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1

Woody fuel dimensions within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Research/resources management report  

SciTech Connect

Diameters and bulk density were examined for downed wood in major forest types found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. One-hour fuel (0 - 7 mm) diameters were smallest in spruce-fir and hemlock forests, intermediate in yellow pine forests, and largest in hardwood forests. Diameters for 10 hour (7 - 25 mm) and 100 hour (25 - 76 mm) fuels were not significantly different between forest types. Bulk density decreased with a decrease in bark coverage.

Harmon, M.E.; Hennessy, T.; Silsbee, D.G.

1980-01-01

2

The Rocky Mountain Institute: Home Resource Efficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Institute offers an informational Web site entitled Home Resource Efficiency. Visitors can learn several tips and tricks on how to keep their home as energy efficient as possible with link titles such as Energy Efficiency: First Things First; Appliances and Lighting; Home Cooling; Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Savings Measures; Household Water Efficiency; Resource-Efficient New Home Construction; Environmentally Friendly Building Materials; Renewable Energy: Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro; Indoor Air Quality; and Recycling. Each page contains some basic information about the subject, what we can do to help with energy efficiency, and additional helpful links.

3

Coalbed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet, provided by the US Geological Survey, summarizes the geology and production potential of sedimentary provinces that contain extensive coal deposits and significant coalbed methane gas resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The sheet supplies information about what coalbed methane is, where it occurs, how it is recovered and how geologists assess its distribution and quality. A map of resources within the Rocky Mountain region is provided with the text.

Survey, National A.

4

Hazardous Fuel Reduction in the Blue Mountains: Public Attitudes and Opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource managers in the Blue Mountains region of eastern Oregon and Washington are utilizing prescribed fire and mechanized thinning treatments to reduce hazardous fuel loads and restore forest health. This paper uses panel data from a mail survey administered to the same individuals in 1996 and 2000 to mea- sure change in public attitudes and opinions about fire management programs.

Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler

2003-01-01

5

High resource valuation fuels \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opponent asymmetries often determine the probability of winning a fight in agonistic situations. In many animal systems, the asymmetries that drive the dynamics and outcome of male--male contests are related to resource holding potential (RHP) or territory ownership. However, recent studies have shown that this is not the case among females and suggest that resource valuation may be more important

Damian O. Elias; Carlos A. Botero; Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Andrew C. Mason; Michael M. Kasumovic

2010-01-01

6

The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (;)

2004-07-01

7

Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?  

PubMed

Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

2013-02-01

8

MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary, M.; Hale, William, N.

1984-01-01

9

Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

Ewert, Alan

10

Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources Martin Beniston a,  

E-print Network

as well as a local resource in terms of fresh- water supply, hydropower generation, or irrigationEditorial Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources Martin Beniston a a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Available online xxxx Keywords: Mountains Climate change Cryosphere Water

Stoffel, Markus

11

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

12

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension is Biodiesel as Attractive Is Biodiesel? Biodiesel is a renewable fuel alternative to standard on-road diesel. Biodiesel is made from-three percent of biodiesel produced in the United States comes from soybean oil. The remaining 27% is produced

13

A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have strong restoration opportunities: Big Thompson River West, Cache la Poudre South, Colorado River North, and Onahu Creek. Ten watersheds were found to have substantial near-term issues: Aspen Brook, Big Thompson River West, Black Canyon Creek, Cabin Creek, Cache la Poudre South, Fall River, Hague Creek, La Poudre Pass Creek, North Fork Big Thompson (East), and Colorado River North.

Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

2010-01-01

14

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both

Jun Li; Man-Sung Yim; David McNelis; Steven Piet

2007-01-01

15

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy resources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

Peterson, J.A.; Frisken, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A.; Munts, S.R.

1988-01-01

16

Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity 8.3.1.9.2.1.5) under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoover, D.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1991-12-31

17

Tradeoffs Among Resource, Social, and Managerial Conditions on Mountain Summits of the Northern Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the relative importance of indicators and standards of quality at three mountain summits in the Northern Forest. The three summits ranged from low to high levels of use, development, and management. Computer-generated photographs were used to present a range of resource, social, and managerial conditions in a stated choice survey. Results suggest that visitors prefer minimal resource

Carena J. van Riper; Robert E. Manning; Christopher A. Monz; Kelly A. Goonan

2011-01-01

18

Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources Martin Beniston a,  

E-print Network

component as well as a local resource in terms of fresh- water supply, hydropower generation, or irrigationEditorial Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources Martin Beniston a Cryosphere Water: Agriculture Hydropower As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so

Stoffel, Markus

19

Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

1989-01-01

20

Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1993-02-01

21

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1992-01-01

22

Mineral resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted investigations to appraise the identified resources and to assess the potential for undiscovered resources of the Mormon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, southeastern Nevada. There are no identified resources in or near the study area; however, there are no occurrences of commercial-grade limestones and sand gravel. The study area has

D. R. Shawe; H. R. Jr. Blank; B. P. Wernicke; G. J. Axer; H. N. Barton; G. W. Day; R. L. Rains

1988-01-01

23

Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area. An area surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the extreme northwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The area surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and all but the southwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large area around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study areas, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area, and to all but the southwest corner of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study area. Sand and gravel are present in both study areas, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.

Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.

1990-01-01

24

Seasonal migration of Columbia spotted frogs ( Rana luteiventris ) among complementary resources in a high mountain basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on how animals partition their activities and travel among complementary resources, such as breeding or overwintering habitats, is needed for species conservation. In a mountain basin at 2500 m elevation in central Idaho, we studied the habitat use and movement patterns of 736 marked and 87 radio-tagged Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) from 1995 to 1998. The goals of

David S. Pilliod; Charles R. Peterson; Peter I. Ritson

2002-01-01

25

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that

J. A. Peterson; J. G. Frisken; D. Plouff; C. A. Goeldner; S. R. Munts

1988-01-01

26

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that

J. A. Peterson; J. G. Friskin; D. Plouff; C. A. Goeldner; S. R. Munts

1988-01-01

27

Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically relevant variables such as streamflow and groundwater recharge. Fundamental limitations in both the understanding of hydrological processes in mountain regions (e.g., glacier melt, wetland attenuation, groundwater flows) and in data availability introduce large uncertainties. Lastly, assessing access to water resources is a major challenge. Topographical gradients and barriers, as well as strong spatiotemporal variations in hydrological processes, makes it particularly difficult to assess which parts of the mountain population is most vulnerable to future perturbations of the water cycle.

Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

2013-04-01

28

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

29

Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

Upadhye, R S

2003-12-08

30

Mineral resources of the Wah Wah Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Beaver and Millard Counties, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Wah Wah Mountains Wilderness Study Area is in western Utah about 32 mi west of Milford, Utah, and 43 mi east of Garrison, Nevada. This study area consists mostly of Paleozoic carbonate rocks in a block-faulted mountain range. Tertiary volcanic rocks crop out in the northern and southern parts of this study area. The rock outcrops at the southern end of this study area lie within the contact-metamorphic aureole of several Tertiary dioritic and rhyolitic stocks exposed south of this study area. Identified resources with industrial or agricultural applications include inferred subeconomic resources of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartzite, and volcanic rock. Inferred subeconomic iron-rich material was also identified at two small iron prospects along the southwestern study-area boundary. Several areas in the southern part of the wilderness study area have a moderate mineral resource potential for undiscovered antimony, zinc, cadmium, and tungsten, associated in places with molybdenum, arsenic, lead, bismuth, and gold in replacement bodies and veins of several types. The rest of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for these metals. This study area has a moderate energy resource potential for oil and natural gas, and a low energy resource potential for uranium and geothermal energy.

Cox, L.J.; Duttweiler, K.A.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Bankey, V.; Cook, K.L.; Brown, S.D.

1989-01-01

31

Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at RMA in 1986 and 1987. The major objectives of the vegetation studies were to: identify, map, and describe major and minor plant community types; Evaluate community composition, structure, and successional status; compare the vegetation of the arsenal with two offsite locations - Buckley Air National Guard Base and the Plains Conservation Center. The studies provided information useful for planning habitat enhancement and vegetation activities. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the extent to which the vegetation of RMA has been effected by contamination, physical disturbance, and previous agricultural history of the site. Appendices: species lists, data summaries for onsite and offsite vegetation types. Plates: vegetation map, natural resource areas of special interest.

Not Available

1989-10-01

32

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01

33

Mineral resources of the Deep Canyon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Juab and Tooele counties, Utah  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Deep Creek Mountains Wilderness Study Area (UT-010-060/UT-050-020) which includes most of the Deep Creek Range in Utah and Tooele counties, Utah. Four areas near the study area contain identified resources: gold resources in the Goshute Canyon and Gold Bond areas, both immediately east of the study area: a gold resource at the Queen of Sheba Mine just west of the boundary; and a silver-lead-zinc-copper resource at the Willow Springs area in an area that was not included in the northeast part of the study area. Much of the study area is underlain by late Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian quartzite and Middle Cambrian to Pennsylvanian carbonate rock and contains subeconomic resources of limestone, dolomite, and quartzite. Most of the study area has moderate to high resource potential for tungsten, mercury, gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, tin, and (or) beryllium. The entire study area has low resource potential for uranium, thorium, oil, gas, coal, and geothermal energy.

Nutt, C.J.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S. (US Geological Survey (US)); Hannigan, B.J. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1990-09-01

34

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

Valley Ethanol Company (CVEC), a co-op in Benson, Minnesota. CVEC gasifies the cobs to produce fuel for the corn ethanol plant, thereby displacing fossil fuels in corn ethanol production. The EPA ruling (Research, 2009). CVEC sees the cobs-for- plant-fuel pathway as a means of making corn ethanol more

35

Energy resources are not all fuel reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fraction of the supposed worldwide coal resources which are proved reserves, recoverable from known, defined deposits under current economic and operational conditions is examined. Various estimates of the world's energy reserves and resources are compared, and the main energy resources that might be available in practice in the 1990's are estimated. It is concluded that the portion of the

D. Ion

1976-01-01

36

Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The western U.S. derives its water resources predominantly from cold season precipitation and storage in snowpack along the narrow Cascades and Sierra ranges, and the Rocky Mountains. Hydroclimate is modulated by the diverse orographic features across the region. Precipitation, runoff, and water demand generally peaks during winter, spring, and summer respectively. Such phase differences between water supply and demand create a necessity for water management, which is reflected by major development in irrigation, hydropower production, and flood control during the past 50 years. Because water resources have been essential to the economic development and environmental well being of the western states, it is worrisome that recent studies suggest that global warming may exert significant impacts on snowpack and streamflow, which may seriously affect water resources in the western U.S. in the 21st century (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Leung and Ghan 1999; Mile et al. 2000; Leung et al. 2002a; Miller et al. 2002). To understand how climate change may affect mountain water resources, we have taken the approach of ?end-to-end? assessment where simulations of current and future climate produced by global climate models (GCMs) are downscaled using regional climate models (RCMs), which then provide atmospheric conditions for assessing water impacts using hydrologic models (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Miller et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2002) and water management models (e.g., Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Payne et al. 2002). This suite of models guides us through a comprehensive and global view of the effects of greenhouse warming on the atmosphere-ocean-land system to regional climate change, hydrologic response in river basins and watersheds, and reservoir management. The latter converts hydrologic response to impacts on water management objectives and enables the evaluation of adaptation strategies through modifications to existing reservoir operating rules.

Leung, Lai R.

2005-06-01

37

Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Close, T.J. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

38

Parameter Selection for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel to be Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain license application. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data are reported for representative fuels and bounding fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported were not generated under any quality assurance program.

D. L. Fillmore

2003-10-01

39

30 August 2010 Energy Fuels Resources Corporation  

E-print Network

for many years. For example, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) makes use of their 1984 handbook Regulatory Commission (NMA/NRC) Uranium Workshop in Denver, Colorado, representatives of the United States as a courtesy to the EPA since Energy Fuels does not believe that the ponds are within EPA's regulatory mandate

40

Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area  

SciTech Connect

This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

Neilson, J.A.

1981-09-01

41

Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California  

SciTech Connect

The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

1982-01-01

42

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

43

A biennially renewable fuel resource: woodchips  

SciTech Connect

Recent genetic improvements with some tree species have yielded hybrids that have disease resistance, rapid growth, and the ability to regenerate from the stump after harvest. Grown intensively, these hybrids are capable of producing and storing a usable 250 mBTU per acre per year on a biennial harvest of the total tree. Employing the best of today's silvicultural techniques and boiler equipment each tree can produce a little more than one boiler horsepower per year. Utilizing non-prime lands for the production of ''hybrid poplars'' one acre can generate the woodfuel equivalent of 40 barrels of oil ($8/bbl) or 2500 therms of natural gas (13 /therm) per year and can be harvested every other year. Beyond the economic and environmental benefits there are additional merits to be realized by growing your own woodfuel. Like money in the bank, fuel may be withdrawn from the forest bank ''as needed'' while the reserves accrue growth. The nutrient rich ash ''remains'' can be utilized to sustain the yield of an energy plantation. Unlike other alternative sources of energy that are capital intensive, ''growing your own woodfuel'' is labor intensive. One can also receive significant forestry tax incentives; and, above all, one can avoid any fuel ''cartel''.

Krantz, B.

1982-08-01

44

Biogas as a resource-efficient vehicle fuel.  

PubMed

There are currently strong incentives for increased use of renewable fuels in the transport sector worldwide. However, some bioethanol and biodiesel production routes have limitations with regard to resource efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gases. More efficient biofuel systems are those based on lignocelluloses and novel conversion technologies. A complementary strategy to these is to increase the production of biogas from the digestion of organic residues and energy crops, or from byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel production. Compared with other biomass-based vehicle fuels available so far, biogas often has several advantages from an environmental and resource-efficiency perspective. This provides the motivation for further technological development aiming to reduce costs and thereby increased economic competitiveness of biogas as a vehicle fuel. PMID:18036686

Börjesson, Pål; Mattiasson, Bo

2008-01-01

45

Groundwater resources of the East Mountain area, Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties, New Mexico, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater resources of about 400 square miles of the East Mountain area of Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties in central New Mexico were evaluated by using groundwater levels and water-quality analyses, and updated geologic mapping. Substantial development in the study area (population increased by 11,000, or 50 percent, from 1990 through 2000) has raised concerns about the effects of growth on water resources. The last comprehensive examination of the water resources of the study area was done in 1980-this study examines a slightly different area and incorporates data collected in the intervening 25 years. The East Mountain area is geologically and hydrologically complex-in addition to the geologic units, such features as the Sandia Mountains, Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults, Tijeras syncline and anticline, and the Estancia Basin affect the movement, availability, and water quality of the groundwater system. The stratigraphic units were separated into eight hydrostratigraphic units, each having distinct hydraulic and chemical properties. Overall, the major hydrostratigraphic units are the Madera-Sandia and Abo-Yeso; however, other units are the primary source of supply in some areas. Despite the eight previously defined hydrostratigraphic units, water-level contours were drawn on the generalized regional potentiometric map assuming all hydrostratigraphic units are connected and function as a single aquifer system. Groundwater originates as infiltration of precipitation in upland areas (Sandia, Manzano, and Manzanita Mountains, and the Ortiz Porphyry Belt) and moves downgradient into the Tijeras Graben, Tijeras Canyon, San Pedro synclinorium, and the Hagan, Estancia, and Espanola Basins. The study area was divided into eight groundwater areas defined on the basis of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information-Tijeras Canyon, Cedar Crest, Tijeras Graben, Estancia Basin, San Pedro Creek, Ortiz Porphyry Belt, Hagan Basin, and Upper Sandia Mountains. View report for unabridged abstract.

Bartolino, James R.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Myers, Nathan C.

2010-01-01

46

Resource utilization by bull char and cutthroat trout in a mountain stream in Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource utilization of sympatric populations of bull char,Salvelinus confluentus, and west-slope cutthroat trout,Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, were studied by underwater observations of foraging behaviour and microhabitat use, and dietary analysis in a mountain stream\\u000a of the Flathead River Basin, northwest Montana, U.S.A. Nearly 70% of bull char were categorized as benthic foragers, which\\u000a moved constantly and captured prey primarily from the

Shigeru Nakano; Kurt D. Fausch; Tetsuo Furukawa-Tanaka; Koji Maekawa; Hiroya Kawanabe

1992-01-01

47

Sustainability of Mountain Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hindu Kush-Himalayas (HKH), the highest mountains of the world, act as water towers for major Asian rivers and also abodes of great diversity - cultural, climatic and biological. Since the early 1970s deforestation and loss of top soil, as well as their impacts on the livelihood of the poor farmers of the HKH mountains, have attracted global attention and

Suresh Raj CHALISE

2006-01-01

48

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in

Robin L Sweeney; David J. Lechel

2003-01-01

49

ORLEANS MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA (B5079), CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Orleans Mountain Roadless Area (B5079) in California has substantiated mineral-resource potential for placer and lode gold. This conclusion is based on an investigation that included geologic mapping, study of known mines, prospects, and mineralized areas, gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, and geochemical sampling. Gravel deposits along the Salmon River contain placer gold. Resources of lode gold exist at mines in the northwest and southwest portions of the roadless area. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary, M.; Linne, J. Mitchell

1984-01-01

50

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1994-05-01

51

Use of Virtual Globes Resources in Periglacial and Climatic Geomorphology: Blockfield Elevation Gradients in the Appalachian Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Locational data were obtained for 96 periglacial blockfields in the Appalachian Mountains of eastern USA using TerraServer, a Virtual Globes (VGs) resource for viewing air-photo and satellite imagery. The elevation of Appalachian blockfields south of the Last Glacial Maximum border parallels regional gradients of mean July, summer, and annual temperature inferred from paleoecological studies. The median elevations of blockfields throughout the Appalachians lay above timberline during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Most blockfields in the study area were formed in association with permafrost. Periglacial blockfields in the Appalachian Mountains serve effectively as indicators of Pleistocene permafrost conditions. Internet-based VGs can be used to create generalized reconnaissance-level data bases of large-scale periglacial landforms and hillslope features over large areas. Complementary use of Virtual Globes technology and spatial-analytic techniques holds considerable potential for addressing the broad-scale problems with which traditional climatic geomorphology is concerned.

Nelson, F. E.; Park Nelson, K. J.; Walegur, M. T.

2006-12-01

52

Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

2010-01-01

53

Natural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics,  

E-print Network

Natural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance profits. In the U.S. ethanol system, considerably more energy, including high-grade fossil fuel and diverting human food resources to the costly inefficient production of ethanol fuel raise major ethical

Laughlin, Robert B.

54

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

55

The "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English" as a Resource for Southern Appalachia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that one important reflection of a culture's status is the existence of general reference books on it. To this end, it discusses the forthcoming "Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English," a book designed to address the lack of a comprehensive reference work on Appalachian speech and language patterns in this region. The paper…

Montgomery, Michael

56

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1995-07-01

57

National Uranium-Resource Evaluation: genesis of the Bokan Mountain, Alaska uranium-thorium deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project is to develop a model that can be used in evaluating peralkaline granitic-syenitic rocks for uranium potential. The deposits at Bokan Mountain (also known as Kendrick Bay) were studied to generate a specific model as to their mode of formation. To achieve the objective several types of data have been obtained: (1) Distinction by

T. B. Thompson; T. Lyttle; J. R. Pierson

1980-01-01

58

1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS has assessed resources of selected coal of the Fort Union Formation and equivalent units in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. The assessment focused on coal in the Powder River, Williston, Hanna-Carbon, and Greater Green River basins most likely to be utilized in the next few decades. In other basins in the region Tertiary coal resources are summarized but not assessed. Disc 1, in PDF files, includes results of the assessment and chapters on coal geology, quantity and quality, and land use and ownership. Disc 2 provides GIS files for land use and ownership maps and geologic maps, and basic GIS data for the assessed basins. ArcView shapefiles, PDF files for cross sections and TIFF files are included along with ArcView Datapublisher software for Windows-based computer systems.

1999-01-01

59

75 FR 43138 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service...for fuels and vegetation management activities in the project area by comparing the existing...Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project decision and the...

2010-07-23

60

WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Denton, Jr. , David, K.

1984-01-01

61

Climate change and water resources in arid mountains: an example from the Bolivian Andes.  

PubMed

Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers. PMID:23949894

Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

2013-11-01

62

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

63

ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?  

E-print Network

ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS? TAD as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or fuel, its use amounts, and sulfur oxide emissions from the fossil fuels used to produce the ethanol. Key words: carbon dioxide, corn

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

64

GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

Reynolds, Mitchell, W.; Close, Terry, J.

1984-01-01

65

BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES HOMEWOOD MOUNTAIN RESORT SKI AREA MASTER PLAN EIR/EIS 8.0 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

This section describes special-status species, vegetation communities, and fish and wildlife habitats in the Project area and addresses potential impacts to these resources. Impacts evaluated include the potential for loss of special-status (endangered, threatened, rare, or protected) species associated with habitat in the Project area, potential loss of sensitive vegetation communities and wildlife habitats, blockage of major migration corridors, potential detrimental effects to nesting raptors and to wildlife resources. The section also identifies mitigation measures that, upon implementation, will reduce the magnitude of significant impacts. 8.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING This section describes the riparian and stream environment zones, plant communities, their related wildlife assemblages, and special-status species that may occur in the Project area, and addresses potential Project-specific and cumulative impacts to these resources. 8.1.1 Regional Setting

unknown authors

66

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Summer 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subtitled "Resources for Our Education", this catalog is aimed not only at the professional educator, but at anyone, young or old, who is interested in learning in its broadest sense. Items listed in the catalog include books, toys, structures, furniture, instructional aids, magazines, films, and any other resource which contains data about or…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

67

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

68

Lessons Learned From a Regional Approach to Route Selection for Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the landmark route identification project of the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee. The Department of Energy (DOE) asked four state regional groups to produce a regional suite of rail and highway routes to Yucca Mountain, Nevada. DOE will use the regional suites of routes as a primary input into the national route selection process. The Midwest's project used federal guidelines and regional input to develop route comparison criteria for rail and highway routes from Midwestern reactors. With this project, the Midwest not only tested the viability of a regional approach to route selection, but also tested the practicality of the federal route selection guidelines. The results and lessons learned from this project will affect future spent fuel route selection processes at both a national and regional level. (authors)

Wochos, S.K. [The Council of State Governments - Midwest, 701 E. 22nd St, Suite 110, Lombard, IL 60148 (United States)

2006-07-01

69

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Winter 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imaginative learning resources of various types are reported in this catalog under the subject headings of process learning, education environments, classroom materials and methods, home learning, and self discovery. Books reviewed are on the subjects of superstition, Eastern religions, fairy tales, philosophy, creativity, poetry, child care,…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

70

Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA  

PubMed Central

In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [?30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior. PMID:22272268

Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Negron, José F.; Smith, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

71

Response of soricid populations to repeated fire and fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel hazards have increased in forests across the United States because of fire exclusion during the 20th century. Treatments used to reduce fuel buildup may affect wildlife, such as shrews, living on the forest floor, especially when treatments are applied repeatedly. From mid-May to mid-August 2006 and 2007, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to capture shrews in western

Charlotte E. Matthews; Christopher E. Moorman; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Thomas A. Waldrop

2009-01-01

72

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

N /A

2002-10-25

73

Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D  

SciTech Connect

To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

Villet, R.H.

1980-04-01

74

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report  

E-print Network

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report A Report to the West Virginia Bureau for Medical of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services. #12; 1 Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE .......................................................................................................................... 5 II. MOUNTAIN HEALTH CHOICES

Mohaghegh, Shahab

75

The role of nuclear energy in the more efficient exploitation of fossil fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy input\\/output relations for nuclear and solar systems which interact with fossil fuel use are examined in terms of the energy theory of value. According to this theory, the value of a resource is defined more or less completely by the energy that that resource can produce. An analysis of potential energy production suggests that nuclear power generation offers an

W. Seifritz

1978-01-01

76

Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

2013-01-01

77

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin

Yongping Shen; Guoya Wang; Yongjian Ding; Weiyi Mao; Shiyin Liu; Shunde Wang; Duishen M. Mamatkanov

2010-01-01

78

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in Glacier Mass Balance in Watershed of Sary Jaz-Kumarik Rivers of Tianshan Mountains in 1957-2006 and Their Impact on Water Resources and Trend to End of the 21th Century in Tarim River Basin

Shen, Yongping; Wang, Guoya; Ding, Yongjian; Mao, Weiyi; Liu, Shiyin; Wang, Shunde; Mamatkanov, Duishen M.

2010-05-01

79

ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

McKee, Edwin, H.; Schmauch, Steven, W.

1984-01-01

80

Inventory and analysis of rangeland resources of the state land block on Parker Mountain, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High altitude color infrared (CIR) photography was interpreted to provide an 1:24,000 overlay to U.S.G.S. topographic maps. The inventory and analysis of rangeland resources was augmented by the digital analysis of LANDSAT MSS data. Available geology, soils, and precipitation maps were used to sort out areas of confusion on the CIR photography. The map overlay from photo interpretation was also prepared with reference to print maps developed from LANDSAT MSS data. The resulting map overlay has a high degree of interpretive and spatial accuracy. An unacceptable level of confusion between the several sagebrush types in the MSS mapping was largely corrected by introducing ancillary data. Boundaries from geology, soils, and precipitation maps, as well as field observations, were digitized and pixel classes were adjusted according to the location of pixels with particular spectral signatures with respect to such boundaries. The resulting map, with six major cover classes, has an overall accuracy of 89%. Overall accuracy was 74% when these six classes were expanded to 20 classes.

Jaynes, R. A. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

81

Escherichia coli and enterococci are sensitive and reliable indicators for human, livestock and wildlife faecal pollution in alpine mountainous water resources  

PubMed Central

Aims This study evaluated the applicability of standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) for alpine mountainous water resources monitoring. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci (ENTC) and Clostridium perfringens were investigated by standard or frequently applied methods in a broad range of animal and human faecal sources in a large alpine mountainous area. C. perfringens occurred only in human, livestock and carnivorous source groups in relevant average concentrations (log 4.7-7.0 CFU per g) but not in herbivorous wildlife sources. E. coli proved to be distributed in all faecal source groups with remarkably balanced average concentrations (log 7.0 - 8.4 CFU per g). Except for single faecal samples from the cattle source group, prevalence rates for ENTC source groups were generally > 90% with average concentrations of log 5.3 - 7.7 CFU per g. In order to test the faecal indication capacity in the environment, faecal prevalence data were comparatively analysed with results from the concurrently performed multi-parametric microbial source tracking effort on karst spring water quality from the investigated alpine mountainous catchment (Reischer et al. 2008; Environ. Microbiol. 10:2598-2608). Conclusion E. coli and enterococci are reliable faecal indicators for alpine mountainous water resources monitoring, although E. coli is the more sensitive one. C. perfringens did not prove an indicator of general faecal pollution but is suggested a conservative microbial source tracking marker for anthropogenic faecal influence. Significance and Impact of Study Applicability of SFIB is currently hotly debated. This is the first study providing comprehensive information on the applicability of SFIB at alpine mountainous habitats. PMID:20629798

Farnleitner, A.H.; Ryzinska-Paier, G.; Reischer, G.H.; Burtscher, M.M.; Knetsch, S.; Kirschner, A.K.T.; Dirnbock, T.; Kuschnig, G.; Mach, R.L.; Sommer, R.

2011-01-01

82

Investigation of Yucca Mountain repository capacity for the US spent nuclear fuel inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical decay heat model was developed to evaluate the US inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The model was benchmarked against the results from ORIGEN-ARP 5.01. The new analytical SNF decay heat model was applied to actual (thru 2002) and projected SNF data. The total decay heat from the 63,000 MT commercial SNF at year 2012 was estimated

Mike P. Stahala; Man-Sung Yim; David N. McNelis

2008-01-01

83

Evaluating Consequences of Volcanism for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The likelihood that a volcanic dike could intersect a high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mt. is very small, 1E-9/yr to 1E-7/yr. The intersection of a cone-forming conduit is even less likely. Realistic insights about the fate of HLW in a volcanic conduit suggest that fewer waste packages may be affected and particle sizes of ejected spent fuel may be larger than previously assumed. Most HLW consists of fractured ceramic pellets of UO2 about a cm in diameter, with a melting point >2800C, much higher than magma temperatures of 1000-1200C. Spent fuel would not dissolve in magma; therefore the size range of transported fragments would largely be determined by pre-existing particle sizes in fuel rods. This range would differ from that of volcanic ejecta. The expected travel time in a conduit from repository depth to the surface would be short, allowing little time for erosion of ceramic pellets but permitting rapid quenching of magma on the relatively cold waste packages and their contents. Quench rinds would protect waste fragments during rapid transit to the surface in a column of frothy magma. Xenoliths and crush-impact studies constrain the size of spent fuel particles that may be incorporated in volcanic ash. Estimates of fuel particle size have used a log triangular distribution from 1-100 microns. For comparison, grains of table salt are 100 microns across. Talcum powder is 10 microns. One micron is the wavelength of near infrared light. However, it is unlikely that spent fuel could be reduced to this minute size range. At Lathrop Wells, tuff xenoliths eroded from conduit walls are common in the scoria cone. They vary in size from a fraction of a cm up to 30 cm and have quenched basalt rinds, providing evidence that large spent fuel fragments could survive intact over the short travel distance to the surface. Crush-impact studies at energies up to 1000 J/gram on spent fuel show less than 30% of the fuel mass reduced to <100 microns and less than 10% to <10 microns. Hypothetical doses are sensitive to assumptions about particle size because respirability decreases sharply as particles increase beyond 10 microns. In performance assessment, using a particle size range of 100-10000 microns reduces dose 200-fold compared to a range of 1-100 microns. There is a strong basis to assume that only a fraction of spent fuel entrained in a conduit would be ejected as tephra. The relative volume of ash vs. scoria cone and lava flows can be used to estimate practical limits on the fraction of ejected waste in ash that could be transported by water and wind. Compared with ash, waste in lava flows or scoria cones would be protected from erosion and transport for hundreds of thousands of years, as shown by the million-year-old cones and flows in Crater Flat near Yucca Mt. Also, it is likely that only a limited number of waste packages could be entrained because volcanic conduits would be smaller at the repository depth of 300 m than at ground surface. Lithostatic pressure keeps conduits smaller at depth, possibly <10 m in diameter. It is also possible that a conduit could form between drifts, and no waste would be entrained. Dikes are more likely to intrude pre-existing faults. Conduits form along dikes, so keeping drifts set back from larger faults would reduce the chance of a conduit intersecting the repository. In sum, only a limited number of waste packages is likely be entrained in a volcanic conduit, and there is strong evidence that a large fraction of the HLW content would not be reduced to very small particles. For more information, see the report by NRC's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials [http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/acnw/letters/2007/].

Coleman, N.; Marsh, B.

2007-12-01

84

Carbon dioxide emission scenarios: limitations of the fossil fuel resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are in large part the result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Scenario analysis is commonly used to generate projections of future carbon dioxide emissions, the resulting atmospheric concentrations and climate impact. In most scenario modelling published to date, carbon dioxide emission scenarios are based on demand-side (socioeconomic and technology)

Christopher Vernon; Erica Thompson; Sarah Cornell

2011-01-01

85

Production of biomass fuel for resource recovery: Trash recycling in Dade County, Florida  

SciTech Connect

Dade County, Florida has been in the forefront of resources recovery from municipal solid waste since the early 1980`s. The County completed its 3,000 tons per day (six days per week) refuse derived fuel waste-to-energy facility in 1982. The Resources Recovery facility is operated under a long-term agreement with Montenay-Dade, Ltd. The trash processing capability of this facility was upgraded in 1997 to process 860 tons per day (six days per week) of trash into a biomass fuel which is used off-site to produce electrical energy. Under current Florida law, facilities like trash-to-fuel that produce alternative clean-burning fuels for the production of energy may receive credit for up to one-half of the state`s 30 percent waste reduction goal.

Mauriello, P.J.; Brooks, K.G. [Dept. of Solid Waste Management, Miami, FL (United States)

1997-12-01

86

Estimating Volumes of Remaining Fossil Fuel Resources: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of problems arise in applying standard statistical techniques to the estimation of remaining volumes of crude oil and natural gas resources. This article reviews and criticizes past approaches, which include methods based on geology and methods that are primarily statistical in nature. Two newer approaches to the problem are described and their results summarized. It is clear that

John J. Wiorkowski

1981-01-01

87

A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

88

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability

Konstantinos I. Vatalis

2010-01-01

89

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of US and world conventional fossil fuel and uranium proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources are updated. The survey provides data on current and cumulative production of these nonrenewable energy sources and their life expectancies at selected annual consumption growth rates. Conservation would help to preserve fossil fuel resources, although some complex problems must be solved to avoid a

1980-01-01

90

75 FR 77652 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...off-highway vehicle and transportation, air resources, visual resources, cultural resources and Native American concerns, paleontology, hydrology, public safety, law enforcement, fire ecology and management, rangeland [[Page 77654

2010-12-13

91

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

92

Forecasting the impact of global changes on the water resources of a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to simulate the complex interrelationships between climate forcing, human pressure and dynamics of groundwater and surface water of the upper Elqui catchment (5 660 km2) in the Chilean Andes. The water resources of this mountainous, semi-arid catchment has been undergoing a growing pressure because of high climate variability and of the economic mutations of various sectors (agriculture, tourism), which have impacted water availability of the area. Due to the agriculture-based development in the region, water scarcity is thus a matter of great concern for this basin. Hydrological simulations were performed with a conceptual model that takes into account a shallow reservoir supplied by precipitation and feeding evapotranspiration, surface/sub-surface runoff and infiltration, and (ii) a deep reservoir fed by infiltration and generating the baseflow. A third reservoir, in which fluxes are controlled by temperature, has been introduced to account for the snowmelt regime of the catchment. A 30-year period (1979-2008) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability due to alternating ENSO and LNSO events. Then water uses (dam functioning, agricultural and domestic withdrawals) were integrated into the model. The model was calibrated and validated with streamflow data on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective climatic and anthropogenic scenarios were finally elaborated and forced into the model in order to propose midterm (2050 horizon) simulations. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. Depending on the modelling complexity, NSE coefficients are about 0.82-0.90 over the calibration period (1979-1990) and 0.78-0.84 over the validation period (1991-2008). The volume error between observation and simulation is lower than 15% over the whole period studied. The dynamics of both the water level in the deep conceptual reservoir and the water table in a piezometer at the basin outlet are also in good agreement. The model thus provides encouraging simulations of groundwater and surface water dynamics when applied to various climatic conditions. Simulations are improved when a dam located in the upstream catchment is considered into the model. In contrast, integrating agricultural and domestic water withdrawals does not improve significantly the simulations. However, it allows assessing the ability of water resources to supply water demands by computing a water allocation index. The climatic scenarios forecast an increase in temperature of about 1-2°C and a 20-30% reduction in precipitation by the 2050 horizon. According to the hydrological simulations, the mean annual discharge of the upper Elqui River may decline by 30-40%, and the seasonal peak flow would occur earlier than in current conditions. As a result, the agricultural demands (90% of the water uses) may not be always satisfied, especially during the summer season, as shown by the future trends in the water allocation index. This calls for evaluating the efficiency of adaptation strategies consisting in an improvement of the irrigation system and of water management, which is the subject of ongoing research.

Ruelland, D.; Campéon, C.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

2012-04-01

93

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

94

National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V., Jr.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

1999-01-01

95

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

96

Effects of Pre-Fire Fuels Treatments on Post-Fire Burn Severity on the 2007 Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change may be contributing to regional warming and drying trends that are increasing the size and severity of wildfires. Regardless if climate is a factor, the escalating costs of fire suppression and post-fire rehabilitation on the many large fires of recent decades have driven a national effort to reduce hazardous fuels across large areas, particularly those in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Nationally, concern is especially focused on the numerous large wildfires currently burning in the Northern Rocky Mountains with a need for rapid science-based assessment of burn severity, even as fires and fire suppression efforts continue. Our objective is to assess if and how well various fuels reduction treatments applied pre-fire mitigated burn severity measured in the field immediately post-fire. We will obtain data from the incident command teams, including fire weather, daily fire progression maps, and where strategic and tactical fire suppression measures were applied. Location and type of fuels treatment as well as data on local vegetation type, structure, and fuels will be obtained from local management agencies and national databases. We will pair our sampled field plots in treated and burned areas with those not treated and burned in similar stand and topographic conditions across three or more large forest fires. Our analysis is both quantitative and qualitative, and linked with efforts to assess fuel treatment effects on fire behavior and ease of fire suppression. We report specifically on whether various fuels treatments are mitigating fire effects on soil (e.g., char, percent exposed, infiltration rate, water repellency) and vegetation (e.g., scorch, tree mortality, understory abundance, recovery). We discuss which fuels treatments work and which do not work, and the extent to which fire weather and other factors beyond the control of fire managers may determine whether or not fuels treatments are effectively mitigating severe fire effects.

Hudak, A. T.; Morgan, P.; Robichaud, P. R.; Lewis, S. A.; Evans, J. S.

2007-12-01

97

Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): The role of synoptic climatology on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interannual variability of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow is influenced by large-scale atmospheric pressure gradients, which dictate the direction of air mass movement and magnitude of moisture transport. Classifying synoptic circulation patterns facilitates analysis to determine dominant patterns that influence surface climate. This research identifies and evaluates the atmospheric drivers of water availability on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and is being conducted with companion analyses of climatic and streamflow trends to determine the climatic redistribution of western Canadian water resources. The study area for this project includes the north-flowing Liard, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers, which are tributaries to the Mackenzie River, and the east-flowing North Saskatchewan, Red Deer, Bow, and Oldman Rivers, which have experienced greater variability, including periods of droughts and pluvials. Winter snowpack represents a water-storage component that is released during spring freshet and provides the largest contribution of the annual streamflow of rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Summer water availability is influenced by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, and in some cases glacier melt or release of water from reservoirs built for hydroelectricity generation. Summer demand is highest in this region, where a high percentage of water is allocated for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Understanding and forecasting water availability are fundamental for the management of resources, flood mitigation, and an indicator of climate change. Synoptic circulation patterns are classified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), an unsupervised, iterative learning process that clusters and projects data onto an organized output array. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with high and low precipitation and temperature during winter (Nov-Apr) and summer (May-Oct) seasons are evaluated. The top and bottom quartiles of precipitation and temperature are identified and compared with frequency and persistence of mid-tropospheric circulation patterns. Results are used in conjunction with surface climate and streamflow trends as indicators of hydroclimatic variability and trends associated with western Canadian water resources.

Newton, B.; Prowse, T. D.; Bonsal, B. R.

2012-12-01

98

Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.  

PubMed

The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. PMID:20801577

Vatalis, Konstantinos I

2010-12-01

99

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

100

WONDER MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys in the Wonder Mountain Roadless Area, Washington indicate a probable resource potential for manganese. Deposits are small (less than 12,000 tons of demonstrated resources) and are primarily manganese silicate (bementite) which is difficult to refine. There is no indication of any resource potential for other metallic, nonmetallic or energy resources in the area.

Church, S. E.; Iverson, S. R.

1984-01-01

101

Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

102

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel can benefit the nuclear fuel cycle by destroying actinides or extending fissionable resources if uranium supplies become limited. The purpose of this study was to assess reprocessing and recycling in both fast and thermal reactors to determine the effectiveness for actinide destruction and resource utilization. Fast reactor recycling will reduce both the mass and heat load of actinides by a factor of 2, but only after 3 recycles and many decades. Thermal reactor recycling is similarly effective for reducing actinide mass, but the heat load will increase by a factor of 2. Economically recoverable reserves of uranium are estimated to sustain the current global fleet for the next 100 years, and undiscovered reserves and lower quality ores are estimated to contain twice the amount of economically recoverable reserves--which delays the concern of resource utilization for many decades. Economic analysis reveals that reprocessed plutonium will become competitive only when uranium prices rise to about %24360 per kg. Alternative uranium sources are estimated to be competitive well below that price. Decisions regarding the development of a near term commercial-scale reprocessing fuel cycle must partially take into account the effectiveness of reactors for actnides destruction and the time scale for when uranium supplies may become limited. Long-term research and development is recommended in order to make more dramatic improvements in actinide destruction and cost reductions for advanced fuel cycle technologies.The original scope of this work was to optimize an advanced fuel cycle using a tool that couples a reprocessing plant simulation model with a depletion analysis code. Due to funding and time constraints of the late start LDRD process and a lack of support for follow-on work, the project focused instead on a comparison of different reprocessing and recycling options. This optimization study led to new insight into the fuel cycle. AcknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 125862 for funding this research.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Smith, James D.

2008-09-01

103

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies), and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions), as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions) marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI).

Ward, J. D.; Werner, A. D.; Nel, W. P.; Beecham, S.

2011-03-01

104

The influence of constrained fossil fuel emissions scenarios on climate and water resource projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resources planning requires long-term projections of the impact of climate change on freshwater resources. In addition to intrinsic uncertainty associated with the natural climate, projections of climate change are subject to the combined uncertainties associated with selection of emissions scenarios, GCM ensembles and downscaling techniques. In particular, unknown future greenhouse gas emissions contribute substantially to the overall uncertainty. We contend that a reduction in uncertainty is possible by refining emissions scenarios. We present a comprehensive review of the growing body of literature that challenges the assumptions underlying the high-growth emissions scenarios (widely used in climate change impact studies), and instead points to a peak and decline in fossil fuel production occurring in the 21st century. We find that the IPCC's new RCP 4.5 scenario (low-medium emissions), as well as the B1 and A1T (low emissions) marker scenarios from the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are broadly consistent with the majority of recent fossil fuel production forecasts, whereas the medium to high emissions scenarios generally depend upon unrealistic assumptions of future fossil fuel production. We use a simple case study of projected climate change in 2070 for the Scott Creek catchment in South Australia to demonstrate that even with the current suite of climate models, by limiting projections to the B1 scenario, both the median change and the spread of model results are reduced relative to equivalent projections under an unrealistic high emissions scenario (A1FI).

Ward, J. D.; Werner, A. D.; Nel, W. P.; Beecham, S.

2011-06-01

105

STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

1984-01-01

106

Contributions to Economic Geology, 1921: Part II - Mineral Fuels - Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this paper is to call attention to some of the major surface features in the Rocky Mountain National Park and to point out their probable correlation with similar features in neighboring regions. The observations on which the paper is based were made in the summer of 1916, during an investigation in which other work demanded first consideration. This paper may therefore be considered a by-product. For the same reason many of the observations were not followed to conclusions, yet the data obtained seem to be sufficient to establish a certain order of events, the recognition of which may be of assistance in working out in detail the geologic and geographic history of the Rocky Mountain region.

Lee, Willis T.

1923-01-01

107

Christmas Mountains  

article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

2013-04-17

108

Mountain Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

109

Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.  

PubMed

The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis on UST program for ensuring adequate enforcement and compliance with existing UST regulations. PMID:14740715

Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

2004-01-01

110

Mountain restoration: Soil and surface wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much wildlife habitat is being destroyed by extractive resource industries in mountain environments. This article illustrates how mountain wildlife habitat was restored in a devastated area. A strip mine for coal on the east slopes of the Alberta Rockies, occupied during its operations by Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, Shaw 1803), was reclaimed as bighorn habitat. By considering

B. N. MacCullum; V. Geist

1992-01-01

111

Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U. [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Eggert, R.; Collins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden CO 80401 (United States)

2013-07-01

112

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

113

76 FR 2878 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, CA; Buck Mountain Vegetation and Fuel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...treatments are designed to reduce stand density, decrease competition and improve growing...would be thinned to reduce overall stand density, and trees that compete with healthy...The LSRA identified this area as needing density management and fuel reduction...

2011-01-18

114

Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

Anderson, J. H. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

115

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced. The overall cost of bio-fuel production is determined by the feedstock delivery pathway and also the bio-fuel production process employed. Results show that the minimum cost of petrol and diesel production is 0.86 litre -1 when a bio-oil feedstock is upgraded. This corresponds to a 2750 TPD upgrading facility requiring an annual harvest of 4.30 million m3. The mini?m cost of hydrogen production is 2.92 kg -1, via the gasification of a woodchip feedstock and subsequent water gas shift reactions. This corresponds to a 1100 ODTPD facility and requires an annual harvest of 947,000 m3. The levelised cost of bio-fuel strongly depends on the size of annual harvest required for bio-fuel facilities. There are optimal harvest volumes (bio-fuel facility sizes) for each bio-fuel production route, which yield minimum bio-fuel production costs. These occur as the benefits of economies of scale for larger bio-fuel facilities compete against increasing transport costs for larger harvests. Optimal harvest volumes are larger for bio-fuel production routes that use feedstock sourced from mobile facilities, as mobile facilities reduce total transport requirements.

Brown, Duncan

116

Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households\\u000a and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly\\u000a on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed\\u000a (kitchen waste

A. Kumaresan; K. M. Bujarbaruah; K. A. Pathak; Anubrata Das; R. K. Bardoloi

2009-01-01

117

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

118

Mountain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

119

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

2013-04-01

120

Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... national support groups can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

121

Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

2007-08-01

122

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

123

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

124

Transition from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy: Evidence from a Dynamic Simulation Model with Endogenous Resource Substitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies an economic model of climate change that is based on endogenous substitution of energy resources to determine the effect of advances in renewable technology on aggregate and sectoral fossil fuel use and energy prices. It uses a Nordhaus type partial equilibrium model of the energy sector with four demand sectors - electricity, transportation, residential and industrial energy

Ujjayant Chakravorty; Kin-Ping Tse

2000-01-01

125

Surface gasification materials program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1983. [Mountain fuel resources  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to conduct engineering-scale development and application of materials for coal gasification systems to ensure that the materials of construction for pilot plants and future large-scale plants can be properly selected and specified. Contents of this report are: (1) plant materials surveillance tests; (2) slagging gasifier refractories; (3) protective coatings and claddings; (4) ceramic fabrication/application technology; (5) ceramic application technology - brittle material design; (6) advanced pressure vessel materials technology; (7) electroslag component casting; (8) production and evaluation of electroslag castings; (9) cost reduction of the electroslag casting manufacturing process; (10) quantitative microstructural characterization of steel castings; (11) materials review and component failure analysis in support of coal gasification process and plants; and (12) process plant materials review, evaluation, and support.

Bradley, R.A.

1983-11-01

126

BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

Koeppen, Robert, P.; Armstrong, Michelle, K.

1984-01-01

127

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

128

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

129

Thermodynamic metrics for aggregation of natural resources in life cycle analysis: insight via application to some transportation fuels.  

PubMed

While methods for aggregating emissions are widely used and standardized in life cycle assessment (LCA), there is little agreement about methods for aggregating natural resources for obtaining interpretable metrics. Thermodynamic methods have been suggested including energy, exergy, and emergy analyses. This work provides insight into the nature of thermodynamic aggregation, including assumptions about substitutability between resources and loss of detailed information about the data being combined. Methods considered include calorific value or energy, industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) and its variations, and ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) or emergy. A hierarchy of metrics is proposed that spans the range from detailed data to aggregate metrics. At the fine scale, detailed data can help identify resources to whose depletion the selected product is most vulnerable. At the coarse scale, new insight is provided about thermodynamic aggregation methods. Among these, energy analysis is appropriate only for products that rely primarily on fossil fuels, and it cannot provide a useful indication of renewability. Exergy-based methods can provide results similar to energy analysis by including only nonrenewable fuels but can also account for materials use and provide a renewability index. However, ICEC and its variations do not address substitutability between resources, causing its results to be dominated by dilute and low-quality resources such as sunlight. The use of monetary values to account for substitutability does not consider many ecological resources and may not be appropriate for the analysis of emerging products. ECEC or emergy explicitly considers substitutability and resource quality and provides more intuitive results but is plagued by data gaps and uncertainties. This insight is illustrated via application to the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, corn ethanol, and soybean biodiesel. Here, aggregate metrics reveal the dilemma facing the choice of fuels: high return on investment versus high renewability. PMID:20020741

Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2010-01-15

130

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

131

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, current estimates are presented for US and world nonrenewable energy sources. The data are presented in summary form due to space limitations. The full power, available on request from the authors, presents full details of the resource estimates. US fossil fuel resources are reported as of December 1977. However, for the summary world resource tables, 1976 US

J. D. Parent; J. G. Seay; H. R. Linden

1979-01-01

132

Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.  

PubMed

Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

Preston, T Reg

2009-10-01

133

Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.  

PubMed

Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

Preston, T Reg

2009-08-01

134

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

2002-01-01

135

Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities  

SciTech Connect

The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered.

Not Available

1980-06-01

136

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources  

E-print Network

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from. The successful candidate will be an important member of the Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative research areas: Biomaterials & Biochemical Engineering, Environmental & Green Engineering, Reaction

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

137

Caucasus Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

2002-01-01

138

Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

2004-01-01

139

Appalachian Mountains  

... (nadir) view of the eastern United States, stretching from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The ... MISR uses this multi-angle technique to monitor particulate pollution and to distinguish different types of haze. These observations reveal ...

2014-05-15

140

Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE just come back from a journey in the region of the Andes, and in looking over the numbers of NATURE, which had accumulated during my absence, I came across the extract, which you make in your notes of February 21, from the Revue Scientifique, on the subject of mountain sickness. I cannot agree with M. Kronecker's statement that

George Griffith

1895-01-01

141

Mountains: top down.  

PubMed

Mountainous regions offer not only essential habitat and resources, including water, to the earth's more than 6 billion inhabitants, but also insights into how the global human habitat works, how it is being changed at the moment as global climates are disrupted, and how the disruption may lead to global biotic and economic impoverishment. At least 600 million of the earth's more than 6 billion humans dwell in mountainous regions. Such regions feed water into all the major rivers of the world whose valleys support most of the rest of us. At least half of the valley dwellers receive part or all of their water from montane sources, many from the melt water of glaciers, others from the annual snow melt. Glaciers are retreating globally as the earth warms as a result of human-caused changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Many are disappearing, a change that threatens municipal water supplies virtually globally. The warming is greatest in the higher latitudes where the largest glaciers such as those of Greenland and the Antarctic Continent have become vulnerable. The melting of ice in the northern hemisphere raises serious concerns about the continued flow of the Gulf Stream and the possibility of massive climatic changes in Scandinavia and northern Europe. Mountains are also biotic islands in the sea life, rich in endemism at the ecotype level. The systematic warming of the earth changes the environment out from under these genetically specialized strains (ecotypes) which are then maladapted and vulnerable to diseases of all types. The process is systematic impoverishment in the pattern conspicuous on mountain slopes with increasing exposure to climatic extremes. It is seen now in the increased mortality and morbidity of plants as climatic changes accumulate. The seriousness of the global climatic disruption is especially clear in any consideration of mountains. It can and must be addressed constructively despite the adamancy of the current US administration. PMID:15575181

Woodwell, George M

2004-11-01

142

Mountain Heritage, Revised Edition (1975).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by West Virginia scholars, this resource book consists of 12 chapters and is designed to: (1) produce understanding and appreciation of West Virginians' cultural heritage, and (2) aid in developing cultural educational programs. Beginning with man's entry into the mountain wilderness, the contents progressively move through his cultural…

Maurer, B. B., Ed.

143

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth a Long-term Experiment with the Plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth ­ a Long-term Experiment, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) between consumers and the resources they depend on can have ecological consequences depend on plant and insect mutualist partners for carbohydrate-rich rewards that are nutritionally

Palmer, Todd M.

144

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

145

Long-Term Habitat Use by Mountain Gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla beringei ). 2. Reuse of Foraging Areas in Relation to Resource Abundance, Quality, and Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource depression caused by current feeding and the rate of resource renewal should influence foragers' decisions about when to revisit foraging areas. Adjustment of foraging paths and revisit rates should be particularly important when resources renew slowly. Foragers can also benefit by returning more often to highly profitable than to less profitable foraging areas. Many highly frugivorous primates seem to

David P. Watts

1998-01-01

146

Yucca Mountain Milestone  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

Hunt, Rod

1997-06-09

147

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

148

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

149

Long time management of fossil fuel resources to limit global warming and avoid ice age onsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about 5000 billion tons of fossil fuel carbon in accessible reserves. Combustion of all this carbon within the next few centuries would force high atmospheric CO2 content and extreme global warming. On the other hand, low atmospheric CO2 content favors the onset of an ice age when changes in the Earth's orbit lead to low summer insolation at high northern latitudes. Here I present Earth System Model projections showing that typical reduction targets for fossil fuel use in the present century could limit ongoing global warming to less than one degree Celcius above present. Furthermore, the projections show that combustion pulses of remaining fossil fuel reserves could then be tailored to raise atmospheric CO2 content high and long enough to parry forcing of ice age onsets by summer insolation minima far into the future. Our present interglacial period could be extended by about 500,000 years in this way.

Shaffer, Gary

2009-02-01

150

Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly growing world population and rising co nsumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to p roduce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other

David Pimentel; Alison Marklein; Megan A. Toth; Marissa Karpoff; Gillian S. Paul; Robert McCormack; Joanna Kyriazis; Tim Krueger

2008-01-01

151

A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use efficiency as well. Three processes, coal mining, power production including CO2 capture unit operation, and crude oil usage, must be included when the GWP of CCS is calculated. Moreover, the results from the sensitivity analysis of power generation efficiency present not only a significant reduction of GWP, but also a competitive solution for improving or at least preventing the decrease of fossil fuel resource use efficiency when CCS is applied.

Suebsiri, Jitsopa

152

Resource Assessment and Land Use Change Light Duty Vehicles/Fuels  

E-print Network

billion gallon increase in biofuels from 12 to 15 billion gallons would require a 3.6% in corn production · Resource assessment and indirect land use change 2 #12;Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels investments in research and development to expand biofuel production · Biomass feedstock supplies needed

153

Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion  

SciTech Connect

While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

1977-01-01

154

Communicating A Controversial and Complex Project to the Public: Yucca Mountain Tours - Real and Virtual Communication  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10101 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has been investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development as the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. By far, the largest quantity of waste destined for geologic disposal is spent nuclear fuel from 118 commercial nuclear power reactors at 72 power plant sites and 1 commercial storage site across the United States. Currently, 104 of these reactors are still in operation and generate about 20 percent of the country's electricity. Under standard contracts that DOE executed with the utilities, DOE is to accept spent nuclear fuel from the utilities for disposal. Until that happens, the utilities must safely store their spent nuclear fuel in compliance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. As of December 1998, commercial spent nuclear fuel containing approximately 38,500 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) was stored in 33 states. The balance of the waste destined for geologic disposal in a repository is Department-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Department's spent nuclear fuel includes naval spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel from weapons production, domestic research reactors, and foreign research reactors. For disposal in a geologic repository, high-level radioactive waste would be processed into a solid glass form and placed into approximately 20,000 canisters. No liquid or hazardous wastes regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 would be disposed of in a geologic repository. The difficulty in siting new facilities, particularly those designed as nuclear or nuclear-related facilities, is well documented. In this context, national boundaries are not significant distinguishing barriers. As one publication observed, ''Environmental activists, local residents and governmental officials are protesting proposed waste facilities from Taiwan to Texas''. Here in Nevada, Yucca Mountain is no exception. The Department's study of the Yucca Mountain site for possible development as a permanent repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste has been criticized by many, for many reasons. The Yucca Mountain Project is both controversial and complex--a fact that makes communication with the public a challenge.

A.B. Benson; P.V. Nelson; M. d'Ouville

2000-03-01

155

Application of PASE to closed spent-fuel repository and resources optimization  

SciTech Connect

Several countries are considering the disposal of spent fuel in permanent geologic repositories. Geologic repositories will be designed, built, and operated in the near future. It is unlikely that any such facility will be loaded to capacity, backfilled and sealed before the year 2050. Several countries are actively pursuing the design, which is still to be finalized and expected to evolve before the facilities are actually built. Safeguards concepts for the entire back end of the fuel cycle are under discussion. However, the safeguards concept for a closed repository is crucial in the sense that the designer must be made aware of the safeguards features that need to be integrated into the design of the facility. This paper discusses the capabilities and utilization of the PASE computer code, which is a probabilistic risk analysis code with the top event being the diversion of nuclear material.

Sarac, A.; Fattah, A. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

1992-01-01

156

Fuel alcohol plant feasibility study for Sodak Resources, Ltd. , Plankinton, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The management of the proposed 20 million gallon per year fuel alcohol plant is addressed. All aspects of the management of the plant from the initial plant design to the plant's daily operation; from the procurement of the raw materials to the disposal of the products are included. The expected production, sales and distribution of the products of the fuel alcohol plant located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota are dealt with. The objective is to determine the feasibility of the proposed project from a marketing prospective, using current mrketing data and also expected future marketing data. The problems that might occur in the area of the project are also discussed. The recommended action that should be taken if these problems occur is also included.

Not Available

1981-04-01

157

A process concept for utilizing fossil fuel resources with reduced CO sub 2 emission  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence of the probability of a global carbon dioxide greenhouse warming effect. The concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere at the turn of the century was 280 ppM; presently it is 345 ppM, an increase of 23%. This increase has resulted mainly from human activity in burning increasing amounts of fossil fuel -- coal, oil, gas and from deforestation, the cutting down of forested areas. This paper discusses studies that have been made dealing with reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Included are: CO{sub 2} can be removed, recovered and stored in the deep oceans; recover and utilize CO{sub 2} as a commodity; large acreages of trees can be planted to photosynthetically absorb the CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel plants; and improve energy technology efficiency of existing and future power plants. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-04-01

158

Economic development with a modicum of fossil-fuel and foreign-exchange resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that backwardness is an advantage in adapting available technology may no longer be relevant because less-developed countries (LDCs) cannot afford to adapt and maintain capital-intensive technologies based on depleting fossil fuels. An analysis of the economic strain on LDC economies suggests the need to reevaluate development strategies and technology-transfer policies to allow for a gradual shift to renewable

Parvin

2009-01-01

159

Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

Matzie, R A [ed.

1980-04-01

160

Geologic Mapping and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains Quadrangles, Alaska Using Minimal Cloud- and Snow-Cover ASTER Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 8, 2003, ASTER acquired satellite imagery of a 60 km-wide swath of parts of two 1:250,000 Alaska quadrangles, under favorable conditions of minimal cloud- and snow-cover. Rocks from eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the swath of data, several of which define permissive tracts for various mineral deposit types such as: volcanic-hosted massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry copper and molybdenum. Representative rock samples collected from 13 different lithologic units from the Bonnifield mining district within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), plus hydrothermally altered VMS material from the Red Mountain prospect, were analyzed to produce a spectral library spanning the VNIR-SWIR (0.4 - 2.5 ?m) through the TIR (8.1 - 11.7 ?m). Comparison of the five-band ASTER TIR emissivity and decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT display the greatest range and diversity of silica composition of the mapped terranes, ranging from mafic rocks to silicic quartzites. The nine-band ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map several lithologic sequences characterized by distinct suites of minerals that exhibit diagnostic spectral features (e.g. chlorite, epidote, amphibole and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals); other sequences were distinguished by their weathering characteristics and associated hydroxyl- and ferric-iron minerals, such as illite, smectite, and hematite. Smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and/or other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (< 250 m diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation- or snow-cover, or were too small to be resolved.

Hubbard, Bernard E.; Rowan1, Lawrence C.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Eppinger, Robert G.

2007-01-01

161

75 FR 38768 - Rehabilitation of Floodwater Retarding Structure No. 10 of the Mountain Creek Watershed, Ellis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10 of the Mountain Creek Watershed, Ellis County, TX AGENCY: Natural Resources...10 of the Mountain Creek Watershed, Ellis County, Texas. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Amendments of 2000 (Section 313, Pub. L. 106- 472). Total project cost is...

2010-07-06

162

CONDREY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource study indicates that the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area has areas of probable resource potential for copper, zinc, gold, and silver in the westernmost extremities of the area. Although there are no presently exposed chromite concentrations in the serpentinite bodies within the roadless area, the possibility that chromite occurs in the subsurface within these bodies should not be overlooked and they are shown as areas of probable chromite resource potential. No potential for energy resources was identified in the study. The common association of the silver schist and copper-zinc mineralization suggests the two are genetically related. Further study of favorable lithologies in the westernmost part of the roadless area are warranted to refine the estimate of resource potential. 4 refs.

Coleman, R.G.; Mayerle, Ron

1984-01-01

163

Changes in fuelbed characteristics and resulting fire potentials after fuel reduction treatments in dry forests of the Blue Mountains, northeastern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many fire-prone forests in the United States, changes occurring in the last century have resulted in overstory structures, conifer densities, down woody structure and fuel loads that deviate from those described historically. With these changes, forests are presumed to be unsustainable. Broad-scale treatments are proposed to reduce fuels and promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Yet

Andrew Youngblood; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; James D. McIver

2008-01-01

164

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources The Continuing Evolution of America’s Oil Shale and Tar  

E-print Network

have since been revised and updated to reflect changes and progress that have occurred in the domestic oil shale and tar sands industries since the first release and to include profiles of additional companies engaged in oil shale and tar sands resource and technology development. Each of the companies profiled in the original report has been extended the opportunity to update its profile to reflect progress, current activities and future plans.

unknown authors

165

Yucca Mountain and The Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

NA

2005-04-12

166

Survey of United States and total world production, proved reserves, and remaining recoverable resources of fossil fuels and uranium as of December 31, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Institute of Gas Technology update of US and world fossil and uranium reserves and recoverable resources also provides data on current and cumulative production and their life expectancies at selected consumption growth rates. The US has roughly 23% of world proven fossil fuel reserves and 10% of uranium. The report concludes that a serious effort should be made to

1983-01-01

167

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-06-01

168

Rocky Mountain Environment and Society The Rocky Mountain West is the fastest-growing region of the United States. The rapid  

E-print Network

to the plains, to understand and quantify the influence of mountain ecological change on regional society interdisciplinary research and integrated assessments. We quantify the influences of people and society on resourcesRocky Mountain Environment and Society The Rocky Mountain West is the fastest-growing region

MacDonald, Lee

169

Napalm as an energy resource: a study of the molecular weight distribution of polystyrene in napalm and its use in middle distillate fuels.  

PubMed

The large quantity of napalm that is currently being treated as hazardous waste represents a viable energy resource that is too valuable to waste. However, there are significant problems to be overcome before this material can be used as an energy source. The scientific and environmental problems include: the broad molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, solubility and compatibility in a fuel matrix, methods to ensure complete combustion, high benzene concentration, low flash point due to the presence of gasoline, and safety in transportation and handling. In this paper, we present data on the molecular weight distribution of the polystyrene present in the napalm mixture, extraction of the gasoline and benzene from napalm, solubility of napalm in middle distillate fuels, simulated burner characteristics of napalm fuel mixtures, and accelerated storage stability studies of napalm fuel mixtures. PMID:10502603

Mushrush; Beal; Hardy; Hughes

1999-09-01

170

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

171

Acute mountain sickness  

MedlinePLUS

High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

172

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

1995-09-25

173

POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS  

E-print Network

POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-8002 #12;INTRODUCTION The Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus with the USFWS. According to Knopf and Miller (1994), "the Continental population of Mountain Plovers has

174

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

175

Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980–2002 based on exergy—Part 1: Fossil fuels and energy minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource inflow to the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002 is investigated based on exergy as a unified quantifier of natural resources. The major resources entering the society are divided into 17 sectors, with the annual policy for the individual group is analyzed corresponding to the exergy resource inflow. This study is divided into five consequential parts. This paper

G. Q. Chen; B. Chen

2007-01-01

176

Spatial Patterns of Atmospherically Deposited Organic Contaminants at High Elevation in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources such as amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at...

177

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

178

Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability  

SciTech Connect

The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

Not Available

1980-09-01

179

Surface Gasification Materials Program plan for fiscal years 1985 through 1989. [KRW process, Mountain Fuel Resources Process, KILnGas process, Texaco process, Lurgi process  

SciTech Connect

This program plan for the Department of Energy Surface Gasification Materials Program (SGMP) is intended to identify those research and development needs for materials of construction for coal gasification that are appropriate for funding by the SGMP. The status and plans for research and development activities on the SGMP are discussed. Projects completed in FY 1984, those currently in progress, and those planned for initiation during the period FY 1986 through FY 1989 are discussed. Budget estimates for the projects are also presented. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

1985-08-01

180

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

181

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

182

Mountain Building Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. Subject matter covered includes these four categories: folded mountains, volcanic mountains, fault block mountains, and granitic batholiths. It also covers complex mountain chains formed at convergent plate boundaries, where they are folded and faulted and intruded by volcanic features. Complex mountains include Andean-type (ocean-continent) plate boundaries and Himalayan-type (continent-continent) plate boundaries. Mountains such as the Coast Ranges of California are believed to have formed by the accretion (addition) of crustal blocks called foreign terranes. This module also covers the process called isostatic adjustment. It contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions about California geomorphic provinces, place names of landforms handout, and practice quizzes. A feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

183

Energy Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy fuels our planet. Find out where we get our energy and how we have developed technologies to fulfill our energy needs. Learn how our increasing demand for energy affects the environment and how we are addressing the negative effects of that demand through conservation efforts. How will we search for energy to fuel the twenty-first century? Explore these subjects through looking at the energy resources available for use, the history and development of technologies that use these energy resources, and the effect on the environment when we use these resources.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

184

National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Gen 2 Progress. California Air Resources Board 2009 ZEV Symposium. Session 2: Automotive Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration Project Objectives and Targets; Industry Partners: Four Automaker/Energy-Supplier Teams; Vehicle Deployment Complete at 140 FCVs, Some Early Vehicles Retired; DOE Learning Demo Fleet Has Surpassed...

J. Garbak, J. Kurtz, K. Wipke, S. Sprik, T. Ramsden

2009-01-01

185

LANDS WITH WILDERNESS CHARACTERISTICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN CONSTRAINTS, AND LAND EXCHANGES: CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND IMPACTS ON UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN UTAH’S UINTA BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Supporters argue that the Order merely provides guidance regarding implementation of existing legal obligations without creating new rights or duties. Opponents describe Order 3310 as subverting congressional authority to designate Wilderness Areas and as closing millions of acres of public lands to energy development and commodity production. While opponents succeeded in temporarily defunding the Order’s implementation and forcing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to adopt a more collaborative approach, the fundamental questions remain: Which federal public lands possess wilderness characteristics and how should those lands be managed? The closely related question is: How might management of such resources impact unconventional fuel development within Utah? These questions remain pressing independent of the Order because the BLM, which manages the majority of federal land in Utah, is statutorily obligated to maintain an up-to-date inventory of federal public lands and the resources they contain, including lands with wilderness characteristics. The BLM is also legally obligated to develop and periodically update land use plans, relying on information obtained in its public lands inventory. The BLM cannot sidestep these hard choices, and failure to consider wilderness characteristics during the planning process will derail the planning effort. Based on an analysis of the most recent inventory data, lands with wilderness characteristics — whether already subject to mandatory protection under the Wilderness Act, subject to discretionary protections as part of BLM Resource Management Plan revisions, or potentially subject to new protections under Order 3310 — are unlikely to profoundly impact oil shale development within Utah’s Uinta Basin. Lands with wilderness characteristics are likely to v have a greater impact on oil sands resources, particularly those resources found in the southern part of the state. Management requirements independent of l

Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

2012-10-01

186

Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning the actinides in spent fuel and transmuting them in actinide-burning liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs) is a potential method of reducing public risks from the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. In this paper, the authors present a comparison of radionuclide releases from burial at Yucca Mountain of spent fuel and of ALMR wastes. Two waste disposal schemes are considered. In each,

J. Hirschfelder; P. L. Chambre; W. W. L. Lee; T. H. Pigford; M. M. Sadeghi

1991-01-01

187

CERET Web Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy list of online resources is provided by the Consortium for Education in Renewable Energy Technology (CERET) and the resources include information and links on Alternative Vehicles & Fuels, Biomass, Energy Environment & Society, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics & Solar Thermal, and Wind Energy. The site also contains learning objects in Fuel Cell Technology, Solar Technology, and Curriculum Modules.

2012-10-17

188

Evaluating Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to submit a license application in 2008 to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to construct a repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One challenge of the NRC's licensing decision is the evaluation of the potential risk from release of radioactive material by igneous activity at Yucca Mountain during the approximately 1 million year lifetime of the repository. A volcano such as the nearby Lathrop Wells volcano (Figure 1) could erupt through the repository (extrusive scenario), or an igneous dike could intersect it (intrusive scenario). Although the likelihood of either at Yucca Mountain is very low, each is being evaluated.

Hinze, William J.; Marsh, Bruce D.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Coleman, Neil M.

2008-01-01

189

Post-pleistocene dispersal in black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees, and the effect of social dominance on black-capped chickadee winter resource allocation.  

E-print Network

??This study investigates the phylogeographic structure and population genetics of two non-migratory, congeneric species: the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and the mountain chickadee (P. gambeli).… (more)

Hindley, John A

2013-01-01

190

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

191

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... tick species which is a North, Central, and South American carrier of Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a tickborne disease first recognized in 1896 in the Snake River Valley of Idaho. It was originally called “black ...

192

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

193

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.

1999-01-01

194

Mountain Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

Barker, Melissa; Moulton, Jim; Keith, Barbara; Manning, Cheryl; Learnmoreaboutclimate, University of Colorado, Boulder

195

The Altai Mountains environmental disaster (Eastern Kazakhstan)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space centre "Baikoniyr" (Kazakhstan) has had substantial affects on the environment. During the past several decades as a result of the launching of carrier rockets, such as "Proton" that use as fuel the asymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (ASDH), more well-known as "heptyl", the unique mountain landscapes in Eastern Kazakhstan have been subjected to pollution. In 2004, RSE "Kazakh research Institute of Ecology and Climate" carried out the complex geochemical and radiation researches in East Kazakhstan that is an impact area of second stages of carrier rockets. Such detailed examinations of this area were conducted for the first time because the Eastern Kazakhstan Mountains are difficult for human access. The landscape-geochemical research over the natural landscapes covered the ridge, low, and middle mountains with fir forests. The research results have shown the presence of heptyl in the samples of the soil, plants, and rivers’ bottom sediments. The findings of the influence of space activity on environment of the Kazakhstan part of the Altai Mountains confirm and complement the Russian scientific research results over the territory of the neighbouring Altai Krai. Though the heptyl pollution in the investigated region is of a local nature and highly spatially inhomogeneous, nevertheless, this anthropogenic effect intensifying from year to year increases the load on the natural ecosystems. In particular, it strengthens the desertification process of mountain regions of East Kazakhstan.

Akhmadiyeva, Z. K.

2009-12-01

196

Newton's Mountain JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Newton's Mountain JS model illustrates the motion of a projectile launched from the top of a VERY tall mountain on Earth. The diagram shown in the simulation is taken from Newton's A Treatise on the System of the World, which he wrote after the Principia, but the basic idea is found in the Principia itself. Newton concluded that a projectile launched horizontally with sufficient speed would orbit Earth rather than crashing to Earth's surface. Thus the motion of a projectile fired on Earth was not qualitatively different from that of the moon orbiting Earth. EJS Newton's Mountain JS Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool.

Timberlake, Todd; Belloni, Mario

2014-01-05

197

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

198

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Monnes, Colleen

2004-10-01

199

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION USER HANDBOOK Updated: 07Mar2013 For the most Events . . . 15 Volunteer Ac vi es . . . 15 Recrea on . . . . . 16 Safety, and the logis cal support necessary for a wide variety of research and teaching programs. MLBS

Acton, Scott

200

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

201

HAWK MOUNTAIN SANCTUARY, PA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTlCT.--Bimodal migration patterns occur in many raptor species but have not been conclusively documented for American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) along their Appalachian migration route. Kestrels migrating past Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania had a bimodal fall migration pattern when data were averaged over a 26-year period (1963-1988). Peaks at Hawk Mountain centered around 11 September and 2 October. Proportion of males

NANCY G. STOTZ; LAURIE J. GOODRICH

202

KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

1984-01-01

203

Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (COâ) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of COâ, cement manufacture involves

Marland G; T. Boden

1989-01-01

204

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

205

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the

Ralph E. H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01

206

Archaeological program for the Yucca Mountain Site  

SciTech Connect

Archaeological surveys, limited surface collections and selected test excavations in the Yucca Mountain Project Area have revealed four distinct aboriginal hunting and gathering adaptive strategies and a separate historic Euroamerican occupation. The four aboriginal adaptations are marked by gradual shifts in settlement locations that reflect changing resource procurement strategies. Whereas the earliest hunters and gatherers focused their activities around the exploitation of toolstone along ephemeral drainages and the hunting of game animals in the uplands, the latest aboriginal settlements reflect intensive procurement of early spring plant resources in specific upland environments. The final Euroamerican occupation in the area is marked by limited prospecting activities and travel through the area by early immigrants.

Pippin, L.C.; Rhode, D. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

1991-12-31

207

Pacific Mountain System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page guides the user through the Pacific Mountain System geologic province, one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province, which includes parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. One map shows the plate tectonic setting of the Pacific Mountain System which straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates. This province includes the active volcanoes of the Cascade Range and the young, steep mountains of the Pacific Border and the Sierra Nevada. The user can find out more with links to USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Seattle region earthquake hazards, or North Cascades National Park geology. Links are provided to a simple shaded relief map and to several other shaded relief maps including ones with National Park locations and with major and subprovince boundaries. Image gallery links are given to several national parks sites: Lassen Volcanic National Park, Yosemite National Park, and North Cascades National Park.

208

From magic mountain to table mountain.  

PubMed

Prior to the introduction of chemotherapy, tuberculosis management relied upon aerotherapy, heliotherapy and good nutrition. This "treatment", exemplified by the regimen applied in Swiss and other European mountain resorts, is described by Thomas Mann in the book "The Magic Mountain". Tuberculosis chemotherapy began in 1944 with the introduction of streptomycin and para-amino-salicylic acid, later augmented by isoniazid. Early experience taught physicians that treatment must be given with multiple drugs to prevent emergence of resistance and that prolonged treatment adherence for 18-24 months was needed for a permanent cure of tuberculosis. Between 1970 and 1980 rifampicin was introduced and with pyrazinamide it made "short-course" treatment possible. For 30 years, a 6-month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) based on the three compounds isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was the foundation of tuberculosis control strategies world-wide, and in recent years this was supplemented with ethambutol in view of increasing rates of isoniazid resistance. However, even 6 months of treatment is too long to easily ensure the compliance necessary to permanently cure tuberculosis. The recent spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has placed tuberculosis programmes under severe pressure and is accompanied by an increase in drug-resistance making tuberculosis virtually untreatable in some instances. In 2004 the first of a new generation of anti-tuberculosis drugs entered clinical evaluation. A series of clinical trials, often conducted at sites in Cape Town, South Africa, has shown them to be efficacious and hold promise of being able to shorten tuberculosis treatment and treat drug-resistant tuberculosis. Development and assessment of these drugs is ongoing but there is renewed hope that these new drugs and regimens will assist in finally conquering tuberculosis, preventing a return to Magic Mountain where sunshine and fresh air was all that could be offered to patients. PMID:22915310

Diacon, Andreas H; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Donald, Peter R

2012-01-01

209

Landscape change patterns in mountains, land use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegain mountains have had a central role in the subsistence agroecosystems by providing vast biological resources for humans and their livestock since 4000–3500 BP as indicated by paleoecological records. Later with the development of the summer farming system the use of the mountains was intensified. This long-term use of the mountains has shaped a montane cultural landscape by livestock grazing,

E. Gunilla A. Olsson; Gunnar Austrheim; Synnøve N. Grenne

2000-01-01

210

SKY LAKES ROADLESS AREA AND MOUNTAIN LAKES WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on a mineral survey of the Sky Lakes Roadless Area and the Mountain Lakes Wilderness, Oregon, the areas have little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral resources or geothermal energy resources. Nonmetallic resources exist in the areas, but other areas outside the roadless area and wilderness also contain resources of volcanic cinders, scoria, ash, breccia, and sand and gravel which are easier to obtain and closer to markets. The roadless area and wilderness are not geologically favorable for metallic deposits, or for coal, oil, or gas resources.

Smith, James G.; Benham, John R.

1984-01-01

211

InterMountain 2 Big White Salmon  

E-print Network

Columbia River Basin Subbasins #12;Lower Columbia Columbia Plateau Columbia Estuary Mountain Snake Upper Snake Middle Snake Columbia Cascade Columbia Gorge InterMountain Mountain Columbia Blue Mountain Seattle Portland Boise Missoula

212

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

213

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Mcmillan, Margaret

214

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

215

Climate and Wildfire in Mountains of the Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the area burned in wildfires in mountain forests of the western United States, with mean annual area burned nearly three and a half times higher compared to the preceding one and a half decades.(1) Concomitant increases in variability in annual area burned and in fire suppression costs pose a serious challenge for land management in the mountainous West. The variance in annual area burned since 1987 is nineteen times its previous level. Since managers must be prepared for the worst possible scenarios in every fire season, increased uncertainty about the scale of the western fire season each year imposes high costs on public agencies. Annual real suppression costs in western forests have more than doubled for the Forest Service since 1987, while the variance in annual suppression costs is over four times higher. Although federal agencies' fire suppression budgets have increased recently, they are still close to what would be spent in an "average" year that seldom occurs, while costs tend to fluctuate between low and high extremes. Modeling area burned and suppression costs as a function of climate variability alone, Westerling (2004, unpublished work) found that the probability of the Forest Service's suppression expenses exceeding the current annual suppression budget has exceeded 50% since 1987, a substantial increase from the one-in-three chance over the preceding 40 years. Recent progress in our understanding of the links between climate and wildfire, and in our ability to forecast some aspects of both climate and wildfire season severity a season or more in advance, offers some hope that these costs might be ameliorated through the integration of climate information into fire and fuels management. In addition to the effects of climate variability on wildfire, long-term biomass accumulations in some western ecosystems have fueled an increasing incidence of large, stand-replacing wildfires where such fires were previously rare. These severe large fires can result in erosion and changes in vegetation type, with consequences for water quality, stream flow, future biological productivity of the affected areas, and habitat loss for endangered species. Apart from their deleterious ecological consequences, severe fires can also dramatically affect amenity values for public lands and for homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. In the National Fire Plan, land management agencies have committed to reducing fuels on millions of hectares of public lands. The primary means are mechanical removal, prescribed fire and wildland fire use. The Forest Service estimates they will need to spend hundreds of millions of dollars per year to meet their fuel reduction targets, while efforts in recent years have not kept up with the current rate of biomass increase. Use of climate information for targeting resources and scheduling prescribed burns could increase the efficiency of these efforts. In this study we review the fire history since 1970 for western mountain forests, and demonstrate apparent links between regional climate variability and decadal-scale changes in annual area burned. This analysis explores how wildfire size and frequency have varied over the past thirty-five years by elevation and latitude, and how climate indices such as precipitation, temperature, drought indices and the timing of spring runoff vary in importance for fire season severity by elevation in forests around the western United States.

Alfaro, E.; Westerling, A. L.; Cayan, D. R.

2004-12-01

216

NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Opportunities are available with a wide array of local, national, and inter-  

E-print Network

, and inter- national organizations and institutions involved in natural resource man- agement. Graduates Invasive Species Technician Lab Technician Mountain Concierge Range Technician Recreation Planner Visitor Legacy Land Trust Mountain Whitewater Descents National Park Service New Hampshire Conservation Corps

217

Rocky Mountain High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

Hill, David

2001-01-01

218

Greening of Blue Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the revegetation of Blue Mountain in Palmertown, Pennsylvania, which was biologically destroyed by a zinc smelting operation. After application of industrial fly ash and a municipal sludge mixture, grasses and microbes and some tree seedlings are present. The article outlines in detail the processes of testing and experimentation with the soils and the plants.

W. E. Sopper; J. M. McMahon

1987-01-01

219

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

220

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

221

Mountains & Hills Piedmont Slope  

E-print Network

et al. 1981 alluvial fill Tertiary volcanic rocks Tertiary plutonic rocks Precambrian rocks Paleozoic sedimentary rocks Paleoclimate and Landscape Evolution #12;Basin Floor Piedmont Slope (Bajada) Mountains #12;#12;clay coatings & iron oxides quartz rock fragment quartz quartz quartz quartz qtz qtz qtz qtz

222

Why Man Climbs Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a report on the results of a study of 266 members of the Alpine Club of Canada, Calgary Section. The study attempted to gain further insight into why people climb mountains. The results indicate that an everchanging mosaic of primary and secondary motives for climbing exist. Age, ability and sex would appear to be three of the

Robert D. Bratton; George Kinnear; Gary Koroluk

1979-01-01

223

Mountains and Atmospheres  

E-print Network

gravity limits the size of mountains - it turns out that the Himalayas on Earth are about as high gravity vary on different planets? The mass of a planet of density and radius r is 3 3 4 rM = #12;Surface Gravity So how can we work out the surface gravity of a planet? The acceleration of an object

Francis, Paul

224

Identifying indirect habitat loss and avoidance of human infrastructure by northern mountain woodland caribou  

E-print Network

mountain woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia, Canada, with seasonal resource due to avoidance. Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are habitat specialists and are sensitive online 10 August 2011 Keywords: Cumulative effect Habitat selection Potential habitat Rangifer tarandus

Hebblewhite, Mark

225

Testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources POLICIES TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL  

E-print Network

TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY 2:30 pm, Tuesday, January 30, 2007 Dirksen Senate. But it is also because car buyers undervalue fuel economy. Raising the fuel economy of passenger cars and light

226

Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

Geldon, A.L.

1993-12-31

227

Model Analysis of Spatial Patterns in Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle [MPB,Dendroctonus ponderosaeHopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)] is an aggressive bark beetle, one that typically needs to kill host trees in order to successfully reproduce. This ecological adaptation has resulted in an organism that is both economically important and ecologically significant. Even though significant resources have been expended on MPB research, and a great deal of knowledge exists regarding

Jesse A. Logan; Peter White; Barbara J. Bentz; James A. Powell

1998-01-01

228

The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site offers a review of the agricultural devastation and eventual extinction, in about 1902, of the Rocky Mountain Locust, a once phenomenally abundant insect. The site includes bibliographical references. The author (C. R. Bomar) includes nine study questions for discussion on issues of social responsibility, extinction, and conservation. This resource is also available in PDF format.

0002-11-30

229

Mountain West Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

230

Folds, Faults, and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash explores forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. The overview covers topics such as stress, tension, deformation, strike, dip, folds and thrusts, and an interactive model allows users to model different processes related to these topics. This site provides diagrams, interactive animations, and supplementary information suitable for introductory level undergraduate physical geology or high school Earth science students.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

231

ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA  

E-print Network

vegetation was Atriplex con fertifolia (Torr. & Frem.), Tetradymia tetra meres (Blake), Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hookl), Astragalus lentiginousus Dougl., and Psoralea lanceolata (Pursh.), and at Sand Mountain

Hanks, Lawrence M.

232

THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT DRIFT SCALE TEST  

SciTech Connect

The mission for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is to safely manage and dispose of the nation's spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste in a geologic repository. A potential site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is being studied by the DOE. Nuclear waste is to be contained in packages which will be emplaced in the repository for thousands of years. After these manmade packages eventually degrade, the repository should continue to isolate nuclear waste from the environment. The repository is to comply with the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and its amendments. Also, the health and safety of the workers will not be compromised during the construction and operation of the repository. To investigate important technical issues inherent with the construction, operation, closure, and performance of the repository, a series of in situ experiments have been planned for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) located inside Yucca Mountain. The ESF Thermal Test is an integral part of the Site Characterization Plan developed in 1988 following the Congressional mandate to evaluate only Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. The planning documented in the Site Characterization Program has evolved to include the construction of the ESF to accommodate changing needs and increased understanding of the Yucca Mountain Project. The recently updated ESF thermal testing strategy includes the Drift Scale Test (DST). The DST is more complex, longer duration and larger-scale than its predecessor--the Single Heater Test. The primary purpose of the DST is to acquire a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes anticipated in the rock mass surrounding the proposed repository.

Finley, Ray R.; Boyle, William J.; Danneels, Jefrey J.; Datta, Robin N.; Elkins, Ned Z.; George, James T.; Homuth, E. Red; Lee, Moo Y.; Lin, Wunan; Peters, Mark T.; Riggins, Michael; Tsang, Yvonne

1998-04-28

233

NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology section of future revisions of the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c).

D.F. Fenster

2000-12-11

234

Mountain-eering University of Trento Spin off  

E-print Network

. Collaboration with research institutions and universities on· applied research projects. Venture capital:· environmental engineering and green technology solutions for the hydrological analysis of the territory. Technology (products and services) Mountain-eering works to provide solutions at 360° to complex challenges

235

Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than the passive retrievals. Specifically, we examine the decade-long record from Terra and Aqua to bracket the historical record. In the California Sierra Nevada, surface measurements have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for us to validate our approach, whereas in the Hindu Kush surface data are sparse and access presents significant difficulties.

Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

2013-12-01

236

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

237

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2013-10-01

238

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2012-10-01

239

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain...fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United...the central and mountain standard time zones described in § 71.7 and east...

2011-10-01

240

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Pearson, Gene

241

Strategies and recommendations for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Forest service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute held three types of meetings to obtain public and scientific input into strategies for addressing forest health issues in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Seven strategies are proposed: (2) plan and implement management on a landscape level, (2) enhance training on natural resources, (3) facilitate public involvement in planning and decision making,

J. A. Tanaka; G. L. Starr; T. M. Quigley

1995-01-01

242

Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region; Yucca Mountain Project, Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research

1990-01-01

243

Cable Television and Education: A Position Paper. Based On the Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Learning Resources Association Sponsored CATV and Education Conference, Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Champion, Pa., May 11-12, 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cable television (CATV) has often been put to educational uses too quickly, too comprehensively, too superficially, and for the wrong reasons. In Pennsylvania, as in other states, there is a need for a systematic approach to coordinating CATV with other educational resources. The Pennsylvania Department of Education can promote the more effective…

Forsythe, Charles; Cardellino, Earl

244

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

245

THE NATURE OF MOUNTAIN GEOMORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century of study suggests many common characteristics in the geomorphic nature of high mountain areas. These include important structural influences in the landscape, usually on a variety of spatial scales; and contrasting climatic conditions (often confounded with vegetation distributions) which also exhibit a wide spatial variability. Most high mountain terrain also shows evidence of ancient erosion surfaces as well

NEL CAINE

1984-01-01

246

A Day on Bare Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students may have the idea that all mountains are volcanoes and were formed by eruptions. The story in this chapter brings up questions about the geology of mountains and the weathering and erosion that takes place as nature breaks down the higher landsca

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2010-03-12

247

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

248

Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

2014-01-01

249

Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-04-01

250

The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain.

Ostler, W.K.; O`Farrell, T.P.

1994-06-01

251

[A primary research on the population influence on ecological environment in the mountain area of the South An Hui Province].  

PubMed

The 16 counties in the mountain region of South Anhui Province have a land mass of 29,176 sq. km and a 1983 population of 491,720,000, a majority of whom are farmers. Forests, tea and grains are the villages' major sources of income. 80% of the area is hilly; the climate is temperate and rainfall is adequate. In recent years, a rapid population increase and inattention to proper use of natural resources have eroded the environment. Since 1949 the population of this area increased 70%, putting tremendous pressure on the land and fuel. The demand for housing, factories, transportation and communication to accomodate the population increase constantly decreases the availability of farmland. Arable land decreased by about 3,000,000 sq. acres between 1949 and 1983. Because the average individual acreage is small, production is low, leading to frequent grain shortages. Forests are then destroyed to make farmland, but in the process, the flora and fauna are disturbed while production remains low and uneven. In addition, firewood, the main source of fuel, will not be replenished rapidly enough to meet the needs of the growing population. The quality of this mountain population also influences ecology. Almost 80% of the people are semi-literate, traditional in their attitudes and customs, and unreceptive to new ideas. Family planning has not been successful here, nor is there a deep understanding of the consequences of deforestation. It is necessary, then, to control this area's population growth, improve the population's quality, raise its environmental consciousness, and utilize its resources effectively. PMID:12159299

Ren, Q

1987-09-01

252

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available

2007-05-01

253

Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina rail alignment. The Department would use the selected common segments and alternative segments to identify the public lands to be included in right-of-way applications; - Decide where to construct proposed railroad operations support facilities; - Decide whether to restrict use of the rail line to DOE trains, or whether to allow commercial shippers to operate over the rail line; and - Determine what mitigation measures to implement. (authors)

Lanthrum, G. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gunnerson, J. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2008-07-01

254

Computer resources Computer resources  

E-print Network

Computer resources 1 Computer resources available to the LEAD group Cédric David 30 September 2009 #12;Ouline · UT computer resources and services · JSG computer resources and services · LEAD computers· LEAD computers 2 #12;UT Austin services UT EID and Password 3 https://utdirect.utexas.edu #12;UT Austin

Yang, Zong-Liang

255

ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

256

Hydrology and the natural heritage of the Scottish mountains.  

PubMed

The physical natures of the Scottish mountains and their geographical position have created a montane environment, which can be considered as unique in European terms. The mountains of Scotland have been subjected to major environmental changes throughout the past centuries including climate change, deforestation, hydropower developments and more recently the expansion of plantation forestry. Mountain ecosystems have the ability to withstand large climatic variations and extreme events but it is suggested that they may not withstand some of the climatic barriers, which have recently been crossed. The greatest recent land use change in Scotland's mountains has been the expansion of plantation forests. The effects on headwater catchment hydrology are mainly in the reduction in runoff. It is suggested that plantation forestry has a more significant impact on the natural heritage through other influences such as water chemistry and river sediments. Future management of the Scottish mountains needs to consider the great natural heritage value in addition to other interests such as water resources, hydropower generation, commercial forestry and tourism. PMID:12169004

Johnson, R C; Thompson, D B

2002-07-22

257

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

258

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

259

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

260

Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as

W. Dan Hausel

1983-01-01

261

CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

Brock, Maurice, R.; Lindquist, Alec, E.

1984-01-01

262

Green tourism in mountain regions-reducing vulnerability and promoting people and place centric development in the Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular.\\u000a The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such\\u000a as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry\\u000a market, uncontrolled numbers

R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra

2004-01-01

263

Analyzing Spatio-Temporal Hydrological Processes and Related Gradients to Improve Hydrological Modeling in High Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mountain hydrology suffers from insufficient data availability and partly coarse process understanding. But the improvement\\u000a of our process knowledge is the key to manage the mountain water resources in present and future. Hydrological models like\\u000a WaSiM-ETH are used to simulate the water balance in areas were less data are available. The validation and estimation of (un-)certainties\\u000a of the model are

Ole Rößler; Jörg Löffler

2010-01-01

264

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

265

Yucca Mountain Project public interactions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

Reilly, B.E.

1990-04-01

266

Mining activity and habitat use by mountain sheep ( Ovis canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mountain sheep in the vicinity of three high-wall limestone mines in San Bernardino County, CA, USA to evaluate\\u000a factors that influenced habitat use and, specifically, to investigate the influence of mining activity on distribution of\\u000a those specialized ungulates. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate a resource selection function by fitting a logistic\\u000a regression model and then comparing

Vernon C. Bleich; James H. Davis; Jason P. Marshal; Steven G. Torres; Ben J. Gonzales

2009-01-01

267

Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the US Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

2009-01-01

268

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State (Danes, 1975, 1979, 1981; Korosec and others, 1981). The purpose of the work has been to gather baseline gravity data for eventual contribution to geothermal resource evaluation. However, it is expected that the Cascade gravity data will prove useful in a number of future endeavors such as fossil fuel and mineral exploration, as the gravity method is a basic tool of the exploration geophysicist. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington. This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections. It is hoped that release of this report will encourage analysis of Cascade gravity data beyond the standard treatment (complete Bouguer gravity anomaly at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cm{sup 2}) presented in Danes and Phillips, (1983).

Danes, Z.F.; Phillips, William M.

1983-02-01

269

The Pine Mountain Observatory Outreach Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pine Mountain Observatory is located in Central Oregon at an elevation of 6700 feet. Three scopes of size 16, 24 and 32 inches are located there. Throughout the last decade we have run a robust summer visitors program which educates about 3000 people per year. Recently we have finished a Prime Focus CCD system for the 32-inch telescope. This system reads out in 5 seconds and has a shutter that can time as short as 10 milliseconds. The field of view is 36 x 36 arcminutes. We are currently engaged in a number of K12 teacher education projects. The biggest obstacle facing these teachers was their ability to handle FITS data. To solve this problem we have developed a robust JAVA applet for doing image analysis and automatic photometry on FITS data. In this talk we will demonstrate how a teacher can construct an HR diagram for the open cluster M39 where the root data are Blue and Red filter exposures each of duration 10 milliseconds. In such exposures, only the stars that are actually in M39 register on the detector. This flexibility allows Pine Mountain to be a unique resource for teachers as we can take custom data through a variety of filters which can then all be reduced inside a Web browser.

Bothun, G. D.; Kang, R.

2000-12-01

270

Climb every mountain.  

PubMed

In Egypt, the Association of Garbage Collectors for Community Development (AGCCD), created and administered with government support by Zabballeen (low-income people who have collected, sorted, and recycled Cairo's mountains of garbage since 1970), serves an urban settlement of 16,000 where entire households supplement their living from scavenging by raising pigs, chickens, and rabbits. The AGCCD employs 44 women in a primary health care and credit program for women that involves home visits, provision of primary health care, disease prevention, immunization, and reproductive health care (RHC). The low status of the women has meant that the birth of a girl is rarely registered, so that Zabballeen girls can not enjoy the benefits of citizenship. The main goal of the AGCCD has been to increase the role of women in RHC decision-making in their families. Many women have been successful in convincing their husbands of the need for permanent contraception and have resisted efforts to have daughters married at an early age. Recently, RHC discussions have been conducted with men. Women have also begun to actively oppose female genital mutilation. Future challenges for AGCCD include gender training, increasing the birth registration of girls, forming new groups of girls and women to promote women's health by improving gender relations, and providing legal advice and assistance to women, especially those whose births were not registered. PMID:12348580

Awad, L; Traboulsi, O; Abu-habib, L

1998-03-01

271

Fuels. (California Energy Commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fuels Report is prepared in response to legislative requirements specified in Public Resources Code Section 25310(a). The statute calls for the California Energy Commission to submit to the Governor and Legislature a comprehensive report describing em...

1994-01-01

272

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter SW A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By R.M. Flores of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

273

SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

Chapter PH SHERIDAN COALFIELD, POWDER RIVER BASIN: GEOLOGY, COAL QUALITY, AND COAL RESOURCES By M assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

274

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

275

Fuel Cell Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells Today is a useful online resource with a very diverse range of materials about fuel cell technology. Possibly the most interesting part of the site is the Reference Centre, where users can find information on different types of fuel cells, their applications, history of their development, possible materials to use in their design, and more. All educational and technical descriptions are intended to promote the global adoption of fuel cells as a clean, efficient energy source. There is also plenty of literature in the Knowledge Bank. Fuel cell news and emerging technologies are covered, and the site is updated often.

2001-01-01

276

SPENT FUEL MEASUREMENTS IN SUPPORT OF BURNUP CREDIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage, transportation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel continue to be significant problems faced by the commercial nuclear industry. Agreements made between the nuclear utilities and the Department of Energy regarding spent fuel disposal have yet to be implemented due to the delayed opening of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. This delay has forced utilities to consider alternative spent fuel

Alan Simpson; Martin Clapham; Bryan Swinson; Becky Battle

277

Warner College of Natural Resources Graduation Survey December 2011  

E-print Network

by Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism at 70% and Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology at 54, with Rocky Mountain National Park being the most popular, followed by the USDA Forest Service. 54% 46% 36% 41

278

CANDU fuel cycle flexibility  

SciTech Connect

High neutron economy, on-power refuelling, and a simple bundle design provide a high degree of flexibility that enables CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium; registered trademark) reactors to be fuelled with a wide variety of fuel types. Near-term applications include the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), and recovered uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel. Plutonium and other actinides arising from various sources, including spent LWR fuel, can be accommodated, and weapons-origin plutonium could be destroyed by burning in CANDU. In the DUPIC fuel cycle, a dry processing method would convert spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel to CANDU fuel. The thorium cycle remains of strategic interest in CANDU to ensure long-term resource availability, and would be of specific interest to those countries possessing large thorium reserves, but limited uranium resources.

Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G. [Chalk River Lab., Ontario (Canada); Dastur, A.R. [AECL CANDU, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31

279

Perspectives in U.S. Energy Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>An inventory of U. S. energy resources is presented together with ; approximate timetables and product costs for implementation of the technologies ; necessary for clean utilization of these resources. These energy components ; include fossil fuels and their conversion to clean synthetic fuels, nuclear fuel ; supplies, geothermal energy, wind power, thermonuclear fusion, and the ultimate ; resource, solar

Ralph H Plumlee

1974-01-01

280

Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan  

SciTech Connect

The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harrison, C.D. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States); Huber, D.W.

1995-12-31

281

Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging hikers to date, the ratio of resource expenditures in recruiting volunteers and QA/QCing their data for actual research application has been high. Mountain Watch staff are now refining the program to achieve education and research goals a manner that is sustainable into the future with limited fiscal and staff resources. The quality of our citizen phenology observations, in comparison to staff monitoring, has lead to refinements including directing general audience hikers to well-defined trailside observation stations, growing our more skilled amateur botanist volunteer base, and use of remote cameras for quality controls and better temporal coverage. Visibility monitoring at four mountain vistas has recently been analyzed in the context of policy applications. Refinements will be presented that will further inform natural resource management of air quality in relation to Clean Air Act Air Quality Related Values and a potential visibility focused particulate matter secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Overall lessons learned, regarding audience considerations, resource needs, and long-term sustainability, from our 5-year field based geoscience programs will be discussed.

Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

2010-12-01

282

Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

2009-01-01

283

Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

284

Guadalupe Mountains National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website offers information on: planning a visit to the park; natural resources such as the geology, wildlife, plants, and wildland fires of the park; cultural history including that of the Mescalero Apaches and the Buffalo Soldiers; and park management issues. A description of the Permian geology of the park includes the rock exposures (composed of reef, back-reef, fore-reef, and basin sediments) which form the ancient fossil reef known as the Capitan Reef of the ancient Delaware Sea.

285

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

286

Environmental assessment overview, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendations of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs.

NONE

1986-05-01

287

Native Plants of Montara Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is always inspiring to find websites that have been created by a committed individual who is passionate about the site's subject. Developed by naturalist Chuck Kozak, Native Plants of Montara Mountain is just that type of website. Mr. Kozak has assembled a nice online field guide of plants native to Montara Mountain, a northern spur of California's Santa Cruz Mountains. The guide organizes plants by Family and Scientific name, Common name, or Color and Type. Site visitors can also find plants by using the alphabetically organized Master Index. The numerous plant entries include clear photos and brief descriptions. Although the website focuses on the flora of a specific area, many of these plants can be found in other geographic regions as well. This site is also reviewed in the September 3, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

288

Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

1995-12-31

289

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

290

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01

291

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Association of Canada, Automobile Parts Manufacturing Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Fertilizer Institute, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Fuels  

E-print Network

, Mining Association of Canada, Pacific Institute for Climate Studies, Energy and Materials Research Group Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Association of Canada, Automobile Parts Manufacturing Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Fertilizer

292

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

293

78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation...that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation...intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

2013-05-20

294

Conservation Assessment of the Sacramento Mountain Salamander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document synthesizes existing information on the Sacramento Mountain salamander, a terrestrial amphibian endemic to three mountain ranges in southern New Mexico. The salamander is found in mixed-conifer forests primarily on USDA Forest Service lands,...

C. A. Ramotnik

1997-01-01

295

Examining Repository Loading Options to Expand Yucca Mountain Repository Capacity  

SciTech Connect

Siting a high level nuclear waste repository entails high economic, social, and political costs. Given the difficulty in siting the Yucca Mountain repository and the already identified need for additional capacity, the concept of expanding the capacity of the Yucca Mountain repository is of significant interest to the nuclear industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). As the capacity of the repository is limited by the decay heat inventory of the spent nuclear fuel in relation to the thermal design limits, expanding the capacity requires appropriate schemes for decay heat and spent fuel loading management. The current Yucca Mountain repository is based on a single level, fixed drift spacing design for a fixed area or footprint. Studies performed to date investigating the capacity of Yucca Mountain often assume that the loading of spent fuel is uniform throughout the repository and use the concept of a linear loading or areal power density (APD). However, use of linear loading or APD can be problematic with the various cooling times involved. The temperature within the repository at any point in time is controlled by the integral of the heat deposited in the repository. The integral of the decay heat varies as a function of pre-loading cooling periods even for a fixed linear loading. A meaningful repository capacity analysis requires the use of a computer model that describes the time-dependent temperature distributions of the rock from the dissipation of the heat through the repository system. If variations from the current Yucca Mountain repository design were to be considered, expanding the capacity of the repository would be pursued in several ways including: (1) increase the footprint size; (2) implement multiple-levels in the repository for the given footprint; (3) allow the drift distance to vary within thermal limits; and, (4) allow non-uniform loading of wastes into the drifts within thermal limits. Options (1) and (2) have been investigated by other researchers. This paper investigates options (3) and (4) for possible expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository capacity. To support the work, a thermal analysis model was needed to describe the temperature changes in the rock around the waste packages against the thermal design limits as a function of spent fuel characteristics and composition. Under the high temperature operating mode (HTOM), the relevant thermal design limits are: (1) the rock temperature midway between adjacent drifts must remain below the local boiling point (96 deg. C); and (2) the rock temperature at drift walls must remain below 200 deg. C. As the work involves a large number of calculations, examining the compliance within thermal design limits, the capability to perform efficient mountain-scale heat-transfer analyses was necessary. A related topic of importance in this investigation was also the effect of uncertainty. As the modeling exercise relies on the use of computational models, uncertainties are unavoidable and understanding the uncertainty in the interpretation of the results is important. The concept of variable drift spacing and variable drift thermal loading was investigated with respect to possible capacity expansion of the Yucca Mountain repository. Also, a computer model was developed for efficient repository heat transfer calculations and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to identify key parameters and to estimate the uncertainty in the results and understand how the repository capacity estimation would be affected by the uncertainty. (authors)

Li, Jun; Nicholson, Mark; Proctor, W. Cyrus; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States)

2007-07-01

296

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

297

Author's personal copy Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Cost analysis of the US spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility E fuel cycle Spent nuclear fuel Reprocessing Energy economics The US Department of Energy is actively Mountain. All of the realistic approaches require the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. However, the US

Deinert, Mark

298

Alcohol fuels policy. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session. Part 2. Potential for renewable resource alcohol fuels, June 25, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Transcripts of the Hearing on this government's commitment to alternate energy sources, alcohol fuels, are presented in this volume. Questions raised are: will the government commit itself to full-fledged production of farm-based alcohol fuels; will the farmer and local owners in rural communities be given the opportunity to make a maximum contribution to that program; or will giant oil or other huge energy conglomerates be allowed to totally control alcohol fuel because of the lack of a sound government policy committed to small-scale production and marketing. Senator McGovern states that the Secretary of Energy has thus far failed to articulate a comprehensive policy on this matter.

Not Available

1980-01-01

299

Implications of climate and environmental change for nature-based tourism in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: A case study of Waterton Lakes National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western North America, Rocky Mountain national parks represent a major resource for nature-based tourism. This paper examines how climate change may influence park tourism in the Rocky Mountain region by focusing on both the direct and indirect impacts of climate change for visitation to Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP) (Alberta, Canada). A statistical model of monthly visitation and climate

Daniel Scott; Brenda Jones; Jasmina Konopek

2007-01-01

300

Application of ERTS-1 imagery and underflight photography in the detection and monitoring of forest insect infestations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of areas in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is discussed. The data is used to detect two types of insect infestational and to determine the extent of timber resources. Addition applications are the mapping of stream courses, mountain meadows, lakes, rock outcrops, and grazing land. The ERTS-1 data and underflight photography are used for this purpose.

Hall, R. C.

1973-01-01

301

Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing

Beverley Wemple; James Shanley; Jon Denner; Donald Ross; Kevin Mills

2007-01-01

302

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

303

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

304

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

305

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

306

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

307

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

308

Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on

Leora Nanus; Donald H. Campbell; George P. Ingersoll; David W. Clow; M. Alisa Mast

2003-01-01

309

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

310

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

311

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

312

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

313

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

314

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

315

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

316

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

317

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

318

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

319

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

320

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

321

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

322

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

323

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2012-04-01

324

BEHAVIOR OF HIGH RISK MOUNTAIN LIONS  

E-print Network

BEHAVIOR OF HIGH RISK MOUNTAIN LIONS BIG BEND NATIONAL PARK, TEXAS Final Report Cooperative Parks incidents have occurred in the last five years, in which mountain lions (Felis concolor of humans. In thirty previous years (1953-1983, at least thirty-eight occurrences of mountain lions

Packard, Jane M.

325

Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

Voegtly, N.E.

1981-01-01

326

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed,

2006-01-01

327

Energy and resource consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

1973-01-01

328

Fuel Cells 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

329

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colombia  

PubMed Central

We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that >21% of the serum samples had antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae. PMID:18214179

Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P.; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David

2007-01-01

330

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence In Educational Development, Inc.

331

AN ANCIENT ROCKY MOUNTAIN CAVER  

Microsoft Academic Search

High in the southern Rocky Mountains, a man in his early 40s died ca. 8000 years ago in a small cave. His skeletal remains were discovered in 1988 by three cave explorers. Realizing the implications of their discovery, the explorers ini- tiated contacts to form a research team to study the site. Our team has spent many hours discussing the

CYNDI J. MOSCH; PATTY JO WATSON

332

Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

1974-01-01

333

BisonMountain Third Floor  

E-print Network

BisonMountain Lion Fishes of Texas up to 4th floorv vdown to 2nd floor Third Floor TheMuseum Store in Texas, including a few that are currently endangered or threatened in the wild. The Fishes of Texas. Being an urban watershed, Waller Creek suffers many pollution problems. Trash from the streets washes

Johnston, Daniel

334

Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

Geographic, National

335

Land-Cover Trends of the Southern California Mountains Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an assessment of land-use and land-cover (LU/LC) change in the Southern California Mountains ecoregion for the period 1973-2001. The Southern California Mountains is one of 84 Level-III ecoregions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ecoregions have served as a spatial framework for environmental resource management, denoting areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The established Land Cover Trends methodology generates estimates of change for ecoregions using a probability sampling approach and change-detection analysis of thematic land-cover images derived from Landsat satellite imagery.

Soulard, Christopher E.; Raumann, Christian G.; Wilson, Tamara S.

2007-01-01

336

The Natural History of the San Gabriel Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately published Web site functions as a detailed natural history guide to California's San Gabriel Mountains. Users can access a wealth of detailed information regarding the region's plants, animals, weather conditions, etc. The road guides are so detailed that the reader may almost feel as if he or she is actually there. While the text is dense and images are few and far between, almost every page of this Web site contains numerous links to other sites that offer useful photos. The incredible detail of this Web site may be off-putting for those seeking a casual glimpse at the San Gabriel Mountains, but for those more actively interested in the region, this site would be a rich natural history resource filled with careful observations and well-referenced information.

337

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

338

Feasibility analysis on developing the resourceful plant jatropha curcas L. as biological energy industry in Guizhou province  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop industry of putting jatropha curcas L. as biological diesel fuel In Guizhou province, which covered with mountains here and there, is in leading position in the world now, comparative speaking, as a biological diesel fuel the jatropha curcas L. is a renewable and environment-friendly fuel, it is a typical green fuel. Therefore, it could accelerate the speed of

Su Jie

2010-01-01

339

Fueling systems  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with concepts of the Tiber II tokamak reactor fueling systems. Contained in this report are the fuel injection requirement data, startup fueling requirements, intermediate range fueling requirements, power range fueling requirements and research and development considerations. (LSR)

Gorker, G.E.

1987-01-01

340

Gravity interpretation of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming  

E-print Network

. JJ) and interpre- tive structure models. . 10 Figure Figure Figure Density interpretation from the density log of the Mountain Fuel Supply Company Church Buttes Unit Well 19, Church Buttes Field (SE NE 8-16N-112M) Uinta County, Wyoming... '; re the opogr eph", ' e: Di es "icn of orro of . he large=t st& natural features in *he Rock; I'r'!our;? I;ain Fore and Province. The structure of the meum!, aine ha' 'oeon variou, . l; interpr et ed a" (1) a . ertical block up!. ift, (Z) compr...

Parks, Pamela Hennis

2012-06-07

341

Solar fuels: vision and concepts.  

PubMed

The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and 'endless' resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involving direct, semi-direct and indirect approaches to produce solar fuels, are overviewed. PMID:22434445

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

342

Big Rock Candy Mountain; Resources for Our Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material reviewed in this edition is loosely divided into categories--process learning, educational environments, classroom materials, home learning, self discovery, and education and consciousness. As in previous editions of the catalog, education is defined in its broadest sense, so that the material reviewed is suitable for many age groups…

Yanes, Samuel, Ed.; Holdorf, Cia, Ed.

343

Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995, Number 12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)  

SciTech Connect

During the first half of fiscal year 1995, most activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project were directed at implementing the Program Plan developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Plan is designed to enable the Office to make measurable and significant progress toward key objectives over the next five years within the financial resources that can be realistically expected. Activities this period focused on the immediate goal of determining by 1998 whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is technically suitable as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work on the Project advanced in several critical areas, including programmatic activities such as issuing the Program Plan, completing the first technical basis report to support the assessment of three 10 CFR 960 guidelines, developing the Notice of Intent for the Environmental Impact Statement, submitting the License Application Annotated Outline, and beginning a rebaselining effort to conform with the goals of the Program Plan. Scientific investigation and analysis of the site and design and construction activities to support the evaluation of the technical suitability of the site also advanced. Specific details relating to all Project activities and reports generated are presented in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01

344

Water Quality Effects of Above-Stream Feeders in Low-Nutrient North Carolina Mountain Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1990-1993, pelletized fish food was added daily to 900-m stretches of four mountain streams by the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, in an attempt to increase the standing crop and maximal size of wild trout. This report assesses water qu...

J. F. Gilliam, T. A. Cady

1997-01-01

345

Assessing Variation in Wildlife Biodiversity in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan Using Ancillary  

E-print Network

1998) and throughout the Soviet era, poaching of natural resources generally occurred at low levels in the mountainous regions. The concurrent increase in black market trade led to unprecedented levels of poaching of marginalized states, with drastic increases in poverty levels (Sievers 2003). Poaching continues, largely

Schweik, Charles M.

346

Seasonal pattern of regional carbon balance in the central Rocky Mountains from surface and airborne measurements  

E-print Network

, King's College, London, UK. 3 Now at School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona severely damaged by drought, fire, and insect outbreaks, which have been quantified at local scales but not assessed in terms of carbon uptake at regional scales. The Airborne Carbon in the Mountains Experiment

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

347

Errata to Activity: The Impact of Climate Change on the Mountain Pine Beetle and Westerns Forests  

E-print Network

Television) from the U.S. Forest Service web site. (see Internet Resources) a. Ask students to define what://www.pc.gc.ca/apprendre- learn/prof/sub/mpb-ddp/index_e.asp #12;The Impact of Climate Change on the Mountain Pine Beetle, in turn, impact climate? · What may be the eventual outcome if the present situation continues? Learning

348

76 FR 9537 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...a result of the Piute fire, the Piute Mountains...in the Sequoia National Forest Motorized Travel Management...October 2009. The Piute fire burned part of the project...3. Evaluate the Piute Fire burn area regarding roads...resources. 4. Evaluate the forest transportation...

2011-02-18

349

Ecological security evaluation of sustainable agricultural development in karst mountainous area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological security is the main task and applied field of present geography, resources and environment sciences and ecology.Ecological\\u000a security evaluation will efficiently promote ecological security and environmental construction in regional land use. In this\\u000a thesis, the authors put forward the index system of ecological security evaluation in karst mountainous area on three aspects,\\u000a the pressure of resources and eco-environment, the

Chi-mei Liao; Lan Li; Zhi-qiang Yan; Bao-qing Hu

2004-01-01

350

Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

351

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

352

Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.  

PubMed

This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

Markovi?, Dubravko; Kovacevi?, Hasan

2002-03-01

353

Glass mountain geothermal exploration project  

SciTech Connect

Although often perceived as time-consuming, complex, and difficult, the environmental review process for proposed geothermal exploration projects in California can be completed in a timely, straight-forward, and cost-efficient fashion. All that is required is a well-defined project and thorough understanding of the pertinent environmental issues at the beginning of the process, close coordination with the lead agencies throughout the process, and preparation of a thorough environmental document that adequately addresses all issues. An example of this type of success is the Environmental Assessment/Initial Study for the Glass Mountain Geothermal Exploration Project. For this project, California Energy General Corporation (as Unit Operator) has proposed to implement a Plan of Operation for exploratory geothermal drilling near Glass Mountain in northeastern California. Utilizing the steps outlined above, the environmental review process for the project was completed in less than 11 months, even though multiple agencies were involved in the process.

Adams, H.; McClenahan, L. [MHA Environmental Consulting, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); McClain, D. [CE General Corporation, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

354

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases. Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

Wilson, M. L.; Ho, C. K.

2002-02-26

355

TSPA Model for the Yucca Mountain Unsaturated Zone  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being considered as a potential site for a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment (TSPA) calculations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Such calculations require submodels for all important engineered and natural components of the disposal system. There are five submodels related to the unsaturated zone: climate, infiltration, mountain-scale flow of water, seepage into emplacement drifts, and radionuclide transport. For each of these areas, models have been developed and implemented for use in TSPA. The climate model is very simple (a set of climate states have been deduced from paleoclimate data, and the times when climate changes occur in the future have been estimated), but the other four models make use of complex process models involving time-consuming computer runs. An important goal is to evaluate the impact of uncertainties (e.g., incomplete knowledge of the site) on the estimates of potential repository performance, so particular attention is given to the key uncertainties for each area. Uncertainties in climate, infiltration, and mountain-scale flow are represented in TSPA simulations by means of discrete high, medium, and low cases, Uncertainties in seepage and radionuclide transport are represented by means of continuous probability distributions for several key parameters.

M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

2001-12-12

356

Managing Heat in a Repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

When radioactive elements decay, one result is heat. Because it will contain waste packages with many tons of decaying spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, the underground repository proposed for Yucca Mountain will generate heat for thousands of years. Engineers with the Yucca Mountain Project call the amount of heat generated by this radioactive decay within a particular area a ''thermal load''. The number, size and contents of the waste packages placed in the repository will help determine the actual concentrations of heat within the facility. How these waste packages are arranged will determine which parts of the repository will become hottest. Many packages placed closely together will concentrate considerable heat nearby. This is similar to how heaping the coals in a grill at the center focuses more intense heat there than at the edges. Placing these same packages farther apart--a low thermal load--results in lower temperatures over a greater area. Scientists consider heat management to be an essential design element for a repository This is because the way heat moves through a repository could affect its rock floors and walls, and therefore the facility's ability to do its job. Each possible arrangement comes with its own potential advantages and disadvantages. Scientists have conducted extensive underground and laboratory tests of the man-made materials and the rock at Yucca Mountain to determine which method of spacing will best contribute to the safe disposal of highly radioactive materials there.

DOE

2000-06-01

357

Warming permafrost in European mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the first systematic measurements of European mountain permafrost temperatures from a latitudinal transect of six boreholes extending from the Alps, through Scandinavia to Svalbard. Boreholes were drilled in bedrock to depths of at least 100 m between May 1998 and September 2000. Geothermal profiles provide evidence for regional-scale secular warming, since all are nonlinear, with near-surface warm-side

Charles Harris; Daniel Vonder Mühll; Ketil Isaksen; Wilfried Haeberli; Johan Ludvig Sollid; Lorenz King; Per Holmlund; Francesco Dramis; Mauro Guglielmin; David Palacios

2003-01-01

358

Weathering of Stone Mountain Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of Stone Mountain Granite (adamellitc) forms kaolinite, endcllite, allophane and gibbsite of which kaolinite is the most stable. Bulk density ranges from 2.65 in fresh rock to a minimum of 1.48 in saprolite. It is a good index of weathering. Abrasion pH ranges from 5.0 in saprolite to 9.3 in fresh rock, and is direct)y related to bulk

1962-01-01

359

Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

2008-01-01

360

Hydrology of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr-1 under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (~300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominately through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Fabryka-Martin, J. M.

2001-01-01

361

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01

362

MIRANDA PINE, HORSESHOE SPRINGS, TEPUSQUET PEAK, LA BREA, SPOOR CANYON, FOX MOUNTAIN, AND LITTLE PINE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Miranda Pine, Horseshoe Springs, Tepusquet Peak, La Brea, Spoor Canyon, Fox Mountain and Little Pine Roadless Areas together occupy about 246 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Mineral-resource surveys indicate demonstrated resources of barite, copper, and zinc at two localities in the La Brea Roadless Area and demonstrated resources of phosphate at a mine in the Fox Mountain Roadless Area. A building stone quarry is present on the southern border of the Horseshoe Spring Roadless Area and an area of substantiated resource potential extends into the area. The Miranda Pine, Tepusquet Peak, Spoor Canyon, and Little Pine Roadless Areas have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in any of the roadless areas.

Frizzell, Jr. , Virgil, A.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

363

Brushy Basin drilling project, Cedar Mountain, Emergy County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

A 12-hole drilling program was conducted on the northwestern flank of the San Rafael swell of eastern Utah to obtain subsurface geologic data to evaluate the uranium resource potential of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). In the Cedar Mountain-Castle Valley area, the Brushy Basin Member consists primarily of tuffaceous and carbonaceous mudstones. Known uranium mineralization is thin, spotty, very low grade, and occurs in small lenticular pods. Four of the 12 drill holes penetrated thin intervals of intermediate-grade uranium mineralization in the Brushy Basin. The study confirmed that the unit does not contain significant deposits of intermediate-grade uranium.

Kiloh, K.D.; McNeil, M.; Vizcaino, H.

1980-03-01

364

Ceramic waste form modeling in the Yucca Mountain engineered barrier system  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, CWF degradation and radionuclide release modeling is being carried out to support the qualification of the CWF for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Transition-state theory applied to the dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals provides a mechanistic basis for the dissolution model, while model parameters are obtained by experimental measurements. Performance assessment calculations carried out using the current model indicate that the CWF will perform in a similar manner to defense high-level waste glass, suggesting the CWF could be characterized by the HLW glass model in the Site Recommendation or License Application for Yucca Mountain.

Fanning, T.H.; Morris, E.E.; Wigeland, R. A.; Ebert, W.L.; Lewis, M.A.; Morss, L.R.

2000-12-04

365

A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

Pike, J. R.; Shaw, J. H.; Leslie, Jr. , D. M.; Shaw, M. G.

1999-01-01

366

Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

Donato, M. M.

1987-01-01

367

Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-print Network

Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

Frank, Jerritt

2008-09-05

368

Analysis of tru-fueled vhtr prismatic core performance domains  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the U.S. Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom Goslee

2009-05-15

369

FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

D.F. Vanica

1995-06-14

370

Project Title: The Western Mountain Initiative: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Western Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is affecting Western mountain ecosystems, directly through changes in water dynamics and indirectly through altered disturbance regimes. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI; http:\\/\\/www.cfr.washington.edu\\/research.fme\\/wmi) team explores the effects of climate change on ecological disturbance, responses of forest vegetation, mountain hydrology, and the coupled hydro-ecological responses that determine vulnerability of Western mountain ecosystems to change. Extensive data sets, empirical studies,

Nathan L. Stephenson

371

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02

372

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment  

E-print Network

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment 1 Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment: Watershed Hydrologic Analysis Lee Harrison, Edward Keller, and Matt Sallee University of California, Santa identify which basins in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) are most capable of supporting steelhead trout

Keller, Ed

373

Annotated checklist and database for vascular plants of the Jemez Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Studies done in the last 40 years have provided information to construct a checklist of the Jemez Mountains. The present database and checklist builds on the basic list compiled by Teralene Foxx and Gail Tierney in the early 1980s. The checklist is annotated with taxonomic information, geographic and biological information, economic uses, wildlife cover, revegetation potential, and ethnographic uses. There are nearly 1000 species that have been noted for the Jemez Mountains. This list is cross-referenced with the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS database species names and acronyms. All information will soon be available on a Web Page.

Foxx, T. S.; Pierce, L.; Tierney, G. D.; Hansen, L. A.

1998-03-01

374

77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13XL1109AF; HAG13-0011] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY...Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as...August 14, 2001, pursuant to the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and...

2012-11-05

375

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2010-01-01

376

Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.  

PubMed Central

Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

1995-01-01

377

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

378

United States and world resources of energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy resources must be viewed as a range extending from reserves in known deposits minable at present prices to resources that may become usable in the future through further exploration and technologic advance. Appraised in this framework, domestic resources of the fossil fuels of the types now considered usable contain 5.5 to more than 130 Q and if very low

V. E. McKelvey; D. C. Duncan

1965-01-01

379

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

380

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2008-06-01

381

Flow resistance in alluvial and mountain rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open channel flow resistance has been fruitfully studied in alluvial rivers. However, due to the complex dynamics of shallow water flow, there remains difficulties in the flow resistance study of mountain rivers. Most of studies about resistance in mountain rivers inherit the modifications of resistance relations in alluvial rivers despite significant differences existing in the mechanisms of flow resistance. Resistance relationships of mountain rivers are almost semi-experienced relying on field data. To the author's best knowledge, there is no unified description of the resistance relation covering both mountain and alluvial rivers. In this study, we aim to propose the first attempt on the uniform of the resistance relation. Fluid resistance is partitioned into skin friction and bed form drag through the partitioning of hydraulic radius. Corresponding to the skin friction and the bed form drag, the grain roughness and the bed form roughness are considered separately. We formulate the equations of the energy losses due to bed form drag in mountain rivers e.g. step-pool structures, considering its consistency with bed form drag of alluvial rivers. Thus bed form roughness of mountain rivers could be estimated referring to those of alluvial rivers. The consistent expression of bed form roughness allows a unified form drag formula suitable to both alluvial and mountain rivers by a modified Einstein flow intensity parameter. The formula agrees with the field survey data very well, demonstrating the inherent uniformity in the resistance relations of mountain and alluvial rivers to some extent.

Fu, X.; Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Li, T.; Guo, D.

2013-12-01

382

Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

1973-01-01

383

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2010-07-01

384

Mountain Infantry - Is There a Need?  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study uses the past as a basis for establishing the need for mountain infantry units by comparing the combat operations of the 88th Infantry Division and the 10th Mountain Division during World War II on the Italian peninsula. An analysis of current ...

J. D. Greer

1988-01-01

385

Mountain building in Taiwan: A thermokinematic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taiwan mountain belt is classically viewed as a case example of a critical wedge growing essentially by frontal accretion and therefore submitted to distributed shortening. However, a number of observations call for a significant contribution of underplating to the growth of the orogenic wedge. We propose here a new thermokinematic model of the Taiwan mountain belt reconciling existing kinematic,

Martine Simoes; Jean Philippe Avouac; Olivier Beyssac; Bruno Goffé; Kenneth A. Farley; Yue-Gau Chen

2007-01-01

386

Research Article Estimating Abundance of Mountain Lions  

E-print Network

Research Article Estimating Abundance of Mountain Lions From Unstructured Spatial Sampling ROBIN E lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel

387

Approximate clustering via the mountain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a simple and effective approach for approximate estimation of the cluster centers on the basis of the concept of a mountain function. We call the procedure the mountain method. It can be useful for obtaining the initial values of the clusters that are required by more complex cluster algorithms. It also can be used as a stand alone

R. R. Yager; D. P. Filev

1994-01-01

388

Frozen Ground 9 PERMAFROST HAZARDS IN MOUNTAINS  

E-print Network

Frozen Ground 9 PERMAFROST HAZARDS IN MOUNTAINS Andreas Kääb, University of Zurich, Zurich of potentially hazardous processes in regions with mountain permafrost. Buildings and utilities may be dam- aged by permafrost-induced debris flows or rockfalls. Con- struction activities are affected by thaw or instability

Kääb, Andreas

389

A Mountain Cultural Curriculum: Telling Our Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the development and implementation of a six-week curriculum to expose denigrating Appalachian Mountain stereotypes and supplant them with images that children create after investigating their West Virginia mountain cultural history of oppression and rebellion. Bases the development of the curriculum on multiple conceptions of multicultural…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1997-01-01

390

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS  

E-print Network

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS Chemistry The Department is in surficial geology/physical geography, along with a traditional strength in snow science. The Mountain of industrial and agricultural chemicals, fundamental work in materials science, and the biochemistry portion

Dyer, Bill

391

Mountains and Arid Climates of Middle Latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these

S. Manabe; A. J. Broccoli

1990-01-01

392

U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering

Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

393

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

394

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2013-07-01

395

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2012-07-01

396

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2011-07-01

397

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

398

METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology  

E-print Network

will not be given to circumvent rules concerning the dropping of courses! Classroom protocol Cell phones and Laptop computers: Students and Instructor will please turn their cell phones off or put them on vibrate mode while and behavior evaluate mountain weather impacts on snow pack behavior Required Texts/Readings Mountain

Clements, Craig

399

Variable resource availability when resource replenishment is constant: The coupling of predators and prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although food resources are thought to limit many populations, the extent to which the population dynamics of predators and prey are coupled is rarely known. We examined a sedentary population of Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra L. complex) that relies on seeds in cones that accumulate in the canopy of Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta latifolia Engelm.). Nearly constant annual

Craig W. Benkman; Trevor Fetz; Matt V. Talluto

2012-01-01

400

Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the help of forestry data, the wind regime data and the topographic features of the mountain area (elevation, slope declivity, slope aspect). The analysis also consider the insolation degree of mountain slopes, that creates favourable conditions for fire propagation between different canopies. These data layers are integrated within a simple GIS analysis in order to intersect the ignition zones with the fire propagation zones in order to obtain the potential areas to be affected by fire. The digital map show three levels of forest fire susceptibility, differenced on the basis of expert knowledge. The map can be validated from the statistical point of view with the polygons of the forest fire affected areas mapped from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI satellite imagery. The mapping results could be integrated within the forest management strategies and especially within the forest cadastre and development maps (updated every ten years). The result can confirm that the data gap in terms of forest fire events can be filled with expert knowledge. References Chuvieco, E, Aguado, I., Jurdao, S., Pettinari, M., Yebra, M., Salas, J., Hantson, S., de la Riva, J., Ibarra, P., Rodrigues, M., Echeverria, M., Azqueta, D., Roman, M., Bastarrika, A., Martinez, S., Recondo, C., Zapico, E., Martinez-Vega F.J. (2012) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2,2, 69-86. Hantson, S., Padilla, M., Corti., D, Chuvieco, E. (2013) Strenghts and weaknesses of MODIS hotspots to characterize Global fire occurence, Remote Sensing of Environment, 131, 1, 152-159. Mihai, B., Savulescu, I.,Sandric, I. (2007) Change detection analysis (1986/2002) for the alpine, subalpine and forest landscape in Iezer Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Mountain Research and Development, 27, 250-258.

Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

2014-05-01

401

77 FR 16257 - Notice of Public Meetings: Northeastern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Battle Mountain Resource Management Plan, greater sage-grouse conservation, and recreation; July 19 and 20 (Ely...Falcon-Gonder/Online (SWIP) transmission lines and greater sage-grouse leks; September 20 (Battle...

2012-03-20

402

Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview  

E-print Network

. Reducing GreenhouseReducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollution:Gas Emissions and Air Pollution: �� Fuel cells can be powered by emissions-free fuels that are produced from clean, domestic resources interior space or performance Safety Codes & Standards Development onomic& titutional arriers Safety, Codes

403

Green factories for liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various plants that could be and are being used for the production of synthetic fuels are discussed. Among these are Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Euphorbia lathyris. Advantages of fuel production from renewable plant resources are presented; cost estimates are included. (JGB)

G. J. Calvin; M. Calvin

1978-01-01

404

Uranium and thorium abundances, whole rock chemistry and trace element chemistry, Zuni Mountains, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The uranium and thorium abundances in the Precambrian silicic core rocks of the Zuni Mountains have been determined by delayed neutron activation analysis. The average uranium content of 57 surface and drill core samples is 3.75 ppm, and the average thorium content of 25 samples is 17.13 ppm. The Th/U ratio for 25 samples is 4.55, which is slightly higher than the range of 3.7-4.0 reported for many granitic rocks. The uranium in the Zuni Mountains has, in part, been redistributed, and significant amounts may have been removed by weathering or other processes. Rare earth element distribution patterns, positive U vs K/sub 2/O correlation, and high U content in surface samples suggest local redistribution was significant. No data support the core rocks of the Zuni Mountains as a large potential in situ uranium resource.

Brookins, D.G.

1982-07-01

405

California's Coastal Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

Commission, California C.

406

Future Fuels from Forests  

E-print Network

: Cellulosic Biomass to Fuel 11:30-Noon LUNCH at Wadsworth Hall 12:15-1:15 pm Getting Trees from Forest to Processing Plant 1:30-3:00 Forest Resource Management: Impacts on Avian Biodiversity & Forest Productivity 3 Jenkins, Ph.D. Candidate ­ tree biomass from forest to processing facility Department of Chemical

407

Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, B.E.; Hansen, V.L.

1999-01-01

408

Understanding the Impacts of Energy Production and Climate Change on Water Resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unconventional fuels, primarily oil shale and coal-to-liquid conversions, are under consideration as solutions to our dependence on foreign fuels. However, they are energy intensive, have a higher carbon footprint than conventional fossil fuels and present significant demands on water resources in the Rocky Mountain West. We are applying the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework (WARMF)basin-scale hydrologic model to address the impacts of climate change and variability on water resources within the context of energy and fuel development in the upper Colorado River basin. WARMF performs physics based energy and water balances on a sub-watershed basis and routes flow through soils and a network of streams, lakes and reservoirs to a watershed outlet. A climate change module has been developed to modify historical meteorological data in order to examine the impacts of climate change scenarios in the basin. The model is parameterized and calibrated for the White, Upper Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in Colorado from their headwaters to the Utah border. These rivers are the most likely to be impacted by new extractions of water for oil shale development in the Piceance Basin in Western Colorado. The model predicts that a three degree Celsius change in temperature could result in an average annual reduction in stream flow by 15 to 20 percent and a shift toward earlier snowmelt runoff. In addition, model output is used within a systems dynamics modeling framework to examine water resource management strategies for a range of energy production growth scenarios and the interdependencies between water use, energy production, carbon management, population growth, infrastructure, and economics in western basins.

Wilson, C.; Levitt, D.; Herr, J.; Geza, M.; Middleton, R.; Nealon, T.; Wolfsberg, A.

2008-12-01

409

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. [ed.

1990-12-31

410

A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

2014-05-01

411

Building a Fuel Cell- An Electrifying Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) explores the differences between batteries and fuel cells, and includes fuel cell schematics and further detail about the technology. The procedure of assembling a fuel cell is also outlined. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Walz, K.

2013-01-04

412

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

413

Communicating A Controversial and Complex Project to the Public: Yucca Mountain Tours - Real and Virtual Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1983, under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10101 et seq.), the U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has been investigating a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development as the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. By far,

A. B. Benson; P. V. Nelson; M. dOuville

2000-01-01

414

Depression - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

415

Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators in the southeast United States will find links to resources for ocean science instruction on this website. The resource topics include general ocean and earth science education materials, ocean observing systems, water quality, wetlands and remote sensing data.

416

Additional Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site More Links DCTD Links NCI Links NIH

417

Public Resources  

Cancer.gov

The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) published “Priorities for Personalized Medicine” in September 2008. This document recognizes the need for enabling tools and resources, such as biospecimen resources, in the move toward personalized medicine.

418

Environmental Considerations for a Geothermal Development in the Jemez Mountains of Central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration nature of the Baca Geothermal Project and the contractual arrangements between Public Service Company of New Me (PNM) and Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico (Union) with the Department of Energy mandate on environmental monitoring effort previously not seen for an energy development of this size. One of the most often stated goals of the Baca Project is to demonstrate the acceptability and viability of geothermal energy in an environmentally responsible manner. If this statement is to be followed, then a program would have to be developed which would (1) identify all the environmental baseline parameters, (2) monitor them during construction and operation, and (3) alleviate any possible negative impacts. The situation of the Baca project in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico offers a challenging vehicle with which to demonstrate the acceptability of geothermal energy. A few of the reasons for this are: these mountains are one of the most heavily used recreational resource areas in the state, numerous prehistoric people utilized the canyons and have left considerable archeological resources, the mountains are home for a number of individuals who prefer their serenity to the hustle and bustle of urban dwelling, and finally, the mountains are considered sacred by a number of local Indian tribes, a few of which use the mountaintop as religious sites.

Sabo, David G.

1980-12-01

419

U.S. sent fuel shipment experience by rail  

SciTech Connect

As planning for the large scale shipment of spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain proceeds to address these challenges, actual shipments of spent fuel in other venues continues to provide proof that domestic rail spent fuel shipments can proceed safely and effectively. This paper presents some examples of recently completed spent fuel shipments, and the shipment of large low-level radioactive waste shipments offering lessons learned that may be beneficial to the planning process for large scale spent fuel shipments in the US. (authors)

Colborn, K. [MHF Logistical Solutions, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2007-07-01

420

Transport of neptunium through Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

Neptunium has a high solubility in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain [1]. Uranium in nuclear reactors produces {sup 237}Np which has a half-life of 2.1 4 {times} 10{sup 6} years. Consequently, the transport of {sup 237}Np through tuffs is of major importance in assessing the performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The objective of this work is to determine the amount of Np retardation that is provided by the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs as a function of groundwater chemistry.

Triay, I.R.; Robinson, B.A.; Mitchell, A.J.; Overly, C.M.; Lopez, R.M.

1993-02-01

421

Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12  

E-print Network

WARNING Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12 TIME: 8:00 PM LOCATION: ALONG FENCE LINE NEAR. PRECAUTIONS: Although mountain lions are secretive and human attacks are rare they still occur. Mountain lions. If you encounter a mountain lion you should: 1. To avoid an attack, always keep children and pets close

Sze, Lawrence

422

RockyMountainParkInn.com 888.465.4329  

E-print Network

-central Colorado sacred. Anthropologists and historians consider Old Man Mountain (on the western end of currentRockyMountainParkInn.com 888.465.4329 Rocky Mountain Park Inn - Directions: From Denver take I-25, Rocky Mountain Park Inn is located on the SW corner, at the intersection of US Hwy. 36 and CO Hwy. 7

Rutledge, Steven

423

Reduction of atmospheric carbon emissions through displacement of fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable resources, particularly wood, can make significant contributions in reducing carbon emissions to the atmosphere during the next several decades. Fuels made from renewable resources can displace long-term fossil fuel carbon emissions directly, provided the renewables continue to be regrown on a sustainable basis. Materials made from renewable resources are generally less energy intensive than materials produced from minerals. Therefore,

Zerbe

1993-01-01

424

Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.  

PubMed

This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

425

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24

426

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain  

E-print Network

the suitability of the site and prepare a license application, and estimate the overall cost of waste disposal as a repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The act also wastes from the human environ- ment, identify the additional studies (and their costs) needed to evaluate

427

Site characterization plan: Public Handbook, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, for detailed study as the candidate site for the first US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The detailed study --- called ``site characterization`` --- will be conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the suitability of the site for a repository and, if the site is suitable, to obtain from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorization to construct the repository. As part of the site characterization study, DOE has prepared a Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site. The Site Characterization Plan is a nine-volume document, approximately 6300 pages in length, which describes the activities that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. Part 1 of this Handbook explains what site characterization is and how the Site Characterization Plan (Plan) relates to it. Part 2 tells how to locate subjects covered in the Plan. Another major purpose of this Handbook is to identify opportunities for public involement in the review of the Site Characterization Plan. DOE wants to be sure that the public has adequate opportunities to learn about the Plan and review the results of the subsequent technical studies. 14 refs.

NONE

1989-01-01

428

Single Machine Scheduling with a Non-renewable Financial Resource  

E-print Network

Single Machine Scheduling with a Non-renewable Financial Resource Evgeny R. Gafarov a , Alexander A with a non-renewable resource. For example, money or fuel provide natural examples of such a non-renewable resource. Such problems with a non-renewable resource are also referred to as financial scheduling problems

Magdeburg, Universität

429

SEDIMENTOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE SHENGLI RIVER-CHANGSHE MOUNTAIN OIL SHALE (CHINA): RELATIONSHIPS WITH OIL SHALE FORMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a new oil shale belt was discovered in the Changshe Mountain area, northern Tibet, China. This belt, combined with the oil shale zone found in the Shengli River area, represents a large marine oil shale resource in China. Three facies associations have been recognized concerning the deposition of oil shale in the Qiangtang basin: fluvial-delta, tidal flat-lagoon and shallow

XIUGEN FU; JIAN WANG; FUWEN TAN; YUHONG ZENG

2009-01-01

430

Vadose zone characterisation of a hydrogeologic system in a mountain region: Serra da Estrela case study (Central Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of the vadose zone is essential to accurately assess hydrogeo- logical systems and their respective groundwater resources. The study area (Manteigas - Nave de Santo António - Torre sector, Serra da Estrela Mountain, Central Portugal), presents specific geological, morphotectonic and climatic characteristics which influence the hydrogeological regime. The vadose zone has particular features that contribute to control

Jorge Espinha Marques; João M. Duarte; Alfredo T. Constantino; Afonso Martins; Carlos Aguiar; Fernando T. Rocha; Manuela Inácio; José M. Marques; Helder I. Chaminé; José Teixeira; Javier Samper; Frederico S. Borges; José M. Carvalho

431

Hydrothermal alteration of late-to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack Mountains, New York: Origin of  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal alteration of late- to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack) leucogranites of Lyon Mountain Gneiss (LMG) in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State. Most recent± sillimanite veins and nodules in the Adirondack Mountains (Figs 1 & 2) resulted from alkali leaching by acidic

Soja, Constance M.

432

Pulmonary hypertension and chronic mountain sickness.  

PubMed

Chronic mountain sickness is a syndrome of severe symptomatic polycythemia and hypoxemia occurring in natives or long-term high altitude sojourners. The condition may be complicated by pulmonary hypertension in proportion to decreased oxygenation, indicating hypoxic vasoconstriction and remodeling. Exercise in these patients is associated with a steep slope of pulmonary artery pressure-flow relationships and decreased vascular distensibility. Correction of pulmonary vascular resistance for increased hematocrit decreases the severity of pulmonary hypertension. Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in chronic mountain sickness does not affect exercise capacity, in relation to high oxygen content of the blood and increased lung diffusing capacity. Right ventricular failure seems to be an uncommon complication of chronic mountain sickness, but the exact prevalence of the condition is not known. Acetazolamide given for 6 months to patients with chronic mountain sickness improves oxygenation, polycythemia, and pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:23795731

Naeije, Robert; Vanderpool, Rebecca

2013-06-01

433

ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

434

Smelters as Analogs for a Volcanic Eruption at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of trace radionuclides in secondary metal smelters provides an analog for spent fuel released from packages during a volcanic eruption. The fraction of the inventory of a radionuclide that would be released into the air in a volcanic eruption is called the dust partitioning factor. In consequence analyses of a volcanic eruption at Yucca Mountain, a value of one has been used for this parameter for all elements. This value is too high for the refractory elements. Reducing the dust partitioning factor for refractory elements to a value equal to the fraction of the magma that becomes ash would still yield conservative estimates of how much radioactivity would be released in an eruption.

Ross, Benjamin

2004-11-15

435

Thermally-forced Circulation II: Mountain/Valley Breezes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes the phenomena of the mountain/valley breeze. It examines factors that lead to the formation of a mountain/valley breeze, modifying effects on mountain/valley breeze development, how mesoscale NWP models handle mountain/valley breezes, and mountain/valley breeze forecast parameters. Like other modules in the Mesoscale Meteorology Primer, this module comes with audio narration, rich graphics, and a companion print version.

Spangler, Tim

2002-01-01

436

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in

Andrew H Manning; D. Kip Solomon

2003-01-01

437

The coal resources of Armenia  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a program of coal exploration and resource assessment in Armenia. The project is funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) as part of USAID`s emphasis on energy resources in the former Soviet Union. Relatively little is known about the coal resources of Armenia because the Soviet Union had many other sources for fuel. As part of the Soviet Union, Armenia relied on nuclear power, hydropower, or imported power for their electricity and heating needs. Within the Soviet Union, there was a universal centralized system for providing electricity and thus there was little reason to explore for fuel in Armenia. However, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, emphasis has been placed on finding and utilizing indigenous, non-nuclear resources for power generation. The USGS program is conducting exploratory drilling to expand the areas of known resources, characterize the quality of those resources, and estimate the resources in each geographic locality. Armenia`s coal resources are quite variable in terms of age (ranging from Triassic to Oligocene/Miocene), rank (apparent rank ranging from lignite to high volatile A/B bituminous coal), quality, and resource tonnages. Past work previously carried out by the Soviet Ministry of Geology on coal exploration and some early work by the USGS during the current program on the coal resources of Armenia are contained in this report. It is well known that the Soviet system (developed by the USSR Ministry of Geology) and the American system (developed at the USGS) of classifying coal resources are quite similar. Throughout this report, both classifications will be used together. Within the Soviet system, only those coal beds deemed economically viable have official resource estimates (that is, resource estimates approved by the State Committee on Reserves). Only one coal field in Armenia, the Djadjur field, has official estimates. Resource estimates have been calculated for other coal fields in Armenia by the USSR Ministry of Geology (now the Armenian Ministry of Environment and Interior Resources [MEI]) and are contained in this report, but they are not officially approved. All resource estimates contained in this report are from MEI; USGS does not yet have enough new data from the exploration drilling program to calculate new resources. As drilling progresses, new resource estimates will be provided.

Pierce, B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Martirossian, A. [United States Geological Survey, Yerevan (Armenia); Amazaspian, H.; Kochinian, G. [Ministry of Environment and Interior Resources, Yerevan (Armenia)

1997-12-31

438

Study Abroad in China Summer Course PB495/595: Plant Resources and Ecology in Eastern China  

E-print Network

Study Abroad in China ­ Summer Course PB495/595: Plant Resources and Ecology in Eastern China and ecological studies by botanists and zoologists for more than a century.The high mountains in China harbor to famous mountains, wetland parks, and lakes in eastern China, students will gain skills in field botany

Xiang, Jenny Qiuyun

439

Antibody response to Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  

PubMed Central

Various techniques were compared to determine the most sensitive method for detection of rocky Mountain spotted fever antibody. A radiometabolic technique for detection of Rocky Mountain spotted fever antibody is also described. In infected monkeys, the fluorescent antibody technique yielded the earliest evidence of seroconversion; with some monkeys the microagglutination procedure was equally effective. The fluorescent antibody and microagglutination measurements showed higher titers than those for complement fixation, Weil-Felix, or the radiometabolic techniques. PMID:819455

Kenyon, R H; Canonico, P G; Sammons, L S; Bagley, L R; Pedersen, C E

1976-01-01

440

Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies  

SciTech Connect

The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

Fischer, H.

1982-01-01

441

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

·Partial reclamation since 1988, no new operation 6 #12;7 #12;Titan Sheep Mountain Project: ·Mine·Mine ·Underground and Open Pit Mining ·Current Mine Permit (381C) ·Updating POO, Reclamation Plan & Bond ·Uranium Recovery to pit or used in reclamation ·Sheep Mountain Underground ·To extent possible all wastes reclaimed

442

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

443

Survival and cause-specific mortality of female Rocky Mountain elk exposed to human activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal populations are becoming increasingly exposed to human activity as human populations expand and demand for energy resources\\u000a (e.g., coal, oil and natural gas) increases. We initiated this study to document survival and cause-specific mortality patterns\\u000a of female Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) exposed to increasing levels of human activity. We fitted 184 females with VHF or GPS collars over

Stephen L. WebbMatthew; Matthew R. Dzialak; John J. Wondzell; Seth M. Harju; Larry D. Hayden-Wing; Jeffrey B. Winstead

2011-01-01

444

Semidiurnal solar tides in the mountain atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Harmonic analysis of Doppler radar wind profiler data west of the Rocky Mountains has identified a coherent semidiurnal wind system above the wintertime boundary layer at multiple sites in the region. The unusual characteristics of this mountain wind system (its semidiurnal frequency, amplitude, phase, and direction of rotation) suggest that is is a semidiurnal solar tide. Such tides have not been previously documented in the mountain atmosphere or in the troposphere generally but, because semidiurnal signatures are well known in surface barometric traces, and large amplitude semidiurnal tides are known in the upper atmosphere, they are not unexpected. Our future research on this semidiurnal cordilleran wind system will focus on obtaining sufficient data to resolve further the vertical structure, seasonal variation, and spatial variations of the wind system. Of particular interest is the role of the Rocky Mountains and other cordilleras in modifying the global tides. It remains to be seen whether semidiurnal cordilleran circulations will be of sufficient magnitude to be observed across major arcuate-shaped east-west-oriented mountain massifs such as the Alps. There, wind systems may develop in response to pressure gradients (Frei and Davies, 1993) that form across the Alps due to differences in the amplitudes and phases of semidiurnal and diurnal pressure oscillations on the north and south sides of the mountain barrier.

Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

1994-09-01

445

CASTNet mountain acid deposition monitoring program  

SciTech Connect

Concern over the influence of air pollution on forest decline has led the USEPA to establish the Mountain Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (MADMP) to quantify total deposition at high altitudes, i.e., above cloud base. Clouds can be a major source of atmospheric deposition to sensitive, mountain ecosystems. This program is a part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), a national assessment of the effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act. The objectives of MADMP are to estimate total deposition, measure cloud chemistry, and characterize spacial and temporal trends at four selected high altitude sites in the Eastern US. Four MADMP sites have been established for the 1994 field season: Clingman`s Dome, Great Smoky Mountain Nat. Park, TN; Slide Mountain, Catskill State Park, NY; Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack State Park, NY; and Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers Nat`l Recreational Area, VA. An automated cloud collection system will be utilized in combination with continuous measurements of cloud liquid water content in order to estimate cloudwater deposition. Other relevant data will include continuous meteorological measurements, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, wet deposition from rainfall analysis, and dry deposition from filter pack analysis. Quality assurance and quality control measures will be employed to maximize accuracy and precision.

Bowser, J.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Edgerton, E.S. [Environmental Science and Engineering, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mohnen, V. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Baumgardener, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

446

Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is one part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (the Program) which was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, and as amended in 1987. The Program`s goal is to site the nation`s first geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste, in the form of spent fuel rod assemblies, generated by the nuclear power industry and a smaller quantity of Government radioactive waste. The Program, which also encompasses the transportation system and the multipurpose canister system was not the subject of this Report. The subject of this Review was only the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada. While the Review was directed toward the Yucca Mountain Project rather than the Program as a whole, there are certain elements of the Project which cannot be addressed except through discussion of some Program issues. An example is the Total System Life Cycle Cost addressed in Section 7 of this report. Where Program issues are discussed in this Report, the reader is reminded of the scope limitations of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) contract to review only the Yucca Mountain Project. The primary scope of the Review was to respond to the specific criteria contained in the NARUC scope of work. In responding to these criteria, the Review Team understood that some interested parties have expressed concern over the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act relative to the Yucca Mountain Project and the nature of activities currently being carried out by the Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain Project site. The Review Team has attempted to analyze relevant portions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as Amended, but has not conducted a thorough analysis of this legislation that could lead to any specific legal conclusions about all aspects of it.

NONE

1995-07-15

447

Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys. PMID:22735139

Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

2012-05-01

448

Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

1980-03-01

449

Alkaline fuel cells applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

450

Paleosols in the Transantarctic Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs), a 3,500-km long chain that subdivides East Antarctica from West Antarctica, are important for reconstructing the tectonic, glacial, and climatic history of Antarctica. With an ice-free area of 24,200 km2 (50% of the total in Antarctica), the TAMs contain an unusually high proportion of paleosols, including relict, buried, and exhumed soils. The unconsolidated paleosols range from early Holocene to Miocene in age, and the consolidated paleosols range from Oligocene to Permian in age. The paleosols feature buried features such as ventifacts, redbeds, and ancient glacial ice and relict features such as sand-wedge casts, volcanic ash and lithified tree stumps. The preservation of paleosols in the TAMs over the past 14 Ma is enhanced by cold-based glaciers that are able to override landscapes while causing minimal disturbance. Examples are given from the Beardmore Glacier region (85°30'S), the Hatherton-Darwin Glacier region (80°S), and the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78°S).

Bockheim, James

2013-04-01

451

Mountains and Plateaus on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

452

Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

Alexander, A. D., III

1972-01-01

453

Second Generation Renewable Fuels Blue-Green Seminar  

E-print Network

Abstract Second Generation Renewable Fuels Blue-Green Seminar at University of Michigan by Michael resources into second generation (Gen 2) liquid fuels. Ultimately, successful implementation of Gen 2 fuels. In the meantime, technology for renewable fuels must be made ready to facilitate build-out of a new industry

Eustice, Ryan

454

Can Fossil Carbon Fuel the 21st Century?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuels, despite their drawbacks, have been fueling the world economy for the last two centuries. They have proven abundant, easy to use, and low in cost. Contrary to common belief, fossil fuels are not likely to run out any time soon. For the foreseeable future, fossil fuels may continue to be the most cost-effective energy resource, even as concerns

Klaus S. Lackner

2002-01-01

455

Mapping Chaparral in the Santa Monica Mountains Using Multiple Spectral Mixture Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California chaparral is one of the most important natural vegetation communities in Southern California, representing a significant source of species diversity and, through a high susceptibility to fire, playing a major role in ecosystem dynamics. Due to steep topographic gradients, harsh edaphic conditions and variable fire histories, chaparral typically forms a complex mosaic of different species dominants and age classes, each with unique successional responses to fire and canopy characteristics (e.g. moisture content, biomass, fuel load) that modify fire susceptibility. The high human cost of fire and intimate mixing along the urban interface combine to modify the natural fire regime as well as provide additional impetus for a better understanding of how to predict fire and its management. Management problems have been further magnified by nearly seventy years of fire suppression and drought related die-back over the last few years resulting in a large accumulation of highly combustible fuels. Chaparral communities in the Santa Monica Mountains exemplify many of the management challenges associated with fire and biodiversity. A study was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains to investigate the use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for providing improved maps of chaparral coupled with direct estimates of canopy attributes (e.g. biomass, leaf area, fuel load). The Santa Monica Mountains are an east-west trending range located approximately 75 kilometers north of Los Angeles extending westward into Ventura County. Within the Santa Monica Mountains a diverse number of ecosystems are located, including four distinct types of chaparral, wetlands, riparian habitats, woodlands, and coastal sage scrub. In this study we focus on mapping three types of chaparral, oak woodlands and grasslands. Chaparral mapped included coastal sage scrub, chamise chaparral and mixed chaparral that consisted predominantly of two species of Ceanothus.

Green Robert O.; Roberts, D. A.; Gardner, M.; Church, R.; Ustin, S.; Scheer, G.

1996-01-01

456

Modeling the Impacts of the Mountain Pine Beetle on Water and Energy fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in Western North America has generated growing concern in recent years. Increasing numbers of outbreaks have affected an estimated two million acres of forest in Colorado and Wyoming alone during 2008. Given the substantial acreage of prematurely dying forests within Colorado and Wyoming, it has been hypothesized that the effects of the MPB outbreak will be similar to those observed after forest harvesting. High tree mortality rates of recent MPB infestations have the potential to induce significant changes in forest canopy, impacting several aspects of the local water and energy cycle, including canopy interception of precipitation and radiation, snow accumulation, melt and sublimation and evapotranspiration (ET). Parflow, a variably saturated groundwater flow model was coupled with the Common Land Model (CLM) to incorporate physical processes related to energy at the land surface and used to investigate the changing hydrologic and energy regime associated with MPB infestations. Specifically, Parflow-CLM was used to model daily and annual fluctuations of ET, snow pack, groundwater storage and ground temperatures throughout the four phases of MPB attack (green, red, gray and dieback phases), at sites typical of the Rocky Mountain West. Our results demonstrate that MPB infested watersheds will experience a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in snow accumulation accompanied by earlier and faster snowmelt. Impacts are similar to those projected under climate change, yet with a systematically higher snowpack. These results have implications for water resource management due to higher tendencies for flooding in the spring and drought in the summer.

Mikkelson, K. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Ferguson, I. J.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

2011-12-01

457

Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.  

SciTech Connect

The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

1994-12-01

458

Modeling of the repository behavior of TRISO fuel.  

SciTech Connect

This report satisfies Milestone 4295 for Work Package A0403K11. The long-term behavior of TRISO nuclear reactor fuel in a geologic repository is examined in terms of its durability and thermal impact. The TRISO fuel concept, under development at General Atomics[1] involves embedding fissile uranium and/or actinides in a carbonaceous material as shown in Fig. 1. In the concept, fuel kernels containing fissile material are surrounded with a porous carbon buffer and coated with inner and outer pyrocarbon layers separated with a SiC layer. The fuel particles are then imbedded in a graphite compact and the compacts placed in fuel channels drilled in fuel assembly blocks as shown in the lower right-hand corner of the figure. Dimensions are listed in Table 1. Available data on the degradation of the carbonaceous materials in an aqueous environment is reviewed. A model accounting for waste package failure and the resulting degradation of the waste forms is used to evaluate the potential for the long-term sequestration of radionuclides from spent TRISO fuel in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Finally, thermal analyses of decay heat assess the potential benefits in repository space utilization from recycling actinides from PWR spent fuel as very high burnup TRISO fuel. Experimental data on the aqueous dissolution of carbonaceous materials is relatively sparse and in some cases is based on measurements carried out at temperatures much higher than would be expected in the repository. In addition, the degree to which the aqueous solutions used in the measurements are representative of Yucca Mountain groundwater is uncertain. However, the available dissolution rate data are generally two or more orders of magnitude lower than the Yucca Mountain Project's dissolution model for borosilicate glass. Model calculations show that if the observed rates are applicable to the Yucca Mountain environment, directly disposed TRISO fuel has the potential to prevent significant release of radionuclides to the environment for several million years. A scheme was examined where actinide elements recovered from {approx}77 MT of spent PWR fuel were used to manufacture 1 MT of TRISO fuel for a high-burnup recycle in a Deep Burn Modular Helium Reactor (DB-MHR). PWR process waste and spent DB-MHR fuel would be disposed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Thermal performance computations show that the space utilization benefit of this recycle scheme would potentially be in the range of 1.7 to 1.8 as compared to generating the same amount of nuclear energy only in PWRs with direct disposal of the spent fuel.

Morris, E. E.; Bauer, T. H.

2006-01-31

459

Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions  

E-print Network

snail species of the genus Zonitoides in Sabah, Borneo, namely Z. arboreus (Say, 1819) and Z. nitidus (O600 Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions from the temperate and subtropical zone, exemplified by Zonitoides

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

460

Fuel lubricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were identified in the aeronautical industry in the 1960s, following a succession of in-flight engine failures. The influence of fuel composition upon fuel lubricity was established, as was the effect of various lubricity additives. Problems associated with inadequate fuel lubricity were also subsequently identified in light-duty diesel engines when low-sulphur fuel was introduced. Again,

David Margaroni

1998-01-01

461

Uranium resources on Federal lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of this research involves the legal aspects of uranium development, the geological evidence underlying resource estimates, and the engineering aspects of uranium production and nuclear fuel requirements. These topics must all be covered in order to provide a sound basis for economic analysis. Chapter 2 describes the Federal government's role in uranium supply in order to identify the

1979-01-01

462

Bryozoa of the Murdock Mountain formation (Wordian, Permian), Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thin limestone tongue in the upper part of the Murdock Mountain Formation of northeastern Nevada contains abundant bryozoans of earliest Wordian age. This bryozoan fauna is close to the Kungurian-Kazanian boundary in Russia. These bryozoans are younger than those found in the Kaibab Formation of southern Nevada and slightly older than those in the Gerster Limestone of northern Nevada. This limestone tongue, herein referred to as the Stenodiscus beds, lies below the Thamnosia beds described by Wardlaw in the Murdock Mountain section of the Leach Mountains. This bryozoan-rich limestone tongue serves as a marker unit for mapping the Murdock Formation in the Leach Mountains. Nine new species of bryozoans occur in the Stenodiscus beds of the Murdock Mountain Formation: Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Stenopora parvaexozona, Stenodiscus murdockensis, Dyscritella acanthostylia, Pseudobatostomella irregularis. Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata, Morozoviella praecurriensis, and Thamniscus erraticus, Hinganella felderi, Neoeridotrypella schilti, Dyscritella acanthostylia, and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) elongata are very similar to species described from Russia.

Gilmour, E.H.; McColloch, M.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.

1997-01-01

463

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE, NEVADA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AREA, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

DOE

1986-05-01

464

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

465

Potentially disruptive hydrologic features, events and processes at the Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been selected by the United States to be evaluated as a potential site for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the site is determined to be suitable for repository development and construction is authorized, the repository at the Yucca Mountain site is planned to be constructed in unsaturated tuff at a depth of about 250 meters below land surface and at a distance of about 250 meters above the water table. The intent of locating a repository in a thick unsaturated-zone geohydrologic setting, such as occurs at Yucca Mountain under the arid to semi-arid climatic conditions that currently prevail in the region, is to provide a natural setting for the repository system in which little ground water will be available to contact emplaced waste or to transport radioactive material from the repository to the biosphere. In principle, an unsaturated-zone repository will be vulnerable to water entry from both above and below. Consequently, a major effort within the site-characterization program at the Yucca Mountain site is concerned with identifying and evaluating those features, events, and processes, such as increased net infiltration or water-table rise, whose presence or future occurrence could introduce water into a potential repository at the site in quantities sufficient to compromise the waste-isolation capability of the repository system.

Hoxie, D.T.

1995-04-01

466

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

467

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

468

Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

None

1980-08-01

469

BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth’s land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×?0.12, R2 = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m?2 s?1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m?2 s?1). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m?2 s?1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m?2 s?1), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m?2 s?1) were detected during/after harvesting. PMID:24339833

Bamberger, I.; Hortnagl, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Muller, M.; Dunkl, J.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hansel, A.

2013-01-01

470

Rethinking Resourcing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

2003-01-01

471

Inventor's Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inventor Andy Gibbs developed the Inventor's Resource site to provide information to new inventors, intellectual property managers and intellectual property creators. The site features a newsletter, a yellow page of investors, copyright and trademark links, downloadable forms for inventors, and a listing of inventions for sale. The site also features annotated links to technological transf