Sample records for mountain fuel resources

  1. Coalbed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project US Geological Survey

    This fact sheet, provided by the US Geological Survey, summarizes the geology and production potential of sedimentary provinces that contain extensive coal deposits and significant coalbed methane gas resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The sheet supplies information about what coalbed methane is, where it occurs, how it is recovered and how geologists assess its distribution and quality. A map of resources within the Rocky Mountain region is provided with the text.

  2. Fuels from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

    Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

  3. The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (; )

    2004-07-01

    This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

  4. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  5. Mineral resources of the Santa Rose Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Riverside County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P.; Madden-McGuire, D.J.; Oliver, H.W.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers 68,051 acres in the Santa Rose Mountains, California. An appraisal of the mineral resources (known) and an assessment of mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of this wilderness study area were made at the request of the US Bureau of Land Management. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys indicate that the study area has high potential for tungsten and marble resources, moderate potential for gold, and no potential for oil, natural gas, and geothermal resources.

  6. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  7. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  8. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  9. Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoover, D.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity 8.3.1.9.2.1.5) under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

  10. Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R S

    2003-12-08

    The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

  11. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Swischer, C.C. (Berkeley Geochronology Center (US)); Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FORESTRY RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA

    E-print Network

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FORESTRY RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA and despite the sustainable development principles, the Romanian forestry environment has suffered a real is taken into account (Giddens, 2000). 1.1. Forestry resources administration The main problem in terms

  13. Resource and radioactivity survey in the Ellsworth Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.; Thoste, V.; Bulla, K.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1979-80 field season, radiometric survey operations were mostly limited to the Ellsworth Mountain area. The only exception was a brief attempt to detect radioactive fallout on the sea ice at McMurdo Station. The fallout measurements were made in an effort to detect a supposed nuclear bomb test off the South African coast. No fission products were found. The gamma-ray spectrometer used for the survey was a Geometrics GR-800 with a total sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector volume of 8390 cubic centimeters. The equipment had not been modified since the previous year and it functioned without interruption throughout the survey flights.

  14. Mineral resources of the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lake County, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Diggles, M.F.; King, H.D.; Gettings, ME.; Conrad, J.E.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Soreghan, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources, but it has moderate mineral resource potential for soda ash, boron compounds, sodium sulfate, magnesium compounds, salts, potash, bromine, lithium, tungsten, and geothermal energy. The area also has low mineral resource potential for low-grade, high-tonnage, epithermal, hot-spring gold-silver deposits, for magnesium deposits, and for oil and gas.

  15. Mineral resources of the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lake County, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Diggles; H. D. King; M. E. Gettings; J. E. Conrad; D. L. Sawatzky; G. S. Soreghan

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Diablo Mountain Wilderness Study Area which has no identified mineral resources, but it has moderate mineral resource potential for soda ash, boron compounds, sodium sulfate, magnesium compounds, salts, potash, bromine, lithium, tungsten, and geothermal energy. The area also has low mineral resource potential for low-grade, high-tonnage, epithermal, hot-spring gold-silver deposits, for magnesium deposits, and for

  16. Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center Final Technical Report: June 1, 1991-May 31, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center.

    This final report of the Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (Utah) describes the Center's activities in support of services to children and youth with disabilities during the 2-year federal grant period (1991-1993). It notes accomplishment of its mandate and mission to strengthen state education agency (SEA) capacities by providing…

  17. Integrated water resources management in the Luquillo mountains, Puerto Rico: an evolving process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick N. Scatena

    2004-01-01

    The ecologically unique forest ecosystems of the Luquillo Mountains in Eastern Puerto Rico and the scenic value of its forests, rivers and surrounding beaches have promoted population growth, tourism and light industry, thus increasing regional water demands. In light of further increases in future water demand, integrated water resources management (IWRM) initiatives are rapidly evolving in this area. In an

  18. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  19. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at RMA in 1986 and 1987. The major objectives of the vegetation studies were to: identify, map, and describe major and minor plant community types; Evaluate community composition, structure, and successional status; compare the vegetation of the arsenal with two offsite locations - Buckley Air National Guard Base and the Plains Conservation Center. The studies provided information useful for planning habitat enhancement and vegetation activities. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the extent to which the vegetation of RMA has been effected by contamination, physical disturbance, and previous agricultural history of the site. Appendices: species lists, data summaries for onsite and offsite vegetation types. Plates: vegetation map, natural resource areas of special interest.

  20. Feeding habits and food resources of filter-feeding Trichoptera in a regulated mountain stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal J. Voelz; J. V. Ward

    1992-01-01

    A year-round study was conducted to examine feeding habits and food resources of the filter-feeding Trichoptera Arctopsyche grandis and Brachycentrus occidentalis along a regulated mountain stream gradient. There was a well defined longitudinal species replacement with A. grandis reaching maximum densities 2.3 kilometers below the impoundment, and concomitant with its decline downstream was an increase in B. occidentalis. At all

  1. Mineral resources of the New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Koch, R.D.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Lane, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, situated in La Paz County, west-central Arizona, locally has a moderate resource potential for gold and silver from replacement-type deposits occurring in Paleozoic marble in the western and north-central parts of the area, and a low resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, and manganese localized in fault zones that cut Tertiary volcanic rocks near the eastern edge of the range. Resource potential is low for geothermal energy or oil and gas. There is an unknown resource potential for lime, which could be developed from Paleozoic marble in the north-central part of the area. Sand and gravel occur in the area, but these materials are abundant closer to markets in the region.

  2. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  3. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  4. Irradiated Nuclear Fuel Management: Resource Versus Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vienna, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Management of irradiated fuel is an important component of commercial nuclear power production. Although it is broadly agreed that the disposition of some fraction of the fuel in geological repositories will be necessary, there is a range of options that can be considered that affect exactly what fraction of material will be disposed in that manner. Furthermore, until geological repositories are available to accept commercial irradiated fuel, these materials must be safely stored. Temporary storage of irradiated fuel has traditionally been conducted in storage pools, and this is still true for freshly discharged fuel. Criticality control technologies have led to greater efficiencies in packing of irradiated fuel into storage pools. With continued delays in establishing permanent repositories, utilities have begun to move some of the irradiated fuel inventory into dry storage. Fuel cycle options being considered worldwide include the once-through fuel cycle, limited recycle in which U and Pu are recycled back to power reactors as mixed oxide fuel, and advance partitioning and transmutation schemes designed to reduce the long term hazards associated with geological disposal from millions of years to a few hundred years. Each of these options introduces specific challenges in terms of the waste forms required to safely immobilize the hazardous components of irradiated fuel.

  5. Impact of Spent Fuel Alteration Phases on Neptunium Mobility in Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C.

    2003-09-11

    Spent nuclear fuel is unstable under the moist oxidizing conditions expected in the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Incorporation of radionuclides into the uranyl phases that will form due to alteration of spent fuel may significantly reduce radionuclide mobility in the repository, but this scenario is not included in current performance assessment models for Yucca Mountain. The potential impact of uranyl minerals on the mobility of Np-237, which is one of the most important radionuclides for long-term repository performance, is being studied by synthesis of uranyl phases in contact with solutions containing 10 to 500 ppm Np(V). The impacts of time, temperature, pH and counter-ions on Np incorporation are being addressed. Analysis of crystals using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), conducted at APS with a bent-Laue analyzer crystal to separate the signal of Np from that of U, and by ICP-AES (U, Na, Ca) and ICP-MS (Np), have established that incorporation of Np into uranyl phases is likely to significantly impact repository performance.

  6. Global energy resources. [Review, emphasizing fossil fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grenon

    1977-01-01

    We are in the somewhat paradoxical situation of having more confidence in the extent of our long- or very long-term energy resources than in our mid-term supply. This is why fossil-energy resources are emphasized in this article; we must rely on them for at least 80 to 90% of our energy supply until the end of the century (as far

  7. Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene underlie the Trans-Indus Mountains of Pakistan. The sequence, which is more than 20,000 feet thick, consists of 20 formations and members. New names have been proposed and type sections designated for five of the formations described. The Makarwal coal field is located in the Surghar Range. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet. Easily accessible coal, once the principal mineral resource of the area, is mostly depleted, but more than 16 million tons of undeveloped reserves are available. Other mineral resources include abundant reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks.

  8. Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of marine and nonmarine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains in Pakistan. The Makarwal coal field is located in Sargodha Division, Mianwali District, in the Surghar Range. The coal field serves as a source of energy and byproducts for the industrial center at Daud Khel, 34 miles by rail northeast of the coal field. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal was involved in at least two episodes of mountain-building activity that produced the Trans-Indus Mountains. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet and averages 4 feet. Most of the coal is in the west limb of the Makarwal anticline and dips 30{degree} W. The coal is ranked as high-volatile. C-bituminous, containing ash in the range of 7 to 22%; fixed carbon, 36.3 to 43.4%; sulfur, 4.1 to 5.6%; and calorific value, 9,550 to 11,850 Btu (as received). The area developed for coal mining is almost mined out. From 1914 to 1976 nearly 5 million tons of coal have been produced. The total reserves possible for development to a depth of 200 feet below sea level are 16,600,000 tons. Other mineral resources in the Makarwal coal field include large reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks that have been extensively investigated as a possible source of iron.

  9. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  10. Secondary fuel-energy resources of the phosphorus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kh. Rosenberg; V. N. Belov; I. A. Shishkin

    1977-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of secondary fuel and energy resources in the phosphorus industry are given. Aspects of using the chemical fuel of phosphorus furnace exhaust gases, the sensible heat of molten phosphorus slags, and of certain other products are discussed.

  11. Predicting the Spatial Variability of Fuel Moisture Content in Mountainous Eucalyptus Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Lane, P. N. J.; Metzen, D.

    2014-12-01

    In steep mountainous landscapes, topographic aspect can play a significant role in small-scale (ie. scales in the order of 10's ha) variability in surface fuel moisture. Experimental sites for monitoring microclimate variables and moisture content in litter and in near-surface soils were established at a control site and on four contrasting aspects (north, south, east and west) in southeast Australia. At each of the four microclimate sites sensors are arranged to measure the soil moisture (2 replicates), surface fuel moisture at 2.5cm depth (12 replicates), precipitation throughfall (3 replicates), radiation (3 replicates), and screen level relative humidity, air temperature, leaf wetness, and wind speed (1 replicate of each). Temperature and relative humidity are also measured within the dead fine surface fuel using Ibutton's (4 replicates). All measurements are logged continuously at 15 min intervals. The moisture content of the surface fuel is estimated using a novel method involving high-replication of low-cost continuous soil moisture sensors placed at the centre of a 5cm deep sample of fine dead surface fuel, referred to here as "litter-packs". The litter-packs were constructed from fuels collected from the area surrounding the microclimate site. The initial results show the moisture regime on the forest floor was highly sensitive to the incoming shortwave radiation, which was up to 6 times higher in the north-facing (equatorial) slopes due to slope orientation and the sparse vegetation compared to vegetation on the south-facing (polar facing) slopes. Differences in shortwave radiation resulted in peak temperatures within the litter that were up to 2 times higher on the equatorial-facing site than those on the polar-facing site. For instance, on a day in November 2013 with maximum open air temperature of 35o C, the temperatures within the litter layer at the north-facing and south-facing sites were 54o C and 32o C, respectively, despite air temperature at the two sites differing by less than 2o C. The minimum gravimetric water content in the litter layer on the same day was 21% on the equatorial-facing slope and 85% on the polar-facing slope. The experimental data has been used to calibrate a topographic downscaling algorithm, yielding estimates of surface fuel moisture at 20m resolution.

  12. Mechanism of Water Resources Conservation and Recharge of Forest and Its Ecological Function Value Evaluation in Jinyun Mountain,China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Yun

    Jinyun Mountain, lying in tail end of Three Gorge Reservoir area, China, is a spontaneousness laboratory to study systemly water resources conservation and recharge function of forest because it has integrated coenotype of subtropical broad leaved evergreen forest and reflects natural background of tropical forest ecosystem in central Asia to a certain degree. On the base of fully study on

  13. A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross

    2001-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results

  14. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil respiration closely resembles the pattern seen in the organic soil moisture declining in the recent age class, however it only slightly rebounds in the two older classes. This pattern is likely due to the immediate reduction in autotrophic respiration from surrounding trees in the recent class and then a slight increase from local decomposition of labile carbon pools in the older classes. Water potentials show a sizable increase between the control and the recent infestation class. Stomatal conductance also shows a large increase in the recent class. Both of these occurrences might be attributed to the increase in mineral soil moisture. We believe our analysis of soil samples, LAI photos, and tree cores later this summer will help give us an idea if any release response in the healthy trees trends toward light limitation or resource limitation.

  15. Resource recovery and cavity growth during the Rocky Mountain 1 field test

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1988-08-01

    Resource recovery and cavity growth remain important issues affecting performance, scale-up and overall process efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG). Results from the recently completed dual-module Rocky Mountain I (RM I) UCG experiment give us firsthand information concerning these important parameters. During the RM I test, two gasifiers, the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) and the Extended Linked Well (ELW) modules, were operated simultaneously. These modules differed in well completion geometry and to a lesser extent in operating strategy. Using material balance, thermowell and tracer gas information, cavity development, gas production rates and yields, and general features of the two modules are discussed and compared. Also, the linking phase of the test is described, and effects of process parameter changes on system performance are discussed. The major conclusion obtained from data analysis is the importance of maintaining oxidant injection low in the coal seam at all times. Performance of the CRIP gasifier, for which the above condition was met, is shown to compare very favorably with performance of surface gasifiers. 10 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Institutional development for sustainable rangeland resource and ecosystem management in mountainous areas of northern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shikui; Lassoie, James; Shrestha, K K; Yan, Zhaoli; Sharma, Ekalabya; Pariya, D

    2009-02-01

    Rangelands represent one of the most important natural resources in mountainous regions of northern Nepal. However, a poor understanding of the social dimensions of rangeland use has limited their proper management and sustainable development, which represent major challenges for Nepal's resource managers. Institutional development is thought to be a viable solution to this problem and may ultimately lead to improved rangeland management in Nepal. Based on this hypothesis, a study was conduced in the Rasuwa district of northern Nepal to examine the effectiveness of institutional development at the local and national levels in mitigating the problems facing sustainable rangeland management by using an institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework. The information and data were mainly collected from different stakeholders, farmers, professionals and practitioners using a toolkit of participatory rural appraisal (PRA), workshops and literature review. It can be concluded from this case study that a number of institutional development efforts are needed to promote sustainable rangeland management in this region. First, local herders represent a repository of rich indigenous knowledge essential to sustaining sound rangeland management practices; hence, indigenous practices need to be integrated into modern technologies. Second, public services and technical support are currently unavailable or inaccessible to local herders; hence, research, development and extension interventions need to be initiated for marginalized pastoral communities. Third, rangeland institutions are incomplete and ill-organized, so institutional development of various organizations is necessary for promoting sustainable rangeland management. Fourth, the policies and governance necessary for promoting rangeland management are not well-designed; hence, governance reform and policy development need to be formulated through internal and external agencies and organizations. PMID:18433982

  17. Resource utilization by bull char and cutthroat trout in a mountain stream in Montana, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Nakano; Kurt D. Fausch; Tetsuo Furukawa-Tanaka; Koji Maekawa; Hiroya Kawanabe

    1992-01-01

    Resource utilization of sympatric populations of bull char,Salvelinus confluentus, and west-slope cutthroat trout,Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, were studied by underwater observations of foraging behaviour and microhabitat use, and dietary analysis in a mountain stream\\u000a of the Flathead River Basin, northwest Montana, U.S.A. Nearly 70% of bull char were categorized as benthic foragers, which\\u000a moved constantly and captured prey primarily from the

  18. Mountain Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-14

    Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

  19. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  20. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

  1. A hierarchical approach for scaling forest inventory and fuels data from local to landscape scales in the Davis Mountains, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp; Richard G. Gatewood; Lynn Loomis

    2007-01-01

    This study combined hierarchical cluster analysis and classification and regression tree algorithms to quantify vegetation and fuel characteristics and to generate spatially explicit vegetation and fuels maps for forest and fire management in the Davis Mountains of west Texas, USA. We used field data, landscape metrics derived from digital elevation models, and spectral information from remotely sensed imagery to (1)

  2. Predicting Mountain Pine Beetle Impacts on Lodgepole Pine Stands and Woody Debris Characteristics in a Mixed Severity Fire Regime Using Prognosis BC and the Fire and Fuels Extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Hawkes; Steve Taylor; Chris Stockdale; Terry Shore; Sarah Beukema; Donald Robinson

    This paper examines the use of Prognosis BC (the BC variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator) and the Northern Idaho variant of the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to project changes in stand structure, fuel loading, snag density, and potential fire behaviour following a mountain pine beetle outbreak in a mixed severity fire regime on the Chilcotin Plateau in central

  3. Developing a chemicals/fuels industry from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    With the increasing cost and scarcity of nonrenewable resources, the motivation for substituting biomass-derived chemicals for certain key petro-chemicals is likely to grow. Two goals for research and development are recommended: 1) a near-term objective to revive the older fermentation technology based on readily fermentable substrates and to reduce the cost of production to a competetive level; and 2) the longer-term development of a new biotechnology for producing chemicals and fuels efficiently from biomass of various kinds. Current developments in this area are reviewed. (Refs. 28).

  4. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program : guide to information contained in folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Philip Smith Mountains quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiser, H.N.; Brosge, W.P.; Hamilton, T.D.; Singer, D.A.; Menzie, W. D., II; Bird, K.J.; Cady, J.W.; Le Compte, J. R.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The geology and mineral resources of the Philip Smith Mountains quadrangle were virtually unexplored until the investigations for oil began in northern Alaska. Construction of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System has now made the quadrangle accessible by road. In 1975 and 1976 a team of geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists investigated the quadrangle in order to assess its mineral resource potential. This report is a guide to the resulting folio of twelve maps that describe the geology, stream sediment geochemistry, aeromagnetic features, Landsat imagery, and mineral resources of the area. The bedrock geology and aeromagnetic surveys show that mineral deposits associated with intrusive rocks are probably absent. However, the geology and geochemical anomalies do indicate the possibility of vein and strata-bound deposits of copper, lead, and zinc in the Paleozoic shale and carbonate rocks in the southern part of the quadrangle and of stratabound deposits of zinc and copper in the Permian and Mesozoic shales along the mountain front. The northwestern part of the quadrangle has a low to moderate potential for oil or gas; Mississippian carbonate rocks are the most likely reservoir. The only minerals produced to date have been construction materials.

  5. Mineral resource potential of the Eagle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-334), Riverside County, California. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.E.; Whittington, C.L.; Grauch, V.J.S.; McColly, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that those parts of the Eagle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (chiefly in the northwest half) that are intruded by propylitically altered mafic dikes or intermediate, hornblende porphyry dikes with spatially associated quartz veins and shear zones have moderate or high potential for the presence of undiscovered low- to medium-grade gold, silver, and tungsten resources. High stream-sediment concentrations of molybdenum suggest that parts of those areas intruded by the dikes also contain molybdenum-bearing minerals and thus have moderate or high potential for the presence of undiscovered molybdenum resources. However, there has been no recorded production of molybdenum in the region and any resources that may be present in the study area are likely to be significant only if the mineralized quartz veins and shear zones are manifestations of an extensive subsurface quartz-vein stockwork system. All areas with moderate or high potential for gold, silver, tungsten, or molybdenum resources also have low potential for the presence of undiscovered copper and lead resources. Low potential for the presence of undiscovered tin and thorium resources exists throughout the wilderness study area. Sand, gravel, and stone suitable for construction materials are found in the study area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and accessible outside the area. No new mineral occurrence was located during this study. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Mineral resources of the Baboquivari Peak and Coyote Mountains wilderness study areas, Pima County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, G.A.; Haxel, G.B.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Diveley-White, D.V.; McDonnell, J.R.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area which is underlain by Jurassic sedimentary, volcanic, and granitic rocks which were intruded by a network of middle Tertiary rhyolite dikes. This wilderness study area has no identified resources. This wilderness study area has a high potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barium, bismuth, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten in veins associated with felsic to intermediate intrusions. A low potential for resources of thorium, beryllium, and bismuth in pegmatites; a low potential for gold and silver resources in paleo-placer deposits; and a low potential for molybdenum resources in an inferred porphyry molybdenum deposit exists in this wilderness study area.

  7. [Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].

    PubMed

    Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

    2005-03-01

    Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

  8. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

  9. Response of soricid populations to repeated fire and fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte E. Matthews; Christopher E. Moorman; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2009-01-01

    Fuel hazards have increased in forests across the United States because of fire exclusion during the 20th century. Treatments used to reduce fuel buildup may affect wildlife, such as shrews, living on the forest floor, especially when treatments are applied repeatedly. From mid-May to mid-August 2006 and 2007, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to capture shrews in western

  10. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Easterly; Margo Burnham

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-25

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

  12. Mineral resources of the Baboquivari Peak and Coyote Mountains wilderness study areas, Pima County, Arizona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Nowlan; G. B. Haxel; W. F. Hanna; J. A. Pitkin; D. V. Diveley-White; J. R. McDonnell; W. Lundby

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area which is underlain by Jurassic sedimentary, volcanic, and granitic rocks which were intruded by a network of middle Tertiary rhyolite dikes. This wilderness study area has no identified resources. This wilderness study area has a high potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barium, bismuth, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten

  13. Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  14. Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbrustmacher, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Thorium in potentially economic amounts occurs in three types of deposits in the Wet Mountains area of Colorado: (1) quartz-baritethorite veins and fracture zones, (2) carbonatite dikes, and (3) red syenite dikes. The quartz-barite-thorite veins and fracture zones contain the largest resources of thorium; they cut all Precambrian and Paleozoic rock types in the area and tend to strike normal to the foliation in the Proterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The veins and fracture zones are end products of the episode of Cambrian alkaline magmatism that also produced rocks of the McClure Mountain Complex, the Gem Park Complex, the complex at Democrat Creek, and associated dikes of carbonatite, lamprophyre, and red syenite. The veins and fracture zones contain an average of 0.46 percent ThO2, 0.21 percent SLREE (total light rare-earth elements), 0.14 percent SHREE (total heavy rare-earth elements), and 0.012 percent Nb2O5; They contain reserves of 64,200 tons ThO2, 29,300 tons SLREE, 19,540 tons SHREE, 1,675 tons Nb2O5; they contain probable potential resources of 160,500 tons ThO2, 73,270 tons SLREE, 48,850 tons SHREE, and 4,185 tons Nb2O5. The carbonatite dikes form two distinct groups: replacement carbonatites and primary magmatic carbonatites. The latter group appears to be the better source of potentially economic commodities. The primary magmatic carbonatites contain an average of 0.17 percent ThO2, 0.0097 percent Nb2O5, 0.0031 percent U3O5, and 2.15 percent total rare-earth oxides. The seven largest dikes contain reserves of 131 tons ThO2, 40 tons Nb2O5, 17 tons U3O5, and 2,500 tons SRE203 (total rare-earth oxides), and probable potential resources of 753 tons ThO2, 228 tons Nb2O5, 105 tons U3O5, and 14,300 tons SRE2O3. The red syenite dikes contain anomalous amounts of thorium, uranium, niobium, and rare-earth elements. Although reserves and probable potential resources have not been calculated, they are likely to be small.

  15. An Integrated Study Investigating Masticated Fuel Treatments in the Rocky Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Keane; Helen Y. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Many coniferous forests in the western US once supported frequent, low intensity fires, but due to a century of fire exclusion and other factors, severe wildfires have now become common. With the goal of lowering fire intensities and severities, one possible fuel treatment that is currently gaining favor in with many land managers is mastication which breaks, shreds, or grinds

  16. Gold resources potential assessment in eastern Kunlun Mountains of China combining weights-of-evidence model with GIS spatial analysis technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binbin He; Cuihua Chen; Yue Liu

    2010-01-01

    Resources potential assessment is one of the fields in geosciences, which is able to take great advantage of GIS technology\\u000a as a substitution of traditional working methods. The gold resources potential in the eastern Kunlun Mountains, Qinghai Province,\\u000a China was assessed by combining weights-of-evidence model with GIS spatial analysis technique. All the data sets used in this\\u000a paper were derived

  17. WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

  18. Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

  19. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries. PMID:22569220

  20. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Wu; J. Lee; D. L. Lu; L. J. Jardine

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling

  1. Fuel resource scheduling, part I - overview of an energy management problem

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, S.; Eisenhauer, J.; Hackett, D.F.; Kumar, A.B.R.; Lugtu, R.

    1984-07-01

    This paper at an overview level discusses the problems of Fuel and Resource Scheduling (FRS) in an Energy Management System (EMS). For a computer-based FRS, a hierarchical scheduling scheme is proposed so that long-term fuel strategy over a year can be meaningfully translated into real-time decisions for loading the units. In this process FRS has been decomposed into individual problems of Resource Budgeting for long-term fuel scheduling, Resource Scheduling for short-term fuel scheduling, and real-time fuel scheduling functions of Real-Time Resource Scheduling and Resource Constrained Economic Dispatch. The paper addresses the data requirements and the technical problems associated with each individual function; and the coordination of these four functions in an EMS environment.

  2. GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

  3. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  4. Inventory and analysis of rangeland resources of the state land block on Parker Mountain, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A. (principal investigator)

    1983-01-01

    High altitude color infrared (CIR) photography was interpreted to provide an 1:24,000 overlay to U.S.G.S. topographic maps. The inventory and analysis of rangeland resources was augmented by the digital analysis of LANDSAT MSS data. Available geology, soils, and precipitation maps were used to sort out areas of confusion on the CIR photography. The map overlay from photo interpretation was also prepared with reference to print maps developed from LANDSAT MSS data. The resulting map overlay has a high degree of interpretive and spatial accuracy. An unacceptable level of confusion between the several sagebrush types in the MSS mapping was largely corrected by introducing ancillary data. Boundaries from geology, soils, and precipitation maps, as well as field observations, were digitized and pixel classes were adjusted according to the location of pixels with particular spectral signatures with respect to such boundaries. The resulting map, with six major cover classes, has an overall accuracy of 89%. Overall accuracy was 74% when these six classes were expanded to 20 classes.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission scenarios: limitations of the fossil fuel resource

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Vernon; Erica Thompson; Sarah Cornell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are in large part the result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Scenario analysis is commonly used to generate projections of future carbon dioxide emissions, the resulting atmospheric concentrations and climate impact. In most scenario modelling published to date, carbon dioxide emission scenarios are based on demand-side (socioeconomic and technology)

  6. Fuel resource scheduling, part II - Constrained economic dispatch

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.B.R.; Vemuri, S.

    1984-07-01

    The constrained economic dispatch, subject to fuel supply and consumption constraints and unit operating constraints, with shared and mixed fuels, is formulated as a minimum cost network flow problem. To include the piece-wise linear I/O relationship of the generating units, an iterative procedure based on a minimum cost network flow (with arc gains) algorithm is presented. The network flow algorithm is extended to include the non-linearity of monotonically increasing IHR curves for unit characteristics. This non-linear network is solved as a sequence of linear networks with artificial unit limits. These artificial limits are calculated from the current solution of the linear network and used in calculating the next solution of the linear network. This procedure is continued until the solution approaches that of the nonlinear network to satisfy the equal incremental cost criterion. The test results for a 17 unit/17 contract test system indicate that the proposed algorithms are fast enough for use in energy control center applications.

  7. Production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel from nonpetroleum resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Avidan, A.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1986-04-01

    In late 1985, the New Zealand Gas-to-Gasoline Complex was successfully streamed producing high octane gasoline from natural gas. The heart of this complex is the Mobil fixed-bed Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) section which represents one of several newly developed technologies for production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels. All of these technologies are based on production of methanol by conventional technology, followed by conversion of the methanol to transportation fuel. The fixed-bed (MTG) process has been developed and commercialized. The fluid-bed version of the MTG process, which is now also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane number advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant in Wesseling, Federal Republic of Germany. The project was funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and by the industrial participants: Mobil, Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. This fluid-bed MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid-bed process for selective conversion of methanol to olefins (MTO). The MTO process can be combined with Mobil's commercially available olefins conversion process (Mobil-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate, MOGD) for coproduction of high quality gasoline and distillate via methanol. This MTO process was also successfully demonstrated at the Wesseling semiworks with this project being completed in late 1985.

  8. A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Charnay, Bérengère

    2011-07-01

    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions. PMID:21547433

  9. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 93-4000

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a revised potentiometric-surface map based mainly on the 1988 average water levels at Yucca Mountain and the nearby vicinity extending from Crater Flat to Jackass Flats. Discussion includes an explanation of the revised potentiometric-surface map, an examination of yearly trends in the water levels, and adjustments for temperature and density effects in the deeper wells. Report scope focuses on the potentiometric surface of the uppermost saturated zone in the Tertiary volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain. Some information, related to the underlying Paleozoic carbonate aquifer, pertinent to the volcanic flow system, is presented.

  10. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

  11. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  12. Optimal allocation of safeguards inspection resources for a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    In planning its safeguards inspections at peaceful nuclear facilities, the International Atomic Energy Agency must deploy its limited inspection resources according to some allocation procedure. In this paper the author demonstrates a technique for optimally allocating such resources within a hypothetical nuclear fuel cycle.

  13. Fossil fuel resources: Remote sensing. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of remote sensing techniques for fossil fuel exploration. Remote sensing applications for petroleum, natural gas, coal exploration, and mapping or surveying of known fossil fuel resources are discussed. Remote sensing techniques include radar scanning, thermal imaging, magnetic surveys, aerial and spaceborne photography, and infrared mapping. Image interpretation is also considered as it applies to fossil fuel surveying. Remote sensing of mineralogical resources is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR)

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    biochar and bio-oil to syngas · Converting biomass to liquid fuels · Developing natural pesticides through-generation biofuels and chemicals using forestry residues, non-food crops and other sources of biomass, like municipal agricultural biomass from byproducts like corn stalks or wood into usable bio- oils, chemicals and other

  15. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  16. 75 FR 77652 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...off-highway vehicle and transportation, air resources, visual resources, cultural resources and Native American concerns, paleontology, hydrology, public safety, law enforcement, fire ecology and management, rangeland [[Page 77654

  17. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V., Jr.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  18. Mountain Biking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

  19. Mountain Age

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

  20. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigators)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  1. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  2. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

  3. Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): The role of synoptic climatology on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, B.; Prowse, T. D.; Bonsal, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Interannual variability of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow is influenced by large-scale atmospheric pressure gradients, which dictate the direction of air mass movement and magnitude of moisture transport. Classifying synoptic circulation patterns facilitates analysis to determine dominant patterns that influence surface climate. This research identifies and evaluates the atmospheric drivers of water availability on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and is being conducted with companion analyses of climatic and streamflow trends to determine the climatic redistribution of western Canadian water resources. The study area for this project includes the north-flowing Liard, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers, which are tributaries to the Mackenzie River, and the east-flowing North Saskatchewan, Red Deer, Bow, and Oldman Rivers, which have experienced greater variability, including periods of droughts and pluvials. Winter snowpack represents a water-storage component that is released during spring freshet and provides the largest contribution of the annual streamflow of rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Summer water availability is influenced by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, and in some cases glacier melt or release of water from reservoirs built for hydroelectricity generation. Summer demand is highest in this region, where a high percentage of water is allocated for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Understanding and forecasting water availability are fundamental for the management of resources, flood mitigation, and an indicator of climate change. Synoptic circulation patterns are classified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), an unsupervised, iterative learning process that clusters and projects data onto an organized output array. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with high and low precipitation and temperature during winter (Nov-Apr) and summer (May-Oct) seasons are evaluated. The top and bottom quartiles of precipitation and temperature are identified and compared with frequency and persistence of mid-tropospheric circulation patterns. Results are used in conjunction with surface climate and streamflow trends as indicators of hydroclimatic variability and trends associated with western Canadian water resources.

  4. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  5. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

  6. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates. PMID:18421796

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a

  9. Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.

    PubMed

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

  10. Mountain Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

  11. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  12. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  13. Economics of resource supplementation: the development of an ethanol fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Technological supplementation is introduced into the intertemporal resource allocation problem. Supplementation allows a renewable resource to be partially substituted for a nonrenewable resource in a fixed production. The reduced input quantity of the nonrenewable in the end product increases its uselife. There is an inverse relationship between the supplementation date and uselife. Using the ethanol fuel industry as an example, supplementation benefits take three forms: (1) the uselife of petroleum to produce gasoline is increased; (2) when petroleum's exponentially growing price exceeds ethanol's constant price, refiners earn an economic profit by pricing fuel at petroleum's opportunity cost; and (3) a harmful externality is reduced as ethanol replaces lead in gasoline. The private switch point occurs when a relative price advantage exists. However, this may not be the optimal switch point. Supplementation prior to the private switch will require a subsidy equal to the input price differential. A unique level of production capacity is required for the optimal switch point. Capacity development requires identification of an investment path. Attempts to compress the investment interval will increase total capacity cost per unit, the final price of ethanol, and hence, the total subsidy cost for any switch point.

  14. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  15. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  16. Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

  17. Mountain Mash

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

  18. Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U. [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Eggert, R.; Collins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden CO 80401 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

  19. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Duncan

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced. The overall cost of bio-fuel production is determined by the feedstock delivery pathway and also the bio-fuel production process employed. Results show that the minimum cost of petrol and diesel production is 0.86 litre -1 when a bio-oil feedstock is upgraded. This corresponds to a 2750 TPD upgrading facility requiring an annual harvest of 4.30 million m3. The mini?m cost of hydrogen production is 2.92 kg -1, via the gasification of a woodchip feedstock and subsequent water gas shift reactions. This corresponds to a 1100 ODTPD facility and requires an annual harvest of 947,000 m3. The levelised cost of bio-fuel strongly depends on the size of annual harvest required for bio-fuel facilities. There are optimal harvest volumes (bio-fuel facility sizes) for each bio-fuel production route, which yield minimum bio-fuel production costs. These occur as the benefits of economies of scale for larger bio-fuel facilities compete against increasing transport costs for larger harvests. Optimal harvest volumes are larger for bio-fuel production routes that use feedstock sourced from mobile facilities, as mobile facilities reduce total transport requirements.

  20. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The second part presents probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract. The study also provides tables showing the location, tract number, and age (if available) of discovered deposits and prospects. For each of the 26 permissive tracts delineated in this study, summary information is provided on: (1) the rationale for delineating the tract; (2) the rationale for choosing the mineral deposit model used to assess the tract; (3) discovered deposits and prospects; (4) exploration history; and (5) the distribution of undiscovered deposits in the tract. The scale used to evaluate geologic information and draw tracts is 1:1,000,000.

  1. CABINET MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Banister, D'Arcy P.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana indicate areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for copper, silver, lead, zinc, and gold. No potential for other metals or energy resources was identified in this survey. The mineral-resource potential of the area was evaluated by interpretation of geologic mapping, geochemical, geophysical, and gravity surveys, and by examination of mines and prospects, these studies were conducted from 1972 to 1974. Exploration by private industry has resulted in discovery of significant copper-silver deposits in and adjacent to the wilderness.

  2. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  3. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-?-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  4. Survey of US and total world production, proved resources, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    The report updates previous IGT reports on US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. The US is endowed with roughly 22% of the world's proved reserves of conventional fossil

  5. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  6. Fuels outlook I - Transportation and the U.S. petroleum resource, an aviation perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Miller; R. A. Mays

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. commercial aviation industry is meeting the continuing challenges of reduced fuel consumption, higher fuel prices, and increased passenger traffic. A disturbing fact is that the country has become increasingly dependent on imported petroleum fuels. In the event that import restrictions are imposed or that some form of rationing is required, federal fuel-allocation policies should be based on an

  7. Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  9. Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

  10. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

  11. Mountain Snow System Interactions - An Integrative Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Landry; T. H. Painter; A. P. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    Snow scientists now have capabilities and opportunities unimagined in the 1950's due to refinements in field techniques and instrumentation, and the advent of remote sensing platforms. These technical advances enable snow scientists to observe the mountain snow system at virtually any spatial scale. Mountain snow covers are essential water resources in many regions and are increasingly recognized as sensitive bellwethers

  12. A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Johnson; Dale R. Seip; Mark S. Boyce

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Visualizing the distribution of rare or threatened species is necessary for effective implementation of conservation initiatives. Generalized linear models and geographical information systems (GIS) are now powerful tools for conservation planning, but issues of data availability, scale and model extrapolation complicate some applications. 2. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou that occurs

  13. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ...

  14. Transportation fuels and engines for optimum energy utilization: An assessment of energy consumption from resources through end use: Final report, Volume 1, August 1985 for the project, Technical assessment of future engines and alternative fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Thomas; J. J. Cornell

    1985-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the potential for improving the resource utilization efficiency in the manufacture and end-use of fuels for transportation. While emphasis is placed on the development of fuels from coal and oil shale and on the engine technologies most suitable for those fuels, petroleum-derived fuels are considered as well. A necessary part of this study was

  15. Mountain Barriers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. This lesson focuses on the changes that occur when mountains rise, thus changing the climate of the area and the plants and animals that live there. Students perform an experiment to observe differences in hot and cold air that help cause this phenomenon. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  16. Mountain Stage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

  17. Transportation fuels and engines for optimum energy utilization: An assessment of energy consumption from resources through end use: Final report, Volume 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Thomas; J. J. Cornell

    1985-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of the potential energy savings that could accrue from the use of alternative fuels in future transportation engines. Alternative fuels are defined in this study as hydrocarbon fuels which possess characteristics that assure user safety and satisfaction, but require less energy to produce than conventional specification fuels produced from the same resource. In particular, the

  18. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  19. Thermodynamic metrics for aggregation of natural resources in life cycle analysis: insight via application to some transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-01-15

    While methods for aggregating emissions are widely used and standardized in life cycle assessment (LCA), there is little agreement about methods for aggregating natural resources for obtaining interpretable metrics. Thermodynamic methods have been suggested including energy, exergy, and emergy analyses. This work provides insight into the nature of thermodynamic aggregation, including assumptions about substitutability between resources and loss of detailed information about the data being combined. Methods considered include calorific value or energy, industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) and its variations, and ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) or emergy. A hierarchy of metrics is proposed that spans the range from detailed data to aggregate metrics. At the fine scale, detailed data can help identify resources to whose depletion the selected product is most vulnerable. At the coarse scale, new insight is provided about thermodynamic aggregation methods. Among these, energy analysis is appropriate only for products that rely primarily on fossil fuels, and it cannot provide a useful indication of renewability. Exergy-based methods can provide results similar to energy analysis by including only nonrenewable fuels but can also account for materials use and provide a renewability index. However, ICEC and its variations do not address substitutability between resources, causing its results to be dominated by dilute and low-quality resources such as sunlight. The use of monetary values to account for substitutability does not consider many ecological resources and may not be appropriate for the analysis of emerging products. ECEC or emergy explicitly considers substitutability and resource quality and provides more intuitive results but is plagued by data gaps and uncertainties. This insight is illustrated via application to the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, corn ethanol, and soybean biodiesel. Here, aggregate metrics reveal the dilemma facing the choice of fuels: high return on investment versus high renewability. PMID:20020741

  20. POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

  1. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  2. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    E-print Network

    Victoria, University of

    as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced. The overall cost of bio-fuel production

  3. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  4. Utility ownership of the wood resource as an option for secure fuel supply

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.O.; Stavrou, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and compare the basic options available to a utility to deal with the risks of wood supply uncertainty. As we show in this paper, through proper actions a utility can eliminate the problems of uncertain wood supply. One option, building plants with dual-fuel capability (or at least designing plants that permit the retrofitting of a nonwood fuel-using capability at some future time) is an obvious step toward capping the effects of unexpectedly higher wood prices and should probably be done in all cases. However, since the objective in building a wood-fired plant (and foregoing the economies of scale possible with conventional fuels) is presumably to use wood, a utility may attempt to more directly secure an adequate wood supply through long-term contracts with landowners or direct land ownership. Both the contract and ownership options have been widely used in the forest products industry, and both can clearly be applied to a utility using fuel wood. Moreover, contrary to the widely held view that long-term secure contracts cannot be written, the key point is that they can be effected if written with landowners and not fuel suppliers. Direct utility ownership may be required to introduce advanced fuel wood production methods (such as short rotation forest plantations) into its supply area. While still in the research and development state, these advanced fuel wood production methods are expected to provide technically viable and cost-effective alternatives for augmenting the conventional fuel wood sources. As a component of an integrated wood procurement strategy, utility ownership of a fuel wood plantation would not only offer security (and augmentation) of supply, but also would provide a utility with significant market power in dealing with its conventional suppliers and landowners.

  5. Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth a Long-term Experiment with the Plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Todd M.

    Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth ­ a Long-term Experiment of whether excess carbohydrates `fuel' colony acquisition of limiting resources and growth. In a 10-month ARE PERHAPS THE MOST UBIQUITOUS CURRENCY IN MUTUALISMS. Plants, algae, and some insects reward their mutual

  6. Basic research opportunities for lasting fuel gas supplies from inorganic resources. Final report 15 Feb 81-28 Feb 82

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-six participants (twenty-five faculty members from U.S. universities and one private consultant) reviewed the status of current research problems relating to the production of fuel gases from inorganic resources using indefinitely sustainable energy sources during a workshop held during the period June 8 to August 14, 1981 at Texas AandM University, College Station, Texas. Photobiological, biomimetic, photochemical, photoelectrochemical, radiolytic and thermochemical pathways leading to the generation of hydrogen from water and hydrogen sulfide, of carbon monoxide and methane from carbon dioxide, and of nitrogen-based fuel gases from atmospheric nitrogen were assessed. The most likely energy sources to drive the endergonic, fuel-producing reactions are solar radiation, and heat and radiation from nuclear reactors. Recommendations at the end of each chapter outline the basic research needed to improve the fuel gas-producing reactions and to provide the basis for developments leading to the practical application of these processes. It was suggested that equal emphasis should be placed on research in photobiology, biomimetic chemistry, photochemistry and photoelectrochemistry pertinent to fuel-gas production. Thermochemical and radiolytic methods appear to deserve less attention at the present time. The report contains 840 literature citations.

  7. REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

  8. Utility ownership of the wood resource as an option for secure fuel supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Mueller; J. Stavrou

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and compare the basic options available to a utility to deal with the risks of wood supply uncertainty. As we show in this paper, through proper actions a utility can eliminate the problems of uncertain wood supply. One option, building plants with dual-fuel capability (or at least designing plants that permit the

  9. Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1976

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Parent; J. G. Seay; H. R. Linden

    1979-01-01

    In this report, current estimates are presented for US and world nonrenewable energy sources. The data are presented in summary form due to space limitations. The full power, available on request from the authors, presents full details of the resource estimates. US fossil fuel resources are reported as of December 1977. However, for the summary world resource tables, 1976 US

  10. Changes in fuelbed characteristics and resulting fire potentials after fuel reduction treatments in dry forests of the Blue Mountains, northeastern Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Youngblood; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; James D. McIver

    2008-01-01

    In many fire-prone forests in the United States, changes occurring in the last century have resulted in overstory structures, conifer densities, down woody structure and fuel loads that deviate from those described historically. With these changes, forests are presumed to be unsustainable. Broad-scale treatments are proposed to reduce fuels and promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Yet

  11. Resources

    Cancer.gov

    Helpful Tools  Find information on international grants, global resources, and ongoing activities with DCCPS Tobacco Control Research Branch International and Global Health Activities. Tobacco Control Research Branch - International and Global Health

  12. Geologic Mapping and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains Quadrangles, Alaska Using Minimal Cloud- and Snow-Cover ASTER Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Rowan1, Lawrence C.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, ASTER acquired satellite imagery of a 60 km-wide swath of parts of two 1:250,000 Alaska quadrangles, under favorable conditions of minimal cloud- and snow-cover. Rocks from eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the swath of data, several of which define permissive tracts for various mineral deposit types such as: volcanic-hosted massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry copper and molybdenum. Representative rock samples collected from 13 different lithologic units from the Bonnifield mining district within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), plus hydrothermally altered VMS material from the Red Mountain prospect, were analyzed to produce a spectral library spanning the VNIR-SWIR (0.4 - 2.5 ?m) through the TIR (8.1 - 11.7 ?m). Comparison of the five-band ASTER TIR emissivity and decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT display the greatest range and diversity of silica composition of the mapped terranes, ranging from mafic rocks to silicic quartzites. The nine-band ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map several lithologic sequences characterized by distinct suites of minerals that exhibit diagnostic spectral features (e.g. chlorite, epidote, amphibole and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals); other sequences were distinguished by their weathering characteristics and associated hydroxyl- and ferric-iron minerals, such as illite, smectite, and hematite. Smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and/or other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (< 250 m diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation- or snow-cover, or were too small to be resolved.

  13. Conversations for a Smarter Planet: 11 in a Series Smarter resources to fuel a smarter planet.

    E-print Network

    lower prices for travel, homes, food and consumer products. Put simply, we need smarter oil and gas reserves embedded beneath difficult terrain or the deepest ocean waters. Repsol, in partnership of potential resources. Smarter reservoir management makes use of sensors embedded across pipes, pumps

  14. Resource recovery of organic sludge as refuse derived fuel by fry-drying process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Jun-Yi; Wang, H Paul; Chen, Wei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The organic sludge and waste oil were collected from the industries of thin film transistor liquid crystal display and the recycled cooking oil. The mixing ratio of waste cooking oil and organic sludge, fry-drying temperatures, fry-drying time, and the characteristics of the organic sludge pellet grain were investigated. After the fry-drying process, the moisture content of the organic sludge pellet grain was lower than 5% within 25 min and waste cooking oil was absorbed on the dry solid. The fry-drying organic sludge pellet grain was easy to handle and odor free. Additionally, it had a higher calorific value than the derived fuel standards and could be processed into organic sludge derived fuels. Thus, the granulation and fry-drying processes of organic sludge with waste cooking oil not only improves the calorific value of organic sludge and becomes more valuable for energy recovery, but also achieves waste material disposal and cost reduction. PMID:23623433

  15. Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, R A [ed.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-01-01

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered.

  19. How Mountains are Formed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students investigate how mountains are formed. Concepts include the composition and structure of the Earth's tectonic plates and tectonic plate boundaries, with an emphasis on plate convergence as it relates to mountain formation. Students learn that geotechnical engineers design technologies to measure movement of tectonic plates and mountain formation, as well as design to alter the mountain environment to create safe and dependable roadways and tunnels.

  20. Resources

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  1. GREEN MOUNTAIN MORRIS DANCERS

    E-print Network

    GREEN MOUNTAIN MORRIS DANCERS A young men's team performing Morris & Sword dances from England Mountain (boys) and Maple Leaf (girls) will be recruiting new members in January 2009, typically 6th grade, but as a springtime dance, to awaken the earth. The Green Mountain Morris and Maple Leaf Morris are based in Norwich

  2. Briquetting today`s waste for tomorrow`s fuel and resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, G.W. Jr.; Lambert, R.C.; Young, K.M. [Environmental Technologies Group International, Lehi, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Environmental Technologies Group International (ETG) has developed technology that appears to allow revert materials to be successfully recycled in the steelmaking process. ETG has presented research indicating revert materials can be processed to maintain thermal integrity, thus enabling them to be reduced in the steelmaking process. Additional research has been undertaken to define briquetted revert material performance in an electric arc furnace environment. Briquettes made from several revert materials with a variety of component spectrums were introduced into an experimental arc furnace to determine reduction rates and iron recovery. It was found that the iron recovery was dependent on the iron content of the revert, but all reverts yielded between 70 to 80% of the iron units present. Coke was used in the briquettes as a fuel and a carbon source for reduction. It was found that a minimum level of coke at approximately 20% was required to provide sufficient fuel and carbon to recover the available iron units. Iron recovered form the revert materials ranged from 92 to 96% with varying amounts of carbon and other materials present.

  3. Conjunctive use of water resources as an alternative to a leaky reservoir in a mountainous, semiarid area (Adra River basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-López, S.; Benavente, J.; Cruz-Sanjulián, J. J.; Olías, M.

    2009-11-01

    Regulatory actions taken in the Adra River basin (746 km2), located south of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (SE Spain), are analyzed. The Benínar Reservoir (60 hm3), which entered into service in 1983, has suffered from severe leakage from the outset, preventing it from performing the water management functions originally foreseen for it; however, it has also made it possible to determine the response of the underlying carbonate aquifer into which the reservoir water is draining. This response has been studied based on historical data as well as the occurrence of an extraordinary recharge produced by a period of exceptionally heavy rainfall. A conceptual model of the system’s functioning has been established by analyzing leakage rates, piezometric variations, the discharge through the only spring in the area (the Fuentes de Marbella spring) and the physical-chemical characteristics of the aquifer water. Geological and structural aspects of the carbonate formation were also included. An alternative solution for water regulation in the river basin is proposed: the construction of a smaller dam downstream from the spring. This dam would induce recharge through the permeable base of the reservoir, raise the piezometric level and thus increase its storage capacity, as well as control and regulate the water discharged from the spring.

  4. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck; J. W. Emery; R. J. Finch; P. A. Finn; J. Fortner; J. C. Hoh; C. Mertz; L. A. Neimark; S. F. Wolf; D. J. Wronkiewicz

    1998-01-01

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in

  5. The Foja Mountains of Indonesia: Exploring the Lost World

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruce M. Beehler (Conservation International; )

    2007-01-01

    This issue based, peer reviewed resource discusses how the Foja Mountains need a conservation plan to protect its uniqueness and value to both science and the people of New Guinea. The Mountains are valuable because many species have remained unknown until recently. Over forty new species were found in one month alone in 2005. The mountains these species inhabit are pristine because they are untouched by human activity.

  6. Bird use of logging gaps in a subtropical mountain forest: The influence of habitat structure and resource abundance in the Yungas of Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo A. Zurita; Gustavo A. Zuleta

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is one of the main economical activities in tropical and subtropical forests. While most of the effects of this activity on bird communities have been studied by comparing exploited vs. non-exploited areas; the use of human-created treefall gaps by birds is relatively unknown. We studied habitat structure, resource abundance (fruits, flowers and arthropods) and bird activity in logging

  7. Residential fuel-wood production and sources from round-wood in Missouri, 1987. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Witter, D.J.; Smith, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    A study of Missouri fuelwood production from roundwood in 1987 was required to provide estimates of fuelwood production for the fourth Missouri forest inventory and to determine the impact of fuelwood production on the forest resource. To answer these and related questions in Missouri, a cooperative study was completed in 1987. Total fuel production from roundwood in 1987 was 924 thousand cords. More than 99 percent of the fuelwood was cut by households. Oak comprised 60 percent of the fuelwood cut. Private land supplied 98 percent of the fuelwood cut. Rural woodlands furnished 53 percent of the fuelwood. The remaining 47 percent of fuelwood harvested came from other land classes. Growing stock on timberland was a minor source of fuelwood. Dead trees on timberland provided 35 percent of the fuelwood. Commercial producers cut five times as much from growing stock on timberland as did households.

  8. Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour by Luke Robbins of Resource Management (Planning) Report No. 586 Title of Thesis: Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches avalanche fatalities and the tragic season of 2008-2009, the BC Coroner's Death Review Panel convened

  9. Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wilson; D. Levitt; J. Herr; M. Geza; R. Middleton; T. Nealon; A. Wolfsberg

    2008-01-01

    Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the

  10. Mountain Pine Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Barker

    This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

  11. Stone Mountain in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

  12. Yucca Mountain Project Surface Facilities Design

    SciTech Connect

    P.W. McDaniel; N.R. Brown; P.G. Harrington; J.T. Gardiner; L.J. Trautner

    2002-11-20

    With the recent designation of the Yucca Mountain site as a proposed repository for the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel and high- level waste, work is proceeding on the design of surface facilities to receive, unload, and package the waste into waste packages for emplacement in the repository. This paper summarizes recent progress in the design of these surface facilities.

  13. Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahi, A. K.; Ekwurzel, B.; Hogan, J. F.; Eastoe, C. J.; Baillie, M. N.

    2005-05-01

    To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain runoff that infiltrates at the mountain front (mountain-front recharge), and percolation through the mountain bedrock that reaches the basin via the movement of deep groundwater (mountain-block recharge). The rate of MFR can be estimated from a water balance, a Darcy's law analysis, or inverse modeling of groundwater processes. Despite the large volume of research on water resources in the basin and the critical importance of MFR to the water budget, the best estimates of MFR obtained using these methods may have errors as large as 100%. We find that geochemical tracers address mechanistic questions regarding recharge seasonality, location, and rates as well as addressing groundwater flowpaths and residence times. The gradient of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in groundwater with elevation mirrors that of regional precipitation, providing a constraint on the location and seasonality of recharge. Stable isotopic signatures indicate that MFR is dominated by winter precipitation but has 1/3 or more contribution from monsoon precipitation. Detectable tritium and 14C values greater than 100 pMC for springs, shallow groundwater in mountain canyons, and from wells along the mountain front indicate decade-scale residence times. Away from the mountain front 14C values rapidly decrease, reaching 12.3±0.2 pMC near the river. This suggests total basin residence times greater than 10,000 years, consistent with past measurements. Ongoing analysis of noble gas concentrations will provide an indication of recharge conditions. The solubility of noble gases in water depends on temperature and pressure; thus, noble gas concentrations provide a means to distinguish water samples recharged at different elevations.

  14. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  15. Precision and accuracy of manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1988--1990; Water-resources investigations report 93-4025

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-05-01

    Water-level measurements have been made in deep boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, since 1983 in support of the US Department of Energy`s Yucca Mountain Project, which is an evaluation of the area to determine its suit-ability as a potential storage area for high-level nuclear waste. Water-level measurements were taken either manually, using various water-level measuring equipment such as steel tapes, or they were taken continuously, using automated data recorders and pressure transducers. This report presents precision range and accuracy data established for manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, 1988--90.

  16. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  17. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  18. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  19. Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    This report updates previous IGT reports on U.S. and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. The US is fortunate in possessing vast amounts of coal and shale oil. Although both

  20. Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Updated estimates (as of year-end 1981) are presented for US and world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the nonrenewable energy sources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, syncrude from oil shale and tar sands, and uranium oxide. Life expectancies are also included for the world's fossil fuels, assuming various annual growth

  1. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  2. Dynamics of Mountain Pine

    E-print Network

    Powell, James

    are the most obvious in their impact, and of these, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus pon- derosae Hopkins et al., 2001; Munson et al., 2004). A complex of bark beetles are killing ponderosa pine

  3. Smoky Mountain Field School

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

  4. Napalm as an energy resource: a study of the molecular weight distribution of polystyrene in napalm and its use in middle distillate fuels.

    PubMed

    Mushrush; Beal; Hardy; Hughes

    1999-09-01

    The large quantity of napalm that is currently being treated as hazardous waste represents a viable energy resource that is too valuable to waste. However, there are significant problems to be overcome before this material can be used as an energy source. The scientific and environmental problems include: the broad molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, solubility and compatibility in a fuel matrix, methods to ensure complete combustion, high benzene concentration, low flash point due to the presence of gasoline, and safety in transportation and handling. In this paper, we present data on the molecular weight distribution of the polystyrene present in the napalm mixture, extraction of the gasoline and benzene from napalm, solubility of napalm in middle distillate fuels, simulated burner characteristics of napalm fuel mixtures, and accelerated storage stability studies of napalm fuel mixtures. PMID:10502603

  5. An overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System — Quantifying, classifying, and creating fuelbeds for resource planning1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard

    We present an overview of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool that enables land man- agers, regulators, and scientists to create and catalogue fuelbeds and to classify those fuelbeds for their capacity to support fire and consume fuels. The fuelbed characteristics and fire classification from this tool will provide inputs for current and future sophisticated models for the

  6. An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate and Environmental Change on Alpine Lakes in the Uinta Mountains, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Moser; E. J. Hundey; D. F. Porinchu

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic systems in alpine and sub-alpine areas of the western United States are potentially impacted by atmospheric pollution and climate change. Because these mountainous regions are an important water resource for the western United States, it is critical to monitor and protect these systems. The Uinta Mountains are an east- west trending mountain range located on the border between Utah,

  7. Pacific Mountain System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page guides the user through the Pacific Mountain System geologic province, one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province, which includes parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. One map shows the plate tectonic setting of the Pacific Mountain System which straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates. This province includes the active volcanoes of the Cascade Range and the young, steep mountains of the Pacific Border and the Sierra Nevada. The user can find out more with links to USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Seattle region earthquake hazards, or North Cascades National Park geology. Links are provided to a simple shaded relief map and to several other shaded relief maps including ones with National Park locations and with major and subprovince boundaries. Image gallery links are given to several national parks sites: Lassen Volcanic National Park, Yosemite National Park, and North Cascades National Park.

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  9. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  10. Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

  11. Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah LessonPlans

    2012-10-22

    In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

  12. LANDS WITH WILDERNESS CHARACTERISTICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN CONSTRAINTS, AND LAND EXCHANGES: CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND IMPACTS ON UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN UTAH’S UINTA BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Supporters argue that the Order merely provides guidance regarding implementation of existing legal obligations without creating new rights or duties. Opponents describe Order 3310 as subverting congressional authority to designate Wilderness Areas and as closing millions of acres of public lands to energy development and commodity production. While opponents succeeded in temporarily defunding the Order’s implementation and forcing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to adopt a more collaborative approach, the fundamental questions remain: Which federal public lands possess wilderness characteristics and how should those lands be managed? The closely related question is: How might management of such resources impact unconventional fuel development within Utah? These questions remain pressing independent of the Order because the BLM, which manages the majority of federal land in Utah, is statutorily obligated to maintain an up-to-date inventory of federal public lands and the resources they contain, including lands with wilderness characteristics. The BLM is also legally obligated to develop and periodically update land use plans, relying on information obtained in its public lands inventory. The BLM cannot sidestep these hard choices, and failure to consider wilderness characteristics during the planning process will derail the planning effort. Based on an analysis of the most recent inventory data, lands with wilderness characteristics — whether already subject to mandatory protection under the Wilderness Act, subject to discretionary protections as part of BLM Resource Management Plan revisions, or potentially subject to new protections under Order 3310 — are unlikely to profoundly impact oil shale development within Utah’s Uinta Basin. Lands with wilderness characteristics are likely to v have a greater impact on oil sands resources, particularly those resources found in the southern part of the state. Management requirements independent of l

  13. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  14. Freshness in the Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Kay Slattery; Clauss, Judith Enz

    2000-01-01

    Situated in a western mountain range, the North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching is a residential facility that houses teachers seeking intellectual refreshment. The center pays all expenses, aiming to advance teaching as an art and a profession via seminars and a relaxed atmosphere. (MLH)

  15. North American mountain bromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia N Massa; Steven R Larson

    2005-01-01

    Although native grasses are often desired and used for revegetation of disturbed areas, genetic differences may exist within and among natural and cultivated germplasm sources. This phylogeographic study compares geographic origin and genealogical linkages of 25 natural and cultivated germplasm sources of mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. [Poaceae]) from western North America. Significant variation among accessions (FST =

  16. Carve That Mountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

  17. POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS

    E-print Network

    POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado). To identify potential habitat on current and future Colorado Springs Utilities property, the Utility funded a habitat survey conducted by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program at Colorado State University. METHODS

  18. Wuyi mountains 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  19. Wuyi mountains 11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  20. Wuyi mountains 8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  1. Wuyi mountains 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Landa

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2001, my wife and I were invited to participate in a tea tour taking us to different regions of China famous for producing tea. When I arrived in Wuyi Shan, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of the landscape of the Wuyi Mountains, the peaks shrouded in mist and in my mind, I could see all

  2. Melting Mountain Glaciers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marland G; T. Boden

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (COâ) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of COâ, cement manufacture involves

  4. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

  5. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the

  6. Nonlinear processes in mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, N.; Lavier, L.

    2009-04-01

    The growth of a mountain belt is classically believed to be a quasi-stationary process ending in a steady state. Starting from a simple 2D analytic model of mass conservation during mountain growth we explore the domains of stability of a mountain for both nonlinear erosion laws and deformation laws that lead to quasistatic yielding of the mountain over different time scales. This model is composed of a pure shear mountain attached to a critical wedge. We show that if erosive processes are focused on the front ranges of growing mountains then uplift is enhanced in mountain belt interiors. This model of rain shadow development has important implications for plateau uplift and makes predictions about changes in erosive flux to sedimentary basins. However, mass conservation integrated over the models does not make predictions about the movement of material within a mountain belt without the adoption of specific mass flux boundary conditions and a rheological model. We therefore extend our models by using a simple force balance between the Mohr-Coulomb wedge and the mountain interior, which deforms by pure shear. We also choose to model the mountain interior as a viscoelastic material. This allows us to test the effects of stress change in the mountain belt due to the formation of localized semibrittle shear zone at the depth of the brittle ductile transition. Once the mountain belt grows to sufficient size, nonlinear deformation within its interior becomes important and leads to nonlinear macroscopic behavior of mountains, such as long-period aseismic oscillations that interact with shorter-time-scale seismic processes. These dynamical models make direct predictions about the movement of material within a mountain belt and can therefore be constrained by surface observations.

  7. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region. PMID:24898296

  8. Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants.

  9. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

  10. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  11. Mountain West Digital Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

  12. Residential fuel-wood production and sources from round wood in Minnesota, 1988. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Dahlman, R.A.; Smith, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    The report contains only information about fuelwood cut by households and commercial loggers for residential use. Information about fuelwood cut for industrial use and fuelwood originating from mill residues is not included. All volumes presented here are in standard cords (128 cubic feet consisting of 79 cubic feet of wood and 49 cubic feet of bark and air space). Total fuel production from roundwood in 1988 was 1.1 million cords. More than 84 percent of the fuelwood was cut by households; the remainder was cut by commercial producers.

  13. KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

  14. Conservation of crop diversity for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Nautiyal; Harald Kaechele

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro-ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region. The results indicate that mountain farming has the potential to produce good output from a low input system where farmers still use local resources

  15. Managing the “Commons” on Cadillac Mountain: A Stated Choice Analysis of Acadia National Park Visitors' Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Bullock; Steven R. Lawson

    2008-01-01

    Stated choice analysis was used to assess visitors' preferences for alternative combinations of public access, resource protection, visitor regulation, and site hardening to manage the Cadillac Mountain summit. Results provide insight into visitor preferences concerning the management of national park icon sites like the summit of Cadillac Mountain. These areas have received limited research attention. Results suggest that visitors consider

  16. Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module describes the features of mountain waves and explores the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

  17. Mountain Building in Extensional Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Koehn; K. Aanyu; S. Haines; T. Sachau

    2006-01-01

    Mountain building processes are generally thought to take place in compressive or strike-slip dominated environments. Exceptions are uplifted rift-flanks and uplifted horst structures within rifts. An extreme example of an uplifted horst-block in an extensional environment are the Rwenzori mountains between Uganda and the democratic republic of Kongo. These 5000m high mountains lie within the western branch of the East

  18. BELL MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-occurrence studies of the Bell Mountain Wilderness study area, Missouri indicate little promise for the occurrence of major base-metal resources. Abandoned prospects on the west side of Shut-in Creek were opened on narrow sulfide-bearing quartz veins in Precambrian volcanic rocks. These veins contain lead, copper, and trace amounts of silver, but they do not constitute a resource at present, and evidence from this study suggests little promise for resources at depth. Unusually high amounts of trace metals in panned concentrates from several drainages on the west side of the area indicate areas of probable resource potential for low-grade lead-zinc deposits buried at depths of a few hundred feet.

  19. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016

    SciTech Connect

    Geldon, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

  20. ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA R. W. Rust1, L. !\\1. Hanks,l.2, and R. C. BechteJ3 ABsTRACT.- There were 198 species of aculeata Hymenoptera in 15 families on the acu leate Hymenoptera collected during the study. Over 2,000 specimens were obtained, representing 198

  1. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Harrison-Giesler; R. P. Morissette; L. J. Jardine

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The

  2. Prescribed Fire at Sunset in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Sunset as seen through the smoke of a prescribed burn in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. The burn was conducted to restore fire as an ecosystem process and reduce hazardous tree densities and fuel loads due to more than 100 years of fire suppression. Foreground trees (Douglas-fir and aspen) were ki...

  3. Succession patterns on mountain pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Spatz; W. Germany

    1980-01-01

    Some successional patterns on mountain pastures in the Hohe Tauern mountains, Austria, are described. A close relation with former pasture management is shown. Very clear gradients in the nutritional status of the soil exist from stables towards more remote areas where no nutrients are added. Dwarf shrub or Alnus viridis woodland vegetation will develop after abandoning pastures, depending on elevation

  4. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Segerstrom; R. B. Stotelmeyer

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in

  5. A Day on Bare Mountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Konicek-Moran

    2010-03-12

    Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

  6. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-09-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  7. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  8. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  9. Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China ? challenges for sustainable development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

  10. Identifying indirect habitat loss and avoidance of human infrastructure by northern mountain woodland caribou

    E-print Network

    Hebblewhite, Mark

    mountain woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia, Canada, with seasonal resource due to avoidance. Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are habitat specialists and are sensitive online 10 August 2011 Keywords: Cumulative effect Habitat selection Potential habitat Rangifer tarandus

  11. "Mystic Mountain" Gives Players Practice in Land-Use Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This game simulates land use planning to meet continually changing national needs for timber, recreation, and other forest resources. The game condenses 75 years of the future of the hypothetical "Mystic Mountain National Forest" into four hours of playing time. (Author/RE)

  12. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  13. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  14. Energy Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    Energy fuels our planet. Find out where we get our energy and how we have developed technologies to fulfill our energy needs. Learn how our increasing demand for energy affects the environment and how we are addressing the negative effects of that demand through conservation efforts. How will we search for energy to fuel the twenty-first century? Explore these subjects through looking at the energy resources available for use, the history and development of technologies that use these energy resources, and the effect on the environment when we use these resources.

  15. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    PubMed

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces. PMID:19675651

  16. Rocky Mountain Online Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

  17. Quantifying Mountain Front Recharge Using Isotopic Tracers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Wahi; B. Ekwurzel; J. F. Hogan; C. J. Eastoe; M. N. Baillie

    2005-01-01

    To improve our conceptual and quantitative understanding of mountain-front\\/mountain-block recharge (MFR) associated with the Huachuca Mountains of the Upper San Pedro River Basin in Arizona, we employed a suite of geochemical measurements including isotopic tracers and noble gases. MFR is frequently the dominant source of recharge to alluvial basins in the semiarid Basin and Range province. It consists of mountain

  18. Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

  19. Testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources POLICIES TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL

    E-print Network

    TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY 2:30 pm, Tuesday, January 30, 2007 Dirksen Senate. But it is also because car buyers undervalue fuel economy. Raising the fuel economy of passenger cars and light

  20. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

  1. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.

    PubMed

    Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

  2. Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

    2002-07-22

    The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

  3. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

    2005-03-14

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

  4. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  5. NATURAL RESOURCE RECREATION Graduates work in a variety of federal, state, and local resource manage-

    E-print Network

    Adventures Je erson County Open Space Larimer Dept of Natural Resources National Park Service North Front Range Metro Planning Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory Rocky Mountain National Park Steamboat Ski Resort.colostate.edu/career-services/ National Tour Association www.ntaonline.com/ Outdoor Education Jobs www.outdoored.com/jobs/ National

  6. Development of a snowfall–snowmelt routine for mountainous terrain for the soil water assessment tool (SWAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Fontaine; T. S. Cruickshank; J. G. Arnold; R. H. Hotchkiss

    2002-01-01

    The soil water assessment tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model originally developed to evaluate water resources in large agricultural basins. SWAT was not designed to model heterogeneous mountain basins typical of the western United States, and as a result, has performed poorly when applied to mountainous locations. The intent of this study was to increase the versatility of SWAT by

  7. The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

  8. From Mountains to Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a poster and article which details the process of obtaining minerals from the earth and refining them for use. On the reverse is a chart of helpful mineralogy information. A list of four information resources is included. (CW)

  9. Nuclear Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

  10. Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

  11. BLANCO MOUNTAIN AND BLACK CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas, California indicated that areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential exist only in the Black Canyon Roadless Area. Gold with moderate amounts of lead, silver, zinc, and tungsten, occurs in vein deposits and in tactite. The nature of the geological terrain indicates little likelihood for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless areas. Detailed geologic mapping might better define the extent of gold mineralization. Detailed stream-sediment sampling and analysis of heavy-mineral concentrations could better define tungsten resource potential.

  12. IGT world reserves survey: A survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This report is an updating of previous IGT surveys of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources. It also provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates.

  13. YUCCA Mountain project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Ebert; J. A. Fortner; R. J. Finch; J. L. Jerden; J. C. Cunnane

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel

  14. Center for Alternative Fuels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

  15. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  16. Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners?

    E-print Network

    Stoffel, Markus

    Mountains and Lowlands: Enemies or Partners? Example of the High Atlas, Morocco #12;Contact Address of the High Atlas, Morocco Preface Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The High Atlas Mountains ­ the backbone of Morocco

  17. Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

  18. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. ...chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...Approved maps. The two United States Geological...

  19. First aid knowledge of alpine mountaineers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kuepper; D. Wermelskirchen; Th. Beeker; O. Reisten; R. Waanders

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study evaluates the knowledge of first aid in mountaineerers who climb routes of moderate difficulty in the western Alps. Additionally the mountaineer's ability to assess their own knowledge was investigated. An analysis of the mountain accidents in the same area showed the real need for knowledge. Design: An investigation of a cohort of mountaineers who reached Margherita Hut

  20. MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

  1. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  2. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  4. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

  6. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  7. Preliminary environmental survey of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, Colorado. Interim report, November 1972September 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Gauthier; R. Stricklett; F. F. Faulkner

    1974-01-01

    Since November 1972, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground has been surveying the resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) to establish an ecological baseline for evaluation of the actual and potential impacts of Government and contractor operations upon these resources. This report includes such information as the history of RMA and its role in the Dept. of Defense, its unique prairie

  8. Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

  9. Plate Borders and Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

    This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

  10. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  11. Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This colony of Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata) is so large (about 3 feet across) that it must have been growing before the severe bleaching and disease episode in 2005/2006 that caused so much coral mortality on St. John's reefs....

  12. ROCKY MOUNTAIN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICS

    E-print Network

    Saff, E. B.

    OF POLYNOMIALS A. ISERLES,S.P.N0RSETT AND E.B. SAFF ABSTRACT. We survey certain transformations of the set 7rn of E.B. Saff was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation under grant DMS-862 Mountain Mathematics Consortium 331 #12;A. ISERLES,S.P.N0RSETT AND E.B. SAFF known and appreciated

  13. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  14. Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

  15. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  16. YUCCA Mountain project.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W. L.; Fortner, J. A.; Finch, R. J.; Jerden, J. L.; Cunnane, J. C.

    2005-03-28

    This report describes the experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during fiscal year 2004 (FY 04) under the Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) Memorandum Purchase Order (MPO), contract number B004210CM3X. Important results related to the technical bases, uncertainties, validation, and conservatism in current source term models are summarized below. An examination of specimens of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that had been subjected to corrosion testing for up to 10 years under hydrologically unsaturated conditions was undertaken to elucidate radionuclide release pathways and mechanisms.

  17. Kansas energy resources data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Kansas Corporation Commission has been given the task to ''collect and compile necessary data on energy resources and monitor energy resource supplies in this state.'' To accomplish the task, this report documents Kansas energy supply and demand and establishes trends in energy resource production and consumption by Kansas homes, commerce and industry. This report includes production and consumption data covering all energy resources the State Corporation Commission determines to be of importance: gasoline, diesel fuels, home heating oils, propane, butane, kerosene, other middle distillates, aviation gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, residual fuels, crude oil, other petroleum products and hydrocarbons and electricity and natural gas.

  18. Physiology of ski mountaineering racing.

    PubMed

    Duc, S; Cassirame, J; Durand, F

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify and describe the exercise intensity of ski mountaineering racing, and to identify the best physiological predictors of ski mountaineering racing. Before participating in the race in which heart rate (HR) and speed were continuously recorded, 10 trained ski-mountaineers performed a field maximal test to determine the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and the respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) in order to establish 3 exercise intensity zones (Z1: below VT1, Z2: between VT1 and RCT, and Z3: above RCT). Energy cost (EC) of each subject was estimated on the HR/ V?O2 relationship obtained during the field maximal test. VT1 and RCT threshold were equal to 84.2±3.0 and 94.5±1.7% of HR (max). Race time was significantly correlated with V?O2max (r = -0.87), VT1 (r = -0.82) and RCT (r = -0.85) expressed for body mass unit. The mean race time and the mean HR were 101±11?min and 93.4±1.8% of HR (max). The % race time spent in Z1, Z2 and Z3, were 7.0±4.8, 51.3±4.7 and 42.0±6.5%, respectively. The mean value of EC during the two uphill of the race was 14.3±2.6 J x kg(-1) x m(-1). HR and speed decreased significantly during the second uphill whereas EC increased significantly by ?15%. Data obtained in the present study represent the first qualitative description of physiology demand of ski mountaineering racing. The long period of time spent just below and above RCT suggest that ski-mountaineering can be viewed as one of the most strenuous endurance sports like cross-country skiing, running and off-road biking. In addition to high aerobic capacities, body mass seems to appear as a key factor given that performance in ski mountaineering is strongly correlated to relative common physiological variables. The changes of HR, speed and EC during the second uphill, which indicate the prevalence of fatigue, confirm the exhaustive character of ski mountaineering. PMID:22012642

  19. Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the US Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

  20. Vegetable oil fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, D.

    1981-04-01

    In this article, the future role of renewable agricultural resources in providing fuel is discussed. it was only during this century that U.S. farmers began to use petroleum as a fuel for tractors as opposed to forage crop as fuel for work animals. Now farmers may again turn to crops as fuel for agricultural production - the possible use of sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil as substitutes for diesel fuel is discussed.

  1. MountainQuest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    George Tuthill

    This science quest is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this quest, students work in teams to make recommendations for building a new observatory for NASA. Students evaluate scientific and cultural data for five potential sites and then make presentaions to a formal review panel. This collaborative group project requires 4 to 10 class hours and integrates themes and unifying concepts in science with astronomy objectives.

  2. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  3. BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.

    1984-01-01

    Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

  4. Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    Estimates as of year-end 1980 are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, cumulative production, and life index of the nonrenewable energy sources of the United States and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided where possible. Reserve and resource data are given in conventional US units - cubic feet, short tons, and barrels; and

  5. Assessing accuracy of a probabilistic model for very large fire in the Rocky Mountains: A High Park Fire case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavros, E.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Larkin, N.; McKenzie, D.; Steel, A.

    2012-12-01

    Across the western United States, the largest wildfires account for a major proportion of the area burned and substantially affect mountain forests and their associated ecosystem services, among which is pristine air quality. These fires commandeer national attention and significant fire suppression resources. Despite efforts to understand the influence of fuel loading, climate, and weather on annual area burned, few studies have focused on understanding what abiotic factors enable and drive the very largest wildfires. We investigated the correlation between both antecedent climate and in-situ biophysical variables and very large (>20,000 ha) fires in the western United States from 1984 to 2009. We built logistic regression models, at the spatial scale of the national Geographic Area Coordination Centers (GACCs), to estimate the probability that a given day is conducive to a very large wildfire. Models vary in accuracy and in which variables are the best predictors. In a case study of the conditions of the High Park Fire, neighboring Fort Collins, Colorado, occurring in early summer 2012, we evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Rocky Mountain model.

  6. Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

  7. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

  9. Prediction of mountain stream morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Wohl; David Merritt

    2005-01-01

    We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable

  10. Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

  11. How the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

    2014-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  12. How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  13. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  14. Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Fabryka-Martin, June M.

    2001-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (˜300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  15. Micrometeorites from the transantarctic mountains.

    PubMed

    Rochette, P; Folco, L; Suavet, C; van Ginneken, M; Gattacceca, J; Perchiazzi, N; Braucher, R; Harvey, R P

    2008-11-25

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 mum and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of approximately 0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-mum size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the approximately 480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent ( approximately 1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  16. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  17. Land-Cover Trends of the Southern California Mountains Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Raumann, Christian G.; Wilson, Tamara S.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land-use and land-cover (LU/LC) change in the Southern California Mountains ecoregion for the period 1973-2001. The Southern California Mountains is one of 84 Level-III ecoregions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ecoregions have served as a spatial framework for environmental resource management, denoting areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The established Land Cover Trends methodology generates estimates of change for ecoregions using a probability sampling approach and change-detection analysis of thematic land-cover images derived from Landsat satellite imagery.

  18. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

  19. Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Pomfret

    2006-01-01

    Mountaineering has emerged as a popular form of adventure tourism, yet there is scant research that develops an understanding of its participants. This paper contributes to a theoretical understanding of mountaineer adventure tourists by evaluating previous work on mountaineering, mountaineers, adventure, recreation and tourism. It uses this to develop a conceptual framework to examine mountaineer adventure tourists, the key influences

  20. Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

  1. Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park

    E-print Network

    Frank, Jerritt

    2008-09-05

    Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

  2. SPECIFIC V.FL \\\\ - KARST WATER RESOURCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vujica Yevjevich

    Karst water resources have many particular features that often clearly distinguish them from water resources of other, less pervious geologic formations. Therefore, it is common to talk about their specificities. Features of karst terrains of Southern Turkey (the Taurus Mountain Range) are used here to demonstrate versatilities of specific problems of karst water resour­ ces. The sizes of karst aquifers,

  3. Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

  4. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  5. Computer resources Computer resources

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Computer resources 1 Computer resources available to the LEAD group Cédric David 30 September 2009 #12;Ouline · UT computer resources and services · JSG computer resources and services · LEAD computers· LEAD computers 2 #12;UT Austin services UT EID and Password 3 https://utdirect.utexas.edu #12;UT Austin

  6. Resources and Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about resources and resourcefulness and focuses on the theme that resources include all means of support. Human resources, particularly creativity, intellect, and diligence, are among the most valuable. In times such as these, academic departments and programs in kinesiology, physical education, exercise science,…

  7. Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Danes, Z.F.; Phillips, William M.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State (Danes, 1975, 1979, 1981; Korosec and others, 1981). The purpose of the work has been to gather baseline gravity data for eventual contribution to geothermal resource evaluation. However, it is expected that the Cascade gravity data will prove useful in a number of future endeavors such as fossil fuel and mineral exploration, as the gravity method is a basic tool of the exploration geophysicist. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington. This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections. It is hoped that release of this report will encourage analysis of Cascade gravity data beyond the standard treatment (complete Bouguer gravity anomaly at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cm{sup 2}) presented in Danes and Phillips, (1983).

  8. Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936

  9. 1Prepared by BG Rahm & SJ Riha (NYS Water Resources Institute), D Yoxtheimer (Penn State Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research), E Boyer (PA Water Resources Research Center), D Carder (WVU Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions), K Davi

    E-print Network

    1Prepared by BG Rahm & SJ Riha (NYS Water Resources Institute), D Yoxtheimer (Penn State Marcellus and air quality issues associated with shale gas development in the Northeast1 Development of Marcellus time and space. Through a review of research and experience in the Marcellus shale region and elsewhere

  10. entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle

    E-print Network

    entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts T he mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a natural disturbance agent

  11. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  12. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  13. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  14. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  15. 14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

  16. Napalm as an energy resource: a study of the molecular weight distribution of polystyrene in napalm and its use in middle distillate fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W Mushrush; Erna J Beal; Dennis R Hardy; Janet M Hughes

    1999-01-01

    The large quantity of napalm that is currently being treated as hazardous waste represents a viable energy resource that is too valuable to waste. However, there are significant problems to be overcome before this material can be used as an energy source. The scientific and environmental problems include: the broad molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, solubility and compatibility in a

  17. A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, J.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Shaw, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

  18. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  19. Material corrosion issues for nuclear waste disposition in Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2008-01-01

    For more than two decades, an extensive scientific effort has been underway to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a suitable site for a deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Even though the geologic site is stable, additional engineered barriers are planned, including waste packages, drip shields, and tunnel inverts that will be within the emplacement tunnels. Research is under way into the best materials for corrosion prevention in those engineered barriers to ensure their long-term mechanical integrity.

  20. Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

  1. Waste management in mountain refuges - an integrated evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, Sandra; Weissenbacher, Norbert; Mayr, Ernest; Aschauer, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Mountain refuges are an excellent example of public stand-alone infrastructures equipped with energy and water supply, and wastewater and waste disposal systems suited to operating under unfavourable conditions, often comprising lengthy distances for transportation or scarce resources. An international project was undertaken to evaluate the existing supply and disposal schemes at 100 mountain refuges both individually and in an integrated manner. On the basis of the results obtained guidelines to be applied in the sustainable planning, construction and operation of supply and disposal systems will be published in the near future. The present article focuses on solid waste management with an aim to the identification, quantification and critical discussion of operational issues and problems relating to waste management in mountain refuges. Transportation represents a crucial factor in terms of costs and climate relevance. The results obtained reveal how waste prevention and composting are capable of reducing waste quantities requiring transportation. However, it was also demonstrated that composting is frequently not performed in an appropriate manner and, although prohibited by law paper and cardboard are frequently burned. PMID:20643708

  2. Mountain-Plains Curriculum Package. Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    Designed to give the teacher a capsule explanation of how the system works, this guide introduces the Mountain-Plains instructor to specific curriculum materials and provides examples of the basic instruments used in the Mountain-Plains program, a residential, family-based education program developed to improve the economic potential and lifestyle…

  3. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...Commission [Docket No. TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional...and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211,...

  4. Automobile fuel efficiency standards. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Regulation and Conservation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, April 4, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Corporate fuel economy standards can save twice the amount of oil spilled in the Prince William Sound by the Exxon tanker, and it can save that much every day. Witnesses discuss the availability of gasoline saving technologies, such as the four-valve per cylinder engines. Testimony was heard from the assistant secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Center for Auto Safety, an energy analyst from International Resources Group, the Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental and Safety Engineering manager from Ford Motor Company, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Public Affairs staff from General Motors Corp, and Senators from Tennessee, Idaho, Ohio, Alaska, Oklahoma, and Colorado.

  5. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  6. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  7. Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of a karstic mountain region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Elci, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Erdogan, Burhan

    2008-03-01

    Karstic limestone formations in the Mediterranean basin are potential water resources that can meet a significant portion of groundwater demand. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly study the hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of karstic mountain regions. This paper presents a detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of the Nif Mountain karstic aquifer system in western Turkey, an important recharge source for the densely populated surrounding area. Based on the geological and hydrogeological studies, four major aquifers were identified in the study area including the allochthonous limestone in Bornova flysch, conglomerate-sandstone and clayey-limestone in Neogene series, and the Quaternary alluvium. Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater were measured in situ, and samples were collected at 59 locations comprised of springs and wells. Samples were analyzed for major ions, isotopic composition, arsenic, boron and heavy metals among other trace elements. It was found that the hydrogeological structure is complex with many springs having a wide range of discharge rates. High-discharge springs originate from allochthonous limestone units, whereas low-discharge springs are formed at the contacts with claystone and limestone units. Using stable isotope analysis data, a ?18O-deuterium relationship was obtained that lies between the Mediterranean meteoric and mean global lines. Tritium analyses showed that low-discharge springs originating from contact zones had longer circulation times compared to the high-discharge karstic springs. Furthermore, hydrogeochemical data revealed that groundwater quality significantly deteriorated as water moved from the mountain to the plains. Heavy metal, arsenic and boron concentrations were generally within drinking-water quality standards with a few exceptions occurring in residential and industrial areas located at the foothills of the mountain. Elevated arsenic concentrations were related to local geologic formations, which are likely to contain oxidized sulfite minerals in claystones. It is concluded that Nif Mountain overall has a significant potential to provide high-quality water with a safe yield of at least 50 million m3/year, which corresponds to about 28% of the mean annual inflow to the Tahtali reservoir, a major water resource for the city of Izmir.

  8. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  9. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

  10. Modeling Studies of Climate Impacts and Extreme Events in California Mountain Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shupe; C. Potter; M. Kramer; V. Genovese; P. Gross

    2005-01-01

    This study describes research using the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford) ecosystem model with HYDRA surface hydrologic model for the state of California to understand the effects of potential land cover and climate events on mountain ecosystems and regional water resources. The models are run at 1-km resolution to capture localized topographic effects at the regional scale. To assess HYDRA's ability to estimate

  11. Modeling interannual variability in snow-cover development and melt for a semiarid mountain catchment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observed changes in mid-elevation snowcover and duration have raised concerns over future impacts of global warming on snowpack dependent water resources and ecosystems. However, predictions of future changes in snow hydrology over mountain basins are complicated by natural variability in climate co...

  12. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  13. Energy Fuels REnergy Fuels R PreparePrepare

    E-print Network

    MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO Submitted to: Energy Fuels Resources Corporation 44 Union Boulevard, Suite 600, located in Montrose County, Colorado. Golder Associates Inc. (Golder) was contracted to provide

  14. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

  15. Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

    2010-09-01

    The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

  16. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Emergency Backup

    E-print Network

    remotely to reduce mainte- nance time. The primary challenge facing currently available fuel cells, Washington; Altergy Energy Systems of Folsom, California; Idatech, LLC of Bend, Oregon; and Hydrogenics Cheyenne Mountain Air Station is an underground command center for monitoring the skies and space

  17. CANDU fuel cycle flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G. [Chalk River Lab., Ontario (Canada); Dastur, A.R. [AECL CANDU, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources.

  18. Karstic mountain almost conquered. [Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-10

    International design and construction teams building a 300-Mw hydroelectric system high in central Guatemala's rugged mountains since 1977 have persevered through karstic-limestone nightmares, logistical bottlenecks and political upheaval to bring the $700-million Rio Chixoy project close to completion. The costly power push, requiring the largest construction effort in Guatemala's modern history, plays a critical role for the future. When all five Pelton-wheel turbines are spinning late next year, their output will more than double electricity production in Central America's poorest, most populous country. Despite numerous delays, design changes and cost increases above the original $240-million bid package, work has progressed to the final stages on a 360-ft-high rockfill dam, 16-mile power tunnel and aboveground powerhouse.

  19. Annotated checklist and database for vascular plants of the Jemez Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T. S.; Pierce, L.; Tierney, G. D.; Hansen, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    Studies done in the last 40 years have provided information to construct a checklist of the Jemez Mountains. The present database and checklist builds on the basic list compiled by Teralene Foxx and Gail Tierney in the early 1980s. The checklist is annotated with taxonomic information, geographic and biological information, economic uses, wildlife cover, revegetation potential, and ethnographic uses. There are nearly 1000 species that have been noted for the Jemez Mountains. This list is cross-referenced with the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS database species names and acronyms. All information will soon be available on a Web Page.

  20. P wave velocity structure in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leiph Preston; Ken Smith; David von Seggern

    2007-01-01

    We have performed a crustal tomographic inversion using over 250,000 P arrival times from local earthquake sources and surface explosions in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, region. Within the shallowest 2–3 km, topographic features tend to dominate the structure with high velocities imaged under Bare Mountain, the Funeral Mountains, and higher terrain to the east of Yucca Mountain and low velocities

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project

    E-print Network

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated as United States choice for nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in a remote dry area, on federal has been made to characterize the nature of the discontinuities of the Yucca Mountain proposed nuclear

  2. Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2007-01-01

    Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

  3. Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

  4. Resource Adequacy INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    whether there are sufficient non-hydro resources available to meet loads when the "fuel" for hydroelectric the amount of water for hydroelectric generation) and temperature (which affects the demand for electricity

  5. Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, Barbara E.; Hansen, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

  6. ISHI, MILL CREEK, POLK SPRINGS, AND BUTT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jocelyn A.; Denton, David K., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Ishi, Mill Creek, Polk Springs, and Butt Mountain Roadless Areas occupy approximately 50 sq mi in an area about 25 mi north of Chico, California, and 25 mi south of Mount Lassen. Mineral surveys indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in much of the areas. Portions of Deer and Mill Creeks are considered to have probable resource potential for small amounts of gold. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of energy resources and no other metallic mineral resources were identified.

  7. ARIEL 65 WOMEN'S BACKPACK Backpacking/Mountaineering

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    ARIEL 65 WOMEN'S BACKPACK Backpacking/Mountaineering Lightweight and comfortable women's specific. Volumes and Weights US and International weight and volume specifications Size cu. in. liter lbs/oz kg. XS

  8. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  9. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  10. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  11. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  12. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Denali National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley...

  13. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  14. ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

  15. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Social dominance in adult female mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

    1995-01-01

    The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

  17. Integrated Ediacaran chronostratigraphy, Wernecke Mountains, northwestern Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne J. Pyle; Guy M. Narbonnea; Noel P. James; Robert W. Dalrymple; Alan J. Kaufman

    2004-01-01

    Terminal Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran, ca. 600-543 Ma) strata of the upper part of the Windermere Supergroup are well-exposed in the Mackenzie Mountains and the Wernecke Mountains of northwestern Canada. Windermere strata in the Mackenzie Moun- tains contain an exceptional Ediacaran biostratigraphic and isotopic (C and Sr) record, while the sequence stratigraphic record is subtle throughout this predominantly deep-water succession. Coeval strata

  18. Analysis of tru-fueled vhtr prismatic core performance domains 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Tom Goslee

    2009-05-15

    The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the U.S. Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

  19. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Vanica

    1995-06-14

    The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

  20. Fuel Cells 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

  1. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat Mountain. It is important to mention that the exposure level calculation has been obtained from natural hazard data do not protected by defense works. Results of this work enable us to consider best strategies to reduce rockfalls risk in the PNMM. It is clear that, apart from the required structural defense works, some of them already made, implementation of strategies not involving structural defense is, in the medium and long term, the best policy to mitigate the risk. In the PNMM case, rethinking of mobility and traffic management on the mountain access would be definitely helpful to achieve a minimized geological risk.

  2. Proterozoic Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone, northern Colorado: Subduction flip and progressive assembly of arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, A. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Dueker, K. R. Chamberlain S. B. Smithson K. G.; Foster, C. T.

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers the amalgamation of arc and oceanic terranes to be the main mechanism of ca. 1.8 1.6 Ga continental crustal growth in southwestern Laurentia. On the basis of geologic and seismic reflection data and teleseismic images, we propose the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone as the northernmost Paleoproterozoic arc-arc suture. North-dipping (Farwell Mountain) seismic reflections project from 18 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to represent conjugate thrusting as the 1.79 1.77 Ga Green Mountain arc was partially underthrust beneath the Archean craton. We speculate that a north-dipping high-velocity mantle “slab” in the teleseismic image is a continuation of this thrust zone. South-dipping (Lester Mountain) reflections project from 22 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to be a thrust zone between the Green Mountain arc and the 1.76 1.72 Ga Rawah block. Surface features of the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone are (1) marble, chert, rock with sillimanite pods, ultramafic rocks, sulfide deposits, and pillow basalts, which we interpret to be a dismembered accretionary complex; (2) an axial-planar fabric to north-verging isoclinal folds (F2), which we interpret to be part of a north-vergent fold-and-thrust system; and (3) a metamorphic break between ˜500 °C rocks to the north and ˜610 °C rocks to the south, which we attribute to reactivation of the zone. Movement on the Farwell Mountain backthrust is inferred to relate to Cheyenne belt suturing at 1.78 1.75 Ga. We correlate suturing in the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone to S1/D1 (1.746 1.74 Ga) in the Soda Creek Fish Creek shear zone. We attribute the complexity of this broad suture zone to initial conjugate thrusting, plus overprinting and steepening of accretionary structures by subsequent tectonism.

  3. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

  4. Ouray Colorado resource characteristics and future plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1981-01-01

    Ouray, Colorado, at 7800 feet, lies in a natural amphitheater in the northern portion of the San Juan Mountains. Mining and tourism are the primary industries; each fluctuating between boom or bust; mining erratically; tourism seasonally. The hot springs in the area average from 80° to 152°F and discharge from 2 to 200 gallons per minute. The resource is probably

  5. Human Specimen Resources | Resources

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

  6. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Mountain Waves Launched By Convective Activity Within The Boundary Layer Above Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Worthington

    2002-01-01

    Mountain waves are observed in the free atmosphere, even when the mountainboundary layer (the source region of these waves) is neutral or convectivelyunstable, and filled with convective rolls, revealed by cloud streets. This paperinvestigates if mountain waves are caused not simply by air flow over mountainridges, but also by flow over boundary-layer convective activity, similar toconvection waves above plains and

  8. Photobiological Production of Hydrogen from Spirulina for Fueling Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Behera; R. Balasundaram; K. Gadgil; D. K. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Natural resources of the world are shrinking day by day with ever increasing population and man's growing need for commercialization of petroleum, natural gas, coal, etc. Therefore, there is a need for finding an alternative fuel that could replace these conventional fuels. Hydrogen seems to be an ideal candidate, since hydrogen is a cleaner source of energy. Fuel cell is

  9. Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, E.H.; McColloch, M.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

  10. Pyritic ash-flow tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- A discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.I.; Larson, L.T.; Noble, D.C. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Textural and mineralogic evidence exists for at least one episode of widespread hydrothermal alteration of volcanic rocks deep in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Despite this evidence, Castor et al. infer that most of the pyrite found in tuffs at Yucca Mountain was introduced as ejecta (lithic fragments) incorporated during the eruptions of the tuffs, rather than by in-situ hydrothermal activity. Their conclusions appear to be based on their observation that most of the pyrite resides in unaltered to variably altered and veined lithic fragments, whereas pyrite-bearing veins are absent in the tuff matrix, titanomagnetite and mafic phenocrysts in the matrix are generally not replaced by pyrite, and feldspar phenocrysts in the pyritic tuff matrix are generally unaltered. Castor et al. dismiss the much smaller quantities of pyrite disseminated in the tuff matrix, including relatively rare pyritized hornblende and biotite grains, as xenolithic as well. The pyritic tuffs belong to large-volume, subalkaline rhyolite ash-flow units (ca. > 150 to 250 km{sup 3} each). The interpretation of Castor et al. has broad implications for the temperature, fO{sub 2} and fS{sub 2} of major ash flow eruptions. Pyrite origin also bears on the nature of past fluid flow and water-rock reactions at Yucca Mountain, which in turn are important factors in assessing the potential for currently undiscovered mineral resources in the area of the proposed nuclear waste repository. We have studied core and cuttings from the same drill holes studied by Castor et al., as well as other drill holes. It is our contention that the inconsistent lateral and stratigraphic distribution of the pyrite, textural features of the pyrite, and phase stability considerations are incompatible with the {open_quotes}lithic{close_quotes} origin of Castor et al., and are more reasonably explained by in-situ formation from hydrothermal fluids containing low, but geochemically significant, concentrations of reduced sulfur.

  11. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  12. Fueling up with natural gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Stodolsky; D. J. Santini

    1993-01-01

    A careful analysis is needed of the energy efficiency of the fuel cycle (the efficiency of the conversion from resource extraction to final use by consumers) and the environmental impact of natural gas fuels. This information can help policy makers decide which fuels could be used to displace imported oil, maintain air quality, and be the basis of a new

  13. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 28.7 x 29.4 km (17.8 x 18.2 miles) Location: 29.4 deg. North lat., 8.9 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 4,6 and 8. Original Data Resolution: 30 m Date Acquired: June 13, 2001

  14. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional economy are quite scarce. There is, therefore, a real need to fill the gap of empirical data on the social-economical impacts of geotourism, and on the relationship between the geotourist products developed by the scientific community and the expectations of the public and the tourist sector. The collaboration with social scientists (economists, sociologists) will help to fulfill this objective. - Environmental education: During the last years, a lot of work has been done on the assessment of geoheritage and the selection of sites worthy of promotion and/or protection but few attempts have addressed the question of using geoheritage to communicate on more general issues such as the dynamics and sensitivity of mountain environments or the impacts of climate change on mountain areas. It is, therefore, necessary to develop communication and learning methods - in particular by using new communication technologies - to improve environmental education based on geoheritage site promotion for several kinds of publics, in particular tourists (to improve their awareness of the sensitivity of mountain environments) and scholars. These three research objectives will be fulfilled by the development of common research, in particular cross-border case studies, and by the elaboration of specific courses for Ph.D. and master students. Collaboration with existing mountain networks (scientific, nature parks, etc.) is expected.

  15. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  16. BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland

    PubMed Central

    Bamberger, I.; Hortnagl, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Muller, M.; Dunkl, J.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hansel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth’s land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×?0.12, R2 = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m?2 s?1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m?2 s?1). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m?2 s?1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m?2 s?1), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m?2 s?1) were detected during/after harvesting. PMID:24339833

  17. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lunine, J.I.; Stofan, E.R.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37?? and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Wall, Stephen D.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2007-12-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term "mountains." Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37° and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable effects of image resolution. Mountain peak morphologies and surrounding, diffuse blankets give evidence that erosion has acted upon these features, perhaps in the form of fluvial runoff. Possible formation mechanisms for these mountains include crustal compressional tectonism and upthrusting of blocks, extensional tectonism and formation of horst-and-graben, deposition as blocks of impact ejecta, or dissection and erosion of a preexisting layer of material. All above processes may be at work, given the diversity of geology evident across Titan's surface. Comparisons of mountain and blanket volumes and erosion rate estimates for Titan provide a typical mountain age as young as 20-100 million years.

  19. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  20. Kansas energy resources data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The availability of reliable energy information is essential to understanding the dimensions of energy problems and developing appropriate solutions. To assist Kansas citizens, legislators and government officials with data regarding energy supply and demand patterns, this report is dedicated. This report includes production and consumption data covering all energy resources the State Corporation Commission determines to be of importance: gasoline, diesel fuels, home heating oils, propane, butane, kerosene, other middle distillates, aviation gasoline, naptha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, residual fuels, crude oil, other petroleum products and hydrocarbons and electricity and natural gas.

  1. Letter to President Obama Concerning Yucca Mountain and the Re evaluation of U.S. Radioactive Waste Policy and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    We welcome your decision to curtail activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste site and endorse your plan to evaluate the nation's high-level radioactive waste and commercial irradiated fuel programs and policies. We want to be involved in this process and we hope it will be earnest, open, and transparent. In that spirit, we urge you to ask all

  2. Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Mon; B. E. Bullard; D. E. Longsine; S. Mehta; J. H. Lee; A. M. Monib

    2002-01-01

    The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on

  3. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

    2012-05-01

    Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys. PMID:22735139

  4. Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

  5. Human Specimen Resources | Resources

    Cancer.gov

    The Pathology Investigation and Resources Branch support programs that collect and distribute human biospecimens programs through grant funding. These programs make high-quality tissue and associated data available to the research community. Listed below is a description of current PIRB supported programs.

  6. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  7. Mapping Ground Temperature and Radiant Hydrothermal Heat Flux on Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes in volcanic and geothermal systems is important for monitoring volcanic activity, monitoring the impacts of geothermal development, and assessing resources. We used ground based thermal infrared (TIR) imaging combined with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce high-resolution (cm scale) DEMs over which images of ground temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were draped. We apply this methodology to two hydrothermal areas (Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumaroles) on Mammoth Mountain, CA, allowing us to image the detailed topography, map the thermal features at each area and assess the spatial relationships between the two efficiently and at high resolution. Mammoth Mountain is a lava-dome complex located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, CA. Unrest at Mammoth Mountain is currently manifested by seismic swarms, ground deformation, elevated 3He/4He ratios in gases at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole, and large changes in diffuse magmatic CO2 emissions from the five tree kill areas on the volcano flanks. We augment the extensive dataset collected at this site over the previous decades by quantifying ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes at the Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumarole sites. This was accomplished using a hand-held FLIR T650sc camera that simultaneously acquires visible and TIR images of the study site. Daytime and nighttime co-located visible and TIR images were acquired over each study area, and image processing was used to orthorectify and mosaic visible and TIR images, calculate radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes, construct 3D imagery of ground surface, overlay maps of ground temperatures and heat fluxes, and establish spatial relationships between topography and heat flow.

  8. Rocky Mountain Coordination Center: Fire Information (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to a variety of information on fire hazards and prediction for the Rocky Mountain area. Users can access information on current fires and fire restrictions for this area. Other materials include predictive services (intelligence, weather forecasts, fuels and fire danger ratings), logistics and dispatch information for aviation and fire crews, and administrative information for RMCC personnel (safety, training, employment opportunities). There are also links to other agencies with related information.

  9. Summer Field Assistant (Two positions) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory

    E-print Network

    measurements, Rocky Mountain plant identification, and forest ecology is desired. The successful candidate must University The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory is seeking two seasonal field assistants to support forest, Ecology, or Natural Resource Management. Experience in backpacking, GIS, GPS and/or orienteering, forest

  10. Dynamic processes in the mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Arakelian, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The process of the river cftchment foundation and the mechanisms being in the basis of its development are not clear at present. Principal phenomena determining the dynamics of formation of the river catchment are under our study in this paper for the case of the mountain basin as an example. The methodology of this monitoring includes the space image recognition and computer data processing of the images for the Maliy Caucasus Mountains. Mountain river catchment formation on the slope of the ridge can be considered as a self-organizing staged process of its evolution passing through several non-equilibrium but steady-state conditions. We consider a system of tributaries in the mountain river catchment as a system of cracks, which are formed on the slope of the mountain massif. In other words, the formation of river networks should be the result of development of several processes, among of which the mechanisms of crack development should play a dominant role. The principal results, discussed in the present report, can be formulated as follow. (1) The mountain catchment (litho-watershed) formation takes place under conditions of the confined states of a mountain massif: on the one hand it is bounded by the surface of the slope; but on the other hand, - by a primary cracks density occurrence (as a spatial distribution 3D-crack net). (2) The development in time of the river catchment takes place by several stages. Each stage specifies a definite energetic state of the system in the mountain massif. (3) The overhead river streams arise not only due to surface water, but and namely due to rising of water from underground water horizons over the watercourse cracks penetrating deeply into the underground. (4) The 3D-river catchment structure results in concept in behavior of the unit as an open nonlinear dynamic system with a spatially distributed feedback. The energetic (endogen) processes of formation, rising and bifurcation for cracks are the consequence of relaxation of tension accumulating into of the mountain materials, and result in specific geometrical image of the river stream system. Exogenic processes of depression have a secondary meaning and take part in organization of the relief picture inside of the basin. Geological peculiarities, concrete physic-chemical properties of the mountain massive and different external factors are overlapped on indicated primary processes, and such complicated picture establishes the morphology of the catchment in general. The conclusion is, the mountain river catchment is the vertical geosystem with the predominantly descending fluxes of substances . Its development in time results in interrelated processes of mountainous massif destruction and, as to direction of the river's channel fracturing growth, the process is going up over the slope. The water balance in such a 3D -system should take into account both surface water and groundwater.

  11. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. ELECTRICAL SWITCHING STATION FOR IRON MOUNTAIN BRINGS ELECTRICITY FROM HOOVER DAM COMPLEX. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Overprinting Deformations in Mantle Rocks, Dun Mountain, New Zealand 

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Sara

    2014-04-25

    Dun Mountain is the northern-most ultramafic massif of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt, South Island, New Zealand, and is the type-locale of dunite. The dunites that are preserved at this location provide an opportunity ...

  14. 6. VIEW OF ROCKLINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING WEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF ROCK-LINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 4. VIEW SHOWING ROCKLINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING ROCK-LINED SPILLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upaco Unit, Superior Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 12.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  16. 7. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Milk Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 9.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  17. MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Steenburgh, Jim

    MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY Michael P. Meyers NOAA/National Weather Service, Grand Junction, Colorado and W. James Steenburgh Department of the American Meteorological Society Mountain Weather and Forecasting Monograph Draft from Friday, May 21, 2010

  18. Global Measurements of Stratospheric Mountain Waves from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Preusse, Peter; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures acquired by the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) during shuttle mission STS-66 have provided measurements of stratospheric mountain waves from space. Large-amplitude, long-wavelength mountain waves at heights of 15 to 30 kilometers above the southern Andes Mountains were observed and characterized, with vigorous wave breaking inferred above 30 kilometers. Mountain waves also occurred throughout the stratosphere (15 to 45 kilometers) over a broad mountainous region of central Eurasia. The global distribution of mountain wave activity accords well with predictions from a mountain wave model. The findings demonstrate that satellites can provide the global data needed to improve mountain wave parameterizations and hence global climate and forecast models.

  19. 192. View of the Richland Balsam Mountain Overlook. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. View of the Richland Balsam Mountain Overlook. This is the highest elevation, 6,047, on the Blue Ridge Parkway. Looking west-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. 8. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST High Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. SNOWSHOE HARE (LEPUS AMERICANUS) AND MOUNTAIN COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS NUTTALLII) BIOGEOGRAPHY

    E-print Network

    SNOWSHOE HARE (LEPUS AMERICANUS) AND MOUNTAIN COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS NUTTALLII) BIOGEOGRAPHY, USA (JLM) We surveyed snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) and mountain cottontail (Sylvilagus nuttallii, snowshoe hare, Sylvilagus nuttallii The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) has the largest geographic range

  2. 14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with single tree. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Cades Cove Road, mountain view with horses. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of fields, mountains and mist in Cades Cove looking SW. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Cades Cove Road, with barbed wire fence and mountain view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    University Introduction Co-products from grain and oilseed process- ing are attractive low-cost feed alternatives for many-products of corn ethanol production as feeds for lactat- ing dairy cows. Forms of Distillers' Grains for Dairy Cattle The fermentation of corn to ethanol results in two basic co-products: coarse unferment- ed

  8. Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension

    E-print Network

    concentrated corn oil and is known to affect carcass fat softness. Dietary Intake and Pig Body Composition component of DDGS is concen- trated corn oil. So the abundance of C18:2n6 (commonly known as "linoleic acid levels of oxidation, slicing, and pro- cessing difficulties. One way to monitor fat firmness is by deter

  9. 30 August 2010 Energy Fuels Resources Corporation

    E-print Network

    , Piñon Ridge Mill Project, Montrose County, Colorado Dear Frank, This letter is to address Task 1 of our mill, termed the Piñon Ridge Project, located in Montrose County, Colorado. The mill is designed

  10. Wood fuel resources in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hornick

    1982-01-01

    Fuelwood is now a major forest product in the United States. Currently 2 to 2.5% of the U.S. energy consumption is met with wood. There is an adequate supply of unused wood annually to meet 10-15% of energy needs. Because of Btu content, moisture, and lack of uniformity in shape and sizes, wood as a source of energy presents some

  11. Geoethics and pedagogy of mountain and risk: the case of transhumance in Sila (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Marcello; Muto, Francesco; De Pascale, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Geoethics and Geography, as "channels" between the social and physical sciences, interact between areas of knowledge which allow quantitative measurement and others which instead mainly rely on qualitative considerations. Due to their educational values and the methodological possibilities they open up, such possibilities for interaction would be most valuable in educational environment, as they would represent a significant step toward educational-methodological settings that permit the acquisition of skills and competencies of immediate spendability, for example the importance of "knowing how to translate quantitative elements into qualitative and vice-verse". In a context of alternation between quantity and quality, the concept of resource is open to a multiplicity of ideas. If we consider the mountains as a resource, ideas develop from that of the riches of the mountains as being measurable through quantitative indexes (but not always) and reach one of the mountains as a whole as a resource, valuable mainly through qualitative criteria (but not only). This game between quantity and quality leads to informed evaluation of environmental conditions and human actions. In addition, the signs of the past, etiche into the mountains and often still influential in the present, constitute the fourth dimension of space, of which the teaching of Geography can not do without. However, the exploration of time also concerns the future, especially with regard the ethics of responsibility: it investigates the consequences of choices made in the present and how they can affect the future. Due to its many specificities (especially, but not exclusively, in terms of resources and risks), planning for a mountainous territory lends to an inexhaustible series of educational applications. The building of an "education about the mountains" project for primary and secondary school children through a series of learning units, from direct and indirect observation to territorial analysis, could bring out the range of perceptions that mountains can arouse in a child or pre-adolescent: from images of sadness and unhappiness to others of joy and elation. Perception is, of course, the first operational level and is essential in the exploration and understanding of space. This exploration and understanding is initially based on sensory perceptions and is then added to by perceptions of the environmental condition of the mountains, the weaknesses and risks, the links to history and to demographic, economic, social and cultural trends. The school, traditionally delegated to the training of the boy, can contribute to the acquisition of a new consciousness that can change the current image that the public has of the mountain and the phenomena connected with it as, indeed, the transhumance. Transhumance is a technical term of the pastoral economy, the "best" that is to point out a typical aspect of life, almost symbiotic, leading, for the whole year, men and flocks, with a double seasonal allocation, in mountain and plain, and a dual path (outward and return), almost always quite long, and for particular routes. In Calabria, the most significant and sustained transhumance settled between Sila plateau and Crotone plains.

  12. Modeling the Impacts of the Mountain Pine Beetle on Water and Energy fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelson, K. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Ferguson, I. J.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in Western North America has generated growing concern in recent years. Increasing numbers of outbreaks have affected an estimated two million acres of forest in Colorado and Wyoming alone during 2008. Given the substantial acreage of prematurely dying forests within Colorado and Wyoming, it has been hypothesized that the effects of the MPB outbreak will be similar to those observed after forest harvesting. High tree mortality rates of recent MPB infestations have the potential to induce significant changes in forest canopy, impacting several aspects of the local water and energy cycle, including canopy interception of precipitation and radiation, snow accumulation, melt and sublimation and evapotranspiration (ET). Parflow, a variably saturated groundwater flow model was coupled with the Common Land Model (CLM) to incorporate physical processes related to energy at the land surface and used to investigate the changing hydrologic and energy regime associated with MPB infestations. Specifically, Parflow-CLM was used to model daily and annual fluctuations of ET, snow pack, groundwater storage and ground temperatures throughout the four phases of MPB attack (green, red, gray and dieback phases), at sites typical of the Rocky Mountain West. Our results demonstrate that MPB infested watersheds will experience a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in snow accumulation accompanied by earlier and faster snowmelt. Impacts are similar to those projected under climate change, yet with a systematically higher snowpack. These results have implications for water resource management due to higher tendencies for flooding in the spring and drought in the summer.

  13. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  14. A Mountain Clustering Based on Improved PSO Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-yuan Shen; Xiao-qi Peng; Jun-nian Wang; Zhi-kun Hu

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a In order to find most centre of the density of the sample set this paper combines MCA and PSO, and presents a mountain clustering\\u000a based on improved PSO (MCBIPSO) algorithm. A mountain clustering method constructs a mountain function according to the density\\u000a of the sample, but it is not easy to find all peaks of the mountain function. The improved

  15. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography.

  16. Fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Bigazzi, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Balestrieri, M. L.

    2011-05-01

    We determined the fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites. The plateau method yielded a formation age of 0.85 ± 0.17 Ma. This age overlaps within error with that of the catastrophic impact that produced the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field ca. 0.8 Ma ago. This provides further evidence that Transantarctic Mountain microtektites belong to the Australasian tektite-microtektite strewn field, as previously suggested on the basis of geochemical evidence, Sr-Nd isotope systematics and poorly resolved radiometric data.

  17. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  18. Human Specimen Resources | Resources

    Cancer.gov

    The objective of the evaluation must be clearly stated and well formulated evaluation questions developed, regardless of which evaluation method is chosen. An evaluation can be conducted by NCI staff, by academic or industry scientists, or by existing advisory boards or sub-committees of such boards. The process should be as objective as possible. This argues for including participants who are not directly involved with the resource.

  19. Chemical Effects at the Reaction Front in Corroding Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Fortner; A. Jeremy Kropf; James L. Jerden; James C. Cunnane

    2007-01-01

    Performance assessment models of the U. S. repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada suggest that neptunium from spent nuclear fuel is a potentially important dose contributor. A scientific understanding of how the UO matrix of spent nuclear fuel impacts the oxidative dissolution and reductive precipitation of Np is needed to predict the behavior of Np at the fuel surface during aqueous

  20. Public Interaction and Educational Outreach on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. Benson; Y. Riding

    2002-11-14

    In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the nation's first long-term geologic repository site for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than twenty years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. This paper describes public interaction and outreach challenges faced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project in the past and what additional communication strategies may be instituted following the July 2002 approval by the U.S. Congress to develop the site as the nation's first long-term geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The DOE public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations--the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. Because the Department anticipated and later received much public interest in this high-profile project, the agency decided to go beyond regulatory-required public involvement activities and created a broad-based program that implemented far-reaching public interaction and outreach tactics. Over the last two decades, DOE informed, educated, and engaged a myriad of interested local, national, and international parties using various traditional and innovative approaches. The Yucca Mountain Project's intensive public affairs initiatives were instrumental in involving the public, which in turn resulted in thousands of comments on various aspects of the program. These comments were considered in the development of the EIS and weighed in the Secretary of Energy's decision to recommend the site.

  1. A mountain-scale model for characterizing unsaturated flow and transport in fractured tuffs of Yucca Mountain

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Site-Scale Model for the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, High Level Radioactive WasteYucca Mountain, Nevada, the proposed underground repository site for storing high-level radioactive waste.

  2. The parable of Green Mountain: Ascension Island, ecosystem construction

    E-print Network

    Brown, Richard

    it rain, it alone supports a rich vegetation and is known as Green Mountain. The rest, which vary much century, the vegetation of Green Mountain had undergone major changes leading to the `rich vegetation The cloud forest on Green Mountain is a man-made system that has produced a tropical forest without any

  3. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Dickerson; R. M. II Drake

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and

  4. Biogeographical and evolutionary importance of the European high mountain systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Schmitt

    2009-01-01

    Europe is characterised by several high mountain systems dominating major parts of its area, and these structures have strongly influenced the evolution of taxa. For species now restricted to these high mountain systems, characteristic biogeographical patterns of differentiation exist. (i) Many local endemics are found in most of the European high mountain systems especially in the Alps and the more

  5. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly. PMID:559107

  6. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  7. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  8. A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK MARK A. LEWIS1, WILLIAM NELSON2 AND CAILIN XU2 Abstract. A vigor-structured model for mountain pine beetle outbreak dy- namics within for dynamics of beetle aggregation. This involves a stochastic formulation. 1. Introduction Mountain pine

  9. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. 9.220...American Viticultural Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name...viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For...

  10. Threatened and stressed mountain lakes of Europe: Assessment and progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Battarbee; Martin Kernan; Neil Rose

    2009-01-01

    Mountain regions are cold environments that are hostile to human occupation and widely regarded as places where the air is clean, water is pure and ecosystems are pristine. Yet many mountain regions, especially in Europe, are far from pristine. In the 1980s, research showed that mountain lakes were especially vulnerable to acid deposition and sediment core studies at many sites

  11. Hydrologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-04-29

    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  12. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b)...

  13. 27 CFR 9.166 - Diamond Mountain District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diamond Mountain District. 9.166 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.166 Diamond Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is “Diamond Mountain District.” (b)...

  14. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Voegtly

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the

  16. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization.

  17. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  18. Solar fuels: vision and concepts.

    PubMed

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and 'endless' resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involving direct, semi-direct and indirect approaches to produce solar fuels, are overviewed. PMID:22434445

  19. 20th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park, Rocky Mountains,

    E-print Network

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    Mountain National Park in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, indicates modest change during the 2020th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park and Losleben, 2002). This discrepancy between mountain and regional climate trends makes the Front Range

  20. Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

    The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

  1. Moving to the Mountains: Amenity Migration in the Sierra and Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diedra Case; Drake Fowler; Heather Morgan; Sue Schwellenbach; Kurt Culbertson

    Two of the rural regions currently undergoing dramatic landscape change are the Sierra Nevadas, John Muir’s “Range of Light,”\\u000a and the Blue Ridge Mountains, described by John Denver in his song “Take Me Home, Country Roads.” These are mythical landscapes,\\u000a the Sierras of television’s “Bonanza” and the Blue Ridge Mountains of Mount Airy, North Carolina, television’s “Mayberry.”\\u000a These are landscapes

  2. Sultan Mountain mine, western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Musgrave; T. B. Thompson

    1991-01-01

    The Sultan Mountain (SM) mine, in the western San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has produced Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au ores from the mid-1870s until the 1950s. Production was from veins filling faults and fissures along the southern margin of the Silverton caldera. The principal host rock to the veins is a quartz monzonite stock. Five periods of hypogene mineralization have been recognized: (1)

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of earth mined and eaten by mountain gorillas in the Virunga Mountains, Rwanda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Mahaney

    1993-01-01

    The sand fractions of weathered regolith (subsoil) sediments from the flanks of Visoke Volcano in the Virunga Mountains, mined,\\u000a pulverized, and eaten by mountain gorillas, were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-despersive spectrometry\\u000a (EDS) to determine the stimulus of geophagic behavior. The samples show a mix of weathered and volcanic minerals consisting\\u000a primarily of quartz, apatite, analbite, sanidine,

  4. ROCKY MOUNTAIN FOOTHILL LIMBER PINE - JUNIPER WOODLAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM

    Overview: This ecological system occurs in foothill and lower montane zones in the Rocky Mountains from northern Montana south to central Colorado and on escarpments across Wyoming extending out into the western Great Plains. In Colorado, this system is limited to High Plains escarpment in the Ogallala formation of northeastern Colorado and adjacent southeastern Wyoming, where stands are believed to

  5. CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 .

    E-print Network

    .regardlogthls subm1Ual pte.R - -me ...OOD .. pos.lble. TbankYou . . . . City ofMountain View 650-903-6313· Recycled Program Director Global Green USA 2218 Main Street, 2nd Floor Santa Monica, CA 90405 (310) 581-2700 x103 standards before the statewide Standards effective date; require additional energy conservation measures

  6. Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. Krier

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report, ''Characterize Eruptive Processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'', is to present information about natural volcanic systems and the parameters that can be used to model their behavior. This information is used to develop parameter-value distributions appropriate for analysis of the consequences of volcanic eruptions through a repository at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report provides information to four other reports: ''Number of Waste Packages Hit by Igneous Intrusion'', (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170001]); ''Atmospheric Dispersal and Deposition of Tephra from Potential Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170026]); ''Dike/Drift Interactions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170028]); ''Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027], Section 6.5). This report is organized into seven major sections. This section addresses the purpose of this document. Section 2 addresses quality assurance, Section 3 the use of software, Section 4 identifies the requirements that constrain this work, and Section 5 lists assumptions and their rationale. Section 6 presents the details of the scientific analysis and Section 7 summarizes the conclusions reached.

  7. RESULTS FROM THE MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro) was initiated in 1993 as part of the research necessary to support the objectives of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), which was created to address the. requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The main ob...

  8. Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Irrigation enhances precipitation at the mountains downwind Consejo Superior de Investigaciones the different elements of the water cycle. #12;Motivation Atmospheric circulation models predict an irrigation) #12;Motivation Spatial distribution of the water vapour flux from irrigation (kg·m­2 ·year­1). White

  9. Permian depositional history, Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, S.G. (County of Orange, Santa Ana, CA (United States). EMA/Construction Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 4,000 m thick Permian sequence in the Leach Mountains consists of carbonate rock, chert, terrigenous clastic rock and phosphatic rock. These rocks, in ascending order, comprise the Third Fork Fm., Badger Gulch Fm., Trapper Creek Fm., Grandeur Fm., Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue of the Phosphoria Fm., Murdock Mountain Fm. and Gerster Limestone. This sequence disconformably overlain by Triassic strata. Initial Permian deposition, represented by the late Wolfcampian to early Leonardian Third Fork Fm., was on a slope, at a water depth of about 50 m. Subsequently, a shallowing trend occurred during the early Leonardian to late Leonardian with deposition of the Badger Gulch, Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. The Trapper Creek and Grandeur Fms. were deposited on the shelf, in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. The shelf persisted through the remainder of the Permian. In the late leonardian, the Meade Peak Tongue was deposited in very shallow subtidal and intertidal environments. A supratidal environment was re-established in latest Leonardian( ) to early Guadalupian with deposition of the lower Murdock Mountain Fm. The upper Murdock Mountain Fm. was deposited in very shallow subtidal to supratidal environments. Later during the early Guadalupian, intertidal to shallow subtidal deposition of the Gerster Limestone occurred. Angular phosphatic pebbles that were derived from phosphatic strata at the top of the Gerster Limestone are contained in the Triassic basal conglomerate. These pebbles indicate that the last Permian event was probably emergence and erosion of the top of the Gerster Limestone.

  10. Alluvial Fan, Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Alluvial Fan is a fan-shaped area of disturbance in Rocky Mountain National Park. It was created on July 15, 1982, when the earthen Lawn Lake Dam above the area gave way, flooding the Park and nearby town of Estes Park with more than 200 million gallons of water. Enormous boulders were displaced...

  11. Optical turbulence measurements at a mountain ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D. Eaton; Judith E. Miller; Sheldon D. Stokes; Kenneth H. Underwood

    2000-01-01

    The optical turbulence conditions at a mountain ridge (North Oscura Peak, White Sands Missile Range, NM) were determined from observations of fine wire sensors and a sodar (sonic detection and ranging). Both instruments provided the temperature structure parameter (C2T) from which the refractive index structure parameter (C2n) was calculated using local measurements of temperature and pressure. The fine wire measurements

  12. Population Dynamics and Harvest Potential of Mountain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA HAMEL; STEEVE D. COTE; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET

    The understanding of population dynamics is a central issue for managing large mammals. Modeling has allowed population ecologists to increase their knowledge about complex systems and better predict population responses to diverse perturbations. Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) appear sensitive to harvest, but the relative influence of survival and reproductive rates on their population dynamics are not well understood. Using longitudinal

  13. Technical Editor's Checklist Rocky Mountain Research Station

    E-print Network

    Technical Editor's Checklist Rocky Mountain Research Station General: Peer, biometrics, and potential-audience reviews are adequate. Author is consulted regarding audience and goals of the document Office Style Manual (2000). Scientific names follow common names of species; the use or nonuse

  14. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  15. DRAINAGE DEVELOPMENT, SOUTHERN SACRAMENTO MOUNTAINS, NEW MEXICO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT L. BATES

    Field mapping some years ago in the Surveyors Canyon area of the southern Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, revealed an unusually well-developed set of barbed tributaries. Later visits to adjoining areas, and a study of topographic maps and air photographs, have disclosed many other evidences of stream capture and diversion. Several of these features are described in this paper, and sugges-

  16. THE BATS OF THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GARY A. HEIDT

    A survey was conducted from June, 1982 through January, 1989 to determine the occurrence of bat species in the Ouachita Mountain region of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma, with emphasis on censusing lands managed by the USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest. Seven genera and 13 species of bats in the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae were captured. Species represented included:

  17. Yucca Mountain reviews a waste of time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wamsted

    1994-01-01

    The author of this article contends that two proposed reviews of Yucca Mountain are a waste of time. Further reviews will not eliminate opposition. What is needed is real action on the issue, such as studying the safety and suitability of the proposed waste site.

  18. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.

  19. Geology Fieldnotes: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In addition to offering visitor information, photographs, and links, this site traces the geologic history of this park to its beginnings as sedimentary rocks 1-2 billion years ago (Precambrian). It covers episodes of mountain building and erosion, the presence of dinosaurs and volcanoes, and glaciation, ending with the park's present geological state.

  20. GREEN MOUNTAIN BATTALION ROTC ALUMNI ASSOCIATION

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    support of our Cadets. The Green Mountain Battalion is all about producing men and women as Leaders, an annual combat endurance challenge hosted by the Norwich University Semper Fi Society. The Corps finished for Women in Boston. This event resulted in an outstanding team-building event; all attendees continue

  1. Permian insect wing from antarctic sentinel mountains.

    PubMed

    Tasch, P; Riek, E F

    1969-06-27

    A homopterous insect wing was found in micaceous graywacke from the Polarstar Formation, Sentinel Mountains. The unusual venation is reminiscent of family Stenoviciidae known from the Permian and Triassic of Eastern Australia and elsewhere. This first documented account of Paleozoic insects in Antarctica bears on drift questions. PMID:17748532

  2. Macroinvertebrate drift in a Rocky Mountain stream

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David Allan

    1987-01-01

    An extensive series of drift collections from a Rocky Mountain stream was used to investigate quantitative patterns in the taxonomic composition of drift throughout spring, summer and fall for 1975–1978. Drift was estimated by drift rate, the number of organisms drifting past a point per 24 h; and by drift density, the numbers of organisms collected per 100 m3 of

  3. Yucca Mountain Project bibliography, 1988--1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains information on the Yucca Mountain Project that was added to the Department of Energy`s Energy Data Base from January 1988 through December 1989. This supplement also includes a new section which provides information about publications on the Energy Data Base that were not sponsored by the project but have some relevance to it. The bibliography is categorized

  4. Mapping Chaparral in the Santa Monica Mountains Using Multiple Spectral Mixture Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Roberts, D. A.; Gardner, M.; Church, R.; Ustin, S.; Scheer, G.

    1996-01-01

    California chaparral is one of the most important natural vegetation communities in Southern California, representing a significant source of species diversity and, through a high susceptibility to fire, playing a major role in ecosystem dynamics. Due to steep topographic gradients, harsh edaphic conditions and variable fire histories, chaparral typically forms a complex mosaic of different species dominants and age classes, each with unique successional responses to fire and canopy characteristics (e.g. moisture content, biomass, fuel load) that modify fire susceptibility. The high human cost of fire and intimate mixing along the urban interface combine to modify the natural fire regime as well as provide additional impetus for a better understanding of how to predict fire and its management. Management problems have been further magnified by nearly seventy years of fire suppression and drought related die-back over the last few years resulting in a large accumulation of highly combustible fuels. Chaparral communities in the Santa Monica Mountains exemplify many of the management challenges associated with fire and biodiversity. A study was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains to investigate the use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for providing improved maps of chaparral coupled with direct estimates of canopy attributes (e.g. biomass, leaf area, fuel load). The Santa Monica Mountains are an east-west trending range located approximately 75 kilometers north of Los Angeles extending westward into Ventura County. Within the Santa Monica Mountains a diverse number of ecosystems are located, including four distinct types of chaparral, wetlands, riparian habitats, woodlands, and coastal sage scrub. In this study we focus on mapping three types of chaparral, oak woodlands and grasslands. Chaparral mapped included coastal sage scrub, chamise chaparral and mixed chaparral that consisted predominantly of two species of Ceanothus.

  5. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  6. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...

  7. A Compositional Analysis of Io's Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2002-09-01

    Ionian mountains are often about 100 km across with altitudes of several kilometers (Carr et al., 1998). This fact stands in contrast to the sulfur and sulfur dioxide covered surface that dominates Io. Clow and Carr (1980) have shown that mountainous topography of this magnitude on Io can not be support by pure sulfur materials. This fact, along with high temperature volcanism, suggests that there are silicate rich materials near the surface of Io. In this study, I am analyzing Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) and Solid State Imager (SSI) data of Tvashtar Montes, Tohil Mons, and the mountains by Gishbar Patera. Common to all three of these mountain areas are thermal emissions (Lopes, 2002), concentrations of sulfur dioxide, and a 3.15 micrometer non-sulfur dioxide absorption feature. The 3.15 micrometer absorption feature, first found by Smythe et al. (2002), has been detected on the plateau regions of Tvashtar Montes and the mountains by Gishbar Patera. It has also been found on a massif at Tohil Mons. Studies are now being conducted to compare the Io spectra with the libraries of silicate (particularly ultra-mafic) minerals and rocks. References: Clow and Carr (1980) Icarus, 44, 729-733. Carr et al.(1998) Icarus, 135, 146-165. Lopes (2002) Eos Trans. AGU, 83(19), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract P22A-06. Smythe et al. (2002) Eos Trans. AGU, 83(19), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract P22A-10. I would like to thankfully acknowledge the University of Hawaii Io co-registration subcontract which supports this research.

  8. Particle friction angles in steep mountain channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prancevic, Jeff P.; Lamb, Michael P.

    2015-02-01

    Sediment transport rates in steep mountain channels are typically an order of magnitude lower than predicted by models developed for lowland rivers. One hypothesis for this observation is that particles are more stable in mountain channels due to particle-particle interlocking or bridging across the channel width. This hypothesis has yet to be tested, however, because we lack direct measurements of particle friction angles in steep mountain channels. Here we address this data gap by directly measuring the minimum force required to dislodge sediment (pebbles to boulders) and the sediment weight in mountain channels using a handheld force gauge. At eight sites in California, with reach-averaged bed angles ranging from 0.5° to 23° and channel widths ranging from 2 m to 16 m, we show that friction angles in natural streams average 68° and are 16° larger than those typically measured in laboratory experiments, which is likely due to particle interlocking and burial. Results also show that larger grains are disproportionately more stable than predicted by existing models and that grains organized into steps are twice as stable as grains outside of steps. However, the mean particle friction angle does not vary systematically with bed slope. These results do not support systematic increases in friction angle in steeper and narrower channels to explain the observed low sediment transport rates in mountain channels. Instead, the spatial pattern and grain-size dependence of particle friction angles may indirectly lower transport rates in steep, narrow channels by stabilizing large clasts and channel-spanning steps, which act as momentum sinks due to form drag.

  9. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  10. Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Fox; R. Roberts

    1962-01-01

    A comparison is drawn between the theoretical efficiencies of heat engines and fuel cells in the conversion of chemical to electrical energy. The electrochemical principles governing the operation of fuel cells are discussed. Short descriptions, including performance curves, are given of a few selected fuel-cell types including low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature cells, and redox and regenerative cells. An example is

  11. Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

  12. California's Coastal Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Coastal Commission

    This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

  13. Fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, A.A.; Vardi, J.

    1989-03-07

    A method for reducing and/or preventing fouling in a multiport, electronically controlled fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is described, the method comprising delivering to the fuel injection system a fuel composition comprising: gasoline; an antifouling agent; and an effective amount of a demulsifier selected from the group consisting of: i. a fatty acid aklylamine reaction product; ii. a solution of oxyalkylated alkylphenol formaldehyde resins and polyglycols; and iii. mixtures of i and ii. The patent also describes a fuel composition for reducing and/or preventing fouling in a multiport, electronically controlled fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine.

  14. Energy and resource consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  15. Mountain wave-induced turbulence: Elevated turbulence zones over a double mountain ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Lukas; Grubiši?, Vanda; Serafin, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In their seminal 1974 paper on "Lower Turbulent Zones Associated with Mountain Lee Waves", P. F. Lester and W. A. Fingerhut attempted to characterize regions of low-level turbulence in the lee of mountain ranges, using in situ measurements by research aircraft. Their "Lower Turbulent Zones" (LTZs), associated with large-amplitude mountain waves and ensuing atmospheric rotors, encompass the turbulent flow on the lee side of an obstacle that reaches all the way to the ground. This work is based on aircraft measurements collected during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX, Sierra Nevada, California, 2006) that was focused on the investigation of the coupled mountain-wave, rotor, and boundary-layer system. The analysis of airflow during several T-REX Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) reveals a variety of mountain-flow scenarios, underlining the influence of the secondary orographic obstacle (the White and Inyo Mountains east of the Sierra Nevada) on the formation of wave-induced turbulence zones. In the present contribution, we focus on a scenario characterized by an inversion-capped valley atmosphere documented during T-REX IOPs 1 and 2. The valley inversion imposes an additional positive buoyancy force on the downslope flow in the lee of the primary ridge and prevents it from penetrating deep into the valley. Consequently, the flow separates higher up along the lee slope, forming an elevated turbulence zone that resides above the "virtual valley floor", represented by the inversion. The elevated turbulence zone shares some characteristics of the well-known low-level turbulence zone such as turbulence intensity being highest below the ascending part of the lee wave. However, clear indication of flow reversal at the bottom of the turbulent region, suggestive of a rotor circulation, is missing. For sufficiently short wavelength of the lee wave, multiple wave crests can fit between the primary and secondary mountain ridge and can give rise to several elevated patches of turbulence above the virtual valley floor.

  16. The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, C.; Delaloye, R.; Roer, I. H.; Hilbich, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Kenner, R.; Kotlarski, S.; Lambiel, C.; Marmy, A.; Müller, J.; Noetzli, J.; Phillips, M.; Rajczak, J.; Salzmann, N.; Schaepman, M. E.; Schar, C.; Staub, B.; Völksch, I.

    2013-12-01

    Permafrost, defined as lithospheric material whose temperature remains below 0 °C for two or more consecutive years, occurs in many high-mountain regions of the European Alps. Mountain permafrost in the European Alps is characterised by temperatures only a few degrees below zero and is therefore particularly sensitive to projected climate changes in the 21st century. To evaluate the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climatic changes and to assess its future evolution, not only climatic variables such as air temperature, radiation and timing and duration of snow cover have to be considered, but also subsurface characteristics such as ground temperature, ice content, porosity or hydraulic properties. In Switzerland, permafrost monitoring started only 1-2 decades ago but currently comprises a large set of meteorological, geophysical, kinematic and ground thermal parameters at a large variety of field sites. Within a large integrating national project (The evolution of mountain permafrost in Switzerland: TEMPS) these data sets are jointly analysed for the first time by combining observations with model simulations using a dynamic process-oriented soil model capable of addressing frozen terrain. In combination with results from Regional Climate Model ensembles, the project TEMPS aims to create plausible evolution scenarios of mountain permafrost at specific sites and will investigate the interactions between atmosphere and permafrost focusing on the evolution of ground temperature, ice content and related degradation and creep processes. This contribution will show first results concerning (a) new observation techniques in high-mountain permafrost, including thermal, geophysical and kinematic methods, (b) sensitivity studies with the soil model COUP regarding the impact of temperature and precipitation anomalies on different permafrost landforms and (c) strategies for downscaling and debiasing RCM output data for permafrost analysis on the station scale at high altitudes. The results illustrate the difficulties of scale mismatch between spatial models and point observations, as well as the problem of short time series in a climate context, but they highlight also the large potential of bringing together the monitoring and modelling communities, as both can provide key data for each other in the context of anticipated impacts of climate change. First results regarding the permafrost evolution in the Swiss Alps indicate several monitoring stations with permafrost temperatures close to the melting point, with corresponding phase changes observable with e.g. geophysical methods. Simulations suggest increasing air and ground temperatures until the end of the century with a corresponding reduction in snow cover, which does, however, not offset a general warming trend of permafrost temperatures in the simulation models. Nevertheless, the high variability of surface and subsurface materials in the permafrost regions of the European Alps will strongly modulate any general warming trend which might be visible within the coming decades.

  17. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992.

  18. Security Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dreveskracht, Charles L.

    Northeastern State University at Tahlequah introduces security personnel to a vast collection of recourses appropriate for almost any situation. Among their valuable list of legal and expert guidelines are suggestions for working with people with special needs, fire, airport security, terrorism, floods, loss prevention, mountain rescue, safety, and workplace violence. The advice on searching and monitoring is particularly tactful yet thorough. This comprehensive and diverse collection would enable anyone to protect a home, office space, or larger institution, and will even improve the skills of security personnel with years of experience.

  19. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  20. Oxygen isotopes and trace elements in the Tiva Canyon Tuff, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.D.; Kyser, T.K.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for an underground repository for high-level radioactive waste. Because Yucca Mountain is located in a resource-rich geologic setting, one aspect of the site characterization studies is an evaluation of the resource potential at Yucca Mountain. The Tiva Canyon Tuff (TCT) is a widespread felsic ash-flow sheet that is well exposed in the Yucca Mountain area. Samples of the upper part of the TCT were selected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposits within the Miocene volcanic section. These samples of the upper cliff and caprock subunits have been analyzed for oxygen isotopes and a large suite of elements. Oxygen isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 18}O) of the TCT are typical of felsic igneous rocks but range from 6.9 to 11.8 permil, indicating some post-depositional alteration. There is no evidence of the low {delta}{sup 18}O values (less than 6 permil) that are typical of epithermal precious-metal deposits in the region. The variation in oxygen isotope ratios is probably the result of deuteric alteration during late-stage crystallization of silica and low-temperature hydration of glassy horizons; these processes are also recorded by the chemical compositions of the rocks. However, most elemental contents in the TCT reflect igneous processes, and the effects of alteration are observed only in some of the more mobile elements. These studies indicate that the TCT at Yucca Mountain has not been affected by large-scale meteoric-water hydrothermal circulation. The chemical compositions of the TCT, especially the low concentrations of most trace elements including typical pathfinder elements, show no evidence for epithermal metal deposits. Together, these data indicate that the potential for economic mineralization in this part of the volcanic section at Yucca Mountain is small.

  1. Fossil Fuels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    How much does the United States depend on fossil fuels? This web page, part of a site on the future of energy, introduces students to fossil fuels as an energy source. Here students read about the uses, benefits, and limitations of fossil fuels. There is also information on how these fuels are distributed geographically and how they affect the U.S. economy through supply and demand. Thought-provoking questions afford students opportunities to reflect on what they've read. Articles about clean coal, the national energy policy, and the formation of fossil fuels, together with a fossil fuels fact sheet, are accessible from a sidebar. In addition, five PBS NewsHour links to energy-related stories are included.

  2. Evaluating wildland fire danger and prioritizing vegetation and fuels treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Robert E. Keane; Kevin M. James; R. Brion Salter

    2007-01-01

    We present a decision support application that evaluates danger of severe wildland fire and prioritizes subwatersheds for vegetation and fuels treatment. We demonstrate the use of the system with an example from the Rocky Mountain region in the State of Utah; a planning area of 4.8millionha encompassing 575 subwatersheds. In a logic model, we evaluate fire danger as a function

  3. Site Specific Analyses of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Accident

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Biwer; S. Y. Chen

    2003-01-01

    The number of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments is expected to increase significantly during the time period that the United States' inventory of SNF is sent to a final disposal site. Prior work estimated that the highest accident risks of a SNF shipping campaign to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain were in the corridor states, such as Illinois.

  4. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) a P/sub 2/S/sub 5/-terpene reaction product which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  5. Fuel Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fox; R. Roberts

    1961-01-01

    A comparison is drawn between the theoretical efficiencies of heat-engines and fuel-cells in the conversion of chemical to electrical energy. The electrochemical principles governing the operation of fuel-cells are discussed. Short descriptions, including performance curves, are given of a few selected fuel-cell types including low, intermediate, and high temperature cells, and redox and regenerative cells. An example is given of

  6. Growing Mountain Ranges and Quenched River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.

    2006-12-01

    River networks result from the competing effects of tectonic uplift and erosion. Although the widely accepted paradigm in geomorphology is that large scale river networks result from climate-controlled erosion into uplifted topography, it has never been explained why the universal scaling properties of river networks (e.g. Hack's law) are independent of both tectonics and climate. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that the scaling properties of river networks are established on the lowland, alluvial margins of incipient uplifts, and are then quenched into the erosion zone as the mountain belts widen with time. The geometry of river networks is therefore independent of erosion processes, and simply reflects the downward coalescence of alluvial rivers on un-dissected surfaces outside of mountain belts.

  7. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  8. Introduction to the Lithosphere: Mountain Building

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Pidwirny

    2000-09-07

    This site contains information about the general model geologists have developed to explain how most mountain ranges form. This model suggests that mountain building involves three stages, which are accumulation of sediments, an orogenic period of rock deformation and crustal uplift, and a period of crustal uplift caused by isostatic rebound and block-faulting. The later two stages of this model involve tectonic convergence of crustal plates, which provides the compressional and tensional stresses that produce rock deformation, uplift, and faulting. In addition, the subduction of one oceanic plate under another creates friction that melts rock into magma. This magma then migrates upward through the crust forming plutons and volcanoes. Block diagrams and maps along with the text help illustrate these ideas. Throughout the site there are many active links to a glossary to define unknown words.

  9. Fusulinid biostratigraphy of Bird Spring Formation in Spring Mountains near Mountain Springs Pass, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, M.T.; Webster, G.D.

    1987-05-01

    Fusulinids from a 955.16 m thick section of Chesterian into Wolfcampian rocks of the Indian Springs and Bird Spring formations exposed near Mountain Springs Pass represent the biozones of Millerella to Pseudoschwagerina. Species of Millerella, Plectofusulina, Staffella, Schubertina, Pseudostaffella, Profusulinella, Fusulinella, Beedeina, Oketaella, Pseudofusulina, Triticites, Schwagerina, Eoparafusulina, and Cuniculinella were described. One new species of Millerella and three new species of Tricities were named. The Mountain Springs section can be correlated intraregionally with other sections in Clark County using similar cherty limestones or sandstone-dominated strata in association with biozones recognized in the southern Great Basin. The thickening of strata from the Mountain Springs section to the Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon sections demonstrated by this method reflects each section's position to the northeast-trending Las Vegas-Wasatch hinge line between thin, shallow shelf sediments and thicker sediments to the west after palinspastic reconstruction. The large diversity of fusulinid species in the Mountain Springs section relative to Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon suggests that a fusulinid diversity index may be useful in correlating similar paleoenvironments. Fusulinid biozones of the Mountain Springs section can also be correlated regionally with fusulinid subbiozones A through G of the Shasta Lake area in northern California and with fusulinid biozones of the Mid-Continent based on similar species and occurrences.

  10. Estimates of cloud water deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program sites in the Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, Ralph E; Isil, Selma S; Lavery, Thomas F; Rogers, Christopher M; Mohnen, Volker A

    2003-03-01

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species, and estimates of total deposition of sulfur and nitrogen at these sites. Other cloud studies in the Appalachians and their comparison to MADPro are also summarized. Whiteface Mountain exhibited the lowest mean and median concentrations of sulfur and nitrogen ions in cloud water, while Clingman's Dome exhibited the highest mean and median concentrations. This geographic gradient is partly an effect of the different meteorological conditions experienced at northern versus southern sites in addition to the difference in pollution content of air masses reaching the sites. All sites measured seasonal cloud water deposition rates of SO4(2-) greater than 50 kg/ha and NO3(-) rates of greater than 25 kg/ha. These high-elevation sites experienced additional deposition loading of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) on the order of 6-20 times greater compared with lower elevation Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) sites. Approximately 80-90% of this extra loading is from cloud deposition. PMID:12661689

  11. Dialogs on the Yucca Mountain controversy. Special report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.; Szymanski, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The recent, 1992, report prepared by the Panel on Coupled Hydrologic/Tectonic/Hydrothermal Systems at Yucca Mountain for the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, entitled Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise? has generated critical reviews by Somerville et al. (1992) and by Archambeau (1992). These reviews were submitted as reports to the Nuclear Waste Project Office, State of Nevada by Technology and Resource Assessment Corporation under Contract No. 92/94.0004. A copy of the review report by C. B. Archambeau was also sent to Dr. Frank Press, President of the National Academy of Sciences, along with a cover letter from Dr. Archambeau expressing his concerns with the NRC report and his suggestion that the Academy President consider a re-evaluation of the issues covered by the NRC report. Dr. Press responded in a letter to Dr. Archambeau in February of this year which stated that, based on his staff recommendations and a review report by Dr. J. F. Evernden of the United States Geological Survey, he declined to initiate any further investigations and that, in his view, the NRC report was a valid scientific evaluation which was corroborated by Evernden`s report. He also enclosed, with his letter, a copy of the report he received from his staff. In March of this year Dr. Archambeau replied to the letter and NRC staff report sent by Dr. Press with a detailed point-by-point rebuttal of the NRC staff report to Press. Also, in March, a critical review of Dr. Evernden`s report by M. Somerville was submitted to the Nuclear Waste Project Office of the State of Nevada and this report, along with the earlier review of the NRC report by Somerville et al., was included as attachments to the letter sent to Dr. Press.

  12. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  13. Future Fuels from Forests Institute Topics

    E-print Network

    Future Fuels from Forests Institute Topics: Teachers will investigate the complex and inter of forest based ethanol production: · Forest productivity · Biodiversity & conservation biology conversion to ethanol ·MEECS Energy ResourcesMEECS Energy Resources unit ·Project Learning Tree's Forests

  14. Predicting the Future at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. Wilson

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes a climate-prediction model funded by the DOE for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. Several articles in the open literature attest to the effects of the Global Ocean Conveyor upon paleoclimate, specifically entrance and exit from the ice age. The data shows that these millennial-scale effects are duplicated on the microscale of years to decades. This work also identifies how man may have influenced the Conveyor, affecting global cooling and warming for 2,000 years.

  15. Mountains on Titan observed by Cassini Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Radebaugh; Ralph D. Lorenz; Randolph L. Kirk; Jonathan I. Lunine; Ellen R. Stofan; Rosaly M. C. Lopes; Stephen D. Wall

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar mapper has observed elevated blocks and ridge-forming block chains on Saturn's moon Titan demonstrating high topography we term “mountains.” Summit flanks measured from the T3 (February 2005) and T8 (October 2005) flybys have a mean maximum slope of 37° and total elevations up to 1930 m as derived from a shape-from-shading model corrected for the probable

  16. DOE`s Yucca Mountain studies

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies.

  17. Evaluating cumulative ascent: Mountain biking meets Mandelbrot

    E-print Network

    D. C. Rapaport

    2011-03-10

    The problem of determining total distance ascended during a mountain bike trip is addressed. Altitude measurements are obtained from GPS receivers utilizing both GPS-based and barometric altitude data, with data averaging used to reduce fluctuations. The estimation process is sensitive to the degree of averaging, and is related to the well-known question of determining coastline length. Barometric-based measurements prove more reliable, due to their insensitivity to GPS altitude fluctuations.

  18. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF MOUNTAIN PLOVERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN J. MILLF; FRITZ L. KNOPF; Fort Collins

    Growth and survival rates of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius raontanus) were monitored using radiotelemetry from hatching until birds left the breeding grounds on the Pawnee National Grassland, Weld County, Colorado. Chick weights increased logarith- mically (r = 0.961) and tarsus length linearly (r = 0.948) with age. Using the average fiedging weight of 69.8 g and an age\\/weight regression we predicted

  19. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  20. Geochronology in the San Juan Mountains (Advanced)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Semken

    This is a mathematically more advanced version of the Ages of Rocks and the Earth activity that introduces students to the mathematics of radiometric dating. Students derive the decay equation for the rubidium-strontium isotopic system, then apply it to date rock samples from the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado and a meteorite assumed to be approximately coeval with the Earth. Click here to view the full activity on the Kéyah Math Project website.

  1. Hydrogen quality from decarbonized fossil fuels to fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Besancon; Vladimir Hasanov; Raphaëlle Imbault-Lastapis; Robert Benesch; Maria Barrio; Mona J. Mølnvik

    2009-01-01

    Increased focus on curbing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and a limited and unstable supply of fossil fuel resources make diversification of energy resources a priority. Hydrogen has emerged as a promising energy vector for solving these issues. However, there are numerous challenges related to production, distribution and end use of hydrogen. Of particular importance is the link between hydrogen purity

  2. Exploring groundwater processes in Rocky Mountain headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Yassin, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    More than one-sixth of the Earth's human population relies on freshwater originating in mountain headwaters, which is understood to be generated largely from snowpacks that melt throughout the spring and summer. Annual hydrographs in these regions are characterized by large peaks occurring in the spring, followed by slow recession towards winter baseflow conditions. However, atmospheric warming trends are found to coincide with earlier periods of snowmelt, leading to increased flows in spring and decreased flows in summer. This decreased ability of our 'water towers' to store snow late into the summer suggests that other mechanisms of storage and release may become more important in sustaining baseflows. In particular, subsurface processes leading to late summer and winter flow will become increasingly important earlier on, but are as yet poorly understood. By utilising historical data to inform a better understanding of late-season subsurface processes, we will be better prepared to predict how these mountains will temporarily store and release groundwater in a warmer climate. Here, we analyse long-term data sets from a small (Marmot Creek, Alberta ~10 km2) and a large (Bow River at Banff, Alberta ~1000 km2) basinwithin the Canadian Rocky Mountains, comparing observations with model outputs, to investigate late-season hydrological responses, and particularly the role of groundwater as a temporary storage mechanism.

  3. Terrain forcing and thermal winds in a mountain pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Daniels, M. H.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    As the European wind market matures, energy prospectors are increasingly looking to more challenging terrain and conditions, for example those found in the mountains and passes of the Alps. These locations present very different technical challenges to those found in the flatter plains of Northern Europe, the US midwest or offshore. There is little public data available on wind regimes in these areas, and what information there is is not often examined in conjunction with other data for the same area. Consequently it is difficult to estimate the effect of terrain or surface cover on the wind resource. We present selected data collected in a mountain pass during the winter of 2009 / 2010. Data were collected on site at 36, 54 and 77m above ground using sonic anemometers, and at the surface using small portable weather stations. Preliminary analysis of data from the sonic anemometers shows that flow in the pass is often low shear compared to an unconstrained boundary layer, although the log law using mean velocities does fit around half of the data that was collected. However, the applicability of the log law is questionable as calculated roughness lengths are of a similar order of magnitude to the measurement height. Further analysis of the sonic anemometer data does not suggest an equilibrium flux layer. Flow is generally along the major axis of the pass, indicating that the terrain acted to channel flow, compared to synoptic conditions. Larger-scale data from numerical weather prediction models is also available. These data are analysed in conjunction with simulations using the regional weather prediction model, ARPS, to show both the impact of terrain and surface heat fluxes on the wind profiles at different points in the pass. We use our data and results to show the potential effects on flow characteristics at typical wind turbine disk heights in the pass. We also suggest how future wind resource measurement and modeling campaigns in similar locations might be modified to help identify thermal and terrain effects on the wind resources.

  4. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick (Bromley, GB)

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  5. Alternative fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rezendes

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in reviewing programs in Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand to encourage the use of alternative fuels, GAO found that each country was able, to some extent, to get motorists to use alternative fuels, although not without problems and setbacks. GAO also found remarkable consistency in the experiences and lessons reported. GAO testified that the experiences of

  6. Glacier changes in Chinese Altay Mountains during the last ~50 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqin; Li, Huilin; Wang, Feiteng

    2014-05-01

    Mountain glaciers are not only indicator of climate change, but also important water resources for oases and for the sustainable development of the ecological environment, industry and agriculture. However, due to climate warming, most of glaciers are in a state of rapid retreating. Altay Mountains, located in the border of China, Russia and Mongolia, foster the highest latitude glaciated region in China, providing important water resources for local economic development and people living. However, research on glacier change is limited in the Altay Mountains. Taking this into account, based on topographic maps in 1959, ASTER remote sensing data in 2008 and digital elevation models (DEMs), glacier changes in the Altay Mountains including glacier area, length, thickness and volume changes were analyzed in the support of 3S technology. Results showed that the total area and number of 226 glaciers investigated have reduced by 32.5% and 27.9% from 1959 to 2008. The average area reduction rate of glaciers with size <1 km2 and in 1-5 km2 is -66.7% and 27.9%, respectively. The reduction rate is more than 70% for the glaciers with size less than 0.5 km2. Glaciers have retreated by 253 m with the reduction rate of 18.3%. Furthermore, for 58 selected glaciers in the Youyi Area, the mean ice elevation decrease by 24.12 m with the volume loss of 2.649 km3, corresponding to the annual glacier runoff of 4.88×106 m3 during 1959-2008. Analysis indicated that the relative area reductions of small glaciers were usually higher than those of large ones, which exhibited larger absolute loss, indicating that the small glaciers were more sensitive to climate change than large ones. Glacier changes exhibited obvious spatial differences, indicating that the reduction rate of glaciers in the south slope of the Youyi Area was larger than in the north.

  7. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior in salvage logged and untreated lodgepole pine forests

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    in north-central Colorado that had experienced >70% overstory mortality from mountain pine beetles. We usedThe effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior 14 July 2012 Accepted 17 July 2012 Keywords: Mountain pine beetle Salvage logging Fire behavior Rocky

  8. Geothermal resources in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sonderegger, J.L.; Schmidt, F.A.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01

    A list of persons and groups doing geothermal research in Montana is presented. A revised list of springs and wells with their flow and temperature values is shown with the heat value, in billions of British Thermal Units (Btu's) per year, for reference temperatures related to low temperature uses. The Boulder and Hunters springs are the foremost hot spring resources, while the Madison Limestone related springs around the Little Rocky Mountains, and Brooks spring north of Lewistown provide the major low temperature resources capable of large development utilizing heat pump technology. The water chemistry of almost all springs is suitable for direct application. A discussion of drilling activities around spring sites and the relative success (or lack thereof) provides some factors to consider. In an attempt to delineate areas with ground-water temperatures suitable for heat pump use, a 10/sup 0/C (50/sup 0/F) temperature cutoff was used. Urban area data is suspect; inadequate pumping time may yield spuriously warm temperatures.

  9. Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Swanson

    This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

  10. Aqueous Dissolution of Urania-Thoria Nuclear Fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Demkowicz; James L. Jr. Jerden; James C. Cunnane; Noriko Shibuya; Ronald Baney; James Tulenko

    2004-01-01

    The aqueous dissolution of irradiated and unirradiated uranium-thorium dioxide, (U,Th)Oâ, fuel pellets in Yucca Mountain well water has been investigated. Whole and crushed pellets were reacted at 25 and 90 deg. C for periods of up to 195 days. The fuel dissolution was measured by analyzing the concentrations of soluble uranium, thorium, and important fission products (¹³⁷Cs, ⁹⁹Tc, ²³⁷Np, ²³⁹Pu,

  11. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society - www.cancer.org Cancer Care - www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute - www.cancer.gov

  12. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute - www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  13. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation - www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation - www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  14. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. - www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  15. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons - www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments_and_screenings/ostomy United Ostomy ...

  16. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  17. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organization is a good resource for information on psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology - www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of Arthritis ...

  18. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America - www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  19. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Al-Anon/Alateen - www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  20. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : American Epilepsy Society - www.aesnet.org Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA) - www.efa.org National Institute of ...