it becomes necessary to develop synthetic fuels from major fossil resources such as coal

1979-01-01

384

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

385

Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function.  

PubMed

The personal safety and well-being of one fifth, and water supply for almost half of all people depend directly or indirectly on the functional integrity of mountain ecosystems, the key component of which is a robust vegetation cover. The green 'coat' of the world's mountains is composed of specialized plants, animals and microbes, all nested in a great variety of microhabitats. Because a single mountain may host a series of climatically different life zones over short elevational distances, mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and priority regions for conservation. With their diverse root systems, plants anchor soils on slopes and prevent erosion. Both landuse and atmospheric changes such as elevated CO2 and climatic warming affect mountain biodiversity. Sustained catchment value depends on sustained soil integrity, which in turn depends on a diverse plant cover. Whether landuse in mountains is sustainable is a question of its consequences for water yield and biodiversity. Given their dependence on mountains, lowlanders should show concern for the highlands beyond their recreational value. PMID:15575177

Körner, Christian

2004-11-01

386

Rocky Mountain Coordination Center: Fire Information (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of information on fire hazards and prediction for the Rocky Mountain area. Users can access information on current fires and fire restrictions for this area. Other materials include predictive services (intelligence, weather forecasts, fuels and fire danger ratings), logistics and dispatch information for aviation and fire crews, and administrative information for RMCC personnel (safety, training, employment opportunities). There are also links to other agencies with related information.

387

Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

388

Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces {sup 237}Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 {times} 10{sup 6} years. Consequently, the transport of {sup 237}Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry.

Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

1993-02-01

389

Groundwater-Quality Data in the Klamath Mountains Study Unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Groundwater quality in the 8,806-square-mile Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated by the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) from October to December2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient M...

K. Belitz T. M. Mathany

2014-01-01

390

Mountain Sheep: An Environmental Epidemiological Survey of Variation in Metal Exposure and Physiological Biomarkers Following Mine Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Anthropogenic activities, such as mining and indust rial operations, are a major environmental source of metal exposure for wildlife. Quantitative data regarding biochemical effects of exposure to mineral extracti on on mountain sheep, Ovis canadensis , are limited, although their habitats are becoming increasingly a ffected by expanded resource development. Decisions relating to environmental protection and wildlife conservation

Lawrence K. Duffy; Michael W. Oehler Sr.; R. Terry Bowyer; Vernon C. Bleich

2009-01-01

391

Mountain effect on the motion in the atmosphere's boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of 3 years' (1967 70) radiosonde wind data on the windward (Salt Lake City, Utah) and lee (Denver, Colorado) sides of mountains indicates that at these two stations: (1) the distributions of the kinetic energy of the mean and turbulent motions are similar above the mountain top; (2) below the mountain top, on the windward side, mountains tend

S. K. Kao; J. N. Paegle; W. E. Normington

1974-01-01

392

Mountain effect on the motion in the atmosphere's boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of 3 years' (1967–70) radiosonde wind data on the windward (Salt Lake City, Utah) and lee (Denver, Colorado) sides of mountains indicates that at these two stations: (1) the distributions of the kinetic energy of the mean and turbulent motions are similar above the mountain top; (2) below the mountain top, on the windward side, mountains tend to

S. K. Kao; J. N. Paegle; W. E. Normington

1974-01-01

393

Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world`s energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1998-05-01

394

CAUSEweb Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE) was part of an initiative created by the American Statistical Association, and their website was designed to "support and advance undergraduate statistics education in four target areas resources, professional development, outreach, and research." With monies from the National Science Foundation, they created CAUSEweb, where they provide this set of resources for members of the undergraduate statistics education community. The resources are divided into eleven categories, including "analysis tools", "datasets", and "curriculum". "Curriculum" has 350 resources, including searchable databases of 1000 test questions for an introductory statistics course and a demonstration site that addresses nonprobability sampling. The "lecture examples" shouldn't be missed, as visitors can use these resources to complement their existing lectures and class presentations. The site is rounded out by a listing of their review criteria and editorial standards for determining which resources make the cut for inclusion here.

395

Radiometric dating of sediment records from mountain lakes in the Tatra Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores from nine different lakes in the Tatra Mountains, collected as part of the EU funded AL:PE, MOLAR and EMERGE\\u000a projects investigating natural environmental records stored in remote mountain lake sediment sequences, were dated radiometrically\\u000a by 210Pb and 137Cs. At five sites, D?ugi Staw G?sienicowy and Zielony Staw G?sienicowy on the Polish side of the Tatra Mountains and Starolesnianske

Peter G. Appleby; Gayane T. Piliposian

2006-01-01

396

018 Cold mountain: do delays to hospital increase the risk of hypothermia in mountain casualties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionUK mountain casualties are at risk of hypothermia year-round. Mountain Rescue personnel are often taught that pre-hospital treatment of hypothermia cannot reverse cooling of casualties and so delays in evacuation increase the severity of hypothermia on arrival to hospital. We wondered if this was true—our ED receives many mountain casualties, but very few arrive genuinely hypothermic.AimTo determine the relationship between

Benjamin Jones; Linda Dykes

2011-01-01

397

Rwenzori Mountains (Mountains of the Moon): Headwaters of the White Nile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rwenzori Mountains, Ptolemy's legendary Mountains of the Moon, were created in the late Pliocene (less than 5 Ma bp) and\\u000a stretch along the border between western Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo. The landscape has been sculptured by repeated\\u000a growth of glaciers, resulting in numerous lakes and six separate mountains rising over 4,500 m asl. Apart from being considered

Hilde Eggermont; Kay Van Damme; James M. Russell

398

Gendered Homegardens: A Study in Three Mountain Areas of the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gendered Homegardens: A Study in Three Mountain Areas of the Iberian Peninsula. As an example of the importance of gender relations in the use of natural resources, several authors have analyzed the role\\u000a of women in homegardens. Gendered differences in homegarden management have been difficult to disentangle due to the often–shared\\u000a nature of gardening. Here, we use an innovative approach

Victoria Reyes-García; Sara Vila; Laura Aceituno-Mata; Laura Calvet-Mir; Teresa Garnatje; Alexandra Jesch; Juan José Lastra; Montserrat Parada; Montserrat Rigat; Joan Vallès; Manuel Pardo-de-Santayana

2010-01-01

399

Moving beyond component research in mountain regions: Operationalizing systems integration at farm and landscape scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research in support of agricultural development and natural resource management in densely settled mountain ecosystems\\u000a continues to emphasize component over system-level goals. Research by plant breeders, foresters and animal scientists is generally\\u000a designed to maximize the yield of products within their particular area of expertise (edible plant parts, tree products and\\u000a livestock products, respectively), while soil scientists aim largely

Laura German

2006-01-01

400

Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

2012-01-01

401

Thermally-forced Circulation II: Mountain/Valley Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the mountain/valley breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a mountain/valley breeze, modifying effects on mountain/valley breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle mountain/valley breezes, and mountain/valley breeze forecast parameters. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

402

Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

Binder, Robert D.

2002-01-01

403

Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

1982-01-01

404

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Protect My Family From Ticks? Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings What to Do When ... and Woods Safety Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ...

405

Foods of the Rocky Mountain Mule Deer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature on food habits of the Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was reviewed to compile listings of reported foods of this species throughout its range. Plant species are classified as to relative importance on the basis of their contribut...

R. C. Kufeld O. C. Wallmo C. Feddema

1973-01-01

406

Remote Monitoring of Visibility in Mountain Passes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the work accomplished and results obtained during an experimental program that evaluated television and slow-scan video transmission techniques as a means to remotely monitor visibility in mountain passes. The purpose of the program w...

J. Czika K. H. Shreeve

1974-01-01

407

Yucca Mountain reveals its secrets to scientists  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear power plants have generated some 20,000 metric tons of waste, according to Carl P. Gertz, former Department of Energy (DOE) project manager for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization, and Sheldon Teitelbaum, senior writer for the Las Vegas-based Science Application International Corporation. In the search for disposal methods, DOE fixed on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a {open_quotes}sprawling heap of volcanic tuff{close_quotes} situated on a parcel of federally owned land 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The authors maintain that Yucca Mountain`s sparse population, dry climate, deep watertable, and 5,000-foot-thick layer of compressed volcanic rock may make it a suitable long-term storage facility. Nevertheless, Gertz and Teitelbaum say, much research must be done before the site is formally adopted as a repository and begins to receive shipments of high-level nuclear waste.

Gertz, C.P. [Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Teitelbaum, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1994-12-31

408

ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

409

Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exi...

1999-01-01

410

Phenytoin: Ineffective against Acute Mountain Sickness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phenytoin sodium was evaluated for its effect on the development and intensity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) because of its ability to reduce intracellular Na+ concentrations in brain and concentrations in brain and thereby minimize any tendency to inc...

R. L. Burse M. Landowne A. J. Young J. T. Maher

1981-01-01

411

U.S. sent fuel shipment experience by rail  

SciTech Connect

As planning for the large scale shipment of spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain proceeds to address these challenges, actual shipments of spent fuel in other venues continues to provide proof that domestic rail spent fuel shipments can proceed safely and effectively. This paper presents some examples of recently completed spent fuel shipments, and the shipment of large low-level radioactive waste shipments offering lessons learned that may be beneficial to the planning process for large scale spent fuel shipments in the US. (authors)

Colborn, K. [MHF Logistical Solutions, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2007-07-01

412

Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig.

Harrison-Giesler, D.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Yucca Mountain Project Office; Morissette, R.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

1991-02-01

413

Acetazolamide A Treatment for Chronic Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Chronic mountain sickness or Monge's disease is charac- terized by an excessive polycythemia in high-altitude dwellers, with a prevalence of 5 to 18% above 3,200 m. Todate, no pharmacologic treatment is available. Objectives: We evaluated the efficacy of acetazolamide in the treat- ment of chronic mountain sickness and the importance of nocturnal hypoxemia in its pathophysiology. Methods: A double-blind

Jean-Paul Richalet; Maria Rivera; Patrick Bouchet; Eduardo Chirinos; Igor Onnen; Olivier Petitjean; Annick Bienvenu; Francoise Lasne; Stephane Moutereau; Fabiola Leon-Velarde

2005-01-01

414

Fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites. The plateau method yielded a formation age of 0.85±0.17Ma. This age overlaps within error with that of the catastrophic impact that produced the Australasian tektite–microtektite strewn field ca. 0.8Ma ago. This provides further evidence that Transantarctic Mountain microtektites belong to the Australasian tektite–microtektite strewn field, as previously suggested on the

L. Folco; G. Bigazzi; M. D’Orazio; M. L. Balestrieri

2011-01-01

415

Recent advances in mountain climate research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper provides a brief overview of recent advances in selected areas of mountain climate research. It addresses the contrasting vertical precipitation gradients in the Alps and in central Asia, snow line in the Alps, orographic precipitation in North America, the Mesoscale Alpine Programme wind studies, automatic weather stations in mountains, satellite remote sensing of glacier changes, and temperature change at high elevations. The evidence for altitudinal differences in the temperature response to recent warming is discussed.

Barry, Roger G.

2012-12-01

416

Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries are in critical energy crisis. Pakistan spends almost 7 billion US$ on import of fossil fuels annually to congregate its energy needs. The renewable and sustainable energy resources are best substitute to the conventional fuels and energy sources. Pakistan takes the opportunity to have almost 159 million animals producing almost 652millionkg of manure daily from cattle and buffalo

Syed S. Amjid; Muhammad Q. Bilal; Muhammad S. Nazir; Altaf Hussain

2011-01-01

417

Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.  

PubMed

This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

418

Semidiurnal solar tides in the mountain atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Harmonic analysis of Doppler radar wind profiler data west of the Rocky Mountains has identified a coherent semidiurnal wind system above the wintertime boundary layer at multiple sites in the region. The unusual characteristics of this mountain wind system (its semidiurnal frequency, amplitude, phase, and direction of rotation) suggest that is is a semidiurnal solar tide. Such tides have not been previously documented in the mountain atmosphere or in the troposphere generally but, because semidiurnal signatures are well known in surface barometric traces, and large amplitude semidiurnal tides are known in the upper atmosphere, they are not unexpected. Our future research on this semidiurnal cordilleran wind system will focus on obtaining sufficient data to resolve further the vertical structure, seasonal variation, and spatial variations of the wind system. Of particular interest is the role of the Rocky Mountains and other cordilleras in modifying the global tides. It remains to be seen whether semidiurnal cordilleran circulations will be of sufficient magnitude to be observed across major arcuate-shaped east-west-oriented mountain massifs such as the Alps. There, wind systems may develop in response to pressure gradients (Frei and Davies, 1993) that form across the Alps due to differences in the amplitudes and phases of semidiurnal and diurnal pressure oscillations on the north and south sides of the mountain barrier.

Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

1994-09-01

419

A spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model for application in mountain basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with simulation periods varying from a few days for the smallest basin, Emerald Lake watershed in California, to multiple snow seasons for the Park City area in Utah. The model is driven by topographically corrected estimates of radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Simulation results in all basins closely match independently measured snow water equivalent, snow depth, or runoff during both the development and depletion of the snowcover. Spatially distributed estimates of snow deposition and melt allow us to better understand the interaction between topographic structure, climate, and moisture availability in mountain basins of the western US. Application of topographically distributed models such as this will lead to improved water resource and watershed management.Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with simulation periods varying from a few days for the smallest basin, Emerald Lake watershed in California, to multiple snow seasons for the Park City area in Utah. The model is driven by topographically corrected estimates of radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Simulation results in all basins closely match independently measured snow water equivalent, snow depth, or runoff during both the development and depletion of the snowcover. Spatially distributed estimates of snow deposition and melt allow us to better understand the interaction between topographic structure, climate, and moisture availability in mountain basins of the western US. Application of topographically distributed models such as this will lead to improved water resource and watershed management.

Marks, D.; Domingo, J.; Susong, D.; Link, T.; Garen, D.

1999-01-01

420

Resource Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

Human Development Institute, 2008

2008-01-01

421

Resource Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The series of "Resource Inventories" is designed to encourage wider use of available information and services in the field of special education technology. A resource inventory is provided for each of 46 states of the United States. Each inventory includes directory information on public and private agencies and organizations that offer…

Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Center for Special Education Technology.

422

Inventor's Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inventor Andy Gibbs developed the Inventor's Resource site to provide information to new inventors, intellectual property managers and intellectual property creators. The site features a newsletter, a yellow page of investors, copyright and trademark links, downloadable forms for inventors, and a listing of inventions for sale. The site also features annotated links to technological transfer resources, funding, patent laws, and international intellectual property organizations.

Gibbs, Andy.

1998-01-01

423

Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of learning about diabetes and provides a list of ways to obtain this information. Different resources include videos, internet sites, books, cookbooks, and magazines. Provides a detailed list of each of the previous resources and recommends that people with or without diabetes make a concerted effort to educate…

Hiestand, M. Ed.

2003-01-01

424

Security Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeastern State University at Tahlequah introduces security personnel to a vast collection of recourses appropriate for almost any situation. Among their valuable list of legal and expert guidelines are suggestions for working with people with special needs, fire, airport security, terrorism, floods, loss prevention, mountain rescue, safety, and workplace violence. The advice on searching and monitoring is particularly tactful yet thorough. This comprehensive and diverse collection would enable anyone to protect a home, office space, or larger institution, and will even improve the skills of security personnel with years of experience.

Eveskracht, Charles L.

2007-07-13

425

Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

Powell, Robert E.

2002-01-01

426

Preliminary environmental survey of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado. Interim report, November 1972-September 1974  

SciTech Connect

Since November 1972, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground has been surveying the resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) to establish an ecological baseline for evaluation of the actual and potential impacts of Government and contractor operations upon these resources. This report includes such information as the history of RMA and its role in the Dept. of Defense, its unique prairie environment (flora, fauna, habitats), and the effects upon this environment from such operations as the manufacture of pesticides and herbicides by a civilian contractor and the demilitarization of toxic chemical agents by the Army. Area of RMA presently or potentially contaminated are noted.

Gauthier, D.A.; Stricklett, R.; Faulkner, F.F.

1974-10-01

427

Primer on gas integrated resource planning  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-12-01

428

Lunar resource recovery: A definition of requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to locate, mine, and process the natural resources of the Moon will be an essential requirement for lunar base development and operation. The list of materials that will be necessary is extensive and ranges from oxygen and hydrogen for fuel and life support to process tailings for emplacement over habitats. Despite the resources need, little is known about methodologies that might be suitable for utilizing lunar resources. This paper examines some of the requirements and constraints for resource recovery and identifies key areas of research needed to locate, mine, and process extraterrestrial natural resources.

Elsworth, D.; Kohler, J. L.; Alexander, S. S.

1992-09-01

429

Lunar resource recovery: A definition of requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to locate, mine, and process the natural resources of the Moon will be an essential requirement for lunar base development and operation. The list of materials that will be necessary is extensive and ranges from oxygen and hydrogen for fuel and life support to process tailings for emplacement over habitats. Despite the resources need, little is known about methodologies that might be suitable for utilizing lunar resources. This paper examines some of the requirements and constraints for resource recovery and identifies key areas of research needed to locate, mine, and process extraterrestrial natural resources.

Elsworth, D.; Kohler, J. L.; Alexander, S. S.

1992-01-01

430

Pollutant deposition in mountainous terrain  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical considerations suggest that the high elevation forests in mountainous areas receive substantially more atmospheric deposition than do the forests of the surrounding lowlands. Wet deposition should increase with elevation because of orographic enhancement of precipitation and increased deposition of snow, which may be more polluted than rain. Dry deposition should be greater in high-elevation forests because of greater wind speeds, higher relative humidities, greater surface area of vegetation present during the entire year, and greater filtering efficiency of needles compared to broad leaves. Somewhat lower concentrations of airborne particles and gases at remote high elevation sites may act to diminish the elevational increase of dry deposition to some extent. In addition to increased wet and dry deposition, cloud water deposition is likely to be significant at high elevations because of the frequent presence of wind-driven clouds. At low elevations, clouds and fogs are probably negligible as a deposition vector because they occur less frequently and are usually associated with still air. Experimental verification of these expected trends is not easily found, but studies on cloud water deposition and lead accumulation suggest their accuracy. Additional data on air quality, meteorology, and precipitation chemistry are needed for high elevations before atmospheric deposition of any airborne substance can be determined with certainty. 31 references.

Lovett, G.M.

1983-01-01

431

Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.  

SciTech Connect

The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

1994-12-01

432

Future directions: Integrated resource planning  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning or ERP is the process for integrating supply- and demand-side resources to provide energy services at a cost that balances the interests of all stakeholders. It now is the resource planning process used by electric utilities in over 30 states. The goals of IRP have evolved from least cost planning and encouragement of demand-side management to broader, more complex issues including core competitive business activity, risk management and sharing, accounting for externalities, and fuel switching between gas and electricity. IRP processes are being extended to other interior regions of the country, to non-investor owned utilities, and to regional (rather than individual utility) planning bases, and to other fuels (natural gas). The comprehensive, multi-valued, and public reasoning characteristics of IRP could be extended to applications beyond energy, e.g., transportation, surface water management, and health care in ways suggested in the paper.

Bauer, D.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Eto, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-01-01

433

Future directions: Integrated resource planning  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning or ERP is the process for integrating supply- and demand-side resources to provide energy services at a cost that balances the interests of all stakeholders. It now is the resource planning process used by electric utilities in over 30 states. The goals of IRP have evolved from least cost planning and encouragement of demand-side management to broader, more complex issues including core competitive business activity, risk management and sharing, accounting for externalities, and fuel switching between gas and electricity. IRP processes are being extended to other interior regions of the country, to non-investor owned utilities, and to regional (rather than individual utility) planning bases, and to other fuels (natural gas). The comprehensive, multi-valued, and public reasoning characteristics of IRP could be extended to applications beyond energy, e.g., transportation, surface water management, and health care in ways suggested in the paper.

Bauer, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eto, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-10-01

434

Mapping Chaparral in the Santa Monica Mountains Using Multiple Spectral Mixture Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California chaparral is one of the most important natural vegetation communities in Southern California, representing a significant source of species diversity and, through a high susceptibility to fire, playing a major role in ecosystem dynamics. Due to steep topographic gradients, harsh edaphic conditions and variable fire histories, chaparral typically forms a complex mosaic of different species dominants and age classes, each with unique successional responses to fire and canopy characteristics (e.g. moisture content, biomass, fuel load) that modify fire susceptibility. The high human cost of fire and intimate mixing along the urban interface combine to modify the natural fire regime as well as provide additional impetus for a better understanding of how to predict fire and its management. Management problems have been further magnified by nearly seventy years of fire suppression and drought related die-back over the last few years resulting in a large accumulation of highly combustible fuels. Chaparral communities in the Santa Monica Mountains exemplify many of the management challenges associated with fire and biodiversity. A study was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains to investigate the use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for providing improved maps of chaparral coupled with direct estimates of canopy attributes (e.g. biomass, leaf area, fuel load). The Santa Monica Mountains are an east-west trending range located approximately 75 kilometers north of Los Angeles extending westward into Ventura County. Within the Santa Monica Mountains a diverse number of ecosystems are located, including four distinct types of chaparral, wetlands, riparian habitats, woodlands, and coastal sage scrub. In this study we focus on mapping three types of chaparral, oak woodlands and grasslands. Chaparral mapped included coastal sage scrub, chamise chaparral and mixed chaparral that consisted predominantly of two species of Ceanothus.

Green Robert O.; Roberts, D. A.; Gardner, M.; Church, R.; Ustin, S.; Scheer, G.

1996-01-01

435

1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

1980-01-01

436

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01

437

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24

438

Description of alternative steady-state fuel cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a first cut analysis for the FRAD program of a range of reference, steady-state, fresh and spent fuel compositions for the development of alternative fuels refabrication technology. Included are the resource requirements and separative work requirements and the material flows for each fuel cycle evaluated. However, since steady-state represents only a portion of the complete fuel cycle,

A. J. Boegel; E. T. Merrill; D. F. Newman; A. M. Nolan

1978-01-01

439

Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

Alexander, A. D., III

1972-01-01

440

The Energy Resources Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program addresses the challenge of increasing demand for affordable energy from environmentally acceptable energy sources by conducting basic and applied research on geologic energy resources and on the environmental, economic, and human health impacts of their production and use. This site provides links to specific information about the program, such as science strategy, roles of principal federal energy agencies, and energy program fact sheets and contacts. It also contains links to specific energy source information about coal, oil, gas, and alternative fuels such as uranium, oil shale, heavy oil, and tar sands as well as geothermal and solar. Other links are available to environment and human health, publications, and energy links and teams. There is also a link to use GEO-DATA Explorer (GEODE) to access, view, and download information from geo-spatial databases containing a broad spectrum of data produced by the USGS and other government agencies.

441

Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

2011-06-01

442

Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

Gilmour, E. H.; McColloch, M. E.; Wardlaw, B. R.

1997-01-01

443

Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

Ponce, David A.

2012-01-01

444

Human Resource Practices in Hotels: A Study from the Tourist State of Uttrakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Resource Management, an integral part of an organization, often ensures the success of the shared relationship between employees and an organization by identifying and satisfying the needs of the employees beginning with recruitment and continuing throughout their career. This article aims to analyze the Human Resource practices in hotels in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, India located in the

S. C. Bagri; Suresh Babu; Mohit Kukreti

2010-01-01

445

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

446

Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

Size: 28.7 x 29.4 km (17.8 x 18.2 miles) Location: 29.4 deg. North lat., 8.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 4,6 and 8. Original Data Resolution: 30 m Date Acquired: June 13, 2001

2003-01-01

447

Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

1992-01-01

448

Disease Resources  

Cancer.gov

Key Programs Disease Resources The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) Human Papillomavirus Cervical Cancer Screening NCI Bethesda System 2001 The Bethesda System Web Atlas National Cervical Cancer Coalition American Social

449

Multimedia Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author uses multimedia resources, in this case video tapes, for two assignments: to teach job interviewing in his undergraduate business communication class; and to teach crisis communication in his graduate level advanced business communication class. (SR)

Clark, Thomas

1997-01-01

450

Mangrove Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

2000-01-01

451

Hemophilia - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart Lung and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

452

A new network on mountain geomorphosites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional economy are quite scarce. There is, therefore, a real need to fill the gap of empirical data on the social-economical impacts of geotourism, and on the relationship between the geotourist products developed by the scientific community and the expectations of the public and the tourist sector. The collaboration with social scientists (economists, sociologists) will help to fulfill this objective. - Environmental education: During the last years, a lot of work has been done on the assessment of geoheritage and the selection of sites worthy of promotion and/or protection but few attempts have addressed the question of using geoheritage to communicate on more general issues such as the dynamics and sensitivity of mountain environments or the impacts of climate change on mountain areas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop communication and learning methods - in particular by using new communication technologies - to improve environmental education based on geoheritage site promotion for several kinds of publics, in particular tourists (to improve their awareness of the sensitivity of mountain environments) and scholars. These three research objectives will be fulfilled by the development of common research, in particular cross-border case studies, and by the elaboration of specific courses for Ph.D. and master students. Collaboration with existing mountain networks (scientific, nature parks, etc.) is expected.

Giusti, Christian

2013-04-01

453

Isostatic Gravity Map of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangle, North Central Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Gravity investigations of the Battle Mountain 30 x 60 minute quadrangle were begun as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management to help characterize the geology, mineral resources, hydrology, and ecology of the Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada. The Battle Mountain quadrangle is located between 40?30' and 41?N. lat. and 116? and 117?W. long. This isostatic gravity map of the Battle Mountain quadrangle was prepared from data from about 1,180 gravity stations. Most of these data are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997) and in a published report (Jewel and others, 1997). Data from about 780 gravity stations were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1996; data from about 245 of these are unpublished (USGS, unpub. data, 1998). Data collected from the 400 gravity stations prior to 1996 are a subset of a gravity data compilation of the Winnemucca 1:250,000-scale quadrangle described in great detail by Wagini (1985) and Sikora (1991). This detailed information includes gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and a list of principal facts. A digital version of the entire data set for the Battle Mountain quadrangle is available on the World Wide Web at: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/gump/gump.html

Ponce, D. A.; Morin, R. L.

2000-01-01

454

Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0 kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0 kg/ha SO 4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

Nanus, Leora; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.; Clow, David W.; Alisa Mast, M.

455

Mountains and arid climates of middle latitudes  

SciTech Connect

Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these areas in the absence of orography. The experiments suggest that these interior regions are dry because general subsidence and relatively infrequent storm development occur upstream of orographically induced stationary wave troughs. Downstream of these troughs, precipitation-bearing storms develop frequently in association with strong jet streams. In contrast, both atmospheric circulation and precipitation were more zonally symmetric in the experiment without mountains. In addition, orography reduces the moisture transport into the continental interiors from nearby oceanic sources. The relative soil wetness of these regions in the experiment without mountains is consistent with paleoclimatic evidence of less aridity during the late Tertiary, before substantial uplift of the Rocky Mountains and Tibetan Plateau is believed to have occurred.

Manabe, S.; Broccoli, A.J. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

1990-01-12

456

Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

Nanus, L.; Campbell, D. H.; Ingersoll, G. P.; Clow, D. W.; Mast, M. A.

2003-01-01

457

Evaluation of alternatives for conserving fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy conservation in residences is important to the gas utility industry because it can extend existing gas supplies to meet the demands of new customers, minimize the need for new and costly alternative supplies, and maintain a competitive advantage over high-efficiency electric end-use systems such as heat pumps. Energy conservation can be achieved in two basically different ways: by changes

R. A. Macriss; F. E. Belles

1976-01-01

458

Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at an average rate of 4.9±2.2(SE) percent annually since 2004. We caution that the estimated rate of population growth may be conservative if severe spring weather deterred some mountain goats from reaching the high-elevation survey areas during the 2011 surveys. If the estimated average rate of population growth were to remain constant in the future, then the population would double in approximately 14-15 years.

Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

2011-01-01

459

Fuel for the Future: Unlocking New Fuel Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With worldwide production of light crude oil reserves expected to last ~50 years, a global energy crisis may ensue. In fact,\\u000a a recent report by the UK Energy Research Centre stated that ‘conventional oil production may peak before 2030 with a significant\\u000a risk of a peak before 2020’ (October, 2009). Therefore, there is an increasing need to look towards the

Richard Johnson; Corinne Whitby

2011-01-01

460

Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

None

1980-08-01