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1

Woody fuel dimensions within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Research/resources management report  

SciTech Connect

Diameters and bulk density were examined for downed wood in major forest types found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. One-hour fuel (0 - 7 mm) diameters were smallest in spruce-fir and hemlock forests, intermediate in yellow pine forests, and largest in hardwood forests. Diameters for 10 hour (7 - 25 mm) and 100 hour (25 - 76 mm) fuels were not significantly different between forest types. Bulk density decreased with a decrease in bark coverage.

Harmon, M.E.; Hennessy, T.; Silsbee, D.G.

1980-01-01

2

The Rocky Mountain Institute: Home Resource Efficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Institute offers an informational Web site entitled Home Resource Efficiency. Visitors can learn several tips and tricks on how to keep their home as energy efficient as possible with link titles such as Energy Efficiency: First Things First; Appliances and Lighting; Home Cooling; Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Savings Measures; Household Water Efficiency; Resource-Efficient New Home Construction; Environmentally Friendly Building Materials; Renewable Energy: Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro; Indoor Air Quality; and Recycling. Each page contains some basic information about the subject, what we can do to help with energy efficiency, and additional helpful links.

3

Coalbed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet, provided by the US Geological Survey, summarizes the geology and production potential of sedimentary provinces that contain extensive coal deposits and significant coalbed methane gas resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The sheet supplies information about what coalbed methane is, where it occurs, how it is recovered and how geologists assess its distribution and quality. A map of resources within the Rocky Mountain region is provided with the text.

National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project US Geological Survey

4

Fuels from renewable resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

5

Yucca Mountain Remains Critical to Spent Nuclear Fuel Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent push to build new nuclear power plants in the United States is forcing some to con-sider alternatives to the Yucca Mountain geologic repository, located in Nevada, for spent nuclear fuel. These options include recycling nuclear fuel and opening interim storage facilities. Both options could play critical roles in any American nuclear power renaissance, but they simply cannot eliminate

Jack Spencer; Nicolas Loris

6

The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (; )

2004-07-01

7

Mineral resources of the Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas encompass most of the Sheepshead Mountains in southeast Oregon. The mountains comprise several fault blocks of middle and late Miocene basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lava; pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks are minor. The three wilderness study areas have low resource potential for gold, silver, and oil and gas. A few small areas have low-to-high resource potential for diatomite, as indicated by the occurrence of low-grade diatomite. Some fault zones have a moderate potential for geothermal energy.

Sherrod, D.R.; Griscom, A.; Turner, R.L.; Minor, S.A.; Graham, D.E.; Buehler, A.R.

1988-01-01

8

Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.  

PubMed

As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

2014-09-15

9

Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

Ewert, Alan

10

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

11

Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

Kessler, John H. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Kemeny, John [University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); King, Fraser [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., 6732 Silverview Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ross, Alan M. [Alan M. Ross and Associates, 1061 Gray Fox Circle Pleasanton, CA 94566 (Canada); Ross, Benjamen [Disposal Safety, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

2006-07-01

12

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources,  

E-print Network

Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative FuelFUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013

13

Mineral resources of the Santa Rose Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Riverside County, California  

SciTech Connect

The Santa Rosa Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers 68,051 acres in the Santa Rose Mountains, California. An appraisal of the mineral resources (known) and an assessment of mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of this wilderness study area were made at the request of the US Bureau of Land Management. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys indicate that the study area has high potential for tungsten and marble resources, moderate potential for gold, and no potential for oil, natural gas, and geothermal resources.

Calzia, J.P.; Madden-McGuire, D.J.; Oliver, H.W.; Schreiner, R.A.

1988-01-01

14

Biomass resources for alcohol fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

MacDowell, J. E.

15

A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a natural resource assessment of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO) to provide a synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge to address the current conditions for a subset of important park natural resources. The intent is for this report to help provide park resource managers with data and information, particularly in the form of spatially-explicit maps and GIS databases, about those natural resources and to place emerging issues within a local, regional, national, or global context. With an advisory team, we identified the following condition indicators that would be useful to assess the condition of the park: Air and Climate: Condition of alpine lakes and atmospheric deposition Water: Extent and connectivity of wetland and riparian areas Biotic Integrity: Extent of exotic terrestrial plant species, extent of fish distributions, and extent of suitable beaver habitat Landscapes: Extent and pattern of major ecological systems and natural landscapes connectivity These indicators are summarized in the following pages. We also developed two maps of important issues for use by park managers: visitor use (thru accessibility modeling) and proportion of watersheds affected by beetle kill. Based on our analysis, we believe that there is a high degree of concern for the following indicators: condition of alpine lakes; extent and connectivity of riparian/wetland areas; extent of exotic terrestrial plants (especially below 9,500’); extent of fish distributions; extent of suitable beaver habitat; and natural landscapes and connectivity. We found a low degree of concern for: the extent and pattern of major ecological systems. The indicators and issues were also summarized by the 34 watershed units (HUC12) within the park. Generally, we found six watersheds to be in “pristine” condition: Black Canyon Creek, Comanche Creek, Middle Saint Vrain Creek, South Fork of the Cache la Poudre, Buchanan Creek, and East Inlet. Four watersheds were found to have strong restoration opportunities: Big Thompson River West, Cache la Poudre South, Colorado River North, and Onahu Creek. Ten watersheds were found to have substantial near-term issues: Aspen Brook, Big Thompson River West, Black Canyon Creek, Cabin Creek, Cache la Poudre South, Fall River, Hague Creek, La Poudre Pass Creek, North Fork Big Thompson (East), and Colorado River North.

Theobald, D.M.; Baron, J.S.; Newman, P.; Noon, B.; Norman, J. B., III; Leinwand, I.; Linn, S.E.; Sherer, R.; Williams, K.E.; Hartman, M.

2010-01-01

16

MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

1984-01-01

17

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

18

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01

19

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1992-01-01

20

Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1993-02-01

21

Uncertain future for the water resources of high mountain Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much discussion recently about the state and fate of glacier in high mountain Asia (HMA). In recent years a number of studies have been published on observed mass balance trends in HMA either based on direct mass balance measurements or geodetic mass balance estimates using data from the digital elevation models (DEM) or the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE).The observed response of glaciers to climate change is contradicting and the poor understanding of processes affecting them and the large diversity in terrain and climates in the HMA makes future projections even more speculative. However, the contribution of glacier melt to river runoff is modest in most Asian basins except for the Indus and Amu Darya, which makes that a larger source of uncertainty is found in precipitation projections in climate models, in particular in monsoon dominated regions. Only a limited number of climate models are capable of a reasonable representation of the monsoon precipitation climatology. Moreover there are indications that there is a positive relationship between temperature increase and elevation and this may be attributed to land-surface atmosphere feedbacks, e.g. a reduction in snow cover may lead to an increase in air temperatures. It is unknown if this trend is consistently found in the latest suite of climate models and if it persists in space over all Asian river basins that find their source in the HMA. The uncertainty in glacier response combined with a poor representation of monsoon precipitation in climate models and a presumed positive correlation between temperature rise and elevation result in an uncertain future for high altitude water resources. In this study we use the full climate models ensemble generated for the fourth assessment report (AR4) provided through the third Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP 3) and the latest climate model ensemble generated for the upcoming AR5 provided in the fifth CMIP (CMIP 5) to assess the variability in climate change projections in the 10 largest river basins in Asia which have their source in the HMA. We assess differences between basins, in climate change signals with elevation and between the CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. We then use a high resolution distributed glacio-hydrological model to assess how uncertainty in climate change projections impacts into hydrological uncertainty for the Langtang glacierised catchment, in the central part of the domain. We finally evaluate differences in hydrological impact between CMIP3 and CMIP5.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Gobiet, A.; Suklitsch, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

2012-12-01

22

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy resources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

Peterson, J.A.; Frisken, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A.; Munts, S.R.

1988-01-01

23

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy sources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

Peterson, J.A.; Friskin, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Munts, S.R. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1988-01-01

24

Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered from anticipated climate change. How well do we understand these changes today, and what are implications for water resources management and for policy? With these questions in mind, a dozen researchers - most of them with experience in collaborating

D. Viviroli; D. R. Archer; W. Buytaert; H. J. Fowler; G. B. Greenwood; A. F. Hamlet; Y. Huang; G. Koboltschnig; M. I. Litaor; J. I. López-Moreno; S. Lorentz; B. Schädler; K. Schwaiger; M. Vuille; R. Woods

2010-01-01

25

Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with

D. Viviroli; D. R. Archer; W. Buytaert; H. J. Fowler; G. B. Greenwood; A. F. Hamlet; Y. Huang; G. Koboltschnig; M. I. Litaor; J. I. López-Moreno; S. Lorentz; B. Schädler; H. Schreier; K. Schwaiger; M. Vuille; R. Woods

2011-01-01

26

Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center: An Overview. Volume I of III. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of three volumes on the Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center provides an overview of the Center's functioning from its inception in 1970 through 1974. A perspective is provided on regional resource centers (RRC) in general, including such aspects as the educational system's link to an RRC and the relationship of the RRC to the…

Buffmire, Judy Ann

27

Selection of Batteries and Fuel Cells for Yucca Mountain Robots  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Confirmation program of the Yucca Mountain Repository Development Project needs to employ remotely operated robots to work inside the emplacement drifts which will have an environment unsuitable for humans (radiation environment of up to 200 rad/hour (mostly gamma rays, some neutrons)) and maximum temperatures of 180 C. The robots will be required to operate inside the drifts for up to 8 hours per mission. Based on available functional requirements, we have developed the following specifications for the power needed by the robots:

Upadhye, R S

2003-12-08

28

Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much

L. J. P. Muffler; M. A. Clynne; A. L. Cook

1982-01-01

29

Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

1989-01-01

30

Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area. An area surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the extreme northwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The area surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and all but the southwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large area around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study areas, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area, and to all but the southwest corner of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study area. Sand and gravel are present in both study areas, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.

Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.

1990-01-01

31

Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy. After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields. We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

Viviroli, D.; Archer, D. R.; Buytaert, W.; Fowler, H. J.; Greenwood, G. B.; Hamlet, A. F.; Huang, Y.; Koboltschnig, G.; Litaor, M. I.; López-Moreno, J. I.; Lorentz, S.; Schädler, B.; Schreier, H.; Schwaiger, K.; Vuille, M.; Woods, R.

2011-02-01

32

Mountain Meadows and their contribution to Sierra Nevada Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human alterations of California's waterscape have exploited rivers, wetlands and meadows of the Sierra Nevada. A century of intensive logging, mining, railroad building, development, fire suppression, and grazing by sheep and cattle has left only 25 percent "intact" natural habitat in the Sierra Nevada (SNEP 1995). Much of this intact habitat occurs at higher elevations, often in non-forested alpine or in less productive forests and woodlands where mountain meadows exist. Mountain meadows serve many ecological functions including habitat for threatened and endangered terrestrial and aquatic species, and are considered to be essential physical components to watershed function and hydrology with significant water storage, filtration and flood attenuation properties. This study evaluates the physical characteristics and hydrologic function of Clarks Meadow located in northern Sierra Nevada, Plumas County, California. In 2001, Clarks Meadow received significant restoration work in the upstream half of the meadow which diverted the stream from an incised channel to a shallow remnant channel, creating a stable channel and reconnecting the groundwater table to the stream. No restoration work was done in the lower half of Clarks Meadow where the stream still flows through an incised channel. Clarks Meadow offers a unique opportunity to study both a restored, hydrologically functional meadow and an incised, hydrologically disconnected stretch of the same stream and meadow. The physical characteristics of Clarks Meadows that were measured include surface area, subsurface thickness, porosity and permeability of subsurface materials, potential water storage volume, and surface infiltration rates. The goal of this study is to refine hydrologic characterization methods, quantify water storage potential of a healthy, non-incised meadow and assess its role in attenuating flood flows during high discharge times. Initial results suggest that significant subsurface storage volume is available in the meadow. Incising conditions in the unstable lower channel tends to dewater the lower portion of the meadow which encourages bank erosion through piping and corrasion. This study addresses questions that have broad implications for water management throughout the state because much of California gets water from Sierra high elevation watersheds in which meadows are thought to play a critical role in sustained long-term hydrologic function. The results of this study will be used to inform Integrated Regional Water Management Plans throughout Northern California.

Cornwell, K.; Brown, K.; Monohan, C.

2007-12-01

33

Seasonal migration of Columbia spotted frogs ( Rana luteiventris ) among complementary resources in a high mountain basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on how animals partition their activities and travel among complementary resources, such as breeding or overwintering habitats, is needed for species conservation. In a mountain basin at 2500 m elevation in central Idaho, we studied the habitat use and movement patterns of 736 marked and 87 radio-tagged Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) from 1995 to 1998. The goals of

David S. Pilliod; Charles R. Peterson; Peter I. Ritson

2002-01-01

34

Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically relevant variables such as streamflow and groundwater recharge. Fundamental limitations in both the understanding of hydrological processes in mountain regions (e.g., glacier melt, wetland attenuation, groundwater flows) and in data availability introduce large uncertainties. Lastly, assessing access to water resources is a major challenge. Topographical gradients and barriers, as well as strong spatiotemporal variations in hydrological processes, makes it particularly difficult to assess which parts of the mountain population is most vulnerable to future perturbations of the water cycle.

Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

2013-04-01

35

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

36

Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at RMA in 1986 and 1987. The major objectives of the vegetation studies were to: identify, map, and describe major and minor plant community types; Evaluate community composition, structure, and successional status; compare the vegetation of the arsenal with two offsite locations - Buckley Air National Guard Base and the Plains Conservation Center. The studies provided information useful for planning habitat enhancement and vegetation activities. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the extent to which the vegetation of RMA has been effected by contamination, physical disturbance, and previous agricultural history of the site. Appendices: species lists, data summaries for onsite and offsite vegetation types. Plates: vegetation map, natural resource areas of special interest.

Not Available

1989-10-01

37

The relationship between vegetation supply water index and forest resource of Bogd Khaan Mountain in the Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogd Khan Mountain all areas consist of 41129 hectares from 22992 hectares 55.9 of the forest about 20 rivers originate from mountain. Therefore Tuul river recourse depends on the flow of these water resources. In this research paper for using Landsat-5 satellite estimation of forest resource of Bogd Khan Mountain. How depending of Tuul river watering resource. This area estimation of vegetation index soil, soil temperature, soil water supply is the index to how depends on each other. Result is relate of vegetation index and water supply index directly but soil temperature undirectly reciprocal value. There for forest area, soil to low and it's possible to accumulate moisture.

Naranmandah, Z.; Tuya, S.; Batbayar, J.

2014-11-01

38

Translating science into policy: using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park.  

PubMed

Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. PMID:17693003

Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan

2007-10-01

39

Mapping the Distribution of Wildfire Fuels Using AVIRIS in the Santa Monica Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catastrophic wildfires, such as the 1990 Painted Cave Fire in Santa Barbara or Oakland fire of 1991, attest to the destructive potential of fire in the wildland/urban interface. For example, during the Painted Cave Fire, 673 structures were consumed over a period of only six hours at an estimated cost of 250 million dollars (Gomes et al., 1993). One of the primary sources of fuels is chaparral, which consists of plant species that are adapted to frequent fires and may actually promote its ignition and spread of through volatile organic compounds in foliage. As one of the most widely distributed plant communities in Southern California, and one of the most common vegetation types along the wildland urban interface, chaparral represents one of the greatest sources of wildfire hazard in the region. An ongoing NASA funded research project was initiated in 1994 to study the potential of AVIRIS for mapping wildfire fuel properties in Southern California chaparral. The project was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains, an east-west trending range in western Los Angeles County that has experienced extremely high fire frequencies over the past 70 years. The Santa Monica Mountains were selected because they exemplify many of the problems facing the southwest, forming a complex mosaic of land ownership intermixed with a diversity of chaparral age classes and fuel loads. Furthermore, the area has a wide diversity of chaparral community types and a rich background in supporting geographic information including fire history, soils and topography. Recent fires in the Santa Monica Mountains, including several in 1993 and the Calabasas fire of 1996 attest to the active fire regime present in the area. The long term objectives of this project are to improve existing maps of wildland fuel properties in the area, link AVIRIS derived products to fuel models under development for the region, then predict fire hazard through models that simulate fire spread. In this paper, we describe the AVIRIS derived products we are developing to map wildland fuels.

Roberts, Dar; Gardner, M.; Regelbrugge, J.; Pedreros, D.; Ustin, S.

1998-01-01

40

Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR)  

E-print Network

Alternative Resources The Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR that produce chemicals and fuels from alternative resources ­ with an emphasis on green engineering converting renewable biomass into energy, fuels and chemicals · Sharing common goals, ICFAR and Sarnia

Denham, Graham

41

75 FR 77652 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNVSO0000.L16100000.DO0000...Notice of Intent to Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the Battle Mountain District...Statement, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

2010-12-13

42

Heber Known Geothermal Resources Area ethanol-fuel facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 20 million gallon per year ethanol fuel facility which will be built in a geothermal resource area is described. The feasibility study covers geothermal resource evaluation, process engineering, facilities engineering, marketing, economics and finance, and environmental analysis.

1982-09-01

43

Mineral resources of the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln county, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The paper reports on the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area which encompasses most of the Sublette Range of western Lincoln County, Wyo. The study area consists of upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that form part of the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah overthrust belt. There are no identified mineral or energy resources in the wilderness study area. The study area has moderate energy resource potential for oil and gas. Mineral resource potential for vanadium and phosphate is low because the Phosphoria Formation is deeply buried beneath the wilderness study area and contains unweathered units having low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} values. The mineral resource potential for coal, other metals, including uranium, high-purity limestone or dolostone, and geothermal energy is low.

Lund, K.; Evans, J.P.; Hill, R.H.; Bankey, V.; Lane, E.

1990-01-01

44

Mineral resources of the New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, La Paz County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The New Water Mountains Wilderness Study Area, situated in La Paz County, west-central Arizona, locally has a moderate resource potential for gold and silver from replacement-type deposits occurring in Paleozoic marble in the western and north-central parts of the area, and a low resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, and manganese localized in fault zones that cut Tertiary volcanic rocks near the eastern edge of the range. Resource potential is low for geothermal energy or oil and gas. There is an unknown resource potential for lime, which could be developed from Paleozoic marble in the north-central part of the area. Sand and gravel occur in the area, but these materials are abundant closer to markets in the region.

Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Koch, R.D.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Lane, M.E.

1989-01-01

45

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01

46

Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2013-03-01

47

[Utilization suitability of forest resources in typical forest zone of Changbai Mountains].  

PubMed

Conservation of natural forest does not simply equal to no logging. The Northeast China Forest Region has a logging quota of mature forest as part of natural forest conservation project. How to determine the logging spots rationally and scientifically is very important. Recent scientific theories of forest resources management advocate that the utilization of forest resources should stick to the principle of sustaining use, and pay attention to the ecological function of forest resources. According to the logging standards, RS and GIS techniques can be used to detect the precise location of forest resources and obtain information of forest areas and types, and thus, provide more rational and scientific support for space choice about future utilization of forest resources. In this paper, the Lushuihe Forest Bureau was selected as a typical case in Changbai Mountains Forest Region to assess the utilization conditions of forest resources, and some advices on spatial choice for future management of forest resources in the study area were offered. PMID:15624803

Hao, Zhanqing; Yu, Deyong; Xiong, Zaiping; Ye, Ji

2004-10-01

48

Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S.  

SciTech Connect

The western U.S. derives its water resources predominantly from cold season precipitation and storage in snowpack along the narrow Cascades and Sierra ranges, and the Rocky Mountains. Hydroclimate is modulated by the diverse orographic features across the region. Precipitation, runoff, and water demand generally peaks during winter, spring, and summer respectively. Such phase differences between water supply and demand create a necessity for water management, which is reflected by major development in irrigation, hydropower production, and flood control during the past 50 years. Because water resources have been essential to the economic development and environmental well being of the western states, it is worrisome that recent studies suggest that global warming may exert significant impacts on snowpack and streamflow, which may seriously affect water resources in the western U.S. in the 21st century (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Leung and Ghan 1999; Mile et al. 2000; Leung et al. 2002a; Miller et al. 2002). To understand how climate change may affect mountain water resources, we have taken the approach of ?end-to-end? assessment where simulations of current and future climate produced by global climate models (GCMs) are downscaled using regional climate models (RCMs), which then provide atmospheric conditions for assessing water impacts using hydrologic models (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Miller et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2002) and water management models (e.g., Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Payne et al. 2002). This suite of models guides us through a comprehensive and global view of the effects of greenhouse warming on the atmosphere-ocean-land system to regional climate change, hydrologic response in river basins and watersheds, and reservoir management. The latter converts hydrologic response to impacts on water management objectives and enables the evaluation of adaptation strategies through modifications to existing reservoir operating rules.

Leung, Lai R.

2005-06-01

49

Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Close, T.J. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

50

Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area  

SciTech Connect

This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

Neilson, J.A.

1981-09-01

51

Evaluation of precipitation products over complex mountainous terrain: A water resources perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of in situ measurements of precipitation in remote locations is limited. As a result, the use of satellite measurements of precipitation is attractive for water resources management. Combined precipitation products that rely partially or entirely on satellite measurements are becoming increasingly available. However, these products have several weaknesses, for example their failure to capture certain types of precipitation, limited accuracy and limited spatial and temporal resolution. This paper evaluates the usefulness of several commonly used precipitation products over data scarce, complex mountainous terrain from a water resources perspective. Spatially averaged precipitation time series were generated or obtained for 16 sub-basins of the Paute river basin in the Ecuadorian Andes and 13 sub-basins of the Baker river basin in Chilean Patagonia. Precipitation time series were generated using the European Centre for Medium Weather Range Forecasting (ECMWF) 40 year reanalysis (ERA-40) and the subsequent ERA-interim products, and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset 1 (NCEP R1) hindcast products, as well as precipitation estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN). The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 is also used for the Ecuadorian Andes. These datasets were compared to both spatially averaged gauged precipitation and river discharge. In general, the time series of the remotely sensed and hindcast products show a low correlation with locally observed precipitation data. Large biases are also observed between the different products. Hydrological verification based on river flows reveals that water balance errors can be extremely high for all evaluated products, including interpolated local data, in basins smaller than 1000 km 2. The observations are consistent over the two study regions despite very different climatic settings and hydrological processes, which is encouraging for extrapolation to other mountainous regions.

Ward, E.; Buytaert, W.; Peaver, L.; Wheater, H.

2011-10-01

52

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

53

Changes of snow and vegetation coverage of Qilian Mountain and water resource in Shiyang River Basin over ten years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow coverage plays a significant role in the Earth's water cycle and is sensitive and informative indicators of climate change. Recently, snow coverage in the Qilian Mountain great changed and caused great changes of the ecological environment in the Shiyang River. In this paper, remote sensing imagines were used to calculate the snow coverage, vegetation coverage and water resource. The

Lanying Han; Cunjie Zhang; Zhengcai Zhang; Tao Han; Xin Wan; Yun Liang; Mingxuan Li

2009-01-01

54

Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California  

SciTech Connect

The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

1982-01-01

55

Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil respiration closely resembles the pattern seen in the organic soil moisture declining in the recent age class, however it only slightly rebounds in the two older classes. This pattern is likely due to the immediate reduction in autotrophic respiration from surrounding trees in the recent class and then a slight increase from local decomposition of labile carbon pools in the older classes. Water potentials show a sizable increase between the control and the recent infestation class. Stomatal conductance also shows a large increase in the recent class. Both of these occurrences might be attributed to the increase in mineral soil moisture. We believe our analysis of soil samples, LAI photos, and tree cores later this summer will help give us an idea if any release response in the healthy trees trends toward light limitation or resource limitation.

Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

56

Sustainability of Mountain Natural Resources and Biodiversity in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hindu Kush-Himalayas (HKH), the highest mountains of the world, act as water towers for major Asian rivers and also abodes of great diversity - cultural, climatic and biological. Since the early 1970s deforestation and loss of top soil, as well as their impacts on the livelihood of the poor farmers of the HKH mountains, have attracted global attention and

Suresh Raj CHALISE

2006-01-01

57

Translating science into policy: Using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for

Ellen Porter; Susan Johnson

2007-01-01

58

Groundwater resources of the East Mountain area, Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties, New Mexico, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The groundwater resources of about 400 square miles of the East Mountain area of Bernalillo, Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties in central New Mexico were evaluated by using groundwater levels and water-quality analyses, and updated geologic mapping. Substantial development in the study area (population increased by 11,000, or 50 percent, from 1990 through 2000) has raised concerns about the effects of growth on water resources. The last comprehensive examination of the water resources of the study area was done in 1980-this study examines a slightly different area and incorporates data collected in the intervening 25 years. The East Mountain area is geologically and hydrologically complex-in addition to the geologic units, such features as the Sandia Mountains, Tijeras and Gutierrez Faults, Tijeras syncline and anticline, and the Estancia Basin affect the movement, availability, and water quality of the groundwater system. The stratigraphic units were separated into eight hydrostratigraphic units, each having distinct hydraulic and chemical properties. Overall, the major hydrostratigraphic units are the Madera-Sandia and Abo-Yeso; however, other units are the primary source of supply in some areas. Despite the eight previously defined hydrostratigraphic units, water-level contours were drawn on the generalized regional potentiometric map assuming all hydrostratigraphic units are connected and function as a single aquifer system. Groundwater originates as infiltration of precipitation in upland areas (Sandia, Manzano, and Manzanita Mountains, and the Ortiz Porphyry Belt) and moves downgradient into the Tijeras Graben, Tijeras Canyon, San Pedro synclinorium, and the Hagan, Estancia, and Espanola Basins. The study area was divided into eight groundwater areas defined on the basis of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information-Tijeras Canyon, Cedar Crest, Tijeras Graben, Estancia Basin, San Pedro Creek, Ortiz Porphyry Belt, Hagan Basin, and Upper Sandia Mountains. View report for unabridged abstract.

Bartolino, James R.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Myers, Nathan C.

2010-01-01

59

Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), food, feed, fuel, and fiber resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrowroot biomass and processing residues were evaluated as a feed, fuel and fiber resource. Ensiled aerial biomass and coarse and fine arrowroot processing residues contained 10.8-21.1% crude protein; 11.1-30.2% crude fiber; 3.8-17.0% ash; and an in vitro dry matter digestibility of 38.5-60.3%. Theoretical yields of 0.27 and 1.60 l of methane at standard temperature and pressure per liter of rhizome

M. D. Erdman; B. A. Erdman

2009-01-01

60

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1994-05-01

61

Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to increase sediment yield primarily through changes in temperature and hydrology that promote vegetation disturbances (i.e., wildfire, insect/pathogen outbreak, drought-related die off). Here, we synthesize existing data from central Idaho to explore (1) how sediment yields are likely to respond to climate change in semi-arid basins influenced by wildfire, (2) the potential consequences for aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure, and (3) prospects for mitigating sediment yields in forest basins. Recent climate-driven increases in the severity and extent of wildfire suggest that basin-scale sediment yields within the next few years to decades could be greater than the long-term average rate of 146 T km - 2 year - 1 observed for central Idaho. These elevated sediment yields will likely impact downstream reservoirs, which were designed under conditions of historically lower sediment yield. Episodic erosional events (massive debris flows) that dominate post-fire sediment yields are impractical to mitigate, leaving road restoration as the most viable management opportunity for offsetting climate-related increases in sediment yield. However, short-term sediment yields from experimental basins with roads are three orders of magnitude smaller than those from individual fire-related events (on the order of 10 1 T km - 2 year - 1 compared to 10 4 T km - 2 year - 1 , respectively, for similar contributing areas), suggesting that road restoration would provide a relatively minor reduction in sediment loads at the basin-scale. Nevertheless, the ecologically damaging effects of fine sediment (material < 6 mm) chronically produced from roads will require continued management efforts.

Goode, Jaime R.; Luce, Charles H.; Buffington, John M.

2012-02-01

62

Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

2010-01-01

63

Marine macroalgae: an untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals.  

PubMed

As world energy demand continues to rise and fossil fuel resources are depleted, marine macroalgae (i.e., seaweed) is receiving increasing attention as an attractive renewable source for producing fuels and chemicals. Marine plant biomass has many advantages over terrestrial plant biomass as a feedstock. Recent breakthroughs in converting diverse carbohydrates from seaweed biomass into liquid biofuels (e.g., bioethanol) through metabolic engineering have demonstrated potential for seaweed biomass as a promising, although relatively unexplored, source for biofuels. This review focuses on up-to-date progress in fermentation of sugars from seaweed biomass using either natural or engineered microbial cells, and also provides a comprehensive overview of seaweed properties, cultivation and harvesting methods, and major steps in the bioconversion of seaweed biomass to biofuels. PMID:23245657

Wei, Na; Quarterman, Josh; Jin, Yong-Su

2013-02-01

64

Arrowroot ( Maranta arundinacea ), food, feed, fuel, and fiber resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrowroot biomass and processing residues were evaluated as as a feed, fuel and fiber resource. Ensiled aerial biomass and\\u000a coarse and fine arrowroot processing residues contained 10.8–21.1% crude protein; 11.1–30.2% crude fiber; 3.8–17.0% ash; and\\u000a an in vitro dry matter digestibility of 38.5–60.3%. Theoretical yields of 0.27 and 1.60 l of methane at standard temperature\\u000a and pressure per liter of

M. D. Erdman; B. A. Erdman

1984-01-01

65

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25

66

Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles.

Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

2002-02-28

67

76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fire; and capturing the value of removed trees in an economical approach. DATES: Comments...regime that is dominated by lodgepole pine. Tree mortality from a mountain pine beetle epidemic...structure and species diversity. Some other tree species native to the area including...

2011-11-16

68

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1995-07-01

69

Trophic Resource Overlap between Age0 Striped Bass and Largemouth Bass in Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small body size in fall and low winter survival of fingerling striped bass Morone saxatilis stocked into Smith Mountain Lake, Virginia, have been attributed to slow growth during summer months. Although small size at stocking appears to be the primary factor restricting fish prey consumption and rapid growth, trophic competition may also be a contributing factor. We examined the food

Trent M. Sutton; John J. Ney

2002-01-01

70

Late Holocene Land Use in the Nutzotin Mountains: Lithic Scatters, Viewsheds, and Resource Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship of site location relative to the viewable topographic matrix of the distribution of caribou, moose, and Dall’s sheep and site function in the Nutzotin Mountains of south central Alaska. The archaeological record of the project area consists of late Holocene lithic scatters containing several projectile point types (Notched, Kavik-like, as well as points made of

Jody J. Patterson

2008-01-01

71

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

2014-05-14

72

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

73

75 FR 43138 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Howard Elliot Johnson Fuels and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project EIS AGENCY: Forest Service...for fuels and vegetation management activities in the project area by comparing the existing...Johnson Fuels and Vegetation Management Project decision and the...

2010-07-23

74

Predicting Mountain Pine Beetle Impacts on Lodgepole Pine Stands and Woody Debris Characteristics in a Mixed Severity Fire Regime Using Prognosis BC and the Fire and Fuels Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of Prognosis BC (the BC variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator) and the Northern Idaho variant of the Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE) to project changes in stand structure, fuel loading, snag density, and potential fire behaviour following a mountain pine beetle outbreak in a mixed severity fire regime on the Chilcotin Plateau in central

Brad Hawkes; Steve Taylor; Chris Stockdale; Terry Shore; Sarah Beukema; Donald Robinson

75

Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

2014-12-01

76

Climate change and water resources in arid mountains: an example from the Bolivian Andes.  

PubMed

Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers. PMID:23949894

Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

2013-11-01

77

Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

2009-04-01

78

1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS has assessed resources of selected coal of the Fort Union Formation and equivalent units in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. The assessment focused on coal in the Powder River, Williston, Hanna-Carbon, and Greater Green River basins most likely to be utilized in the next few decades. In other basins in the region Tertiary coal resources are summarized but not assessed. Disc 1, in PDF files, includes results of the assessment and chapters on coal geology, quantity and quality, and land use and ownership. Disc 2 provides GIS files for land use and ownership maps and geologic maps, and basic GIS data for the assessed basins. ArcView shapefiles, PDF files for cross sections and TIFF files are included along with ArcView Datapublisher software for Windows-based computer systems.

Fort Union Coal Assessment Team

1999-01-01

79

Mineral resources of the Baboquivari Peak and Coyote Mountains wilderness study areas, Pima County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area which is underlain by Jurassic sedimentary, volcanic, and granitic rocks which were intruded by a network of middle Tertiary rhyolite dikes. This wilderness study area has no identified resources. This wilderness study area has a high potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barium, bismuth, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten in veins associated with felsic to intermediate intrusions. A low potential for resources of thorium, beryllium, and bismuth in pegmatites; a low potential for gold and silver resources in paleo-placer deposits; and a low potential for molybdenum resources in an inferred porphyry molybdenum deposit exists in this wilderness study area.

Nowlan, G.A.; Haxel, G.B.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Diveley-White, D.V.; McDonnell, J.R.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

80

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

81

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K. F.

1982-08-01

82

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

83

Response of soricid populations to repeated fire and fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel hazards have increased in forests across the United States because of fire exclusion during the 20th century. Treatments used to reduce fuel buildup may affect wildlife, such as shrews, living on the forest floor, especially when treatments are applied repeatedly. From mid-May to mid-August 2006 and 2007, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to capture shrews in western

Charlotte E. Matthews; Christopher E. Moorman; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Thomas A. Waldrop

2009-01-01

84

Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thorium in potentially economic amounts occurs in three types of deposits in the Wet Mountains area of Colorado: (1) quartz-baritethorite veins and fracture zones, (2) carbonatite dikes, and (3) red syenite dikes. The quartz-barite-thorite veins and fracture zones contain the largest resources of thorium; they cut all Precambrian and Paleozoic rock types in the area and tend to strike normal to the foliation in the Proterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The veins and fracture zones are end products of the episode of Cambrian alkaline magmatism that also produced rocks of the McClure Mountain Complex, the Gem Park Complex, the complex at Democrat Creek, and associated dikes of carbonatite, lamprophyre, and red syenite. The veins and fracture zones contain an average of 0.46 percent ThO2, 0.21 percent SLREE (total light rare-earth elements), 0.14 percent SHREE (total heavy rare-earth elements), and 0.012 percent Nb2O5; They contain reserves of 64,200 tons ThO2, 29,300 tons SLREE, 19,540 tons SHREE, 1,675 tons Nb2O5; they contain probable potential resources of 160,500 tons ThO2, 73,270 tons SLREE, 48,850 tons SHREE, and 4,185 tons Nb2O5. The carbonatite dikes form two distinct groups: replacement carbonatites and primary magmatic carbonatites. The latter group appears to be the better source of potentially economic commodities. The primary magmatic carbonatites contain an average of 0.17 percent ThO2, 0.0097 percent Nb2O5, 0.0031 percent U3O5, and 2.15 percent total rare-earth oxides. The seven largest dikes contain reserves of 131 tons ThO2, 40 tons Nb2O5, 17 tons U3O5, and 2,500 tons SRE203 (total rare-earth oxides), and probable potential resources of 753 tons ThO2, 228 tons Nb2O5, 105 tons U3O5, and 14,300 tons SRE2O3. The red syenite dikes contain anomalous amounts of thorium, uranium, niobium, and rare-earth elements. Although reserves and probable potential resources have not been calculated, they are likely to be small.

Armbrustmacher, T.J.

1988-01-01

85

High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources in the Cerro Grande Wildfire Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in the Cerro Grande Wildfire Site, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of

J. A. Pedelty; J. T. Morisette; J. L. Schnase; J. A. Smith; T. J. Stohlgren; M. A. Kahlkan

86

78 FR 29199 - Avani International Group, Inc., Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Resources & Steel Industries Inc., Millennium Energy Corp., Shannon International, Inc., and Welwind Energy International Corporation...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Shannon International, Inc. because it has not filed any...

2013-05-17

87

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

N /A

2002-10-25

88

Big Rock Candy Mountain. Resources for Our Education. A Learning to Learn Catalog. Winter 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imaginative learning resources of various types are reported in this catalog under the subject headings of process learning, education environments, classroom materials and methods, home learning, and self discovery. Books reviewed are on the subjects of superstition, Eastern religions, fairy tales, philosophy, creativity, poetry, child care,…

Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

89

Multigenerational resource management and safeguards for spent nuclear fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term management of spent nuclear fuels has been a subject of intense debate in the United States for the past two decades. There is a considerable difference between the U.S. spent-fuel management strategies from those of the rest of the world. By the adoption of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, the United States decided to defer indefinitely the commercial

Pillay; K. K. S

1996-01-01

90

Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas, California  

SciTech Connect

The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in 1982 indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area outside the KGRA. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

Muffler, L.J.P.; Denton, D.K. Jr.

1984-01-01

91

WILD CATTLE MOUNTAIN AND HEART LAKE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas in California indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic, nonmetallic, or fossil fuel resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and noncompetitive geothermal lease applications have been filed on much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park. Geochemical and geologic data indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Growler and Morgan Hot Springs just southwest of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, the entire Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of the Heart Lake Roadless Area have a substantiated geothermal resource potential; the rest of the Heart Lake Roadless Area has a probable geothermal resource potential.

Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Denton, David K., Jr.

1984-01-01

92

Climate interpolation for land resource and land use studies in mountainous regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the field of land resources and land use are increasingly faced with a serious data constraint. New techniques like simulation models require detailed and quantitative data on climate and soils. Large mapping units with representative weather stations or representative soil profiles ignore an important part of the inherent spatial variability of the landscape.New techniques involving geographical information

G. A. Baigorria

2005-01-01

93

Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?  

PubMed

On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries. PMID:22569220

Thorne, M C

2012-06-01

94

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

Brennan, A.

2011-04-01

95

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

96

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report  

E-print Network

Mountain Health Choices Beneficiary Report A Report to the West Virginia Bureau for Medical of Health and Human Resources, Bureau for Medical Services. #12; 1 Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE .......................................................................................................................... 5 II. MOUNTAIN HEALTH CHOICES

Mohaghegh, Shahab

97

Letter Report: Looking Ahead at Nuclear Fuel Resources  

SciTech Connect

The future of nuclear energy and its ability to fulfill part of the world’s energy needs for centuries to come depend on a reliable input of nuclear fuel, either thorium or uranium. Obviously, the present nuclear fuel cycle is completely dependent on uranium. Future thorium cycles will also depend on 235U or fissile isotopes separated from used fuel to breed 232Th into fissile 233U. This letter report discusses several emerging areas of scientific understanding and technology development that will clarify and enable assured supplies of uranium and thorium well into the future. At the most fundamental level, the nuclear energy community needs to appreciate the origins of uranium and thorium and the processes of planetary accretion by which those materials have coalesced to form the earth and other planets. Secondly, the studies of geophysics and geochemistry are increasing understanding of the processes by which uranium and thorium are concentrated in various locations in the earth’s crust. Thirdly, the study of neutrinos and particularly geoneutrinos (neutrinos emitted by radioactive materials within the earth) has given an indication of the overall global inventories of uranium and thorium, though little indication for those materials’ locations. Crustal temperature measurements have also given hints of the vertical distribution of radioactive heat sources, primarily 238U and 232Th, within the continental crust. Finally, the evolving technologies for laser isotope separation are indicating methods for reducing the energy input to uranium enrichment but also for tailoring the isotopic vectors of fuels, burnable poisons and structural materials, thereby adding another tool for dealing with long-term waste management.

J. Stephen Herring

2013-09-01

98

Inventory and analysis of rangeland resources of the state land block on Parker Mountain, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High altitude color infrared (CIR) photography was interpreted to provide an 1:24,000 overlay to U.S.G.S. topographic maps. The inventory and analysis of rangeland resources was augmented by the digital analysis of LANDSAT MSS data. Available geology, soils, and precipitation maps were used to sort out areas of confusion on the CIR photography. The map overlay from photo interpretation was also prepared with reference to print maps developed from LANDSAT MSS data. The resulting map overlay has a high degree of interpretive and spatial accuracy. An unacceptable level of confusion between the several sagebrush types in the MSS mapping was largely corrected by introducing ancillary data. Boundaries from geology, soils, and precipitation maps, as well as field observations, were digitized and pixel classes were adjusted according to the location of pixels with particular spectral signatures with respect to such boundaries. The resulting map, with six major cover classes, has an overall accuracy of 89%. Overall accuracy was 74% when these six classes were expanded to 20 classes.

Jaynes, R. A. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

99

Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Extension, North Carolina: Chapter in Wilderness mineral potential: assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the adjoining Craggy Mountain Extension consist of more than 4 sq mi of steep wooded slopes on the west side of Great Craggy Mountain in the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina. A mineral-resource survey of the area done between 1976 and 1979 found no evidence fore metallic mineral resources. Kyanite, garnet, and building stone are the only mineral resources in the study area, but large quantities of similar material are available outside the study area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth, but until some deep drilling is done in or near no estimate of the gas potential can be made.

Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

1984-01-01

100

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

101

Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry. PMID:24532178

Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

2014-05-01

102

a Fuel-Cell Distributed Energy Resource with Integrated Energy Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a fuel-cell distributed energy resource with integrated energy storage. A compatible power electronic interface to couple the fuel-cell with the grid and/or a local load is introduced. Details of the energy storage module, the power electronic interface and the corresponding controls are described. A control strategy for the power electronic interface is developed to manage the flow of power between the fuel-cell, the energy storage and the grid. A dynamic model for the fuel-cell distributed resource is developed and is used for the systematic design of the distributed resource control system. Performance of the fuel-cell distributed energy resource is evaluated based on digital time-domain simulations in the (Electromagnetic Transient Program) EMTP-RV software environment. Effectiveness of the energy storage module, the compatible interface and the corresponding controls in enhancing the fuel-cell distributed resource performance is verified. The results demonstrate the developed power electronic interface and control strategy provide the fuel-cell with the load-following capability, the plug-and-play feature and high qualities of voltage and power that are required for the microgrid application.

Nikkhajoei, Hassan

2009-08-01

103

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources  

E-print Network

. The successful candidate will be an important member of the Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from AlternativeDepartment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources The University of Western Ontario Applications are invited for a junior faculty position

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

104

Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D  

SciTech Connect

To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

Villet, R.H.

1980-04-01

105

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

106

Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

Rastler, Dan

107

A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

108

A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France).  

PubMed

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions. PMID:21547433

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

109

Reconnaissance geologic map and mineral resource potential of the Gearhart Mountain Wilderness and Roadless Area (6225), Lake and Klamath counties, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gearhart Mountain Wilderness, Lake and Klamath Counties, Oreg., is devoid of mines and mineral prospects and there are no known mining claims within the area. Furthermore, the results of this mineral appraisal indicate that there is little likelihood that commercial deposits of metallic minerals will be found in the area. Commercial uranium deposits, like those at the White King and Lucky Lass mines about 16 mi (~25 km) to the southeast of the wilderness, and deposits of mercury, like those south-southeast of the wilderness, are not likely to be found within the wilderness, even though all of these areas are characterized by middle and late Cenozoic intrusive and extrusive volcanic rocks. Rock of low commercial value for construction purposes is present, but better and more accessible deposits are present in adjacent regions. There is no evidence to indicate that mineral fuels are present in the area. Higher than normal heat floe characterizes the region containing Gerheart Mountain, indicating that it may have some, as yet undefined, potential for the development of geothermal energy. Data are not available to determine whether this higher than normal heat flow is meaningful in terms of a potential energy source or as a guide to possible future exploration; lack of thermal springs or other evidence of localized geothermal anomalies within the Gerhart Mountain suggest, however, that the potential for the development of geothermal energy is probably low.

Walker, George W.; Ridenour, James

1982-01-01

110

Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-01

111

A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as well as non-radioactive traffic fatalities. The Yucca Mountain EIS Transportation Database was developed using Microsoft Access 97{trademark} software and the Microsoft Windows NT{trademark} operating system. The database consists of tables for storing data, forms for selecting data for querying, and queries for retrieving the data in a predefined format. Database queries retrieve records based on input parameters and are used to calculate incident-free and accident doses using unit risk factors obtained from RADTRAN results. The next section briefly provides some background that led to the development of the database approach used in preparing the Yucca Mountain DEIS. Subsequent sections provide additional details on the database structure and types of impacts calculated using the database.

Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

2001-08-17

112

Mountain Tourism: Toward a Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is proposed to examine tourism and recreation issues in mountainous regions. First, six mountain-specific resource characteristics are discussed, which include diversity, marginality, difficulty of access, fragility, niche and aesthetics. It is argued that these characteristics are unique to mountainous regions and, as such, have specific implications for mountain recreation and tourism development. The paper then examines the

Raymond Chipeniuk

2005-01-01

113

Contributions to Economic Geology, 1921: Part II - Mineral Fuels - Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this paper is to call attention to some of the major surface features in the Rocky Mountain National Park and to point out their probable correlation with similar features in neighboring regions. The observations on which the paper is based were made in the summer of 1916, during an investigation in which other work demanded first consideration. This paper may therefore be considered a by-product. For the same reason many of the observations were not followed to conclusions, yet the data obtained seem to be sufficient to establish a certain order of events, the recognition of which may be of assistance in working out in detail the geologic and geographic history of the Rocky Mountain region.

Lee, Willis T.

1923-01-01

114

Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

1986-01-01

115

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils [number sign]2 and [number sign]6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1993-02-01

116

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort`s electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils {number_sign}2 and {number_sign}6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort.

Brodrick, J.R. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

117

Biomass resource facilities and biomass conversion processing for fuels and chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass resources include wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The conversion technologies for utilizing biomass can be separated

Ayhan Demirba?

2001-01-01

118

Integration of 3D MT Resistivity Imaging With Borehole Petrology, Temperature and Resistivity Log Data to Characterize the Geothermal Resource at Glass Mountain, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of resistivity images from magnetotelluric (MT) surveys with supporting geophysics, geology and borehole data shows that the resistivity pattern to depths of at least 3000 m in the Glass Mountain geothermal resource area is primarily controlled by interface conduction in temperature-dependent hydrothermal clays. Over 200 MT stations, 350 TDEM stations and 500 gravity stations are integrated into the analysis along with temperature and petrology data from 26 boreholes from 500 to 3000 m and a resistivity well log from 340 to 2800 m depth. These data cover the Glass Mountain geothermal area within the 7 by 12 km ring fracture at the summit of Medicine Lake Volcano and extend down its flanks. The integration of the geophysical data illustrates the relative effectiveness of 1D, 2D and 3D MT inversions and highlights limitations of some conventional joint analyses such as the use of TDEM to correct MT static distortion. The most effective conceptual integration is a comparative analysis of the 3D MT resistivity imaging with respect to detailed borehole petrology, resistivity and temperature logs. The 3D MT inversion images and well data illustrate the petrophysical origin of two prominent resistivity transitions in the Glass Mountain geothermal resource area. Near surface, unaltered volcanics have relatively high resistivity, over 200 ohm-m. At depths from 100 m to 700 m, there is a transition from the resistive unaltered volcanics to a 2 to 10 ohm-m zone correlated with low resistivity zeolite and smectite hydrothermal clay alteration found at temperature lower than 200°C. Where temperature exceeds 200°C, smectite clay becomes unstable and alters to more resistive illite, accounting for a transition to 10 to 100 ohm-m resistivity at 500 to 1400 m depth. The correlation of resistivity with temperature-sensitive clay alteration provides a basis for interpreting subsurface temperature throughout the volume imaged by the 3D MT inversion to 3000 m depth in the Glass Mountain area, as confirmed by data from the 26 boreholes.

Cumming, W. B.; Mackie, R. L.

2007-12-01

119

Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

120

Mountains and Moving Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the lecture notes for a class on plate tectonics and mountain building which is taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The course describes the connections between the earth's tectonic plates, earthquakes, and its many mountain ranges. Topics include basic geography, the structure of the earth's interior, the relationships between the seismic cycle, volcanism, and plate movements, erosion of mountains, and mass wasting. Links are provided to additional resources, including aerial photos of geologic features, an interactive map of geology and topography of the United States, and a glossary.

121

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

122

Mountain Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about processes that affect the shape of mountains. While determining the relative age of mountains involves a variety of complex interacting factors, this probe is designed to determine if students consider weathering factors or if they intuitively believe taller mountains are older.

Francis Eberle

2005-01-01

123

ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

1984-01-01

124

SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

125

STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

1984-01-01

126

The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.  

PubMed

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates. PMID:18421796

Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

2008-09-01

127

77 FR 57579 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan Amendment for the Southern Diablo Mountain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prepare a Resource Management Plan (RMP) amendment...of the scoping process to solicit public...guide the planning process. Preliminary...designation and management of special areas...in the planning process: rangeland management, minerals...

2012-09-18

128

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel can benefit the nuclear fuel cycle by destroying actinides or extending fissionable resources if uranium supplies become limited. The purpose of this study was to assess reprocessing and recycling in both fast and thermal reactors to determine the effectiveness for actinide destruction and resource utilization. Fast reactor recycling will reduce both the mass and heat load of actinides by a factor of 2, but only after 3 recycles and many decades. Thermal reactor recycling is similarly effective for reducing actinide mass, but the heat load will increase by a factor of 2. Economically recoverable reserves of uranium are estimated to sustain the current global fleet for the next 100 years, and undiscovered reserves and lower quality ores are estimated to contain twice the amount of economically recoverable reserves--which delays the concern of resource utilization for many decades. Economic analysis reveals that reprocessed plutonium will become competitive only when uranium prices rise to about %24360 per kg. Alternative uranium sources are estimated to be competitive well below that price. Decisions regarding the development of a near term commercial-scale reprocessing fuel cycle must partially take into account the effectiveness of reactors for actnides destruction and the time scale for when uranium supplies may become limited. Long-term research and development is recommended in order to make more dramatic improvements in actinide destruction and cost reductions for advanced fuel cycle technologies.The original scope of this work was to optimize an advanced fuel cycle using a tool that couples a reprocessing plant simulation model with a depletion analysis code. Due to funding and time constraints of the late start LDRD process and a lack of support for follow-on work, the project focused instead on a comparison of different reprocessing and recycling options. This optimization study led to new insight into the fuel cycle. AcknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 125862 for funding this research.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Smith, James D.

2008-09-01

129

See following summer opportunity: -Seeking to fill 4 positions to conduct fuels mitigation at Cheyenne Mountain Air Force  

E-print Network

See following summer opportunity: - Seeking to fill 4 positions to conduct fuels mitigation are chainsaw-qualified (i.e. taken S-212, Wildland Fire Chain Saws, or equivalent); experience in fire mitigation work preferred. - Pay would be $13.36/hour. 40-hour weeks, no OT - Travel to Colorado Springs

130

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-08-01

131

YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION  

SciTech Connect

The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

A.M. Simmons

2004-04-16

132

Organic contaminants in mountains.  

PubMed

The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in the upper trophic levels of alpine food chains, on measuring more water-soluble, persistent organic contaminants, and on studying how climate change may affect contaminant dynamics in mountain settings. PMID:15707037

Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

2005-01-15

133

Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

Anderson, J. H. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

134

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

135

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

136

Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U. [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Eggert, R.; Collins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden CO 80401 (United States)

2013-07-01

137

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced. The overall cost of bio-fuel production is determined by the feedstock delivery pathway and also the bio-fuel production process employed. Results show that the minimum cost of petrol and diesel production is 0.86 litre -1 when a bio-oil feedstock is upgraded. This corresponds to a 2750 TPD upgrading facility requiring an annual harvest of 4.30 million m3. The mini?m cost of hydrogen production is 2.92 kg -1, via the gasification of a woodchip feedstock and subsequent water gas shift reactions. This corresponds to a 1100 ODTPD facility and requires an annual harvest of 947,000 m3. The levelised cost of bio-fuel strongly depends on the size of annual harvest required for bio-fuel facilities. There are optimal harvest volumes (bio-fuel facility sizes) for each bio-fuel production route, which yield minimum bio-fuel production costs. These occur as the benefits of economies of scale for larger bio-fuel facilities compete against increasing transport costs for larger harvests. Optimal harvest volumes are larger for bio-fuel production routes that use feedstock sourced from mobile facilities, as mobile facilities reduce total transport requirements.

Brown, Duncan

138

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

2012-01-11

139

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

DOE Data Explorer

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

140

Impact of non-livelihood-based land management on land resources: the case of upland watersheds in Uporoto Mountains, South West Tanzania.  

PubMed

Various land management strategies are used to prevent land degradation and keep land productive. Often land management strategies applied in certain areas focus on the context of the physical environment but are incompatible with the social environment where they are applied. As a result, such strategies are ignored by land users and land degradation becomes difficult to control. This study observes the impacts of land management in the upland watersheds of the Uporoto Mountains in South West Tanzania. In spite of various land management practices used in the area, 38% of the studied area experienced soil fertility loss, 30% gully erosion, 23% soil loss, 6% biodiversity loss and drying up of river sources. Land management methods that were accepted and adopted were those contributing to immediate livelihood needs. These methods did not control land resource degradation, but increased crop output per unit of land and required little labour. Effective methods of controlling land degradation were abandoned or ignored because they did not satisfy immediate livelihood needs. This paper concludes that Integrating poor people's needs would transform non-livelihood-based land management methods to livelihood-based ones. Different ways of transforming these land management methods are presented and discussed. PMID:21560271

Mwanukuzi, Phillip K

2011-01-01

141

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

142

Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The second part presents probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract. The study also provides tables showing the location, tract number, and age (if available) of discovered deposits and prospects. For each of the 26 permissive tracts delineated in this study, summary information is provided on: (1) the rationale for delineating the tract; (2) the rationale for choosing the mineral deposit model used to assess the tract; (3) discovered deposits and prospects; (4) exploration history; and (5) the distribution of undiscovered deposits in the tract. The scale used to evaluate geologic information and draw tracts is 1:1,000,000.

Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

2008-01-01

143

Mountain Gorillas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the population of mountain gorillas living in the central highland area of Africa. The module looks at human activity around the gorilla habitat and how that activity is threatening the survival of the remaining gorillas.

2012-08-03

144

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

145

Mountain Mash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

2012-06-26

146

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

147

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

148

Yucca Mountain repository approved  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a quiet White House ceremony on 23 July, U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law House Joint Resolution 87, which approves the site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the development of a repository for disposing of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.White House spokesman Ari Fleischer called the signing “an important step forward on the way to a comprehensive policy for dealing with our nation's nuclear waste.”

Showstack, Randy

149

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

2013-04-01

150

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert C.

1984-01-01

151

BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

1984-01-01

152

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

153

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

154

Mountain Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE just come back from a journey in the region of the Andes, and in looking over the numbers of NATURE, which had accumulated during my absence, I came across the extract, which you make in your notes of February 21, from the Revue Scientifique, on the subject of mountain sickness. I cannot agree with M. Kronecker's statement that

George Griffith

1895-01-01

155

Fuels  

SciTech Connect

An account is given of current thinking on the infrastructural development prospects and the economic viability of such advanced cryogenic fuels as liquid hydrogen and liquid methane, as well as exotic synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The family of endothermic fuels will turn supersonic aircraft into flying chemical reactors, as they absorb airframe aerothermodynamic heat to change in chemical composition while actively cooling the structure. The airport-infrastructural and aircraft configuration-related difficulties posed by cryogenic fuels are noted.

Taylor, W.F.

1988-01-01

156

Energy in the Mountain West: Colonialism and Independence  

SciTech Connect

In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation, but in a piecemeal fashion that places local communities at odds with powerful external interests. Proper planning of major development is needed to insure that the west has a strong economic and cultural future after the fossil energy resources decline, even if that might be a century from now. To encourage the necessary public discussions, this paper identifies key differences between the mountain west and the rest of the United States and suggests some holistic approaches that could improve our future. This paper is designed to provoke thought and discussion; it does not report new analyses on energy resources or usage. It is a summary of a large group effort.

Steven Piet; Lloyd Brown; Robert Cherry; Craig Cooper; Harold Heydt; Richard Holman; Travis McLing

2007-08-01

157

Women's Role in Use and Management of Rangeland Resources in Semi-Arid Mountains: a Case Study from Karak District, North Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountains occupy almost 60% of the area of Pakistan, with over 90% of them lying in arid to semi-arid regions. Agricultural land is limited either because of aridity or relief. Hence rangeland is the most wide- ly-used land type in Pakistan. In spite of its great importance to the economy, rangeland management has largely remained neglected in the region. This

T. Iffat

158

A quantitative approach to conservation planning: using resource selection functions to map the distribution of mountain caribou at multiple spatial scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Visualizing the distribution of rare or threatened species is necessary for effective implementation of conservation initiatives. Generalized linear models and geographical information systems (GIS) are now powerful tools for conservation planning, but issues of data availability, scale and model extrapolation complicate some applications. 2. Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou that occurs

Chris J. Johnson; Dale R. Seip; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

159

Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords<\\/b>: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia. <\\/div>
 <\\/div>
Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been

Z. Gebreegziabher

2007-01-01

160

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

161

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

2002-01-01

162

Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symbiotic relationship between internal combustion engines (Otto and Diesel) and petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline and Diesel oil) has characterized the entire road traffic scene for more than 100 years. To date, the increasingly stringent demands on vehicles and engines could be complied with by harmonizing the further development of engines and fuels. According to the current state of the art,

Dušan Gruden

163

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

E-print Network

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio Committee Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported

Victoria, University of

164

Cadillac Mountain Summit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

165

Cadillac Mountain Summit Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panorama of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

166

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... more information on enabling JavaScript. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria, which cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Credit: CDC Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ...

167

Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological\\/social benefits have to be taken into

Sanjay Kaul; Raphael Edinger

2004-01-01

168

Mountain Barriers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. This lesson focuses on the changes that occur when mountains rise, thus changing the climate of the area and the plants and animals that live there. Students perform an experiment to observe differences in hot and cold air that help cause this phenomenon. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

169

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

170

Yucca Mountain Milestone  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

Hunt, Rod

1997-06-09

171

Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) promotes the sharing and dissemination of laboratory tested technologies and reagents to benefit and promote research across the world.  To this regard, several key resources (i.e. data, software

172

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Posted: June 23, 2014 Posted: June 23, 2014 Resources Helpful Tools Improving Access to Breast Cancer Care; Planning Comprehensive Breast Cancer Programs: Call to Action Download the first two Knowledge Summaries in the series: Knowledge Summaries

173

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Resources General Information Regarding CTRP AACI-NCI Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Strategic Subcommittee Report: CTRP Reporting Objectives and Implementation Timeline, July 2011 (PDF, 1 MB) Helpful Tools CTRP User's Guides Troubleshooting

174

Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the

Doc Hatfield; Connie Hatfield

1995-01-01

175

Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly growing world population and rising co nsumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to p roduce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other

David Pimentel; Alison Marklein; Megan A. Toth; Marissa Karpoff; Gillian S. Paul; Robert McCormack; Joanna Kyriazis; Tim Krueger

2008-01-01

176

REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

177

ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?  

E-print Network

gas emissions. Never- theless, in 2001, 130 billion gallons of gasoline were burned in the U.S. (EIA emissions when burning gasoline and helping to decrease oil consumption in the U.S. The recently passed that one burns 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent in fossil fuels to pro- duce 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

178

Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

1994-02-01

179

Resource recovery of organic sludge as refuse derived fuel by fry-drying process.  

PubMed

The organic sludge and waste oil were collected from the industries of thin film transistor liquid crystal display and the recycled cooking oil. The mixing ratio of waste cooking oil and organic sludge, fry-drying temperatures, fry-drying time, and the characteristics of the organic sludge pellet grain were investigated. After the fry-drying process, the moisture content of the organic sludge pellet grain was lower than 5% within 25 min and waste cooking oil was absorbed on the dry solid. The fry-drying organic sludge pellet grain was easy to handle and odor free. Additionally, it had a higher calorific value than the derived fuel standards and could be processed into organic sludge derived fuels. Thus, the granulation and fry-drying processes of organic sludge with waste cooking oil not only improves the calorific value of organic sludge and becomes more valuable for energy recovery, but also achieves waste material disposal and cost reduction. PMID:23623433

Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Jun-Yi; Wang, H Paul; Chen, Wei-Sheng

2013-08-01

180

Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout.

Matzie, R A [ed.

1980-04-01

181

Long-Term Habitat Use by Mountain Gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla beringei ). 2. Reuse of Foraging Areas in Relation to Resource Abundance, Quality, and Depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource depression caused by current feeding and the rate of resource renewal should influence foragers' decisions about when to revisit foraging areas. Adjustment of foraging paths and revisit rates should be particularly important when resources renew slowly. Foragers can also benefit by returning more often to highly profitable than to less profitable foraging areas. Many highly frugivorous primates seem to

David P. Watts

1998-01-01

182

Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice\\u000a of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass\\u000a production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy\\u000a and

T. Reg Preston

2009-01-01

183

Geologic Mapping and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains Quadrangles, Alaska Using Minimal Cloud- and Snow-Cover ASTER Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 8, 2003, ASTER acquired satellite imagery of a 60 km-wide swath of parts of two 1:250,000 Alaska quadrangles, under favorable conditions of minimal cloud- and snow-cover. Rocks from eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the swath of data, several of which define permissive tracts for various mineral deposit types such as: volcanic-hosted massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry copper and molybdenum. Representative rock samples collected from 13 different lithologic units from the Bonnifield mining district within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), plus hydrothermally altered VMS material from the Red Mountain prospect, were analyzed to produce a spectral library spanning the VNIR-SWIR (0.4 - 2.5 ?m) through the TIR (8.1 - 11.7 ?m). Comparison of the five-band ASTER TIR emissivity and decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT display the greatest range and diversity of silica composition of the mapped terranes, ranging from mafic rocks to silicic quartzites. The nine-band ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map several lithologic sequences characterized by distinct suites of minerals that exhibit diagnostic spectral features (e.g. chlorite, epidote, amphibole and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals); other sequences were distinguished by their weathering characteristics and associated hydroxyl- and ferric-iron minerals, such as illite, smectite, and hematite. Smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and/or other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (< 250 m diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation- or snow-cover, or were too small to be resolved.

Hubbard, Bernard E.; Rowan1, Lawrence C.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Eppinger, Robert G.

2007-01-01

184

Two decision-support tools for assessing the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources as part of the Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area interactive energy atlas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey project—Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA)—has developed a set of virtual tools in the form of an online interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The interactive energy atlas currently (2014) consists of three components: (1) a series of interactive maps; (2) downloadable geospatial datasets; and (3) decison-support tools, including two maps related to hydrologic resources discussed in this report. The hydrologic-resource maps can be used to examine the potential effects of energy development on hydrologic resources with respect to (1) groundwater vulnerability, by using the depth to water, recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the vadose zone, and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer (DRASTIC) model, and (2) landscape erosion potential, by using the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). The DRASTIC aquifer vulnerability index value for the two-State area ranges from 48 to 199. Higher values, indicating greater relative aquifer vulnerability, are centered in south-central Colorado, areas in southeastern New Mexico, and along riparian corridors in both States—all areas where the water table is relatively close to the land surface and the aquifer is more susceptible to surface influences. As calculated by the RUSLE model, potential mean annual erosion, as soil loss in units of tons per acre per year, ranges from 0 to 12,576 over the two-State area. The RUSLE model calculated low erosion potential over most of Colorado and New Mexico, with predictions of highest erosion potential largely confined to areas of mountains or escarpments. An example is presented of how a fully interactive RUSLE model could be further used as a decision-support tool to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of energy development on a site-specific basis and to explore the effectiveness of various mitigation practices.

Linard, Joshua I.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Ignizio, Drew A.; Babel, Nils C.

2014-01-01

185

A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use efficiency as well. Three processes, coal mining, power production including CO2 capture unit operation, and crude oil usage, must be included when the GWP of CCS is calculated. Moreover, the results from the sensitivity analysis of power generation efficiency present not only a significant reduction of GWP, but also a competitive solution for improving or at least preventing the decrease of fossil fuel resource use efficiency when CCS is applied.

Suebsiri, Jitsopa

186

YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

2005-08-26

187

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth a Long-term Experiment with the Plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth ­ a Long-term Experiment, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) between consumers and the resources they depend on can have ecological consequences depend on plant and insect mutualist partners for carbohydrate-rich rewards that are nutritionally

Palmer, Todd M.

188

Acute mountain sickness  

MedlinePLUS

High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you climb ...

189

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

190

GEARHART MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource appraisal of the Gearhart Mountain Wilderness and contiguous roadless area in Oregon indicates that it is devoid of mines and mineral prospects and that there is little likelihood that metallic mineral resources occur in the area. Higher than normal heat flow characterizes the region containing Gearhart Mountain, indicating that it may have some potential, as yet undefined, for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources, but no geothermal resources were identified in this study.

Walker, George W.; Ridenour, James

1984-01-01

191

How Mountains are Formed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate how mountains are formed. Concepts include the composition and structure of the Earth's tectonic plates and tectonic plate boundaries, with an emphasis on plate convergence as it relates to mountain formation. Students learn that geotechnical engineers design technologies to measure movement of tectonic plates and mountain formation, as well as design to alter the mountain environment to create safe and dependable roadways and tunnels.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

192

Effects of Pre-Fire Fuels Treatments on Post-Fire Burn Severity on the 2007 Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may be contributing to regional warming and drying trends that are increasing the size and severity of wildfires. Regardless if climate is a factor, the escalating costs of fire suppression and post-fire rehabilitation on the many large fires of recent decades have driven a national effort to reduce hazardous fuels across large areas, particularly those in the wildland-urban

A. T. Hudak; P. Morgan; P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; J. S. Evans

2007-01-01

193

CONDREY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource study indicates that the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area has areas of probable resource potential for copper, zinc, gold, and silver in the westernmost extremities of the area. Although there are no presently exposed chromite concentrations in the serpentinite bodies within the roadless area, the possibility that chromite occurs in the subsurface within these bodies should not be overlooked and they are shown as areas of probable chromite resource potential. No potential for energy resources was identified in the study. The common association of the silver schist and copper-zinc mineralization suggests the two are genetically related. Further study of favorable lithologies in the westernmost part of the roadless area are warranted to refine the estimate of resource potential. 4 refs.

Coleman, R.G.; Mayerle, Ron

1984-01-01

194

Yucca Mountain and The Environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

NA

2005-04-12

195

Mountains Majesty: Ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traveling from the East, one can see the towering snow-covered peaks of the Rocky Mountains long before reaching foothills. But to fully appreciate these mountains, one must venture into them and experience up close the colorful bursts of summer wildflowers, the glittering leaves of the quaking aspen, the cold clear alpine streams and lakes, and the distinctive sweet scent of the ponderosa pine. Scientists from the Bureau of Land Management provide an in-depth look at the management issues and diversity of plants, animals, and habitats of the Rocky Mountains.

Betsy Wooster

2004-11-01

196

The Foja Mountains of Indonesia: Exploring the Lost World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue based, peer reviewed resource discusses how the Foja Mountains need a conservation plan to protect its uniqueness and value to both science and the people of New Guinea. The Mountains are valuable because many species have remained unknown until recently. Over forty new species were found in one month alone in 2005. The mountains these species inhabit are pristine because they are untouched by human activity.

Bruce M. Beehler (Conservation International; )

2007-01-01

197

Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

1995-09-25

198

ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA  

E-print Network

ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA R. W. Rust1, L. !\\1. Hanks collected from Sand !\\1ountain and Blow Sand Mountains, Nevada. Four species are considered new to science and none are considered endemic to ei ther dune area. Sand Mountain and Blow Sand Mountains were visited 19

Hanks, Lawrence M.

199

Mountain Building Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. Subject matter covered includes these four categories: folded mountains, volcanic mountains, fault block mountains, and granitic batholiths. It also covers complex mountain chains formed at convergent plate boundaries, where they are folded and faulted and intruded by volcanic features. Complex mountains include Andean-type (ocean-continent) plate boundaries and Himalayan-type (continent-continent) plate boundaries. Mountains such as the Coast Ranges of California are believed to have formed by the accretion (addition) of crustal blocks called foreign terranes. This module also covers the process called isostatic adjustment. It contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions about California geomorphic provinces, place names of landforms handout, and practice quizzes. A feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Rita Haberlin

200

Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour  

E-print Network

Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour by Luke Robbins of Resource Management (Planning) Report No. 586 Title of Thesis: Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches avalanche fatalities and the tragic season of 2008-2009, the BC Coroner's Death Review Panel convened

201

The Verkhoyansk Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Verkhoyansk Mountains mark the eastern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Russia. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows the mountains (top and right) covered in snow. Following the curve of the mountains, the frozen Aldan River traces an east, then north, then westward path across the landscape, which brings it to the Lena River, the much larger river beginning at image left. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

202

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass degradation model developed for use in repository licensing, and HLW glass can be used as a surrogate for both CWF and MWF in performance assessment calculations. Test results indicate that the radionuclide release from CWF and MWF is adequately described by other relevant performance assessment models, such as the models for the solution chemistries in breached waste packages, dissolved concentration limits, and the formation of radionuclide-bearing colloids.

Ebert, W. E.

2006-01-31

203

Effects of recreational flow releases on natural resources of the Indian and Hudson Rivers in the Central Adirondack Mountains, New York, 2004-06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and Cornell University carried out a cooperative 2-year study from the fall of 2004 through the fall of 2006 to characterize the potential effects of recreational-flow releases from Lake Abanakee on natural resources in the Indian and Hudson Rivers. Researchers gathered baseline information on hydrology, temperature, habitat, nearshore wetlands, and macroinvertebrate and fish communities and assessed the behavior and thermoregulation of stocked brown trout in study reaches from both rivers and from a control river. The effects of recreational-flow releases (releases) were assessed by comparing data from affected reaches with data from the same reaches during nonrelease days, control reaches in a nearby run-of-the-river system (the Cedar River), and one reach in the Hudson River upstream from the confluence with the Indian River. A streamgage downstream from Lake Abanakee transmitted data by satellite from November 2004 to November 2006; these data were used as the basis for developing a rating curve that was used to estimate discharges for the study period. River habitat at most study reaches was delineated by using Global Positioning System and ArcMap software on a handheld computer, and wetlands were mapped by ground-based measurements of length, width, and areal density. River temperature in the Indian and Hudson Rivers was monitored continuously at eight sites during June through September of 2005 and 2006; temperature was mapped in 2005 by remote imaging made possible through collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology. Fish communities at all study reaches were surveyed and characterized through quantitative, nearshore electrofishing surveys. Macroinvertebrate communities in all study reaches were sampled using the traveling-kick method and characterized using standard indices. Radio telemetry was used to track the movement and persistence of stocked brown trout (implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters) in the Indian and Hudson Rivers during the summer of 2005 and in all three rivers during the summer of 2006. The releases had little effect on river temperatures, but increased discharges by about one order of magnitude. Regardless of the releases, river temperatures at all study sites commonly exceeded the threshold known to be stressful to brown trout. At most sites, mean and median water temperatures on release days were not significantly different, or slightly lower, than water temperatures on nonrelease days. Most differences were very small and, thus, were probably not biologically meaningful. The releases generally increased the total surface area of fast-water habitat (rapids, runs, and riffles) and decreased the total surface area of slow-water habitat (pools, glides, backwater areas, and side channels). The total surface areas of wetlands bordering the Indian River were substantially smaller than the surface areas bordering the Cedar River; however, no channel geomorphology or watershed soil and topographic data were assessed to determine whether the releases or other factors were mainly responsible for observed differences. Results from surveys of resident biota indicate that the releases generally had a limited effect on fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Indian River and had no effect on communities in the Hudson River. Compared to fish data from Cedar River control sites, the impoundment appeared to reduce total density, biomass, and richness in the Indian River at the first site downstream from Lake Abanakee, moderately reduce the indexes at the other two sites on the Indian River, and slightly reduce the indexes at the first Hudson River site downstream from the confluence with the Indian River. The densities of individual fish populations at all Indian River sites were also reduced, but related effects on fish populations in the Hudson River were less evident. Altho

Baldigo, B.P.; Mulvihill, C.I.; Ernst, A.G.; Biosvert, B.A.

2011-01-01

204

Dynamics of Mountain Pine  

E-print Network

). The primary reason for this impact is that the mountain pine beetle is one of a handful of bark beetles et al., 2001; Munson et al., 2004). A complex of bark beetles are killing ponderosa pine16 Dynamics of Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks Justin Heavilin and James Powell Utah State

Powell, James

205

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.

1999-01-01

206

ROCKY MOUNTAIN Research Station  

E-print Network

ROCKY MOUNTAIN Research Station New Publications October­ December 2003 What's Inside . . . · RAWS mailing of New Publications? Check the Rocky Mountain Research Station's Web site for regular updates former INT or RM reports, 2. Follow steps 1, 2, and 3 previous. write report number in space provided (e

207

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-06-01

208

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01

209

Herbivory and plant competition reduce mountain beech seedling growth and establishment in New Zealand  

E-print Network

and simulated herbivory, Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides Abstract The effect of herbivory and resource used experimental manipulations on transplanted and naturally occurring mountain beech (Nothofagus

Robertson, Alastair

210

Spatial Patterns of Atmospherically Deposited Organic Contaminants at High Elevation in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources such as amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at...

211

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

212

Mountain Promise page 1 Mountain Promise  

E-print Network

health care for WV communities page 15 #12;Mountain Promise page 2 duction and use of ozoneMeasuring economic progressMeasuring economic progress What defines sustainable development? WWWWW continued on page World War II. It has been used by economists and policy makers as a primary indicator of the nation

Baltisberger, Jay H.

213

Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

2012-11-11

214

Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

215

Tour of Park Geology: Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to tours of National Parks, National Monuments, and Recreation Areas associated with major mountain building periods. The parks are divided into groups by mountain building events: Appalachian, Laramide, and others. Where appropriate, links are provided to park geology, maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, multi-media, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Shenandoah National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Mt. Rushmore National Monument, Yosemite National Park, and more.

216

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

217

Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability  

SciTech Connect

The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

Not Available

1980-09-01

218

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is

Purnomo Sidi Priambodo; Feri Yusivar; Aries Subiantoro; Ridwan Gunawan

2009-01-01

219

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

220

MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

1984-01-01

221

LANDS WITH WILDERNESS CHARACTERISTICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN CONSTRAINTS, AND LAND EXCHANGES: CROSS-JURISDICTIONAL MANAGEMENT AND IMPACTS ON UNCONVENTIONAL FUEL DEVELOPMENT IN UTAH’S UINTA BASIN  

SciTech Connect

Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued Secretarial Order 3310, Protecting Wilderness Characteristics on Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Supporters argue that the Order merely provides guidance regarding implementation of existing legal obligations without creating new rights or duties. Opponents describe Order 3310 as subverting congressional authority to designate Wilderness Areas and as closing millions of acres of public lands to energy development and commodity production. While opponents succeeded in temporarily defunding the Order’s implementation and forcing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to adopt a more collaborative approach, the fundamental questions remain: Which federal public lands possess wilderness characteristics and how should those lands be managed? The closely related question is: How might management of such resources impact unconventional fuel development within Utah? These questions remain pressing independent of the Order because the BLM, which manages the majority of federal land in Utah, is statutorily obligated to maintain an up-to-date inventory of federal public lands and the resources they contain, including lands with wilderness characteristics. The BLM is also legally obligated to develop and periodically update land use plans, relying on information obtained in its public lands inventory. The BLM cannot sidestep these hard choices, and failure to consider wilderness characteristics during the planning process will derail the planning effort. Based on an analysis of the most recent inventory data, lands with wilderness characteristics — whether already subject to mandatory protection under the Wilderness Act, subject to discretionary protections as part of BLM Resource Management Plan revisions, or potentially subject to new protections under Order 3310 — are unlikely to profoundly impact oil shale development within Utah’s Uinta Basin. Lands with wilderness characteristics are likely to v have a greater impact on oil sands resources, particularly those resources found in the southern part of the state. Management requirements independent of l

Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

2012-10-01

222

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the

Ralph E. H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01

223

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

224

Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (COâ) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of COâ, cement manufacture involves

Marland G; T. Boden

1989-01-01

225

Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track requires, among other things, new principles for siting-principles based on partnership between the federal implementing agency and prospective host states. These principles apply to the task of developing an integrated waste management strategy, to interactions between the federal government and prospective host states for consolidated storage and disposal facilities, and to the logistically and politically complicated task of transportation system design. Lessons from the past 25 years, in combination with fundamental parameters of the nuclear waste management task in the US, suggest new principles for partnership outlined in this paper. These principles will work better if well-grounded and firm guidelines are set out beforehand and if the challenge of maintaining competence, transparency and integrity in the new organization is treated as a problem to be addressed rather than a result to be expected. (authors)

Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Williams, James M. [Western Interstate Energy Board, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2012-07-01

226

Pacific Mountain System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page guides the user through the Pacific Mountain System geologic province, one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America. The generally rugged, mountainous landscape of this province, which includes parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, provides evidence of ongoing mountain-building. One map shows the plate tectonic setting of the Pacific Mountain System which straddles the boundaries between several of Earth's moving plates. This province includes the active volcanoes of the Cascade Range and the young, steep mountains of the Pacific Border and the Sierra Nevada. The user can find out more with links to USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, Seattle region earthquake hazards, or North Cascades National Park geology. Links are provided to a simple shaded relief map and to several other shaded relief maps including ones with National Park locations and with major and subprovince boundaries. Image gallery links are given to several national parks sites: Lassen Volcanic National Park, Yosemite National Park, and North Cascades National Park.

227

The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region. PMID:24898296

Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

2014-10-01

228

Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With project headquarters at the University of Tennessee Libraries, the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project is designed to serve as both a physical and digital collection of resources for researchers studying the Smokies and their surrounding communities. From the homepage, visitors can view a selection of finding aids (if they are planning to conduct research), browse through the Project's newsletters dating back to 2002, and look through a list of other organizations (with hyperlinks to their respective homepages, where available). Currently, there are two nice digital collections available here, both of which are worth more than just a glance. The first is a digitized collection of 898 photographs taken by the late Albert "Dutch" Roth. Roth was an amateur photographer who spent six decades photographing the Great Smoky Mountains' Greenbrier and Mount Le Conte sections. Here visitors can peruse these images by subject heading and a variety of other fields; in doing so, visitors will get a real feel for the landscape of the region. The second digital collection is of the flora of Tennessee, and allows visitors to search through images of native and introduced flora throughout the state by plant name, family and genus.

229

From magic mountain to table mountain.  

PubMed

Prior to the introduction of chemotherapy, tuberculosis management relied upon aerotherapy, heliotherapy and good nutrition. This "treatment", exemplified by the regimen applied in Swiss and other European mountain resorts, is described by Thomas Mann in the book "The Magic Mountain". Tuberculosis chemotherapy began in 1944 with the introduction of streptomycin and para-amino-salicylic acid, later augmented by isoniazid. Early experience taught physicians that treatment must be given with multiple drugs to prevent emergence of resistance and that prolonged treatment adherence for 18-24 months was needed for a permanent cure of tuberculosis. Between 1970 and 1980 rifampicin was introduced and with pyrazinamide it made "short-course" treatment possible. For 30 years, a 6-month directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) based on the three compounds isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide was the foundation of tuberculosis control strategies world-wide, and in recent years this was supplemented with ethambutol in view of increasing rates of isoniazid resistance. However, even 6 months of treatment is too long to easily ensure the compliance necessary to permanently cure tuberculosis. The recent spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has placed tuberculosis programmes under severe pressure and is accompanied by an increase in drug-resistance making tuberculosis virtually untreatable in some instances. In 2004 the first of a new generation of anti-tuberculosis drugs entered clinical evaluation. A series of clinical trials, often conducted at sites in Cape Town, South Africa, has shown them to be efficacious and hold promise of being able to shorten tuberculosis treatment and treat drug-resistant tuberculosis. Development and assessment of these drugs is ongoing but there is renewed hope that these new drugs and regimens will assist in finally conquering tuberculosis, preventing a return to Magic Mountain where sunshine and fresh air was all that could be offered to patients. PMID:22915310

Diacon, Andreas H; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Donald, Peter R

2012-01-01

230

Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

Murphy, W.M. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

231

Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

232

Himalayan Mountain Range, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

1981-01-01

233

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Margaret McMillan

234

Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

Utah LessonPlans

2012-10-22

235

Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

2014-01-01

236

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain  

E-print Network

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the sole location to be studied for possi- ble development of the Yucca Mountain site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently published Viability As- sessment

237

Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Instructor's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Module synopses and resource lists are provided for eight adult basic education modules on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts, each designed to utilize basic skills and develop avocational or vocational skills (see Note). Included are explanations of the skills incorporated in each module and a resource list, including local people and…

Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

238

Mountain Snow System Interactions - An Integrative Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow scientists now have capabilities and opportunities unimagined in the 1950's due to refinements in field techniques and instrumentation, and the advent of remote sensing platforms. These technical advances enable snow scientists to observe the mountain snow system at virtually any spatial scale. Mountain snow covers are essential water resources in many regions and are increasingly recognized as sensitive bellwethers of global change. Earth system science requires datasets that capture the 'vital signs' of system states and interactions at multiple spatio/temporal scales. Snowmelt processes are influenced by complex interactions that occur over a range of spatial scales. Surface energy exchange states and storage of melt water within the snowpack are expected to dominate snowmelt at the point scale. At larger spatial scales, the influence on lateral movement of water through the snowpack by basin topography and stream network traits may begin to dominate runoff. At still larger scales, reductions in basin- scale snow albedo caused by aerosols or dusts originating from distant sources may become the dominant forcing agent. Models based on an understanding of snowpack processes at the point scale will tend to allow point-scale processes to dominate when integrated to the basin scale. Knowledge of how processes at different scales interact, and which processes dominate at which scales, is essential to the development of new models. Traditional snow observation protocols and existing datasets often fail to capture or represent earth-surface interactions and processes in ways that enhance the integrated investigation of the mountain snow system as a system. The Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies and its collaborators seek to facilitate the interdisciplinary, integrative development of a ?mountain snow system observation protocol? or MSSOP. A multi-modal, multi-scale, integrative MSSOP observation set would identify proxy measures of system behavior for routine and sustained observation at mountain snow system observatories such as the Senator Beck Basin Study Area in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado. An MSSOP would facilitate mountain climate and weather modeling and verification, would support research and applications in global change science and regional resource and hazard management, provide a framework for analyzing, enhancing, and publishing existing snow datasets and observation programs, and represent a basis on which further hydrologic/snow system observatories are grown.

Landry, C. C.; Painter, T. H.; Barrett, A. P.

2004-12-01

239

North American mountain bromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although native grasses are often desired and used for revegetation of disturbed areas, genetic differences may exist within and among natural and cultivated germplasm sources. This phylogeographic study compares geographic origin and genealogical linkages of 25 natural and cultivated germplasm sources of mountain brome (Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. [Poaceae]) from western North America. Significant variation among accessions (FST =

Alicia N Massa; Steven R Larson

2005-01-01

240

Severe acute mountain sickness.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of acute mountain sickness (AMS) as it has presented to a physician working in a general hospital at 1370 m in Kathmandu, nepal, are described. The features of 39 cases are analysed. It is suggested that AMS should be classified into benign and malignant forms. PMID:493196

Dickinson, J. G.

1979-01-01

241

ROCKY MOUNTAIN Research Station  

E-print Network

ROCKY MOUNTAIN Research Station New Publications July­ September 2003 What's Inside . . . · Hayman Research Station's Web site for regular updates on new publications at: http. write report number in space provided (e.g., INT-GTR-373). Without a card: 3. Cut off postcard and mail

242

Computing Mountain Passes  

E-print Network

typically potential energy surfaces for a system with xa and xb associated with stable ..... The mountain-pass theorem guarantees the existence of a critical point but does not ...... This concern motivates our study of the behavior ..... special credit for his comments and insights on the elastic string algorithm during the Erice.

2002-08-29

243

Melting Mountain Glaciers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's glaciers are shrinking at alarming rates, and many scientists believe it is due to changes in climate. Dr. Lonnie Thompson of Ohio State University and Dr. Douglas Hardy of UMass-Amherst discuss glaciers and how they melt, and pay special attention to Africa's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. "Changing Planet" is produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

NBC Learn

2010-10-07

244

DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

245

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

246

Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

2011-01-01

247

Landscape change patterns in mountains, land use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegain mountains have had a central role in the subsistence agroecosystems by providing vast biological resources for humans and their livestock since 4000–3500 BP as indicated by paleoecological records. Later with the development of the summer farming system the use of the mountains was intensified. This long-term use of the mountains has shaped a montane cultural landscape by livestock grazing,

E. Gunilla A. Olsson; Gunnar Austrheim; Synnøve N. Grenne

2000-01-01

248

The potential for increased atmospheric CO 2 emissions and accelerated consumption of deep geologic CO 2 storage resources resulting from the large-scale deployment of a CCS-enabled unconventional fossil fuels industry in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred renewed interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the

James J. Dooley; Robert T. Dahowski; Casie L. Davidson

2009-01-01

249

Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

2013-01-01

250

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

251

Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

Voegtly, Nickolas E.

1981-01-01

252

Report of the Advisory Committee on Agriculturally Derived Fuels to the Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council  

SciTech Connect

For the purpose of the Committee, biomass was defined as the volume of living material or residues of living material (organic material) available in Texas for conversion into energy. Statistical reports from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and other sources indicate that in addition to surplus and distressed grains and certain other crops, there are roughly 27 million tons of agricultural residues currently being left in the fields or at the processing plants after harvest. The average annual residue from five crops - sorghum, corn, wheat, rice and cotton - is more than 20 million tons with a theoretical heat value of 270 trillion Btus. This represents 64 percent of the total energy input for Texas agriculture in 1973. Additionally, 4.1 million tons of dry manure is economically recoverable from Texas feedlots which could be converted into 14 trillion Btus of energy each year in the form of methane gas. Municipal solid waste, much of which is comprised of residues of living materials, currently amounts to about 13 million tons annually. The principal processes for converting the referenced resources into energy include: (1) direct combustion; (2) fermentation; (3) gasification/pyrolysis; (4) anaerobic digestion; and (5) petroculture - the production of certain non-traditional plants. Texas produces huge quantities of biomass, and has the potential of producing even more, which can be converted through various processes into significant quantities of usable energy to help meet the needs of the agricultural industry and the general public. Some of the technology required for the conversion processes is already sufficiently advanced to support immediate production and use while others will require additional research and development. The report discusses the current level of development of the relevant technologies.

None

1979-09-03

253

Mountain West Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as part of a consortium between universities, colleges, museums, and historical societies in Utah, Nevada, and Idaho, the Mountain West Digital Library contains dozens of digital collections whose content ranges far beyond that of the geographical area covered by the Mountain West region. On their homepage, visitors can learn about the "Featured Collection" and then browse all of the available collections via a list of partner institutions. All told, there are over 100 collections here, and visitors can search the entire archive for text, images, video, or audio clips. A couple of the collections should not be missed, including "Before Gaming: Las Vegas Centennial", which provides visual documentation of a (relatively) quiet Las Vegas before the emergence of gambling. Additionally, the Mormon publication "The Young Woman's Journal" provides insight into the lives of Mormon women in the early 20th century.

254

Mountain winds (revisited)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction of extremely high wind speeds, at ground level on the downstream side of a mountain range, is possible by solving the initial value problem for a two-layered nonlinear shallow water model of the atmosphere. Three different numerical methods are described to find the solutions which may involve shocks: (1) the vonNeumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity method, (2) a filtering scheme, and (3) a hybrid method.

Isaacson, E.; Zwas, G.

1980-01-01

255

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute febrile illness transmitted to man by ticks infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Usually sudden in onset, it is characterized by chills, headache, and fever lasting 2 or more weeks. A characteristic rash\\u000a appears on the extremities on about the 4th febrile day and spreads to the trunk. The exanthem and other anatomical manifestations\\u000a result

Aaron Milstone; J. Stephen Dumler

256

Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

Geldon, A.L.

1993-12-31

257

KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

1984-01-01

258

Energy Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy fuels our planet. Find out where we get our energy and how we have developed technologies to fulfill our energy needs. Learn how our increasing demand for energy affects the environment and how we are addressing the negative effects of that demand through conservation efforts. How will we search for energy to fuel the twenty-first century? Explore these subjects through looking at the energy resources available for use, the history and development of technologies that use these energy resources, and the effect on the environment when we use these resources.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

259

Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science

P. Swift; K. Gaither; G. Freeze; J. McCord; D. Kalinich; G. Saulnier; W. Statham

2002-01-01

260

Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

261

Managing the “Commons” on Cadillac Mountain: A Stated Choice Analysis of Acadia National Park Visitors' Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated choice analysis was used to assess visitors' preferences for alternative combinations of public access, resource protection, visitor regulation, and site hardening to manage the Cadillac Mountain summit. Results provide insight into visitor preferences concerning the management of national park icon sites like the summit of Cadillac Mountain. These areas have received limited research attention. Results suggest that visitors consider

Steven D. Bullock; Steven R. Lawson

2008-01-01

262

Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module describes the features of mountain waves and explores the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

COMET

2004-01-07

263

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

264

Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache  

MedlinePLUS

... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, FRCP( ...

265

Can Nuclear Waste Be Stored Safely at Yucca Mountain?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 the federal government narrowed to one its long-term options for disposing of nuclear waste: storing it permanently in a series of caverns excavated out of the rock deep below Yucca mountain in southern Nevada. Whether it makes sense at this time to dispose permanently of spent fuel and radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository is hotly disputed.

Chris G. Whipple

1996-01-01

266

Prescribed Fire at Sunset in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sunset as seen through the smoke of a prescribed burn in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. The burn was conducted to restore fire as an ecosystem process and reduce hazardous tree densities and fuel loads due to more than 100 years of fire suppression. Foreground trees (Douglas-fir and aspen) were ki...

267

Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed, and gave the authority to, EPA to

2002-01-01

268

Testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources POLICIES TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL  

E-print Network

TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL ECONOMY 2:30 pm, Tuesday, January 30, 2007 Dirksen Senate. But it is also because car buyers undervalue fuel economy. Raising the fuel economy of passenger cars and light

269

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Gene Pearson

270

ADVANCES IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

Since site designation of the Yucca Mountain Project by the President, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the transition from the site characterization phase of the project to preparation of the license application. As part of this transition, an increased focus has been applied to the repository design. Several evolution studies were performed to evaluate the repository design and to determine if improvements in the design were possible considering advances in the technology for handling and packaging nuclear materials. The studies' main focus was to reduce and/or eliminate uncertainties in both the pre-closure and post-closure performance of the repository and to optimize operations. The scope and recommendations from these studies are the subjects of this paper and include the following topics: (1) a more phased approach for the surface facility that utilize handling and packaging of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in a dry environment rather than in pools as was presented in the site recommendation; (2) slight adjustment of the repository footprint and a phased approach for construction and emplacement of the repository subsurface; and (3) simplification of the construction, fabrication and installation of the waste package and drip shield.

Harrington, P.G.; Gardiner, J.T.; Russell, P.R.Z.; Lachman, K.D.; McDaniel, P.W.; Boutin, R.J.; Brown, N.R.; Trautner, L.J.

2003-02-27

271

Forest expansion in mountain ecosystems: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main threats that mountain areas in industrialised countries are nowadays facing, land abandonment is by far the most important. Land abandonment is mainly due to marginalisation trends and it is closely associated with other processes such as depopulation and decline of mountain farming. The most evident consequence of such a situation is the phenomenon of forest expansion, due

Giorgio Conti; Laura Fagarazzi

272

Climate and Wildfire in Mountains of the Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the area burned in wildfires in mountain forests of the western United States, with mean annual area burned nearly three and a half times higher compared to the preceding one and a half decades.(1) Concomitant increases in variability in annual area burned and in fire suppression costs pose a serious challenge for land management in the mountainous West. The variance in annual area burned since 1987 is nineteen times its previous level. Since managers must be prepared for the worst possible scenarios in every fire season, increased uncertainty about the scale of the western fire season each year imposes high costs on public agencies. Annual real suppression costs in western forests have more than doubled for the Forest Service since 1987, while the variance in annual suppression costs is over four times higher. Although federal agencies' fire suppression budgets have increased recently, they are still close to what would be spent in an "average" year that seldom occurs, while costs tend to fluctuate between low and high extremes. Modeling area burned and suppression costs as a function of climate variability alone, Westerling (2004, unpublished work) found that the probability of the Forest Service's suppression expenses exceeding the current annual suppression budget has exceeded 50% since 1987, a substantial increase from the one-in-three chance over the preceding 40 years. Recent progress in our understanding of the links between climate and wildfire, and in our ability to forecast some aspects of both climate and wildfire season severity a season or more in advance, offers some hope that these costs might be ameliorated through the integration of climate information into fire and fuels management. In addition to the effects of climate variability on wildfire, long-term biomass accumulations in some western ecosystems have fueled an increasing incidence of large, stand-replacing wildfires where such fires were previously rare. These severe large fires can result in erosion and changes in vegetation type, with consequences for water quality, stream flow, future biological productivity of the affected areas, and habitat loss for endangered species. Apart from their deleterious ecological consequences, severe fires can also dramatically affect amenity values for public lands and for homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. In the National Fire Plan, land management agencies have committed to reducing fuels on millions of hectares of public lands. The primary means are mechanical removal, prescribed fire and wildland fire use. The Forest Service estimates they will need to spend hundreds of millions of dollars per year to meet their fuel reduction targets, while efforts in recent years have not kept up with the current rate of biomass increase. Use of climate information for targeting resources and scheduling prescribed burns could increase the efficiency of these efforts. In this study we review the fire history since 1970 for western mountain forests, and demonstrate apparent links between regional climate variability and decadal-scale changes in annual area burned. This analysis explores how wildfire size and frequency have varied over the past thirty-five years by elevation and latitude, and how climate indices such as precipitation, temperature, drought indices and the timing of spring runoff vary in importance for fire season severity by elevation in forests around the western United States.

Alfaro, E.; Westerling, A. L.; Cayan, D. R.

2004-12-01

273

The Rocky Mountain Locust: Extinction and the American Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site offers a review of the agricultural devastation and eventual extinction, in about 1902, of the Rocky Mountain Locust, a once phenomenally abundant insect. The site includes bibliographical references. The author (C. R. Bomar) includes nine study questions for discussion on issues of social responsibility, extinction, and conservation. This resource is also available in PDF format.

0000-00-00

274

ROCK PILE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MISSOURI.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geologic and mineral-occurrence survey of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness study area in southeastern Missouri indicates the area has little promise for the occurrence of energy and mineral resources. Exploratory drill holes on private land along the west side of the area encountered no mineralization, and none of the rocks or sediments exposed in the area contain any detectable evidence of significant mineralization. Drilling through the Bonneterre Formation, supplemented by geochemical studies of the drill-hole samples, would test the remote possibility of lead mineralization close to the contact with Precambrian rocks.

Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

1984-01-01

275

Assesment of Ecological Flow for Mountain Rivers of the Kura Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Development of an irrigation farming and intensive water use in water catchments areas of Kura basin river of Azerbaijan has\\u000a increased consumption to fresh water, which is supplied only by small mountain rivers. Most of water resources of small mountain\\u000a rivers of Kura basin are completely consumed by the enterprises of industry and agriculture. Waste of the water resources\\u000a of

Rovshan Abbasov

276

ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

277

Fuel ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

Not Available

1989-02-01

278

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

279

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

280

CERET Web Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy list of online resources is provided by the Consortium for Education in Renewable Energy Technology (CERET) and the resources include information and links on Alternative Vehicles & Fuels, Biomass, Energy Environment & Society, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics & Solar Thermal, and Wind Energy. The site also contains learning objects in Fuel Cell Technology, Solar Technology, and Curriculum Modules.

281

Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than the passive retrievals. Specifically, we examine the decade-long record from Terra and Aqua to bracket the historical record. In the California Sierra Nevada, surface measurements have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution for us to validate our approach, whereas in the Hindu Kush surface data are sparse and access presents significant difficulties.

Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

2013-12-01

282

[Can medicine move mountains?].  

PubMed

For the author involvement with Paracelsus demands consideration of both, socio-cultural as well as historico-cultural aspects. Each generation has obtained a different picture of this famous physician from Einsiedeln. Around 1941 the progress initiated by Paracelsus has been emphasized, such as the assumed foundation of chemistry, chemotherapy, and the renewal of surgery, occupational medicine, balneology and many more. For the year 1941 (= 400th anniversary of Paracelsus death) a nationalistic perception of Paracelsus was typical. For National-Socialistic Germany, Paracelsus was the founder of a "German medicine" as a contrast to medicine oriented towards France and Jewish-Arabia. Paracelsus also was seen as a pioneer of the experiment and as opponent of medical dilettantism in a popular direction. The perception of Paracelsus of 1993 is completely different. Today Theophrastus from Hohenheim is seen in a post-modern perspective, not as the man of progress, but as one, who opposed to the medicine of his age a partial ancient natural medicine, including the arts of gypsies, witches and midwives. The magic and psychosomatic informations of Paracelsus are seen as precious compensation for losses that we had to accept in the progress of modern medicine. As a psychiatrist Paracelsus was involved with diseases that originated from a "misuse of credo". He reports about collective psychoses, for example those appearing in the group of anabaptists in St. Gallen. Misuse of credo derives from intended provocation of martyrium. To move mountains with one's faith is another pathologic imagination. A therapy should aim at the restitution of such a "mountain" moved by the ill patient. Paracelsus demands the greatest mercy in dealing with mentally ill patients. This disease is also a challenge for theology: "What gives harm to the body destroys the house of the eternal".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191181

Meier, P

1993-12-21

283

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

284

Multi-scale nest-site selection by black-backed woodpeckers in outbreaks of mountain pine beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks in the Black Hills can provide habitat for black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a U.S. Forest Service, Region 2 Sensitive Species. These outbreaks are managed through removal of trees infested with mountain pine beetles to control mountain pine beetle populations and salvage timber resources. To minimize impacts to black-backed woodpeckers while meeting

Thomas W. Bonnot; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble

2009-01-01

285

NATURAL RESOURCE RECREATION Graduates work in a variety of federal, state, and local resource manage-  

E-print Network

Adventures Je erson County Open Space Larimer Dept of Natural Resources National Park Service North Front Range Metro Planning Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory Rocky Mountain National Park Steamboat Ski Resort Field Technician Guest Service Agent Marketing Assistant Outreach Coordinator Park Ranger

286

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

287

Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle pressure is close to atmospheric pressure, then the vacuum pump will evacuate the hydrogen gas from the first bottle to store into the second high pressure bottle. When the first bottle become vacuum then the procedure is repeated again.

Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

2009-09-01

288

The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain.

Ostler, W.K.; O`Farrell, T.P.

1994-06-01

289

Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region; Yucca Mountain Project, Interim report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research

1990-01-01

290

The structure of mountain ranges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underlying structure - the tectonics - of mountain ranges is described. The question of what holds mountain ranges up is examined. Some ranges stand on plates of strong rock; others are buoyed by crustal roots reaching deep into the mantle. The latter may collapse if their flanks are not buttressed horizontally. The Tibetan plateau and the Andes are areas that may be undergoing such a collapse. The forces that create mountain ranges and support them are also considered with respect to the Alps, Himalayas and Rockies. The work of such pioneers as George Everest, J. H. Pratt and Britain's Astronomer Royal George B. Airy, leading to the first advances in understanding of the structure of mountains, is considered.

Molnar, P.

1986-07-01

291

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

292

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

293

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

294

Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

2014-01-01

295

Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

2005-03-14

296

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

297

Transportation cask decontamination and maintenance at the potential Yucca Mountain repository; Yucca Mountain Site characterization project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates spent fuel cask handling experience at existing nuclear facilities to determine appropriate cask decontamination and maintenance operations at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. These operations are categorized as either routine or nonroutine. Routine cask decontamination and maintenance tasks are performed in the cask preparation area at the repository. Casks are taken offline to a separate cask maintenance area for major nonroutine tasks. The study develops conceptual designs of the cask preparation area and cask maintenance area. The functions, layouts, and major features of these areas are also described.

Hartman, D.J.; Miller, D.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Hill, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-04-01

298

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

299

ROCKY MOUNTAIN JUNIPER  

E-print Network

mixed with Populus leaves this root tea became a liniment for stiff back or backaches (M c Clintock 1909, Johnston 1970, Hellson 1974). The Cheyennes steeped the leaves of the Rocky Mountain juniper and drank the resulting tea to relieve persistent coughing or a tickling in the throat. It was also believed to produce sedative effects that were especially useful for calming a hyperactive person. Cheyenne women drank juniper tea to speed delivery during childbirth (Grinnell 1962). The Cheyenne, along with the Flathead, Nez Perce, Kutenai, and Sioux, made a tea from juniper boughs, branches, and fleshy cones. The tea was used as a cure for colds, fevers, tonsillitis, and pneumonia (Hart 1976). As a cure for asthma, the Gros Ventres ate whole juniper berries or pulverized them and boiled them to make a tea. They also made a preparation from the leaves mixed with the root, which they applied topically to control bleeding (Kroeber 1908). The Crow drank this medicinal tea to check diarrhea and to stop lung or nasal hemorrhage. Crow women drank it after childbirth for cleansing and healing (Hart 1976). The wood of red cedar is very durable, and is used for lance shafts, bows, and other items. Flutes made from juniper wood were highly regarded by the

Juniperus Scopulorum Sarg; Plant Symbol Jusc

300

An Investigation of the Impacts of Climate and Environmental Change on Alpine Lakes in the Uinta Mountains, Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic systems in alpine and sub-alpine areas of the western United States are potentially impacted by atmospheric pollution and climate change. Because these mountainous regions are an important water resource for the western United States, it is critical to monitor and protect these systems. The Uinta Mountains are an east- west trending mountain range located on the border between Utah, Wyoming and Colorado and downwind of the Wasatch Front, Utah, which is characterized by a rapidly expanding population, as well as mining and industry. This alpine area provides water to many areas in Utah, and contributes approximately nine percent of the water supply to the Upper Colorado River. Our research is focused on determining the impacts of climate change and pollution on alpine lakes in the Uinta Mountains. The results presented here are based on limnological measurements made at 64 Uinta Mountain lakes spanning a longitude gradient of one degree and an elevation gradient of 3000 feet. At each lake maximum depth, conductivity, salinity, pH, Secchi depth, temperature, alkalinity, and concentrations of major anions, cations and trace metals were measured. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to determine relationships between these variables and to examine the variability of the values of these variables. Our results indicate that steep climate gradients related to elevation and longitude result in clear differences in limnological properties of the study sites, with high elevation lakes characterized by greater amounts of nitrate and nitrite compared to low elevation sites. As well, diatoms in these lakes indicate that many high elevation sites are mesotrophic to eutrophic, which is unexpected for such remote aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesize that elevated nitrate and nitrite levels at high elevation sites are related to atmospherically derived nitrogen, but are being exacerbated relative to lower elevation sites by greater snow cover and reduced plant cover. Paleolimnological analyses of well dated sediments from selected lakes indicate that some of these high elevation sites have undergone rapid and dramatic change beginning in the late 1800s to early 1900s. Many of these lakes have become more productive as indicated by loss-on-ignition and diatom analyses. Although the exact mechanism of these changes is uncertain, the timing closely follows recent increases in air and chironomid-inferred surface water temperatures, and increased fossil fuel burning in the region. Regardless of the exact mechanism, our results clearly indicate dramatic changes at these high elevation sites, which threaten critical water resources.

Moser, K. A.; Hundey, E. J.; Porinchu, D. F.

2007-12-01

301

Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains, California, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Airborne contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources like amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at high elevation. we evaluated contaminan...

302

13 Global Change Impacts on Mountain Waters: Lessons from the Fast to Help Define Monitoring Targets for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, the element of life, has always connected ecosystems and landscape compartments on all spatial and temporal scales. In mountain regions it is not only a resource but also sometimes a threat. Standing and running waters in mountains form unique ecosystems and are, from a scenic point of view, highly valued landscape elements. Moreover, they are part of the hydrological

André F. Lotter; Roland Psenner

303

The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

2011-12-01

304

NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology section of future revisions of the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c).

D.F. Fenster

2000-12-11

305

Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

2014-01-01

306

The Sleeping Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging classroom activity is culled from the Teaching Entry Level Geoscience site created by the staff of the Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College. This particular role-playing exercise has students representing townspeople whose lives and livelihoods are endangered by an active volcano that may or may not erupt in the near future. Along the way, students must debate whether to invest in or to abandon their town. The materials here include learning goals, a section on context, teaching notes and tips, and a brief writing assignment. Also, the site includes additional references and resources, such as links to other role-playing exercises and external websites.

307

Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system  

SciTech Connect

Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

NONE

1997-02-01

308

Native Plants of Montara Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is always inspiring to find websites that have been created by a committed individual who is passionate about the site's subject. Developed by naturalist Chuck Kozak, Native Plants of Montara Mountain is just that type of website. Mr. Kozak has assembled a nice online field guide of plants native to Montara Mountain, a northern spur of California's Santa Cruz Mountains. The guide organizes plants by Family and Scientific name, Common name, or Color and Type. Site visitors can also find plants by using the alphabetically organized Master Index. The numerous plant entries include clear photos and brief descriptions. Although the website focuses on the flora of a specific area, many of these plants can be found in other geographic regions as well. This site is also reviewed in the September 3, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

309

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

2012-01-01

310

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

311

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010. Average annual incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever by age-group, 2000 through 2010: This figure ... are reported under a new category called Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). This change ...

312

Estimates of Cloud Water Deposition at Mountain Acid Deposition Program Sites in the Appalachian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high-elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY; Whitetop Mountain, VA; and Clingman’s Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). This paper provides a summary of cloud water chemistry, cloud liquid water content, cloud frequency, estimates of cloud water

Ralph E. Baumgardner Jr; Selma S. Isil; Thomas F. Lavery; Christopher M. Rogers; Volker A. Mohnen

2003-01-01

313

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

314

Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database  

DOE Data Explorer

Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

315

The Mountain that Moved  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication is part of a series entitled "Geologic Wonders of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests". It discusses the landslides in Montgomery and Craig counties of Virginia. These are the largest known landslides in eastern North America, known as rock back slides. The brochure discusses how they were discovered, when they occurred, where they are visible, why they happened, and if there will be more in the future. Additional resources are suggested for more information.

316

Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the US Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

2009-01-01

317

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to “conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.” However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. “We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain,” the draft report states.

Showstack, Randy

2011-11-01

318

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

319

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

320

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

321

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

322

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

323

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

324

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

325

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

Cabalar, Pedro

326

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2012-04-01

327

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2011-04-01

328

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2014-04-01

329

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2013-04-01

330

Green tourism in mountain regions-reducing vulnerability and promoting people and place centric development in the Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, mountain regions are attracting great attention to Indian tourists in general and foreign tourists in particular.\\u000a The potential mountain resources for promoting green tourism are enormous in the form of natural and cultural heritage such\\u000a as biosphere reserves, flora and fauna, lakes and rivers and traditional rural resources. In order to utilise tourism industry\\u000a market, uncontrolled numbers

R. B. Singh; D. K. Mishra

2004-01-01

331

Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

332

Good Practice Minotaur mountain trail  

E-print Network

Good Practice Minotaur mountain trail Coed y Brenin 1. Protected Characteristic category Age to the project to make it as inclusive as possible. For example: 1 | Good practice case studies | Equality and Diversity | 14/02/2012 #12;Good Practice case studies 2 | Good practice case studies | Equality

333

Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

1999-01-01

334

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

335

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

336

Portrait of a Mountain Boy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Will McCall, noted educator and author, now in his ninetieth year, feels that the diary he wrote as an eight-year-old Kentucky mountain boy may be his most enduring work. Short excerpts from the diary are included. (Author/NQA)

Coogan, Mercy Hardie

1981-01-01

337

Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This colony of Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata) is so large (about 3 feet across) that it must have been growing before the severe bleaching and disease episode in 2005/2006 that caused so much coral mortality on St. John's reefs....

338

Rocky Mountain Bio Lab: Wildflowers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explores the work of environmentalist John Hart, a Professor of Environmental Science at U.C. Berkley. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Dr. Hart has established an experimental laboratory in which he has artificially created and maintained a 3-degree increase in surface temperature of a plot of land, and documented the impact on plant species occupying the plot.

National Geographic

339

Rocky Great Mountains Southwest Plains  

E-print Network

to Improve Performance Teryl G. Grubbl A new propellant source necessitated further testing of the rocket and Construction Nets, recoilless rockets,and propellant were originally purchased from Wildlife Materials (WMI Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Modifications of the Portable Rocket-Net Capture System

340

Computer resources Computer resources  

E-print Network

Computer resources 1 Computer resources available to the LEAD group Cédric David 30 September 2009 #12;Ouline · UT computer resources and services · JSG computer resources and services · LEAD computers· LEAD computers 2 #12;UT Austin services UT EID and Password 3 https://utdirect.utexas.edu #12;UT Austin

Yang, Zong-Liang

341

Resources and Resourcefulness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author talks about resources and resourcefulness and focuses on the theme that resources include all means of support. Human resources, particularly creativity, intellect, and diligence, are among the most valuable. In times such as these, academic departments and programs in kinesiology, physical education, exercise science,…

Hall, Susan J.

2003-01-01

342

MountainQuest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science quest is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this quest, students work in teams to make recommendations for building a new observatory for NASA. Students evaluate scientific and cultural data for five potential sites and then make presentaions to a formal review panel. This collaborative group project requires 4 to 10 class hours and integrates themes and unifying concepts in science with astronomy objectives.

George Tuthill

343

Guadalupe Mountains National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service website offers information on: planning a visit to the park; natural resources such as the geology, wildlife, plants, and wildland fires of the park; cultural history including that of the Mescalero Apaches and the Buffalo Soldiers; and park management issues. A description of the Permian geology of the park includes the rock exposures (composed of reef, back-reef, fore-reef, and basin sediments) which form the ancient fossil reef known as the Capitan Reef of the ancient Delaware Sea.

344

Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging hikers to date, the ratio of resource expenditures in recruiting volunteers and QA/QCing their data for actual research application has been high. Mountain Watch staff are now refining the program to achieve education and research goals a manner that is sustainable into the future with limited fiscal and staff resources. The quality of our citizen phenology observations, in comparison to staff monitoring, has lead to refinements including directing general audience hikers to well-defined trailside observation stations, growing our more skilled amateur botanist volunteer base, and use of remote cameras for quality controls and better temporal coverage. Visibility monitoring at four mountain vistas has recently been analyzed in the context of policy applications. Refinements will be presented that will further inform natural resource management of air quality in relation to Clean Air Act Air Quality Related Values and a potential visibility focused particulate matter secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Overall lessons learned, regarding audience considerations, resource needs, and long-term sustainability, from our 5-year field based geoscience programs will be discussed.

Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

2010-12-01

345

Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina rail alignment. The Department would use the selected common segments and alternative segments to identify the public lands to be included in right-of-way applications; - Decide where to construct proposed railroad operations support facilities; - Decide whether to restrict use of the rail line to DOE trains, or whether to allow commercial shippers to operate over the rail line; and - Determine what mitigation measures to implement. (authors)

Lanthrum, G. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gunnerson, J. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2008-07-01

346

Assessing accuracy of a probabilistic model for very large fire in the Rocky Mountains: A High Park Fire case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the western United States, the largest wildfires account for a major proportion of the area burned and substantially affect mountain forests and their associated ecosystem services, among which is pristine air quality. These fires commandeer national attention and significant fire suppression resources. Despite efforts to understand the influence of fuel loading, climate, and weather on annual area burned, few studies have focused on understanding what abiotic factors enable and drive the very largest wildfires. We investigated the correlation between both antecedent climate and in-situ biophysical variables and very large (>20,000 ha) fires in the western United States from 1984 to 2009. We built logistic regression models, at the spatial scale of the national Geographic Area Coordination Centers (GACCs), to estimate the probability that a given day is conducive to a very large wildfire. Models vary in accuracy and in which variables are the best predictors. In a case study of the conditions of the High Park Fire, neighboring Fort Collins, Colorado, occurring in early summer 2012, we evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Rocky Mountain model.

Stavros, E.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Larkin, N.; McKenzie, D.; Steel, A.

2012-12-01

347

Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.  

PubMed

Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. PMID:19702780

Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

2009-01-01

348

Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.  

PubMed

This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

Markovi?, Dubravko; Kovacevi?, Hasan

2002-03-01

349

Mountain Weather: A Climber's Story  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment, mountain-climber Rob Taylor gives an account of his failed attempt to scale the peak of Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro. Because it is a free-standing mountain, the tallest in the world, climbers must ascend from the base through several climate zones, from tropical heat to sub-zero temperatures, before reaching the summit. After falling near the summit and nearly freezing to death, Taylor thought his worst problems were behind him when the moist trpoical climate near the bottom triggered a runaway infection in his injured leg. The segment is four minutes forty-two seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the video.

350

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

351

Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

352

Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

353

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

354

How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

2014-01-01

355

How the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

2014-07-01

356

Land-Cover Trends of the Southern California Mountains Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an assessment of land-use and land-cover (LU/LC) change in the Southern California Mountains ecoregion for the period 1973-2001. The Southern California Mountains is one of 84 Level-III ecoregions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ecoregions have served as a spatial framework for environmental resource management, denoting areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The established Land Cover Trends methodology generates estimates of change for ecoregions using a probability sampling approach and change-detection analysis of thematic land-cover images derived from Landsat satellite imagery.

Soulard, Christopher E.; Raumann, Christian G.; Wilson, Tamara S.

2007-01-01

357

The hydrology of Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

2000-12-04

358

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter SW A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By R.M. Flores of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

359

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

360

Big Rock Candy Mountain; Resources for Our Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material reviewed in this edition is loosely divided into categories--process learning, educational environments, classroom materials, home learning, self discovery, and education and consciousness. As in previous editions of the catalog, education is defined in its broadest sense, so that the material reviewed is suitable for many age groups…

Yanes, Samuel, Ed.; Holdorf, Cia, Ed.

361

Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-print Network

Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

Frank, Jerritt

2008-09-05

362

Evolution of an ophiolitic tectonic melange, Marble Mountains, northern California Klamath Mountains ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Describes multiply deformed amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks of the Marble Mountain and western Hayfork terranes in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt of the northern Klamath Mountains, California.-from Author

Donato, M.M.

1987-01-01

363

Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

2004-12-01

364

NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Opportunities are available with a wide array of local, national, and inter-  

E-print Network

Legacy Land Trust Mountain Whitewater Descents National Park Service New Hampshire Conservation CorpsNATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Opportunities are available with a wide array of local, national, and inter- national organizations and institutions involved in natural resource man- agement. Graduates

365

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State (Danes, 1975, 1979, 1981; Korosec and others, 1981). The purpose of the work has been to gather baseline gravity data for eventual contribution to geothermal resource evaluation. However, it is expected that the Cascade gravity data will prove useful in a number of future endeavors such as fossil fuel and mineral exploration, as the gravity method is a basic tool of the exploration geophysicist. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington. This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections. It is hoped that release of this report will encourage analysis of Cascade gravity data beyond the standard treatment (complete Bouguer gravity anomaly at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cm{sup 2}) presented in Danes and Phillips, (1983).

Danes, Z.F.; Phillips, William M.

1983-02-01

366

Project Title: The Western Mountain Initiative: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Western Mountain Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate warming is affecting Western mountain ecosystems, directly through changes in water dynamics and indirectly through altered disturbance regimes. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI; http:\\/\\/www.cfr.washington.edu\\/research.fme\\/wmi) team explores the effects of climate change on ecological disturbance, responses of forest vegetation, mountain hydrology, and the coupled hydro-ecological responses that determine vulnerability of Western mountain ecosystems to change. Extensive data sets, empirical studies,

Nathan L. Stephenson

367

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available

2007-05-01

368

Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

Moyano, Ricardo

369

Potential contaminant transport in the regional Carbonate Aquifer beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the proposed US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The repository is to be a mine, sited approximately 300 m below the crest of the mountain, in a sequence of variably welded and fractured mid-Miocene rhylolite tuffs, in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. Beneath the proposed repository, at a depth of 2 km, is a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks that contain the highly transmissive Lower Carbonate Aquifer. In the area of Yucca Mountain the Carbonate Aquifer integrates groundwater flow from north of the mountain, through the Amargosa Valley, through the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek in Death Valley, California where the groundwater discharges in a set of large springs. Data that describe the Carbonate Aquifer suggest a concept for flow through the aquifer, and based upon the conceptual model, a one-layer numerical model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow in the Carbonate Aquifer. Advective transport analyses suggest that the predicted travel time of a particle from Yucca Mountain to Death Valley through the Carbonate Aquifer might be as short as 100 years to as long 2,000 years, depending upon the porosity.

Bredehoeft, John; King, Michael

2010-05-01

370

The effects of acid precipitation-long term ecological measurements in loch vale watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high elevation Front Range ecosystems of Rocky Mountain National Park are extremely vulnerable to acidification from atmospheric deposition. Throughout the Rocky Mountain West increas- ing urbanization, development and combustion of fossil fuels, and mining and smelting of ores may combine to provide additional sources of acidification over the next twenty years. Although annual volume-weighted pH averages 5.0 from 1980

Jill Baron; A. Scott Denning; Keith Schoepflin

1989-01-01

371

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2011-01-01

372

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2013-01-01

373

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2012-01-01

374

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2014-01-01

375

75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...09-ASW-36] Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation...proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the...non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field...

2010-03-15

376

77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...13XL1109AF; HAG13-0011] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY...Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as...August 14, 2001, pursuant to the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and...

2012-11-05

377

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”....

2014-04-01

378

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2012-01-01

379

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2010-01-01

380

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2014-01-01

381

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2013-01-01

382

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2011-01-01

383

14 CFR 95.21 - Puerto Rico Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. 95.21 Section 95.21 Aeronautics...ALTITUDES Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.21 Puerto Rico Mountainous Area. The area bounded by the...

2010-01-01

384

Biopower generation from mountain pine infested wood in Canada: An economical opportunity for greenhouse gas mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is considered carbon neutral, and displacement of fossil fuel-based power by biomass-based power is one means to mitigate greenhouse gases. Large forest areas in British Columbia (BC), Canada, are infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB). Dead wood from the infestation is expected to vastly exceed the ability of the pulp and lumber industry to utilize it; current estimates

Amit Kumar; Peter Flynn; Shahab Sokhansanj

2008-01-01

385

Historic fire regime dynamics and forcing factors in the Boston Mountains, Arkansas, USA  

E-print Network

three fire history chronologies in the interior of the Boston Mountains of Arkansas from 281 dated fire Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri using records of fire history derived from dated fire scars and builds fire histories provide perspective and baseline data relevant to forest restoration, fuels management

Stambaugh, Michael C

386

Preliminary bounds on the expected postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain Repository Site, southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current data and understanding of site characteristics at Yucca Mountain, the likely performance range of a mined repository for spent nuclear fuel can be calculated. Low flux through the unsaturated zone results in groundwater travel times to the water table that probably exceed 10,000 years and may exceed 100,000 years, far longer than required by the

S. Sinnock; Y. T. Lin; J. P. Brannen

1987-01-01

387

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed,

2006-01-01

388

Mountain building and mantle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the supercontinental cycle.

Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

2013-01-01

389

Fuel Cell Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells Today is a useful online resource with a very diverse range of materials about fuel cell technology. Possibly the most interesting part of the site is the Reference Centre, where users can find information on different types of fuel cells, their applications, history of their development, possible materials to use in their design, and more. All educational and technical descriptions are intended to promote the global adoption of fuel cells as a clean, efficient energy source. There is also plenty of literature in the Knowledge Bank. Fuel cell news and emerging technologies are covered, and the site is updated often.

390

A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

Pike, J.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Shaw, M.G.

1999-01-01

391

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

392

Material corrosion issues for nuclear waste disposition in Yucca Mountain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two decades, an extensive scientific effort has been underway to determine whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is a suitable site for a deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Even though the geologic site is stable, additional engineered barriers are planned, including waste packages, drip shields, and tunnel inverts that will be within the emplacement tunnels. Research is under way into the best materials for corrosion prevention in those engineered barriers to ensure their long-term mechanical integrity.

Rebak, Raul B.

2008-01-01

393

Sheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula's test piece mountain bike ride. It is  

E-print Network

to a highpoint at Blue Point. It then follows the connecting ridge to Sheep Mountain (7650 ft), descending from Blue Point before climbing again to Sheep Mountain. From the top of Sheep, it's almost entirelySheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula

Bardsley, John

394

Radionuclide transport from yucca Mountain and Inter-basin Flow in Death Valley  

SciTech Connect

Hydrodynamics and the U.S. Geological survey conducted studies to evaluate far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, of radionuclide into Inyo County from Yucca Mountain, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. The specific purpose of our research was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: 1. Establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin, 2. Characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and 3. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA. 4. Evaluate the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and Franklin Lake Playa. The hydraulic characterization of the LCA is of critical interest to Inyo County and the U.S. Department of Energy because: 1. The upward gradient in the LCA at Yucca Mountain provides a natural barrier to radionuclide transport, 2. The LCA is a necessary habitat resource for the endangered Devil's Hole pup fish, and 3. The LCA is the primary water supply and source of water to the major springs in Death Valley National Park. This paper presents the results of our study program to evaluate if inter-basin flow exists between the Amargosa and Death Valley Basins through the LCA. The study presents the results of our structural geology analysis of the Southern Funeral Mountain range, geochemical source analysis of spring waters in the region, and a numerical groundwater model to simulate inter-basin flow in the Southern Funeral Mountain range. (authors)

Bredehoeft, J. [The Hydrodynamics Group (United States); Fridrich, C. [U.S. Geological Survey-Denver (United States); King, C.HG.M. [The Hydrodynamics Group, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01

395

FUEL DELIVERY TEMPERATURE STUDY  

E-print Network

Elkins ­ California State Water Resources Control Board Kurt Floren ­ Los Angeles County AgriculturalCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION FUEL DELIVERY TEMPERATURE STUDY COMMISSIONREPORT March 2009 CEC-600 and Nicholas Janusch, 2009. Fuel Delivery Temperature Study, California Energy Commission. CEC-600-2009-002-CMF

396

Japan's nuclear fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power is the largest single source of electrical power in Japan, providing a third of Japan's energy needs. Because of its lack of natural resources, Japan has long supported a nuclear power program with a special focus on recycling nuclear fuel. The first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now under construction in Aomori Prefecture. Nuclear energy is

Atsuyuki Suzuki

1997-01-01

397

Fuel Alternatives to Gasoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all motor vehicles today are powered by either gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons with some contaminants, including sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and certain metals. The main alternative fuels include vegetable oil degradation products, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), hydrogen, and electricity. Methanol and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

398

U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering

Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

399

Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1998-01-01

400

78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. TS04-277-002] Green Mountain Power Corporation...notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation...serve to make protestants parties to the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of...

2013-05-20

401

5, 95479580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs  

E-print Network

particle composition and heterogeneous reactions in a mountain wave Polar Stratospheric Cloud D. Lowe 1 , A Discussion EGU Abstract Mountain wave polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were detected on 8 February 2003. Introduction Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) have long been recognised to play an important15 role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Fate of Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene  

E-print Network

Fate of Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene A Report by the Working Group Commissioned of Sciences at the Vatican, to contemplate the observed retreat of the mountain glaciers, its causes and consequences. This report resulted from a workshop in April 2011 at the Vatican. 2007 Courtesy of Glacier

Stocker, Thomas

403

2, 121, 2008 Mountain glaciers of  

E-print Network

TCD 2, 1­21, 2008 Mountain glaciers of NE Asia M. D. Ananicheva et al. Title Page Abstract The Cryosphere Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of The Cryosphere Mountain glaciers of NE Asia in the near future: a projection based on climate-glacier systems' interaction M. D. Ananicheva1 , A. N

Boyer, Edmond

404

Pliocene charophytes from Aktau Mountain, southeastern Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of charophytes are described from a new Pliocene fossiliferous horizon of the Ili Formation at Aktau Mountain in eastern Kazakhstan: Nitellopsis aubekerovii nov. sp. and Chara pappiiSoulié-Märsche. These charophytes support correlation of the upper part of the Ili Formation with Upper Pliocene strata in western China and Greece. Aktau Mountain contains the most extensive late Cenozoic record of

Ayzhan K. Dzhamangaraeva

1997-01-01

405

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2010-07-01

406

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

407

Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

Renner, Hans-Georg

2011-01-01

408

In situ pneumatic testing at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is a potential site for a geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. The proposed repository location is in the unsaturated zone in the mountain. Fluid flow through the fractured tuff repository rock is the potential transport mechanism for radionuclides from nuclear waste to the environment. This flow is believed to be predominantly confined to the

P. Cook

2000-01-01

409

The geohydrologic setting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a geologic and hydrologic framework of the Yucca Mountain region for the geochemical papers in this volume. The regional geologic units, which range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, are briefly described. Yucca Mountain is composed of dominantly pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The principal focus of study has been

John S. Stuckless; William W. Dudley

2002-01-01

410

Artistic Rendering of Mountainous Terrain MARGARITA BRATKOVA  

E-print Network

Artistic Rendering of Mountainous Terrain MARGARITA BRATKOVA University of Utah and PETER SHIRLEY and cartographers have developed techniques to create such artistic landscapes for centuries, but the process creation of mountainous terrain from a perceptual and artistic analysis of two panorama maps of Yellowstone

Utah, University of

411

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

412

Mountaineering and Climbing on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial human missions to Mars will be a precious commodity wherein a maximum amount of information is gathered by each crew. As was the case during innumerable terrestrial missions of exploration, the Martian terrain that visiting crews must traverse in order to gain an understanding will often be difficult. This is accentuated by the fact that Mars is a world of geology - one whose surface area is equal to dry surface on Earth. Human crews will be called upon to use a variety of skills and tools to traverse the Martian surface - including those often associated with hiking, mountaineering and technical climbing. While rovers and other mechanical devices will be employed, it should be assumed that skills commonly associated with rock climbing, caving, and mountaineering on Earth will also be required. This paper looks at the human factors associated with such activity on Mars: space suit design requirements, life support, tools and procedures, traverse planning, logistics issues and navigation. Implications for adaptation of terrestrial gear will be examined as will implications raised by planetary protection. Lessons learned during sorties conducted on the lunar surface during the Apollo program are discussed.

Cowing, K. L.

413

Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

2011-01-01

414

is no evidence of any local extinctions on Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers, Beech  

E-print Network

is no evidence of any local extinctions on Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers, Beech Mountain, Bluff, Whitetop Mountain, Roan Mountain, and Grandfather Mountain) are more isolated from one another and exist

Kuchta, Shawn R.

415

Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1988-12-01

416

Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (Mountain mint) germplasm collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, OR as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

417

Spatial modelling of mountainous basins; An integrated analysis of the hydrological cycle, climate change and agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the most essential substance on earth and a changing climate has an important impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of water availability. Mountain ranges provide an important “water tower' function and over 20% of the global population depends on fresh water resources provided by the Himalayan range in critical periods of the year. The hydrological cycle is

W. W. Immerzeel

2008-01-01

418

Modeling Future Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater in Mountainous Valley-Bottom Aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater resources within many mountainous valley-bottom aquifers are increasingly threatened by increased demand for water due to population growth and intensification of agriculture. The semi-arid to arid conditions in such valley bottom areas make them particularly sensitive to climate change owing to the strong dependence of evapotranspiration rates on temperature, and potential shifts in the precipitation amounts and timing. Over

D. M. Allen; M. W. Toews; J. Scibek

2008-01-01

419

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing public awareness of the increasing number of large wildfires across forested landscapes, coupled with needs of resource base management has accelerated research into forest reference conditions and the historical role of fire in coniferous ecosystems. This work investigates historical fire regimes of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California using fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this

Richard G. Everett

2008-01-01

420

76 FR 9537 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...a result of the Piute fire, the Piute Mountains...in the Sequoia National Forest Motorized Travel Management...October 2009. The Piute fire burned part of the project...3. Evaluate the Piute Fire burn area regarding roads...resources. 4. Evaluate the forest transportation...

2011-02-18

421

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

422

Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

2011-03-01

423

Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

2010-09-01

424

Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.  

PubMed

U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

2012-11-01

425

Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

2012-01-01

426

Fuel Cells 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

427

Cost-effective fuel cycle closure  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. government is moving toward meeting its obligation to accept spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in 1998 by providing an interim storage facility. Site work and analysis of the deep, geologic repository at Yucca Mountain will continue at a reduced level of effort. This provides the time required to reevaluate the use of spent-fuel recycling instead of direct disposal. A preliminary assessment of this option is presented in this paper.

Ehrman, C.S. [Burns & Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States); Boardman, C.E. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

428

Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains  

SciTech Connect

While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

429

Annotated checklist and database for vascular plants of the Jemez Mountains  

SciTech Connect

Studies done in the last 40 years have provided information to construct a checklist of the Jemez Mountains. The present database and checklist builds on the basic list compiled by Teralene Foxx and Gail Tierney in the early 1980s. The checklist is annotated with taxonomic information, geographic and biological information, economic uses, wildlife cover, revegetation potential, and ethnographic uses. There are nearly 1000 species that have been noted for the Jemez Mountains. This list is cross-referenced with the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service PLANTS database species names and acronyms. All information will soon be available on a Web Page.

Foxx, T. S.; Pierce, L.; Tierney, G. D.; Hansen, L. A.

1998-03-01

430

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

431

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01

432

National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Escalante Quadrangle, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation of the US Department of Energy in the Escalante 1° x 2° Quadrangle, South-Central Utah. Five areas identified in the Late Jurassic Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation are: the Henry Mountains mineral belt, and the Bitter

F. Peterson; J. A. Campbell; K. J. Franczyk; R. D. Lupe

1982-01-01

433

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

1980-04-01

434

Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12  

E-print Network

WARNING Mountain Lion Sighting DATE: 10/7/12 TIME: 8:00 PM LOCATION: ALONG FENCE LINE NEAR. PRECAUTIONS: Although mountain lions are secretive and human attacks are rare they still occur. Mountain lions. If you encounter a mountain lion you should: 1. To avoid an attack, always keep children and pets close

Sze, Lawrence

435

Black Mountains crustal section, Death Valley extended terrain, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reconstructions of Cenozoic extension in the southern Great Basin juxtapose the Panamint Range above the Black Mountains and indicate major tectonic denudation of the Black Mountains during Tertiary extension. Structural and geologic characteristics of the Black Mountains and consideration of the regional geology of surrounding ranges suggest that the Black Mountains block may represent a 10 to 30 km

Daniel K. Holm; Brian Wernicke

1990-01-01

436

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project  

E-print Network

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Yucca Mountain Project The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been designated as United States choice for nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in a remote dry area, on federal has been made to characterize the nature of the discontinuities of the Yucca Mountain proposed nuclear

Maerz, Norbert H.

437

Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the help of forestry data, the wind regime data and the topographic features of the mountain area (elevation, slope declivity, slope aspect). The analysis also consider the insolation degree of mountain slopes, that creates favourable conditions for fire propagation between different canopies. These data layers are integrated within a simple GIS analysis in order to intersect the ignition zones with the fire propagation zones in order to obtain the potential areas to be affected by fire. The digital map show three levels of forest fire susceptibility, differenced on the basis of expert knowledge. The map can be validated from the statistical point of view with the polygons of the forest fire affected areas mapped from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI satellite imagery. The mapping results could be integrated within the forest management strategies and especially within the forest cadastre and development maps (updated every ten years). The result can confirm that the data gap in terms of forest fire events can be filled with expert knowledge. References Chuvieco, E, Aguado, I., Jurdao, S., Pettinari, M., Yebra, M., Salas, J., Hantson, S., de la Riva, J., Ibarra, P., Rodrigues, M., Echeverria, M., Azqueta, D., Roman, M., Bastarrika, A., Martinez, S., Recondo, C., Zapico, E., Martinez-Vega F.J. (2012) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2,2, 69-86. Hantson, S., Padilla, M., Corti., D, Chuvieco, E. (2013) Strenghts and weaknesses of MODIS hotspots to characterize Global fire occurence, Remote Sensing of Environment, 131, 1, 152-159. Mihai, B., Savulescu, I.,Sandric, I. (2007) Change detection analysis (1986/2002) for the alpine, subalpine and forest landscape in Iezer Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Mountain Research and Development, 27, 250-258.

Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

2014-05-01

438

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Pathology Investigation and Resources Branch support programs that collect and distribute human biospecimens programs through grant funding. These programs make high-quality tissue and associated data available to the research community. Listed below is a description of current PIRB supported programs.

439

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02

440

FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

D.F. Vanica

1995-06-14

441

Analysis of tru-fueled vhtr prismatic core performance domains  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the U.S. Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom Goslee

2009-05-15

442

Hydrothermal alteration of late-to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack Mountains, New York: Origin of  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal alteration of late- to post-tectonic Lyon Mountain Granitic Gneiss, Adirondack) leucogranites of Lyon Mountain Gneiss (LMG) in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State. Most recent± sillimanite veins and nodules in the Adirondack Mountains (Figs 1 & 2) resulted from alkali leaching by acidic

Soja, Constance M.

443

Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, B.E.; Hansen, V.L.

1999-01-01

444

Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995, Number 12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)  

SciTech Connect

During the first half of fiscal year 1995, most activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project were directed at implementing the Program Plan developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Plan is designed to enable the Office to make measurable and significant progress toward key objectives over the next five years within the financial resources that can be realistically expected. Activities this period focused on the immediate goal of determining by 1998 whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is technically suitable as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work on the Project advanced in several critical areas, including programmatic activities such as issuing the Program Plan, completing the first technical basis report to support the assessment of three 10 CFR 960 guidelines, developing the Notice of Intent for the Environmental Impact Statement, submitting the License Application Annotated Outline, and beginning a rebaselining effort to conform with the goals of the Program Plan. Scientific investigation and analysis of the site and design and construction activities to support the evaluation of the technical suitability of the site also advanced. Specific details relating to all Project activities and reports generated are presented in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01

445

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01

446

Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

2012-01-01

447

Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region  

SciTech Connect

Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

Schweickert, R.A.

1992-09-30

448

Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

Binder, Robert D.

2002-01-01

449

ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

450

27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...term of viticultural significance. (b) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chehalem Mountains...States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Newberg...

2010-04-01

451

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

The objective of the evaluation must be clearly stated and well formulated evaluation questions developed, regardless of which evaluation method is chosen. An evaluation can be conducted by NCI staff, by academic or industry scientists, or by existing advisory boards or sub-committees of such boards. The process should be as objective as possible. This argues for including participants who are not directly involved with the resource.

452

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24

453

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01

454

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

·Partial reclamation since 1988, no new operation 6 #12;7 #12;Titan Sheep Mountain Project: ·Mine·Mine ·Underground and Open Pit Mining ·Current Mine Permit (381C) ·Updating POO, Reclamation Plan & Bond ·Uranium Recovery to pit or used in reclamation ·Sheep Mountain Underground ·To extent possible all wastes reclaimed

455

Mountain bikers priapism: a rare phenomenon.  

PubMed

Soft tissue and bony injuries are well described risks of the increasingly popular sport of mountain biking. Priapism, a persisting unwanted penile erection, as a result of perineal straddle injury due to a fall astride bicycle handlebar, is rare. We present a case of a competitive mountain biker with high flow priapism after such an injury who presented late but was successfully treated by non-invasive selective arterial embolization. PMID:24592643

Ul Islam, J; Browne, R; Thornhill, J

2014-01-01

456

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

457

CASTNet mountain acid deposition monitoring program  

SciTech Connect

Concern over the influence of air pollution on forest decline has led the USEPA to establish the Mountain Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (MADMP) to quantify total deposition at high altitudes, i.e., above cloud base. Clouds can be a major source of atmospheric deposition to sensitive, mountain ecosystems. This program is a part of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet), a national assessment of the effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act. The objectives of MADMP are to estimate total deposition, measure cloud chemistry, and characterize spacial and temporal trends at four selected high altitude sites in the Eastern US. Four MADMP sites have been established for the 1994 field season: Clingman`s Dome, Great Smoky Mountain Nat. Park, TN; Slide Mountain, Catskill State Park, NY; Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack State Park, NY; and Whitetop Mountain, Mt. Rogers Nat`l Recreational Area, VA. An automated cloud collection system will be utilized in combination with continuous measurements of cloud liquid water content in order to estimate cloudwater deposition. Other relevant data will include continuous meteorological measurements, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentrations, wet deposition from rainfall analysis, and dry deposition from filter pack analysis. Quality assurance and quality control measures will be employed to maximize accuracy and precision.

Bowser, J.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Edgerton, E.S. [Environmental Science and Engineering, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mohnen, V. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Baumgardener, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

458

Mountain Goat Survey Ragged Range area,  

E-print Network

The contents of this paper are the sole responsibility of the authori We conducted an aerial survey for mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in the Ragged Range area of the southern Mackenzie Mountains from 22-24 August 2011. The area surveyed covered ca. 1,700 km 2 and was bounded by 62 o 16’N and 61 o 45’N to the north and south and 127 o 20’W and 128 o 20’W to the east and west. We classified goats into four sex/age classes: kids, yearlings, nannies, and billies; some goats were not classified, they were not young of the year. We used a global positioning system (GPS) to track the survey flight paths and record the locations of all wildlife seen. We observed 278 mountain goats, 124 billies, 80 nannies, 50 kids and 6 yearlings; 18 goats were unclassified. We estimated 62.5 kids/100 nannies, 155 billies/100 nannies, and 18percent kids. Other wildlife observed during the survey included 62 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli), five northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), two moose (Alces alces gigas), two beavers (Castor canadensis), two trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), one wolverine (Gulo gulo), and one golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). The survey results provide increasing evidence that the number of mountain goats inhabiting the southern Mackenzie Mountains is far greater than that estimated by Veitch et al. (2002).ii

Southern Mackenzie Mountains; Nicholas C. Larter

2011-01-01

459

Semidiurnal solar tides in the mountain atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Harmonic analysis of Doppler radar wind profiler data west of the Rocky Mountains has identified a coherent semidiurnal wind system above the wintertime boundary layer at multiple sites in the region. The unusual characteristics of this mountain wind system (its semidiurnal frequency, amplitude, phase, and direction of rotation) suggest that is is a semidiurnal solar tide. Such tides have not been previously documented in the mountain atmosphere or in the troposphere generally but, because semidiurnal signatures are well known in surface barometric traces, and large amplitude semidiurnal tides are known in the upper atmosphere, they are not unexpected. Our future research on this semidiurnal cordilleran wind system will focus on obtaining sufficient data to resolve further the vertical structure, seasonal variation, and spatial variations of the wind system. Of particular interest is the role of the Rocky Mountains and other cordilleras in modifying the global tides. It remains to be seen whether semidiurnal cordilleran circulations will be of sufficient magnitude to be observed across major arcuate-shaped east-west-oriented mountain massifs such as the Alps. There, wind systems may develop in response to pressure gradients (Frei and Davies, 1993) that form across the Alps due to differences in the amplitudes and phases of semidiurnal and diurnal pressure oscillations on the north and south sides of the mountain barrier.

Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

1994-09-01

460

A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

2014-05-01

461

A Biennially Renewable Fuel Resource: Woodchips  

E-print Network

Recent genetic improvements with some tree species has given us hybrids that have disease resistance, rapid growth, and the ability to regenerate from the stump after harvest. Grown intensively these hybrids are capable of producing and storing a...

Krantz, B.

1983-01-01

462

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

2 47 to 63 NEg, Mcal/lb 2 1.0 to 1.2 Fat 8.2 to 11.7 Acid detergent fiber 19 to 24 Neutral detergentH of wet DGS is very acidic so that little fermentation occurs once the material is stored in the bag silo (twice as wide as for corn silage), and a firm, well-drained base of crushed gravel topped with sand

463

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

produces 1 gallon of biodiesel. Cost Structure The typical historical price of soybean oil indicates if corn prices were $2 or $3 per bushel, respectively. In comparison, the cost of crude oil, the raw for $70 per barrel oil. Thus, the feedstock costs for biodiesel are substantially higher than

464

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

by foreign oil producers and the cost we pay monetarily and in foreign policy for keeping oil flowing to us from overseas.) The strategic cost to the nation of imported oil is probably two to over three dollars a gallon. Now compare this with the costs of creating additional oil by saving it, as illustrated in Figure

465

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

Cattle The fermentation of corn to ethanol results in two basic co-products: coarse unferment- ed distillers' grain (DG) residue and a liquid fraction containing yeast, fine grain particles, and soluble nutrients. The liquid fraction from the fermentation is condensed to form condensed distillers' solubles

466

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

that crop production will shift from soybeans to corn in Indiana in response to growing ethanol demand, it is con- ceivable that Indiana might become a net importer of corn. This shift from the past will have Crops BioEnergy out-of-state markets are poultry and hog operations in the Southeastern United States

467

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

the emissions standards in the Clean Air Act is now to use ethanol to blend with their gasoline. The lar for approximately 5% of U.S. gasoline consumption. Some hope that biofuel pro- duction can eventually substitute for as much as 25% of the country's gasoline over the next 20 to 30 years. The ultimate importance of biofuels

468

Reduction of the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel using a two-tiered system comprised of light water reactors and accelerator-driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main issues regarding the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors in the United States in the geological repository Yucca Mountain are: (1) Yucca Mountain is not designed to hold the amount of fuel that has been and is proposed to be generated in the next few decades, and (2) the radiotoxicity (i.e., biological hazard) of the waste

Holly Renee Trellue

2003-01-01

469

Proterozoic Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone, northern Colorado: Subduction flip and progressive assembly of arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the amalgamation of arc and oceanic terranes to be the main mechanism of ca. 1.8 1.6 Ga continental crustal growth in southwestern Laurentia. On the basis of geologic and seismic reflection data and teleseismic images, we propose the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone as the northernmost Paleoproterozoic arc-arc suture. North-dipping (Farwell Mountain) seismic reflections project from 18 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to represent conjugate thrusting as the 1.79 1.77 Ga Green Mountain arc was partially underthrust beneath the Archean craton. We speculate that a north-dipping high-velocity mantle “slab” in the teleseismic image is a continuation of this thrust zone. South-dipping (Lester Mountain) reflections project from 22 km depths to the surface and are interpreted to be a thrust zone between the Green Mountain arc and the 1.76 1.72 Ga Rawah block. Surface features of the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone are (1) marble, chert, rock with sillimanite pods, ultramafic rocks, sulfide deposits, and pillow basalts, which we interpret to be a dismembered accretionary complex; (2) an axial-planar fabric to north-verging isoclinal folds (F2), which we interpret to be part of a north-vergent fold-and-thrust system; and (3) a metamorphic break between ˜500 °C rocks to the north and ˜610 °C rocks to the south, which we attribute to reactivation of the zone. Movement on the Farwell Mountain backthrust is inferred to relate to Cheyenne belt suturing at 1.78 1.75 Ga. We correlate suturing in the Farwell Mountain Lester Mountain suture zone to S1/D1 (1.746 1.74 Ga) in the Soda Creek Fish Creek shear zone. We attribute the complexity of this broad suture zone to initial conjugate thrusting, plus overprinting and steepening of accretionary structures by subsequent tectonism.

Tyson, A. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Dueker, K. R. Chamberlain S. B. Smithson K. G.; Foster, C. T.

2002-10-01

470

78 FR 32441 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado AGENCY: National...Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park...Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. DATES:...

2013-05-30

471

77 FR 14418 - Grand Ditch Breach Restoration Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park, CO AGENCY: National...Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park...Ditch Breach Restoration, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. The...

2012-03-09

472

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION  

E-print Network

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN CALIFORNIA INTRODUCTION The introduction of alternative fuels into California's transportation market has resources remains an appropriate objective. Developing and commercializing alternative fuels is one

473

Paleosols in the Transantarctic Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs), a 3,500-km long chain that subdivides East Antarctica from West Antarctica, are important for reconstructing the tectonic, glacial, and climatic history of Antarctica. With an ice-free area of 24,200 km2 (50% of the total in Antarctica), the TAMs contain an unusually high proportion of paleosols, including relict, buried, and exhumed soils. The unconsolidated paleosols range from early Holocene to Miocene in age, and the consolidated paleosols range from Oligocene to Permian in age. The paleosols feature buried features such as ventifacts, redbeds, and ancient glacial ice and relict features such as sand-wedge casts, volcanic ash and lithified tree stumps. The preservation of paleosols in the TAMs over the past 14 Ma is enhanced by cold-based glaciers that are able to override landscapes while causing minimal disturbance. Examples are given from the Beardmore Glacier region (85°30'S), the Hatherton-Darwin Glacier region (80°S), and the McMurdo Dry Valleys (78°S).

Bockheim, James

2013-04-01

474

plateau (High Atlas mountains, Morroco)  

E-print Network

Abstract Wetlands are a very important universal heritage; in the Moroccan High Atlas mountains the geomorphology and the slopes evolution determine the existence of the numerous projecting ledges of pozzines on plateaus and oozing. This is particularly the case in Oukaimeden site located at 75 km south of Marrakesh. These wet grasslands have been developed on small surface areas supported by soils water accumulation; and close to the sources and on some banks constitute wetlands of high floristic richness, which makes them very coveted pastures by local populations. These wet pastures are highly sensitive to climatic factors. Recent climatic changes, the anthropic and pastoral pressures and the global environmental changes, affect these zones at the level of their structure (areas, soil characteristics…) and their ecological functions. In the Oukaimeden plateau, the use of aerial photography made it possible to carry out a detailed follow up of the hydraulic adjustments (dam construction in the 1970s) as well as the setting up of new adjustments (tracks, paths, drain channel) on the structure and functioning of these grasslands.

S. Alaoui; Haroni Æ M. Alifriqui; Æ V. Simonneaux

2009-01-01

475

Mountains and Plateaus on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

476

Present and Past Distribution of Mountain Permafrost in the Gaissane Mountains, Northern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gaissane Mountains, situated in northern Norway, reach elevations above 1000 m a.s.l. Our study area contains a range of active and relict periglacial features as well as numerous landforms related to the Pleistocene ice sheet. The distribution of permafrost in the mountains has been investigated through basal temperature of snow (BTS) measurements, continuous ground surface temperature (GST) measurements, and

Herman Farbrot; Ketil Isaksen

477

Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions  

E-print Network

snail species of the genus Zonitoides in Sabah, Borneo, namely Z. arboreus (Say, 1819) and Z. nitidus (O600 Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions from the temperate and subtropical zone, exemplified by Zonitoides

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

478

Herpes - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...