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1

The Rocky Mountain Institute: Home Resource Efficiency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Institute offers an informational Web site entitled Home Resource Efficiency. Visitors can learn several tips and tricks on how to keep their home as energy efficient as possible with link titles such as Energy Efficiency: First Things First; Appliances and Lighting; Home Cooling; Household Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Savings Measures; Household Water Efficiency; Resource-Efficient New Home Construction; Environmentally Friendly Building Materials; Renewable Energy: Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro; Indoor Air Quality; and Recycling. Each page contains some basic information about the subject, what we can do to help with energy efficiency, and additional helpful links.

2

MONARCH (DANAUS PLEXZPPUS L. NYMPHALIDAE) MIGRATION, NECTAR RESOURCES AND FIRE REGIMES IN THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS OF ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monarchs (Danau.~ plexippus) pass through the Ouachita Mountains in large numbers in September and October on their annual migration to overwintering sites in the Transvolcanic Belt of central Mexico. Monarchs are dependent on nectar resources to fuel their migratory movements. In the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas migrating monarchs obtain nectar from a variety of plant species, especially Bidens uristosa

D. CRAIG RUDOLPH; CHARLES A. ELY; RICHARD R. SCHAEFER; J. HOWARD WILLIAMSON; RONALD E. THILL

3

Coalbed Gas Resources of the Rocky Mountain Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet, provided by the US Geological Survey, summarizes the geology and production potential of sedimentary provinces that contain extensive coal deposits and significant coalbed methane gas resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The sheet supplies information about what coalbed methane is, where it occurs, how it is recovered and how geologists assess its distribution and quality. A map of resources within the Rocky Mountain region is provided with the text.

Survey, National A.

4

Fuels from renewable resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

5

The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (; )

2004-07-01

6

78 FR 29199 - Avani International Group, Inc., Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Avani International Group, Inc., Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd., Dynasty...current and accurate information concerning the securities of Birch Mountain Resources Ltd. because it has not filed any...

2013-05-17

7

Mineral resources of the Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The Sheepshead Mountains, Wildcat Canyon, and Table Mountain Wilderness Study Areas encompass most of the Sheepshead Mountains in southeast Oregon. The mountains comprise several fault blocks of middle and late Miocene basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lava; pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks are minor. The three wilderness study areas have low resource potential for gold, silver, and oil and gas. A few small areas have low-to-high resource potential for diatomite, as indicated by the occurrence of low-grade diatomite. Some fault zones have a moderate potential for geothermal energy.

Sherrod, D.R.; Griscom, A.; Turner, R.L.; Minor, S.A.; Graham, D.E.; Buehler, A.R.

1988-01-01

8

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources,  

E-print Network

Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios #12;#12;TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative FuelFUELS Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 2013

9

Mountains  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

Fuller, M.

1989-01-01

10

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources BioEnergy Purdue extension The economics of HarvestingUniversity ID-417-W Introduction Biomass energy has received much atten- tion in recent years. We now use about Through Renewable Crops BioEnergy The Economics of Harvesting Corn Cobs for Energy · ID-417-W Corn Cob

11

Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1995-12-01

12

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy resources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

Peterson, J.A.; Frisken, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A.; Munts, S.R.

1988-01-01

13

Biomass resources for alcohol fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

MacDowell, J. E.

14

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FORESTRY RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND FORESTRY RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA and despite the sustainable development principles, the Romanian forestry environment has suffered a real is taken into account (Giddens, 2000). 1.1. Forestry resources administration The main problem in terms

15

Mineral resources of the Tunnison Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

The part of the Tunnison Mountain Wilderness Study Area requested for mineral surveys encompasses 8,445 acres in northeastern California. The area contains Tertiary pyroclastic rocks, basaltic andesite flows, and basalt flows. There are no identified resources and it is unlikely that metallic minerals or oil and gas are present. Geothermal areas south and southwest of the study area suggest that the area may have potential for geothermal energy sources. Therefore, it has been assigned low potential for such resources; however, the mountainous geologic terrane differs from the sediment-filled valleys where the known resources are located.

Peterson, J.A.; Friskin, J.G.; Plouff, D.; Goeldner, C.A. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Munts, S.R. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

1988-01-01

16

Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

1989-01-01

17

Mineral resources of the Deep Canyon Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Juab and Tooele counties, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Deep Creek Mountains Wilderness Study Area (UT-010-060\\/UT-050-020) which includes most of the Deep Creek Range in Utah and Tooele counties, Utah. Four areas near the study area contain identified resources: gold resources in the Goshute Canyon and Gold Bond areas, both immediately east of the study area: a gold resource at the Queen of Sheba

C. J. Nutt; D. R. Zimbelman; D. L. Campbell; J. S. Duval; B. J. Hannigan

1990-01-01

18

Quantitative factor analysis of forest resources in Changbai mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine forest characteristic indicators are developed for differentiating the features and laws of the forest geographical distribution of the 22 cities (or counties) in Changbai mountain areas by factor analysis. It can be found from the factor eigenvalue and cumulative contribution rate that the basic characteristics of forest composition can be conveyed by three main factors, that is, the natural

Lingbin Yang; Xia Zhang; Jin Wu; Bin Zou; Le Chang

2009-01-01

19

Water-resources reconnaissance of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles in Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type, and nearly all sampled water contained enough iron to stain cooking and laundry utensils. The water ranged from soft to very hard, and only one well in the Breathitt Formation produced salty water. The absence of salty water may be due to abundant fractures which are associated with the Pine Mountain fault and which have allowed fresh water to enter the formation. The Lee Formation underlies the Cumberland Mountain section and is exposed along the crest and southeast slope of Pine Mountain. The Lee Formation consists of massive sandstone and conglomerate with thin beds of shale and a few thin coal seams. Although the Lee Formation is tapped by only a few wells in this area, it is potentially an important aquifer. Wells penetrating the Lee Formation in the Cumberland Mountain section would probably yield water under artesian pressure. Unlike most water from the Lee Formation in other parts of eastern Kentucky, all water from the Lee Formation in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area is fresh. All water from the Lee Formation contained more than 0.3 parts per million of iron and ranged from soft to moderately hard.

Albin, Donald R.

1965-01-01

20

Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically relevant variables such as streamflow and groundwater recharge. Fundamental limitations in both the understanding of hydrological processes in mountain regions (e.g., glacier melt, wetland attenuation, groundwater flows) and in data availability introduce large uncertainties. Lastly, assessing access to water resources is a major challenge. Topographical gradients and barriers, as well as strong spatiotemporal variations in hydrological processes, makes it particularly difficult to assess which parts of the mountain population is most vulnerable to future perturbations of the water cycle.

Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

2013-04-01

21

Fuel for the Future: Unlocking New Fuel Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With worldwide production of light crude oil reserves expected to last ~50 years, a global energy crisis may ensue. In fact, a recent report by the UK Energy Research Centre stated that 'conventional oil production may peak before 2030 with a significant risk of a peak before 2020' (October, 2009). Therefore, there is an increasing need to look towards the use of alternative fuel resources like the heavy/ super heavy crude oils and oil sands. In Canada and Venezuela there are vast oil sands (containing 2,100 billion barrels) that are already being exploited (Clemente and Fedorak, 2005). During oil sand refining, bitumen is extracted, which results in large amounts of contaminated waters (known as tailings pond water, TPW) being generated.

Johnson, Richard; Whitby, Corinne

22

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-03-01

23

Mountain Meadows and their contribution to Sierra Nevada Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human alterations of California's waterscape have exploited rivers, wetlands and meadows of the Sierra Nevada. A century of intensive logging, mining, railroad building, development, fire suppression, and grazing by sheep and cattle has left only 25 percent "intact" natural habitat in the Sierra Nevada (SNEP 1995). Much of this intact habitat occurs at higher elevations, often in non-forested alpine or in less productive forests and woodlands where mountain meadows exist. Mountain meadows serve many ecological functions including habitat for threatened and endangered terrestrial and aquatic species, and are considered to be essential physical components to watershed function and hydrology with significant water storage, filtration and flood attenuation properties. This study evaluates the physical characteristics and hydrologic function of Clarks Meadow located in northern Sierra Nevada, Plumas County, California. In 2001, Clarks Meadow received significant restoration work in the upstream half of the meadow which diverted the stream from an incised channel to a shallow remnant channel, creating a stable channel and reconnecting the groundwater table to the stream. No restoration work was done in the lower half of Clarks Meadow where the stream still flows through an incised channel. Clarks Meadow offers a unique opportunity to study both a restored, hydrologically functional meadow and an incised, hydrologically disconnected stretch of the same stream and meadow. The physical characteristics of Clarks Meadows that were measured include surface area, subsurface thickness, porosity and permeability of subsurface materials, potential water storage volume, and surface infiltration rates. The goal of this study is to refine hydrologic characterization methods, quantify water storage potential of a healthy, non-incised meadow and assess its role in attenuating flood flows during high discharge times. Initial results suggest that significant subsurface storage volume is available in the meadow. Incising conditions in the unstable lower channel tends to dewater the lower portion of the meadow which encourages bank erosion through piping and corrasion. This study addresses questions that have broad implications for water management throughout the state because much of California gets water from Sierra high elevation watersheds in which meadows are thought to play a critical role in sustained long-term hydrologic function. The results of this study will be used to inform Integrated Regional Water Management Plans throughout Northern California.

Cornwell, K.; Brown, K.; Monohan, C.

2007-12-01

24

Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (Rare II), Randolph County, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monomgahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virgina. 28 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Weed, E.G.A.

1981-01-01

25

Mapping the Distribution of Wildfire Fuels Using AVIRIS in the Santa Monica Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catastrophic wildfires, such as the 1990 Painted Cave Fire in Santa Barbara or Oakland fire of 1991, attest to the destructive potential of fire in the wildland/urban interface. For example, during the Painted Cave Fire, 673 structures were consumed over a period of only six hours at an estimated cost of 250 million dollars (Gomes et al., 1993). One of the primary sources of fuels is chaparral, which consists of plant species that are adapted to frequent fires and may actually promote its ignition and spread of through volatile organic compounds in foliage. As one of the most widely distributed plant communities in Southern California, and one of the most common vegetation types along the wildland urban interface, chaparral represents one of the greatest sources of wildfire hazard in the region. An ongoing NASA funded research project was initiated in 1994 to study the potential of AVIRIS for mapping wildfire fuel properties in Southern California chaparral. The project was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains, an east-west trending range in western Los Angeles County that has experienced extremely high fire frequencies over the past 70 years. The Santa Monica Mountains were selected because they exemplify many of the problems facing the southwest, forming a complex mosaic of land ownership intermixed with a diversity of chaparral age classes and fuel loads. Furthermore, the area has a wide diversity of chaparral community types and a rich background in supporting geographic information including fire history, soils and topography. Recent fires in the Santa Monica Mountains, including several in 1993 and the Calabasas fire of 1996 attest to the active fire regime present in the area. The long term objectives of this project are to improve existing maps of wildland fuel properties in the area, link AVIRIS derived products to fuel models under development for the region, then predict fire hazard through models that simulate fire spread. In this paper, we describe the AVIRIS derived products we are developing to map wildland fuels.

Roberts, Dar; Gardner, M.; Regelbrugge, J.; Pedreros, D.; Ustin, S.

1998-01-01

26

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01

27

Parameter Selection for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel to be Used in the Yucca Mountain License Application  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the U.S. Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain license application. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data are reported for representative fuels and bounding fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported were not generated under any quality assurance program.

D. L. Fillmore

2003-10-01

28

Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene underlie the Trans-Indus Mountains of Pakistan. The sequence, which is more than 20,000 feet thick, consists of 20 formations and members. New names have been proposed and type sections designated for five of the formations described. The Makarwal coal field is located in the Surghar Range. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet. Easily accessible coal, once the principal mineral resource of the area, is mostly depleted, but more than 16 million tons of undeveloped reserves are available. Other mineral resources include abundant reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks.

Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

1987-01-01

29

Evaluation of Thermal Capacity for Spent-Fuel Disposal at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the model and results for evaluating the spent-fuel disposal capacity for a repository at Yucca Mountain from the thermal and hydrological point of view. Two proposed alternative repository designs are analyzed, both of which would fit into the currently well-characterized site and, therefore, not necessitating any additional site characterization at Yucca Mountain. The two-dimensional TOUGH2 model for coupled thermo-hydrological analysis extends from the surface to the water table, covering all the major and subgroup rock layers of the planned repository, as well as formations above and below the repository horizon. A dual-porosity and dual-permeability approach is used to model coupled heat and mass transfer through fracture formations. The waste package heating and ventilation are all assumed to follow those of the current design. For each alternative design, two bounding cases are simulated using TOUGH2: (1) all waste packages are emplaced at the same time and (2) waste packages are emplaced in stages. The results show that the repository is able to accommodate three times the amount of spent fuel compared to the current design, without extra spatial expansion or exceeding current thermal and hydrological design specifications. Cases with extended ventilation have also been studied. (authors)

Zhou, W.; Apted, M.J. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J.H. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2007-07-01

30

Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits.

DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W. (U.S. Geological Survey (US)); Close, T.J. (U.S. Bureau of Mines (US))

1989-01-01

31

Parameter selection for Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel to be used in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data is reported for representative fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported was not generated under any Q.A. Program.

Fillmore, D.L.

1998-06-01

32

Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary rocks of marine and nonmarine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains in Pakistan. The Makarwal coal field is located in Sargodha Division, Mianwali District, in the Surghar Range. The coal field serves as a source of energy and byproducts for the industrial center at Daud Khel, 34 miles by rail northeast of the coal field. The coal-bearing strata are of Paleocene age and are overlain by younger Tertiary rocks that exceed 15,000 feet in total thickness. The coal was involved in at least two episodes of mountain-building activity that produced the Trans-Indus Mountains. The coal is produced from a single bed that ranges in thickness from 2 feet to more than 10 feet and averages 4 feet. Most of the coal is in the west limb of the Makarwal anticline and dips 30{degree} W. The coal is ranked as high-volatile. C-bituminous, containing ash in the range of 7 to 22%; fixed carbon, 36.3 to 43.4%; sulfur, 4.1 to 5.6%; and calorific value, 9,550 to 11,850 Btu (as received). The area developed for coal mining is almost mined out. From 1914 to 1976 nearly 5 million tons of coal have been produced. The total reserves possible for development to a depth of 200 feet below sea level are 16,600,000 tons. Other mineral resources in the Makarwal coal field include large reserves of limestone, dolomite, greensand, glass sand, and iron-bearing rocks that have been extensively investigated as a possible source of iron.

Danilchik, W.; Shah, S.M.I.

1987-01-01

33

Seasonal effects on ground water chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly sampling was conducted at a single site over a 7-hour period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, temperature, total alkalinity, nitrate, ammonia, sulfate, phosphate, chloride, silica, Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, Hg, Br, F, V, Al, Dy, and U. Despite the dry season during late summer, and wet seasons during late spring and late fall in the Ouachita Mountain region, there was no significant change in the ground water chemistry with season. Likewise, there was no significant change due to rain storm events (daily sampling) or hourly sampling. The report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. 9 figures, 19 tables.

Steele, K.F.; Fay, W.M.; Cavendor, P.N.

1982-08-01

34

Information for Inservice Training Development: A Collection from Field Efforts of the RMRRC (Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for trainers developing inservice workshops for regular classroom teachers and/or generalists, the manual contains information that evolved from field experiences and training efforts of special educators associated with the Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center's (RMRRC) program to explore ways to support teachers serving handicapped…

Harrison, Susan, Comp.; And Others

35

Mountains: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

1999-01-01

36

Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil respiration closely resembles the pattern seen in the organic soil moisture declining in the recent age class, however it only slightly rebounds in the two older classes. This pattern is likely due to the immediate reduction in autotrophic respiration from surrounding trees in the recent class and then a slight increase from local decomposition of labile carbon pools in the older classes. Water potentials show a sizable increase between the control and the recent infestation class. Stomatal conductance also shows a large increase in the recent class. Both of these occurrences might be attributed to the increase in mineral soil moisture. We believe our analysis of soil samples, LAI photos, and tree cores later this summer will help give us an idea if any release response in the healthy trees trends toward light limitation or resource limitation.

Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

37

Resource utilization by bull char and cutthroat trout in a mountain stream in Montana, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource utilization of sympatric populations of bull char,Salvelinus confluentus, and west-slope cutthroat trout,Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, were studied by underwater observations of foraging behaviour and microhabitat use, and dietary analysis in a mountain stream\\u000a of the Flathead River Basin, northwest Montana, U.S.A. Nearly 70% of bull char were categorized as benthic foragers, which\\u000a moved constantly and captured prey primarily from the

Shigeru Nakano; Kurt D. Fausch; Tetsuo Furukawa-Tanaka; Koji Maekawa; Hiroya Kawanabe

1992-01-01

38

Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine.  

E-print Network

?? Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer… (more)

Toone, Chelsea

2013-01-01

39

Marine macroalgae: an untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals.  

PubMed

As world energy demand continues to rise and fossil fuel resources are depleted, marine macroalgae (i.e., seaweed) is receiving increasing attention as an attractive renewable source for producing fuels and chemicals. Marine plant biomass has many advantages over terrestrial plant biomass as a feedstock. Recent breakthroughs in converting diverse carbohydrates from seaweed biomass into liquid biofuels (e.g., bioethanol) through metabolic engineering have demonstrated potential for seaweed biomass as a promising, although relatively unexplored, source for biofuels. This review focuses on up-to-date progress in fermentation of sugars from seaweed biomass using either natural or engineered microbial cells, and also provides a comprehensive overview of seaweed properties, cultivation and harvesting methods, and major steps in the bioconversion of seaweed biomass to biofuels. PMID:23245657

Wei, Na; Quarterman, Josh; Jin, Yong-Su

2013-02-01

40

Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resources area, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage

M. J. Graham; J. E. Tooley; D. Price

1981-01-01

41

Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

2010-01-01

42

Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

NONE

1994-05-01

43

Meet the Maximally Exposed Member of the Public: The Service Station Attendant for Spent Nuclear Fuel Going to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

According to the 1999 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, members of the public along transportation routes by which spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is shipped will receive annual radiation doses less than 100 mrem/yr, the international (ICRP) and national (Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) radiation limit for members of the public. For the ''Mostly Truck'' national transportation scenario, the DEIS specifically concludes that the maximally exposed member of the public, a service station attendant along the primary shipping route will receive no more than 100 mrem/yr, or 2.4 rem over 24 years. Based on the assumptions in the DEIS scenarios, however, it is highly likely that service station attendants along shipping routes will be called upon to fuel and service the rigs carrying SNF and HLW to Yucca Mountain. After reevaluating the DEIS, and making realistic alternative assumptions where necessary, the authors conclude that these attendants are likely to receive substantially more than 100 mrem/yr external dose, and perhaps several times that dose (up to 500 mrem/yr), unless mitigating measures are adopted. This is particularly true in Western states where refueling opportunities are limited, and the distances between fuel sources in rural areas may be up to 100 miles.

Collins, H. E.; Gathers, R.; Halstead, R. J.

2002-02-28

44

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive resource students slide a bar across the screen and view the steps in the water cycle as a water-laden air mass hits a mountain range. They see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the mountain, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air.

45

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Watch is a group of ongoing trail-side citizen science programs that track reproductive (flower/fruit development) plant phenology of a small set of alpine and forest plants in the U.S.'s Eastern Appalachian mountains and other northeast areas. The program encourages hikers, families, school groups and conservationists to help scientists make observations along the trails on the timing of plant flower and fruit development for inclusion in a long-term study to understand how shifts in climate trends may impact mountain flora. Resources to help teachers get started are available at the website.

Club, Appalachian M.

46

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25

47

1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS has assessed resources of selected coal of the Fort Union Formation and equivalent units in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. The assessment focused on coal in the Powder River, Williston, Hanna-Carbon, and Greater Green River basins most likely to be utilized in the next few decades. In other basins in the region Tertiary coal resources are summarized but not assessed. Disc 1, in PDF files, includes results of the assessment and chapters on coal geology, quantity and quality, and land use and ownership. Disc 2 provides GIS files for land use and ownership maps and geologic maps, and basic GIS data for the assessed basins. ArcView shapefiles, PDF files for cross sections and TIFF files are included along with ArcView Datapublisher software for Windows-based computer systems.

Fort Union Coal Assessment Team

1999-01-01

48

Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary rocks of marine and nonmarine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains in Pakistan. The Makarwal coal field is located in Sargodha Division, Mianwali District, in the Surghar Range. The coal field serves as a source of energy and byproducts for the industrial center at Daud Khel, 34

W. Danilchik; S. M. I. Shah

1987-01-01

49

Mineral resources of the Baboquivari Peak and Coyote Mountains wilderness study areas, Pima County, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the Baboquivari Peak Wilderness Study Area which is underlain by Jurassic sedimentary, volcanic, and granitic rocks which were intruded by a network of middle Tertiary rhyolite dikes. This wilderness study area has no identified resources. This wilderness study area has a high potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barium, bismuth, manganese, molybdenum, and tungsten in veins associated with felsic to intermediate intrusions. A low potential for resources of thorium, beryllium, and bismuth in pegmatites; a low potential for gold and silver resources in paleo-placer deposits; and a low potential for molybdenum resources in an inferred porphyry molybdenum deposit exists in this wilderness study area.

Nowlan, G.A.; Haxel, G.B.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Diveley-White, D.V.; McDonnell, J.R.; Lundby, W.

1989-01-01

50

Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area, Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene underlie the Trans-Indus Mountains of Pakistan. The sequence, which is more than 20,000 feet thick, consists of 20 formations and members. New names have been proposed and type sections designated for five of the formations described. The Makarwal coal field is located in the Surghar Range. The coal-bearing strata are of

W. Danilchik; S. M. I. Shah

1987-01-01

51

Seasonal effects on ground water chemistry of the Ouachita Mountains. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from 13 ground water sites (10 springs and 3 wells) in the Ouachita Mountains were collected nine times during a 16-month period. Daily sampling of six sites was carried out over an 11-day period, with rain during this period. Finally, hourly sampling was conducted at a single site over a 7-hour period. The samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity,

K. F. Steele; W. M. Fay; P. N. Cavendor

1982-01-01

52

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

53

Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

Steele, K. F.

1982-08-01

54

Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thorium in potentially economic amounts occurs in three types of deposits in the Wet Mountains area of Colorado: (1) quartz-baritethorite veins and fracture zones, (2) carbonatite dikes, and (3) red syenite dikes. The quartz-barite-thorite veins and fracture zones contain the largest resources of thorium; they cut all Precambrian and Paleozoic rock types in the area and tend to strike normal to the foliation in the Proterozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks. The veins and fracture zones are end products of the episode of Cambrian alkaline magmatism that also produced rocks of the McClure Mountain Complex, the Gem Park Complex, the complex at Democrat Creek, and associated dikes of carbonatite, lamprophyre, and red syenite. The veins and fracture zones contain an average of 0.46 percent ThO2, 0.21 percent SLREE (total light rare-earth elements), 0.14 percent SHREE (total heavy rare-earth elements), and 0.012 percent Nb2O5; They contain reserves of 64,200 tons ThO2, 29,300 tons SLREE, 19,540 tons SHREE, 1,675 tons Nb2O5; they contain probable potential resources of 160,500 tons ThO2, 73,270 tons SLREE, 48,850 tons SHREE, and 4,185 tons Nb2O5. The carbonatite dikes form two distinct groups: replacement carbonatites and primary magmatic carbonatites. The latter group appears to be the better source of potentially economic commodities. The primary magmatic carbonatites contain an average of 0.17 percent ThO2, 0.0097 percent Nb2O5, 0.0031 percent U3O5, and 2.15 percent total rare-earth oxides. The seven largest dikes contain reserves of 131 tons ThO2, 40 tons Nb2O5, 17 tons U3O5, and 2,500 tons SRE203 (total rare-earth oxides), and probable potential resources of 753 tons ThO2, 228 tons Nb2O5, 105 tons U3O5, and 14,300 tons SRE2O3. The red syenite dikes contain anomalous amounts of thorium, uranium, niobium, and rare-earth elements. Although reserves and probable potential resources have not been calculated, they are likely to be small.

Armbrustmacher, T.J.

1988-01-01

55

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources  

E-print Network

. The successful candidate will be an important member of the Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from AlternativeDepartment of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources The University of Western Ontario Applications are invited for a junior faculty position

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

56

[Resource and ecological distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi under pine forests of Huangshan Mountain district].  

PubMed

Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis are the most common and important tree species in the Huangshan Mountain district, and ectomycorrhizae plays an important role in their forestation. Our investigations in 1998-2003 showed that under the pine forests of this district, there were 43 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 10 families and 17 genera, of which, 43 were under Pinus massoniana forest, and 12 under Pinus taiwanensis forest. Only a few species were found under young Pinus massoniana forest, with the dominant of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coken and Rhizopogon spp., but under mature Pinus massoniana forest, there were plentiful species, with the dominant of Russulaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae and Canthurellaceae. The relationships between woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and between fungi distribution and temperature, moisture and soil condition were discussed in this paper, which would benefit to the further studies on the effects of different ectomyrrhizal fungi to Pinus massoniana and Pinus taiwanensis forests. PMID:15943356

Ke, Lixia; Liu, Birong

2005-03-01

57

Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA  

PubMed Central

In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [?30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior. PMID:22272268

Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Negron, José F.; Smith, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

58

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

E-print Network

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production by Duncan Brown BSc (Hons), University of Birmingham, 2009 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Committee Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio

Victoria, University of

59

The role of nuclear energy in the more efficient exploitation of fossil fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy input\\/output relations for nuclear and solar systems which interact with fossil fuel use are examined in terms of the energy theory of value. According to this theory, the value of a resource is defined more or less completely by the energy that that resource can produce. An analysis of potential energy production suggests that nuclear power generation offers an

W. Seifritz

1978-01-01

60

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to provide information on potential environmental impacts that could result from a Proposed Action to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada. The EIS also provides information on potential environmental impacts from an alternative referred to as the No-Action Alternative, under which there would be no development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

N /A

2002-10-25

61

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

62

Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Extension, North Carolina: Chapter in Wilderness mineral potential: assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume II  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Craggy Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the adjoining Craggy Mountain Extension consist of more than 4 sq mi of steep wooded slopes on the west side of Great Craggy Mountain in the Blue Ridge of western North Carolina. A mineral-resource survey of the area done between 1976 and 1979 found no evidence fore metallic mineral resources. Kyanite, garnet, and building stone are the only mineral resources in the study area, but large quantities of similar material are available outside the study area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth, but until some deep drilling is done in or near no estimate of the gas potential can be made.

Lesure, Frank G.; Williams, Bradford B.

1984-01-01

63

ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

1984-01-01

64

Linking models of land use, resources, and economy to simulate the development of mountain regions (ALPSCAPE).  

PubMed

We present a framework of a scenario-based model that simulates the development of the municipality of Davos (Swiss Alps). We illustrate our method with the calculation of the scenario for 2050 "Decrease in subsidies for mountain agriculture and liberalization of markets." The main objective was to link submodels of land-use allocation (regression-based approach), material and energy flows submodels (Material and Energy Flux Analysis), and economic submodels (Input-Output Analysis). Letting qualitative and quantitative information flow from one submodel to the next, following the storyline describing a scenario, has proven to be suitable for linking submodels. The succession of the submodels is then strongly dependent on the scenario. Qualitative information flows are simulated with microsimulations of actor choices. Links between the submodels show different degrees of robustness: although the links involving microsimulations are the weakest, the uncertainty introduced by the land-use allocation model is actually advantageous because it allows one possible change in the landscape in the future to be simulated. The modeling results for the scenario here presented show that the disappearance of agriculture only marginally affects the region's factor income, but that the consequences for the self-sufficiency rate, for various landscape-related indicators and ecosystem services, and for the economy in the long term may be considerable. These benefits compensate for agriculture's modest direct economic value. The framework presented can potentially be applied to any region and scenario. This framework provides a basis for a learning package that allows potential detrimental consequences of regional development to be anticipated at an early stage. PMID:17638053

Lundström, Corinne; Kytzia, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; Gret-Regamey, Adrienne; Bebi, Peter

2007-09-01

65

Mountains and Mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Completed in 2013, this portal for digital collections pertaining to mountains and mountaineering brings together thousands of images from the University of Washington Libraries. Visitors should read the narrative introduction on the homepage and then move around through the various Topics, which include The Mountaineers Activities and Early Climbing and Tourism at Mt. Rainier. This last area offers a piquant look through the history of the massive peak known simply as "the Mountain" by locals. Visitors can explore the records of the adventurous spirits who have climbed the mountain over the years, along with the papers of Dee Molenaar, a celebrated geologist and local climber. The site also includes a Resources area that includes links to mountain climbing groups and such.

2013-01-01

66

The Griggs Dynamic Convection Model: a Resource for Learning About Mountain-Building Processes in the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a physical analog model in the classroom/laboratory setting is just one of the many ways teachers can provide a resource for learning through inquiry; however, well developed physical analog models of natural processes that can be measured and manipulated scientifically by students can be challenging for teachers to obtain. This research analyzes a historical physical analog model--the David Griggs (1939) Dynamic Convection Model, which was used 'to study the effect of sub-crustal convection currents on the continental crust.'--to determine if the model is capable of supporting model-based inquiry-oriented classroom activities. An analogical structure-mapping method developed for assessing the affordances of scale models (Kastens and Rivet, 2010) is used to show that the model has highly transparent surface and structural features, which correspond to Griggs' theory of mountain-building at the levels of attributes, simple relations, higher order relations and systematicity. A variety of experimental parameters for the model (i.e., using different materials, and varying the speeds of the convection cells) are described to give teachers support for developing inquiry-oriented classroom activities. Furthermore, the Griggs dynamic convection model, along with a replica for people to try, will be at the poster session.

Glesener, G.

2013-12-01

67

Resources  

MedlinePLUS

... Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal ...

68

Escherichia coli and enterococci are sensitive and reliable indicators for human, livestock and wildlife faecal pollution in alpine mountainous water resources  

PubMed Central

Aims This study evaluated the applicability of standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) for alpine mountainous water resources monitoring. Methods and Results Escherichia coli, enterococci (ENTC) and Clostridium perfringens were investigated by standard or frequently applied methods in a broad range of animal and human faecal sources in a large alpine mountainous area. C. perfringens occurred only in human, livestock and carnivorous source groups in relevant average concentrations (log 4.7-7.0 CFU per g) but not in herbivorous wildlife sources. E. coli proved to be distributed in all faecal source groups with remarkably balanced average concentrations (log 7.0 - 8.4 CFU per g). Except for single faecal samples from the cattle source group, prevalence rates for ENTC source groups were generally > 90% with average concentrations of log 5.3 - 7.7 CFU per g. In order to test the faecal indication capacity in the environment, faecal prevalence data were comparatively analysed with results from the concurrently performed multi-parametric microbial source tracking effort on karst spring water quality from the investigated alpine mountainous catchment (Reischer et al. 2008; Environ. Microbiol. 10:2598-2608). Conclusion E. coli and enterococci are reliable faecal indicators for alpine mountainous water resources monitoring, although E. coli is the more sensitive one. C. perfringens did not prove an indicator of general faecal pollution but is suggested a conservative microbial source tracking marker for anthropogenic faecal influence. Significance and Impact of Study Applicability of SFIB is currently hotly debated. This is the first study providing comprehensive information on the applicability of SFIB at alpine mountainous habitats. PMID:20629798

Farnleitner, A.H.; Ryzinska-Paier, G.; Reischer, G.H.; Burtscher, M.M.; Knetsch, S.; Kirschner, A.K.T.; Dirnböck, T.; Kuschnig, G.; Mach, R.L.; Sommer, R.

2011-01-01

69

Inventory and analysis of rangeland resources of the state land block on Parker Mountain, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High altitude color infrared (CIR) photography was interpreted to provide an 1:24,000 overlay to U.S.G.S. topographic maps. The inventory and analysis of rangeland resources was augmented by the digital analysis of LANDSAT MSS data. Available geology, soils, and precipitation maps were used to sort out areas of confusion on the CIR photography. The map overlay from photo interpretation was also prepared with reference to print maps developed from LANDSAT MSS data. The resulting map overlay has a high degree of interpretive and spatial accuracy. An unacceptable level of confusion between the several sagebrush types in the MSS mapping was largely corrected by introducing ancillary data. Boundaries from geology, soils, and precipitation maps, as well as field observations, were digitized and pixel classes were adjusted according to the location of pixels with particular spectral signatures with respect to such boundaries. The resulting map, with six major cover classes, has an overall accuracy of 89%. Overall accuracy was 74% when these six classes were expanded to 20 classes.

Jaynes, R. A. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

70

Letter Report: Looking Ahead at Nuclear Fuel Resources  

SciTech Connect

The future of nuclear energy and its ability to fulfill part of the world’s energy needs for centuries to come depend on a reliable input of nuclear fuel, either thorium or uranium. Obviously, the present nuclear fuel cycle is completely dependent on uranium. Future thorium cycles will also depend on 235U or fissile isotopes separated from used fuel to breed 232Th into fissile 233U. This letter report discusses several emerging areas of scientific understanding and technology development that will clarify and enable assured supplies of uranium and thorium well into the future. At the most fundamental level, the nuclear energy community needs to appreciate the origins of uranium and thorium and the processes of planetary accretion by which those materials have coalesced to form the earth and other planets. Secondly, the studies of geophysics and geochemistry are increasing understanding of the processes by which uranium and thorium are concentrated in various locations in the earth’s crust. Thirdly, the study of neutrinos and particularly geoneutrinos (neutrinos emitted by radioactive materials within the earth) has given an indication of the overall global inventories of uranium and thorium, though little indication for those materials’ locations. Crustal temperature measurements have also given hints of the vertical distribution of radioactive heat sources, primarily 238U and 232Th, within the continental crust. Finally, the evolving technologies for laser isotope separation are indicating methods for reducing the energy input to uranium enrichment but also for tailoring the isotopic vectors of fuels, burnable poisons and structural materials, thereby adding another tool for dealing with long-term waste management.

J. Stephen Herring

2013-09-01

71

Land-use and soil depth affect resource and microbial stoichiometry in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Global change phenomena, such as forest disturbance and land-use change, significantly affect elemental balances as well as the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the importance of shifts in soil nutrient stoichiometry for the regulation of belowground biota and soil food webs have not been intensively studied for tropical ecosystems. In the present account, we examine the effects of land-use change and soil depth on soil and microbial stoichiometry along a land-use sequence (natural forest, pastures of different ages, secondary succession) in the tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador. Furthermore, we analyzed (PLFA-method) whether shifts in the microbial community structure were related to alterations in soil and microbial stoichiometry. Soil and microbial stoichiometry were affected by both land-use change and soil depth. After forest disturbance, significant decreases of soil C:N:P ratios at the pastures were followed by increases during secondary succession. Microbial C:N ratios varied slightly in response to land-use change, whereas no fixed microbial C:P and N:P ratios were observed. Shifts in microbial community composition were associated with soil and microbial stoichiometry. Strong positive relationships between PLFA-markers 18:2n6,9c (saprotrophic fungi) and 20:4 (animals) and negative associations between 20:4 and microbial N:P point to land-use change affecting the structure of soil food webs. Significant deviations from global soil and microbial C:N:P ratios indicated a major force of land-use change to alter stoichiometric relationships and to structure biological systems. Our results support the idea that soil biotic communities are stoichiometrically flexible in order to adapt to alterations in resource stoichiometry. PMID:24532178

Tischer, Alexander; Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute

2014-05-01

72

Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-01

73

Page 1 of 2 STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor  

E-print Network

projects analyzed in this report are: Linde LLC's "Linde Cupertino and Mountain View Public Hydrogen Fueling Stations" o Cupertino Station on Stevens Creek Boulevard o Mountain View Station on Leong DrivePage 1 of 2 STATE OF CALIFORNIA ­ NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor Notice

74

A System Method for the Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Mountain Watershed Areas: The Case of the "Giffre" Watershed (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management ( IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

Charnay, Bérengère

2011-07-01

75

Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.

Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.

1975-01-01

76

Mountaineer’s heel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountaineers are at risk of skin lesions caused by constant boot friction. This is the case of a 35 year old mountaineer who presented with large and deeply ulcerated lesions over the medial aspects of both heels after a two and a half day climb using crampons. A number of factors such as the length of the climb in cold

R M Strauss

2004-01-01

77

Natural resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Natural resources are resources that occur in nature. Humans use these resources, but many of these resources are nonrenewable. They will eventually run out. Fossil fuels are naturally occurring fuels that are nonrenewable.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-07-07

78

STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-print Network

,499,586 $1,499,586 $1,186,802 84.1% Awardee 7 Linde LLC Mountain View Linde Mountain View Hydrogen Fueling Station, 830 Leong Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043 $1,500,000 $1,500,000 $1,032,424 83.0% Awardee 5 AirSTATE OF CALIFORNIA ­ NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY

79

Forecasting the impact of global changes on the water resources of a mountainous catchment in the Chilean Andes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to simulate the complex interrelationships between climate forcing, human pressure and dynamics of groundwater and surface water of the upper Elqui catchment (5 660 km2) in the Chilean Andes. The water resources of this mountainous, semi-arid catchment has been undergoing a growing pressure because of high climate variability and of the economic mutations of various sectors (agriculture, tourism), which have impacted water availability of the area. Due to the agriculture-based development in the region, water scarcity is thus a matter of great concern for this basin. Hydrological simulations were performed with a conceptual model that takes into account a shallow reservoir supplied by precipitation and feeding evapotranspiration, surface/sub-surface runoff and infiltration, and (ii) a deep reservoir fed by infiltration and generating the baseflow. A third reservoir, in which fluxes are controlled by temperature, has been introduced to account for the snowmelt regime of the catchment. A 30-year period (1979-2008) was chosen to capture long-term hydro-climatic variability due to alternating ENSO and LNSO events. Then water uses (dam functioning, agricultural and domestic withdrawals) were integrated into the model. The model was calibrated and validated with streamflow data on the basis of a multi-objective function that aggregates a variety of goodness-of-fit criteria. Prospective climatic and anthropogenic scenarios were finally elaborated and forced into the model in order to propose midterm (2050 horizon) simulations. The model correctly reproduces the observed discharge at the basin outlet. Depending on the modelling complexity, NSE coefficients are about 0.82-0.90 over the calibration period (1979-1990) and 0.78-0.84 over the validation period (1991-2008). The volume error between observation and simulation is lower than 15% over the whole period studied. The dynamics of both the water level in the deep conceptual reservoir and the water table in a piezometer at the basin outlet are also in good agreement. The model thus provides encouraging simulations of groundwater and surface water dynamics when applied to various climatic conditions. Simulations are improved when a dam located in the upstream catchment is considered into the model. In contrast, integrating agricultural and domestic water withdrawals does not improve significantly the simulations. However, it allows assessing the ability of water resources to supply water demands by computing a water allocation index. The climatic scenarios forecast an increase in temperature of about 1-2°C and a 20-30% reduction in precipitation by the 2050 horizon. According to the hydrological simulations, the mean annual discharge of the upper Elqui River may decline by 30-40%, and the seasonal peak flow would occur earlier than in current conditions. As a result, the agricultural demands (90% of the water uses) may not be always satisfied, especially during the summer season, as shown by the future trends in the water allocation index. This calls for evaluating the efficiency of adaptation strategies consisting in an improvement of the irrigation system and of water management, which is the subject of ongoing research.

Ruelland, D.; Campéon, C.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

2012-04-01

80

A Transportation Risk Assessment Tool for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Transportation Database was developed as a data management tool for assembling and integrating data from multiple sources to compile the potential transportation impacts presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada (DEIS). The database uses the results from existing models and codes such as RADTRAN, RISKIND, INTERLINE, and HIGHWAY to estimate transportation-related impacts of transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial reactors and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to Yucca Mountain. The source tables in the database are compendiums of information from many diverse sources including: radionuclide quantities for each waste type; route and route characteristics for rail, legal-weight truck, heavy haul. truck, and barge transport options; state-specific accident and fatality rates for routes selected for analysis; packaging and shipment data by waste type; unit risk factors; the complex behavior of the packaged waste forms in severe transport accidents; and the effects of exposure to radiation or the isotopic specific effects of radionclides should they be released in severe transportation accidents. The database works together with the codes RADTRAN (Neuhauser, et al, 1994) and RISKlND (Yuan, et al, 1995) to calculate incident-free dose and accident risk. For the incident-free transportation scenario, the database uses RADTRAN and RISKIND-generated data to calculate doses to offlink populations, onlink populations, people at stops, crews, inspectors, workers at intermodal transfer stations, guards at overnight stops, and escorts, as well as non-radioactive pollution health effects. For accident scenarios, the database uses RADTRAN-generated data to calculate dose risks based on ingestion, inhalation, resuspension, immersion (cloudshine), and groundshine as well as non-radioactive traffic fatalities. The Yucca Mountain EIS Transportation Database was developed using Microsoft Access 97{trademark} software and the Microsoft Windows NT{trademark} operating system. The database consists of tables for storing data, forms for selecting data for querying, and queries for retrieving the data in a predefined format. Database queries retrieve records based on input parameters and are used to calculate incident-free and accident doses using unit risk factors obtained from RADTRAN results. The next section briefly provides some background that led to the development of the database approach used in preparing the Yucca Mountain DEIS. Subsequent sections provide additional details on the database structure and types of impacts calculated using the database.

Ralph Best; T. Winnard; S. Ross; R. Best

2001-08-17

81

National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V., Jr.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

1999-01-01

82

Climatic Redistribution of Canada's Water Resources (CROCWR): The role of synoptic climatology on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interannual variability of precipitation, temperature, and streamflow is influenced by large-scale atmospheric pressure gradients, which dictate the direction of air mass movement and magnitude of moisture transport. Classifying synoptic circulation patterns facilitates analysis to determine dominant patterns that influence surface climate. This research identifies and evaluates the atmospheric drivers of water availability on rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains, and is being conducted with companion analyses of climatic and streamflow trends to determine the climatic redistribution of western Canadian water resources. The study area for this project includes the north-flowing Liard, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers, which are tributaries to the Mackenzie River, and the east-flowing North Saskatchewan, Red Deer, Bow, and Oldman Rivers, which have experienced greater variability, including periods of droughts and pluvials. Winter snowpack represents a water-storage component that is released during spring freshet and provides the largest contribution of the annual streamflow of rivers originating on the leeward slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Summer water availability is influenced by basin-wide precipitation, evapotranspiration, and in some cases glacier melt or release of water from reservoirs built for hydroelectricity generation. Summer demand is highest in this region, where a high percentage of water is allocated for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Understanding and forecasting water availability are fundamental for the management of resources, flood mitigation, and an indicator of climate change. Synoptic circulation patterns are classified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), an unsupervised, iterative learning process that clusters and projects data onto an organized output array. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with high and low precipitation and temperature during winter (Nov-Apr) and summer (May-Oct) seasons are evaluated. The top and bottom quartiles of precipitation and temperature are identified and compared with frequency and persistence of mid-tropospheric circulation patterns. Results are used in conjunction with surface climate and streamflow trends as indicators of hydroclimatic variability and trends associated with western Canadian water resources.

Newton, B.; Prowse, T. D.; Bonsal, B. R.

2012-12-01

83

Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

1986-01-01

84

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

The reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel can benefit the nuclear fuel cycle by destroying actinides or extending fissionable resources if uranium supplies become limited. The purpose of this study was to assess reprocessing and recycling in both fast and thermal reactors to determine the effectiveness for actinide destruction and resource utilization. Fast reactor recycling will reduce both the mass and heat load of actinides by a factor of 2, but only after 3 recycles and many decades. Thermal reactor recycling is similarly effective for reducing actinide mass, but the heat load will increase by a factor of 2. Economically recoverable reserves of uranium are estimated to sustain the current global fleet for the next 100 years, and undiscovered reserves and lower quality ores are estimated to contain twice the amount of economically recoverable reserves--which delays the concern of resource utilization for many decades. Economic analysis reveals that reprocessed plutonium will become competitive only when uranium prices rise to about %24360 per kg. Alternative uranium sources are estimated to be competitive well below that price. Decisions regarding the development of a near term commercial-scale reprocessing fuel cycle must partially take into account the effectiveness of reactors for actnides destruction and the time scale for when uranium supplies may become limited. Long-term research and development is recommended in order to make more dramatic improvements in actinide destruction and cost reductions for advanced fuel cycle technologies.The original scope of this work was to optimize an advanced fuel cycle using a tool that couples a reprocessing plant simulation model with a depletion analysis code. Due to funding and time constraints of the late start LDRD process and a lack of support for follow-on work, the project focused instead on a comparison of different reprocessing and recycling options. This optimization study led to new insight into the fuel cycle. AcknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 125862 for funding this research.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Smith, James D.

2008-09-01

85

Evaluation of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygenates on groundwater resources.  

PubMed

The environmental behavior of fuel oxygenates (other than methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) is poorly understood because few data have been systematically collected and analyzed. This study evaluated the potential for groundwater resource contamination by fuel hydrocarbons (FHCs) and oxygenates (e.g., tert-butyl alcohol [TBA], tertamyl methyl ether [TAME], diisopropyl ether [DIPE], ethyl tert-butyl ether [ETBE], and MTBE) by examining their occurrence, distribution, and spatial extent in groundwater beneath leaking underground fuel tank (LUFT) facilities, focusing on data collected from over 7200 monitoring wells in 868 LUFT sites from the greater Los Angeles, CA, region. Excluding the composite measure total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline (TPHG), TBA has the greatestsite maximum (geometric mean) groundwater concentration among the study analytes; therefore, its presence needs to be confirmed at LUFT sites so that specific cleanup strategies can be developed. The alternative ether oxygenates (DIPE, TAME, and ETBE) are less likely to be detected in groundwater beneath LUFT facilities in the area of California studied and when detected are present at lower dissolved concentrations than MTBE, benzene, or TBA. Groundwater plume length was used as an initial indicator of the threat of contamination to drinking water resources. Approximately 500 LUFT sites were randomly selected and analyzed. The results demonstrate MTBE to pose the greatest problem, followed by TBA and benzene. The alternative ether oxygenates were relatively localized and indicated lesser potential for groundwater resource contamination. However, all indications suggest the alternative ether oxygenates would pose groundwater contamination threats similar to MTBE if their scale of usage is expanded. Plume length data suggest that in the absence of a completely new design and construction of the underground storage tank (UST) system, an effective management strategy may involve placing greater emphasis on UST program for ensuring adequate enforcement and compliance with existing UST regulations. PMID:14740715

Shih, Tom; Rong, Yue; Harmon, Thomas; Suffet, Mel

2004-01-01

86

Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigators)

1976-01-01

87

YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO{sub 2} in contact with small volumes of water within a several month period when the radiolysis product H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is added to the groundwater solution. The test setup has been mocked up for operation with spent fuel in the hot-cell.

Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

1998-09-18

88

STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

1984-01-01

89

Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U. [The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78712 (United States); Eggert, R.; Collins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden CO 80401 (United States)

2013-07-01

90

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-08-01

91

Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost delivery as transport distances of raw biomass are reduced. The overall cost of bio-fuel production is determined by the feedstock delivery pathway and also the bio-fuel production process employed. Results show that the minimum cost of petrol and diesel production is 0.86 litre -1 when a bio-oil feedstock is upgraded. This corresponds to a 2750 TPD upgrading facility requiring an annual harvest of 4.30 million m3. The mini?m cost of hydrogen production is 2.92 kg -1, via the gasification of a woodchip feedstock and subsequent water gas shift reactions. This corresponds to a 1100 ODTPD facility and requires an annual harvest of 947,000 m3. The levelised cost of bio-fuel strongly depends on the size of annual harvest required for bio-fuel facilities. There are optimal harvest volumes (bio-fuel facility sizes) for each bio-fuel production route, which yield minimum bio-fuel production costs. These occur as the benefits of economies of scale for larger bio-fuel facilities compete against increasing transport costs for larger harvests. Optimal harvest volumes are larger for bio-fuel production routes that use feedstock sourced from mobile facilities, as mobile facilities reduce total transport requirements.

Brown, Duncan

92

Mountain Biking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Announcing a new WWW page for Mountain Biking enthusiasts. This page focuses on mountain biking in the San Francisco Bay area (including descriptions of several local trails), but also contains links to descriptions of mountain biking in other areas, including Pittsburgh, Colorado, Utah and New Zealand.

93

76 FR 2878 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, CA; Buck Mountain Vegetation and Fuel...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...associated with commercial harvesting include use of existing...chipping, yarding tops, machine piling/burning...As with commercial harvesting, activity fuel treatments...or less depth and machine piling. 1,182...

2011-01-18

94

The Dilemma of Mountain Roads  

EPA Science Inventory

Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources....

95

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

96

Great Smoky Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee at Knoxville has created this excellent resource on the culture, history, and geography of the Great Smoky Mountains. The resource was created as part of a collaboration with the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project, and it includes digital collections, a regional bibliography, and a comprehensive listing of organizations in the region. The Digital Collections area includes six different photograph collections. Perhaps the most interesting one here is the William Cox Cochran collection, which includes 89 images of East Tennessee taken during August 1886. Moving on, the Colloquy area includes copies of the biannual newsletter for the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project dating back to 2000. Finally, the Organizations area features an annotated list of organizations that work in the region, including the Friends of the Smokies and the Foothills Land Conservancy.

2012-08-10

97

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

2013-04-01

98

The Mountaineer Minority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

1974-01-01

99

Structure, production and resource use in some old-growth spruce/fir forests in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Old-growth forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dominate much of the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. We characterized the structure, biomass and production of 18 old-growth (200-450-year-old) spruce/fir forests in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, as well as the stand-level supply and use of light and nitrogen. Stands were chosen to span a broad range of elevation, aspect, and topography. Aboveground tree biomass in these old-growth forests averaged 253 Mg/ha (range 130-488 Mg/ha), with aboveground net primary production of 3700 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 2700 to 5200 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within stands, trees >35 cm in diameter accounted for 70% of aboveground biomass, but trees <35 cm contributed 70% of the production of woody biomass. Differences in slope and aspect among sites resulted in a range of incoming light from 58 to 74 TJ ha-1 yr-1, and tree canopies intercepted an average of 71% of incoming light (range 50-90%). Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of trees did not relate to the supply of light or N, but ANPP correlated strongly with the amount of light and N used (r2 = 0.45-0.54, P < 0.01). Uptake of 1 kg of N was associated with about 260 kg of ANPP, and one TJ of intercepted shortwave radiation produced about 78 kg of ANPP. Across these old-growth stands, stands with greater biomass showed higher rates of both ANPP and resource use; variation in aboveground biomass was associated with 24% of the variation in N use (P = 0.04), 44% of the light use (P = 0.003), and 45% of the ANPP (P = 0.002). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Binkley, D.; Olsson, U.; Rochelle, R.; Stohlgren, T.; Nikolov, N.

2003-01-01

100

Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic properties is consistent with original missions related to nuclear reactor testing and is expected to result in no adverse effects to their historic significance. Cultural resource investigations also involved communication with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to characterize cultural resources of potential tribal concern. This report provides a summary of the cultural resources inventoried and assessed within the defined areas of potential effect for the resumption of transient testing at the INL. Based on these analyses, proposed activities would have no adverse effects on historic properties within the APEs that have been defined. Other archaeological resources and cultural resources of potential concern to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and others that are located near the APEs are also discussed with regard to potential indirect impacts. The report concludes with general recommendations for measures to reduce impacts to all identified resources.

Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

2013-11-01

101

Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

Anderson, J. H. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

102

Nuclear fuels for low-beta fusion reactors: Lithium resources revisited  

SciTech Connect

In searching to attain optimum conditions for the controlled release of nuclear energy by fusion processes, the stationary confinement of low-pressure ring-shaped plasmas by strong magnetic fields is now regarded as the most promising approach. The author considers a number of fuel combinations that could be operated in such low-beta reactor systems and looks upon the relevant fuel reserves. The {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} D-T-Li cycle will be used as a standard and is extensively discussed therefore. It could supply most of mankind`s future long-term power needs - but only on condition that the required lithium fuel can be extracted from seawater at reasonable expenses. The estimated land-bound lithium reserves are too small to that end, they will last for about 500 years at most, depending on forecasts of future energy consumption and on assumptions about exploitable resources. Recovery of lithium from seawater would extend the possible range by a factor of 300 or so, provided that extraction technologies which are at present available in the laboratory, could be extended to a very large and industrial scale. Deuterium is abundant on earth but D-D fusion is difficult, if not impossible, to be achieved in the low-beta systems presently investigated for D-T fusion. The same arguments apply to so-called {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} concepts, such as the D-{sup 3}He and the D-{sup 6}Li cycles. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eckhartt, D.

1995-12-01

103

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

DOE Data Explorer

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

104

Mountain Home Well - Photos  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

2012-01-11

105

Mountain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

106

Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The second part presents probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract. The study also provides tables showing the location, tract number, and age (if available) of discovered deposits and prospects. For each of the 26 permissive tracts delineated in this study, summary information is provided on: (1) the rationale for delineating the tract; (2) the rationale for choosing the mineral deposit model used to assess the tract; (3) discovered deposits and prospects; (4) exploration history; and (5) the distribution of undiscovered deposits in the tract. The scale used to evaluate geologic information and draw tracts is 1:1,000,000.

Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

2008-01-01

107

The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.  

PubMed

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates. PMID:18421796

Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

2008-09-01

108

Impact of non-livelihood-based land management on land resources: the case of upland watersheds in Uporoto Mountains, South West Tanzania.  

PubMed

Various land management strategies are used to prevent land degradation and keep land productive. Often land management strategies applied in certain areas focus on the context of the physical environment but are incompatible with the social environment where they are applied. As a result, such strategies are ignored by land users and land degradation becomes difficult to control. This study observes the impacts of land management in the upland watersheds of the Uporoto Mountains in South West Tanzania. In spite of various land management practices used in the area, 38% of the studied area experienced soil fertility loss, 30% gully erosion, 23% soil loss, 6% biodiversity loss and drying up of river sources. Land management methods that were accepted and adopted were those contributing to immediate livelihood needs. These methods did not control land resource degradation, but increased crop output per unit of land and required little labour. Effective methods of controlling land degradation were abandoned or ignored because they did not satisfy immediate livelihood needs. This paper concludes that Integrating poor people's needs would transform non-livelihood-based land management methods to livelihood-based ones. Different ways of transforming these land management methods are presented and discussed. PMID:21560271

Mwanukuzi, Phillip K

2011-01-01

109

COYOTE SOUTHEAST AND TABLE MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the contiguous Coyote Southeast and Table Mountain Roadless Areas, California have one area of probable and two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential. Mineral occurrences in these areas are in tactite deposits with tungsten as the most important metal; copper, molybdenum, and gold occur in small amounts in the same deposits. One area in the southwestern part of the Coyote Southeast Roadless Area has anomolous amounts of uranium in stream-sediment samples but no resource potential was identified. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources. More detailed geochemical sampling of rocks and eroded material in the areas with metamorphic rock might reveal additional small tungsten resources at or near the surface in tactite deposits.

McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

1984-01-01

110

YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --  

SciTech Connect

This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

NA

2003-08-05

111

Thermodynamic metrics for aggregation of natural resources in life cycle analysis: insight via application to some transportation fuels.  

PubMed

While methods for aggregating emissions are widely used and standardized in life cycle assessment (LCA), there is little agreement about methods for aggregating natural resources for obtaining interpretable metrics. Thermodynamic methods have been suggested including energy, exergy, and emergy analyses. This work provides insight into the nature of thermodynamic aggregation, including assumptions about substitutability between resources and loss of detailed information about the data being combined. Methods considered include calorific value or energy, industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) and its variations, and ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) or emergy. A hierarchy of metrics is proposed that spans the range from detailed data to aggregate metrics. At the fine scale, detailed data can help identify resources to whose depletion the selected product is most vulnerable. At the coarse scale, new insight is provided about thermodynamic aggregation methods. Among these, energy analysis is appropriate only for products that rely primarily on fossil fuels, and it cannot provide a useful indication of renewability. Exergy-based methods can provide results similar to energy analysis by including only nonrenewable fuels but can also account for materials use and provide a renewability index. However, ICEC and its variations do not address substitutability between resources, causing its results to be dominated by dilute and low-quality resources such as sunlight. The use of monetary values to account for substitutability does not consider many ecological resources and may not be appropriate for the analysis of emerging products. ECEC or emergy explicitly considers substitutability and resource quality and provides more intuitive results but is plagued by data gaps and uncertainties. This insight is illustrated via application to the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, corn ethanol, and soybean biodiesel. Here, aggregate metrics reveal the dilemma facing the choice of fuels: high return on investment versus high renewability. PMID:20020741

Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R

2010-01-15

112

Mountain Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you've ever wanted to turn your hiking skills into helpful information, the Mountain Watch section of the Appalachian Mountain Club website may be of great interest. The site is designed to turn hikers into "citizen scientists" who can "aid in the collection of data that measures the ecological health of our mountains." The site contains four areas (including "Mountain Plants" and "Mountain Weather") where visitors can submit their own recent findings and observations. First-time visitors will need to fill out the volunteer data section, and this takes just a few minutes. After this, visitors will receive a password which will allow them to report on alpine flowers, air quality, and related subjects. Visitors can also read the observations of others, and read up on their "Naturalist Blog".

113

Surface gasification materials program. Semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1983. [Mountain fuel resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Surface Gasification Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for application to the specific needs of coal gasification systems. One of the goals of the program is to evaluate innovative fabrication methods which have the potential to lower costs and improve reliability and safety for gasifier vessels and components. Another goal is to

1983-01-01

114

BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

1984-01-01

115

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

116

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert C.

1984-01-01

117

Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities  

SciTech Connect

The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered.

Not Available

1980-06-01

118

Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)  

PubMed Central

Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (-)-?-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-?-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

2013-01-01

119

Mountain Gorillas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the population of mountain gorillas living in the central highland area of Africa. The module looks at human activity around the gorilla habitat and how that activity is threatening the survival of the remaining gorillas.

120

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers several sets of questions for students to answer about where mountain ranges are located and why they are where they are. Many of the questions have links to more information and/or images. Questions address the role of plate tectonics in the process of mountain building. A computer isn't necessary to answer the questions, but is highly recommended so that the students can use the links provided. These questions require some prior knowledge of the content.

121

Mountain Mash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners model the processes that formed some of Earth's largest mountain ranges: the Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps. Using layers of clay to represent continental plates, learners push the clay together to see model mountains form. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science

2009-01-01

122

A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

2002-01-01

123

SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

1984-01-01

124

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth a Long-term Experiment with the Plant-ant Crematogaster nigriceps  

E-print Network

Carbohydrate as Fuel for Foraging, Resource Defense and Colony Growth ­ a Long-term Experiment, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) between consumers and the resources they depend on can have ecological consequences depend on plant and insect mutualist partners for carbohydrate-rich rewards that are nutritionally

Palmer, Todd M.

125

Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy

J. R. Brodrick; K. K. Daellenbach; G. B. Parker; E. E. Richman; T. J. Secrest; S. A. Shankle

1993-01-01

126

Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

2004-01-01

127

POND MOUNTAIN AND POND MOUNTAIN ADDITION ROADLESS AREAS, TENNESSEE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of a mineral study of the Pond Mountain Roadless Areas, Tennessee, a probable potential for the occurrence of tin, niobium, and tungsten resource with associated beryllium, molybdenum, zinc, and fluorite was identified in rocks of Precambrian age particularly in the southeastern part of the area. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling of the soils and rocks in the area of Precambrian rocks is recommended to identify and delimit the areas of potential resources of tin, niobium, and tungsten.

Griffitts, W.R.; Bitar, Richard

1984-01-01

128

BULL MOUNTAIN BASIN, MONTANA By G.D. Stricker  

E-print Network

Chapter SM BULL MOUNTAIN BASIN, MONTANA By G.D. Stricker in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains Mountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A #12;SM-ii Contents

129

Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) promotes the sharing and dissemination of laboratory tested technologies and reagents to benefit and promote research across the world.  To this regard, several key resources (i.e. data, software

130

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Resources General Information Regarding CTRP AACI-NCI Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Strategic Subcommittee Report: CTRP Reporting Objectives and Implementation Timeline, July 2011 (PDF, 1 MB) Helpful Tools CTRP User's Guides Troubleshooting

131

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Posted: June 23, 2014 Posted: June 23, 2014 Resources Helpful Tools International Collaboration in Clinical Trials Portal Find out how to collaborate with U.S. based research groups and get answers to commonly asked questions about collaborating

132

Final Report. EU project Olivero: The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Roman times, the olive orchards on sloping and mountainous land in Southern Europe have formed a major source of income and employment, with the production systems being economically and environmentally sustainable. This situation has now been disturbed by factors such as migration, competition from intensive lowland production and from non-European Union countries. This project will undertake a thorough analysis

L. Fleskens; L. Stroosnijder; Graaff de J

2006-01-01

133

The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation, First Annual Report. EU project Olivero  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project will devote itself to the future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land in southern Europe. These systems have been affected by emigration of local populations and fierce competition from low land plantations and from non-EU countries, and are currently neither productive nor sustainable. The project will undertake a thorough analysis of production, ecological and socio-economic

L. Fleskens; L. Stroosnijder; Graaff de J

2004-01-01

134

BIODIVERSITY AND RESOURCE APPLICATIONS: APPLICATION OF THE FIRE REGIME CONDITION CLASS PROCESS TO COLLABORATIVE MULTI-SCALE LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE BOSTON MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative fire management planning dep ends on landscape managers finding common ground in their understanding of ecosystem structure and function a nd in estimates of desired future landscape conditions. The Boston Mountains, Arkansas landscape is dominated by oak-hickory and o ak-pine ecosystems that have b een altered in composition and structure as a result of past timber management and fire

Ayn J. Shlisky

135

Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological\\/social benefits have to be taken into

Sanjay Kaul; Raphael Edinger

2004-01-01

136

Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of a series of lessons in a continuing study of change. It is designed to give students hands-on experience manipulating and controlling the variables involved in the process of soil erosion. They will be able to identify variables that influence rates of change and use group consensus to design and build what they believe to be the strongest mountain possible.

1998-01-01

137

Yucca Mountain Milestone  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

Hunt, Rod

1997-06-09

138

Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

139

A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use efficiency as well. Three processes, coal mining, power production including CO2 capture unit operation, and crude oil usage, must be included when the GWP of CCS is calculated. Moreover, the results from the sensitivity analysis of power generation efficiency present not only a significant reduction of GWP, but also a competitive solution for improving or at least preventing the decrease of fossil fuel resource use efficiency when CCS is applied.

Suebsiri, Jitsopa

140

REDUCTION OF USE OF PETROLEUM ENERGY RESOURCES BY CONVERSION OF WASTE COOKING OILS INTO DIESEL FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This project has a dual objective of providing hands-on experience to undergraduate engineering students and producing biodiesel fuel from a used cooking oil feedstock. The project consists of three phases: Phase I - process development and construction of a pilot plant; Phase...

141

DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

1984-01-01

142

70 FR 60489 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Mountain City Ranger District, Mountain City Ranger District...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Mountain City Ranger District...the Humboldt River Basin; Heritage resources...Federal Register. The Forest Service believes...dismissed by the courts [City of Angoon v....

2005-10-18

143

Cadillac Mountain Summit Panorama  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panorama of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

144

Cadillac Mountain Summit  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of the summit of Cadillac Mountain. At 1,528 feet in elevation, Cadillac Mountain is the highest point in Acadia National Park, and is composed of a unique granite, the Cadillac Mountain granite unit....

145

Mountain Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain Stage, a famous Charleston, West Virginia, venue where folk musicians play, is broadcast on National Public Radio, and can be heard on the NPR website, simply by clicking on "Listen", next to the artist's picture and brief bio. Visitors wishing to read more about the artist's musical history can click on the name of the artist next to their picture. Included in the history is their set list for the broadcast show. Visitors can comment on each artist's show, or recommend it to other visitors, by clicking on the icons at the bottom of each brief bio on the homepage.

146

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

147

Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

1984-01-01

148

Changes in fuelbed characteristics and resulting fire potentials after fuel reduction treatments in dry forests of the Blue Mountains, northeastern Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many fire-prone forests in the United States, changes occurring in the last century have resulted in overstory structures, conifer densities, down woody structure and fuel loads that deviate from those described historically. With these changes, forests are presumed to be unsustainable. Broad-scale treatments are proposed to reduce fuels and promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Yet

Andrew Youngblood; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; James D. McIver

2008-01-01

149

WHITE MOUNTAINS AND BIRCH CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral survey of the White Mountains and Birch Creek Roadless Areas in California and Nevada indicates that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, tungsten, and mercury as well as barite and pyrophyllite. Pumice resources occur in several areas in the White Mountains Roadless Area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Metasedimentary rocks in Jeffrey Mine Canyon along the range front of the White Mountains Roadless Area contain known rutile occurrences at the site of the Champion mine. Geochemical studies and (or) a drilling program could help define the possibility of a titanium resource.

Diggles, Michael F.; Schmauch, Steven W.

1984-01-01

150

Carbohydrate crops as a renewable resource for fuels production. Volume II. Identification of key policy issues, alternatives, and implications relating energy from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research program were threefold: Provide a brief summary assessment of current and developing technologies utilizing carbohydrate crops as potential energy resources; provide an economic analysis of current agricultural policies and their implications concerning the potential use of the carbohydrate crops as biomass energy sources; and identify and examine alternative policies for stimulating biomass production for fuel

D. A. Scantland; T. A. McClure; E. S. Lipinsky

1979-01-01

151

Geologic Mapping and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Healy and Talkeetna Mountains Quadrangles, Alaska Using Minimal Cloud- and Snow-Cover ASTER Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 8, 2003, ASTER acquired satellite imagery of a 60 km-wide swath of parts of two 1:250,000 Alaska quadrangles, under favorable conditions of minimal cloud- and snow-cover. Rocks from eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the swath of data, several of which define permissive tracts for various mineral deposit types such as: volcanic-hosted massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry copper and molybdenum. Representative rock samples collected from 13 different lithologic units from the Bonnifield mining district within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), plus hydrothermally altered VMS material from the Red Mountain prospect, were analyzed to produce a spectral library spanning the VNIR-SWIR (0.4 - 2.5 ?m) through the TIR (8.1 - 11.7 ?m). Comparison of the five-band ASTER TIR emissivity and decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT display the greatest range and diversity of silica composition of the mapped terranes, ranging from mafic rocks to silicic quartzites. The nine-band ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map several lithologic sequences characterized by distinct suites of minerals that exhibit diagnostic spectral features (e.g. chlorite, epidote, amphibole and other ferrous-iron bearing minerals); other sequences were distinguished by their weathering characteristics and associated hydroxyl- and ferric-iron minerals, such as illite, smectite, and hematite. Smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and/or other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (< 250 m diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation- or snow-cover, or were too small to be resolved.

Hubbard, Bernard E.; Rowan1, Lawrence C.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Eppinger, Robert G.

2007-01-01

152

Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-06-01

153

Surveillance, Monitoring, and Rapid Response Eastern Rivers and Mountains Network and Northeast Temperate Network Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ERMN/NRR—2010/196  

E-print Network

address natural resource topics of interest and applicability to a broad audience in the National Park Service and others in natural resource management, including scientists, conservation and environmental constituencies, and the public. The Natural Resource Report Series is used to disseminate high-priority, current natural resource management information with managerial application. The series targets a general, diverse audience, and may contain NPS policy considerations or address sensitive issues of management applicability. All manuscripts in the series receive the appropriate level of peer review to ensure that the information is scientifically credible, technically accurate, appropriately written for the intended audience, and designed and published in a professional manner. This report received formal peer review by subject-matter experts who were not directly involved in the collection, analysis, or reporting of the data, and whose background and expertise put them on par technically and scientifically with the authors of the information. Views, statements, findings, conclusions, recommendations, and data in this report are those of

National Park Service; Jennifer Stingelin Keefer; Matthew R. Marshall; Brian R. Mitchell

2010-01-01

154

Uranium mineralization in the Wilson Creek and Cranberry Gneisses and the Grandfather Mountain Formation, North Carolina and Tennessee. National Uranium Resource Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Detailed petrologic investigations were conducted at 74 anomalies that have surface radioactivities of 5 to 300 times background in the Grandfather Mountain region of North Carolina and Tennessee. One or more specimens of radioactive rock and one specimen of nonanomalous (barren) rock were taken for chemical analysis from each of the 74 sites. The specimens were analyzed fluorometrically for uranium (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) and for 29 other elements by emission spectroscopy. Of the radioactive specimens, 23 contained less than 100 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and were either depleted in uranium because of leaching or were rich in thorium; 25 contained more than 500 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, with a maximum of 33,000 ppM. Specimens collected as barren contained up to 65 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The more uraniferous rocks of the region tend to contain the larger concentrations of trace amounts of base metals.

Wagener, H.D.; McHone, J.G.

1982-10-01

155

The Foja Mountains of Indonesia: Exploring the Lost World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This issue based, peer reviewed resource discusses how the Foja Mountains need a conservation plan to protect its uniqueness and value to both science and the people of New Guinea. The Mountains are valuable because many species have remained unknown until recently. Over forty new species were found in one month alone in 2005. The mountains these species inhabit are pristine because they are untouched by human activity.

Bruce M. Beehler (Conservation International; )

2007-01-01

156

The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

Lietzke, K. R.

1974-01-01

157

Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour  

E-print Network

Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches: An Examination of Precautionary Behaviour by Luke Robbins of Resource Management (Planning) Report No. 586 Title of Thesis: Mountain Snowmobilers and Avalanches avalanche fatalities and the tragic season of 2008-2009, the BC Coroner's Death Review Panel convened

158

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

159

Rocky Mountain spotted fever  

MedlinePLUS

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

160

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships  

E-print Network

Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships the importance of mountainous catchments for providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes such as mountain block recharge (MBR). Here we implement

Troch, Peter

161

Alternative fuels for road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite nature of global fossil fuel resources underscores the need to develop alternative vehicular fuels. Increased use of renewable and alternative fuels can extend fossil fuel supplies and help resolve air pollution problems inherent in automotive use of conventional fuels. Fuel characteristics, safety implications, feedstocks, infrastructure, fuel production costs, emissions performance, required vehicle modifications, and outlook are described for

Poulton

1994-01-01

162

Energy Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy fuels our planet. Find out where we get our energy and how we have developed technologies to fulfill our energy needs. Learn how our increasing demand for energy affects the environment and how we are addressing the negative effects of that demand through conservation efforts. How will we search for energy to fuel the twenty-first century? Explore these subjects through looking at the energy resources available for use, the history and development of technologies that use these energy resources, and the effect on the environment when we use these resources.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-04-01

163

CERET Web Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy list of online resources is provided by the Consortium for Education in Renewable Energy Technology (CERET) and the resources include information and links on Alternative Vehicles & Fuels, Biomass, Energy Environment & Society, Hydrogen & Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics & Solar Thermal, and Wind Energy. The site also contains learning objects in Fuel Cell Technology, Solar Technology, and Curriculum Modules.

2012-10-17

164

MIDDLE MOUNTAIN-TOBACCO ROOT ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-resource survey of the northern part of the Tobacco Root Mountains, Montana determined that the area included in or enclosed by the Middle Mountain-Tobacco Root Roadless Area contains serveral areas of probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineralized areas are located in or adjacent to intrusive rocks of Late Cretaceous age. Mineral resources are probably of three types: disseminated and stockwork copper and molybdenum in porphyry-type deposits; gold-silver-quartz veins; and gold-bearing silicified zones. No energy resources were identified in this study.

O'Neill, J. Michael; Cather, Eric E.

1984-01-01

165

Yucca Mountain Standards: EPA's Radiation Protection Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Yucca Mountain Home Page furnishes information about the EPA's role in this Nevada-based "underground geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste." The site answers frequently asked questions about the repository and supplies an overview of the various roles of federal agencies. The publications section includes detailed articles (in html or .pdf format) on radioactive waste disposal and the standards and regulations surrounding radioactive waste management. For another Yucca Mountain site, see the October 1, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering.

166

Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

2011-01-01

167

The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region. PMID:24898296

Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

2014-10-01

168

Mountain Building Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. Subject matter covered includes these four categories: folded mountains, volcanic mountains, fault block mountains, and granitic batholiths. It also covers complex mountain chains formed at convergent plate boundaries, where they are folded and faulted and intruded by volcanic features. Complex mountains include Andean-type (ocean-continent) plate boundaries and Himalayan-type (continent-continent) plate boundaries. Mountains such as the Coast Ranges of California are believed to have formed by the accretion (addition) of crustal blocks called foreign terranes. This module also covers the process called isostatic adjustment. It contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions about California geomorphic provinces, place names of landforms handout, and practice quizzes. A feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

169

Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

170

Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database  

SciTech Connect

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

Shervais, John

2012-11-11

171

Testing to evaluate the suitability of waste forms developed for electrometallurgically treated spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel for disposal in the Yucca Mountain reporsitory.  

SciTech Connect

The results of laboratory testing and modeling activities conducted to support the development of waste forms to immobilize wastes generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel and their qualification for disposal in the federal high-level radioactive waste repository are summarized in this report. Tests and analyses were conducted to address issues related to the chemical, physical, and radiological properties of the waste forms relevant to qualification. These include the effects of composition and thermal treatments on the phase stability, radiation effects, and methods for monitoring product consistency. Other tests were conducted to characterize the degradation and radionuclide release behaviors of the ceramic waste form (CWF) used to immobilize waste salt and the metallic waste form (MWF) used to immobilize metallic wastes and to develop models for calculating the release of radionuclides over long times under repository-relevant conditions. Most radionuclides are contained in the binder glass phase of the CWF and in the intermetallic phase of the MWF. The release of radionuclides from the CWF is controlled by the dissolution rate of the binder glass, which can be tracked using the same degradation model that is used for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass. Model parameters measured for the aqueous dissolution of the binder glass are used to model the release of radionuclides from a CWF under all water-contact conditions. The release of radionuclides from the MWF is element-specific, but the release of U occurs the fastest under most test conditions. The fastest released constituent was used to represent all radionuclides in model development. An empirical aqueous degradation model was developed to describe the dependence of the radionuclide release rate from a MWF on time, pH, temperature, and the Cl{sup -} concentration. The models for radionuclide release from the CWF and MWF are both bounded by the HLW glass degradation model developed for use in repository licensing, and HLW glass can be used as a surrogate for both CWF and MWF in performance assessment calculations. Test results indicate that the radionuclide release from CWF and MWF is adequately described by other relevant performance assessment models, such as the models for the solution chemistries in breached waste packages, dissolved concentration limits, and the formation of radionuclide-bearing colloids.

Ebert, W. E.

2006-01-31

172

Galileo's Moon Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Galileo's Moon Mountain Model illustrates the method used by Galileo to measure the height of a mountain on the Moon. Using his improved telescope design, Galileo was able to see spots of light in the otherwise dark potion of the Moon. He interpreted these spots as mountain peaks which caught the rays of the sun even though the sun did not illuminate the Moon's surface at the base of the mountain. He measured the distance of the bright spot from the terminator (the line separating the lit and unlit portions of the Moon) as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Then he was able to use a geometrical argument to determine the height of the mountain as a fraction of the Moon's radius. Galileo knew that the Moon's radius was approximately 1600 km (he didn't use those units, of course), which allowed him to determine the absolute height of the mountain. (Note that the modern value for the Moon's radius is about 1740 km.) One window shows the view from above the North pole of the Moon. The mountain appears near the bottom of this window. A ray of sunlight which just grazes the Moon's surface at the terminator is shown. Controls allow the user to adjust the angle of sunlight (thus altering the Moon's phase) and the height of the mountain. The other window shows the view from Earth. When sunlight strikes the top of the mountain a bright spot becomes visible in the dark area of the Moon. Likewise, when the mountain is in the bright region it casts a shadow. The distance across the Moon's face from terminator to mountain in shown.

Timberlake, Todd

2011-05-18

173

Post-pleistocene dispersal in black-capped (Poecile atricapillus) and mountain (P. gambeli) chickadees, and the effect of social dominance on black-capped chickadee winter resource allocation.  

E-print Network

??This study investigates the phylogeographic structure and population genetics of two non-migratory, congeneric species: the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and the mountain chickadee (P. gambeli).… (more)

Hindley, John A

2013-01-01

174

Monitoring Groundwater Recharge In the Sierra Nevada Mountains For  

E-print Network

Monitoring Groundwater Recharge In the Sierra Nevada Mountains For Impact On Hydrologic Resources The Issue Snowmelt is a significant source of replenishing groundwater resources in the western United States. In addition, this groundwater recharge process is typically a major contributor to streamflow

175

METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology  

E-print Network

1 METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology Course Description This course will introduce the student to meteorological phenomena associated with mountain environments

Clements, Craig

176

Mountain Promise page 1 Mountain Promise  

E-print Network

health care for WV communities page 15 #12;Mountain Promise page 2 duction and use of ozone of leisure time, as most people would, as a negative. GDP counts expenditures for defensive activities defensive expenditures made to prevent the erosion of quality of life as a negative. The GDP accounts

Baltisberger, Jay H.

177

Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

A mineral-resource survey by the USGS and USBM in 1980 determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11.6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32.7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

1984-01-01

178

Center for Alternative Fuels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The success of the HEV programs under this grant prompted Macomb to launch this resource, the Center for Alternative Fuels. The center holds forums in which academic and industry experts discuss the technical and societal impact of alternative fuels.

2009-12-21

179

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration),were compared with the baseline

Ralph E. H. Simsa; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

180

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the

Ralph E. H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01

181

Appendix 33 Forest Resources of the Flathead National Forest  

E-print Network

Appendix 33 Forest Resources of the Flathead National Forest #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station July 1999 Forest ResourcesForest ResourcesForest ResourcesForest ResourcesForest Resources of the Flatheadof the Flatheadof the Flatheadof the Flatheadof

182

Mountains of Fractals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "Mountains of Fractals" article in the Math DL develops algorithms to produce coastlines and mountains in two dimensions by adapting mathematical ideas related to the construction of such fractals as Koch's curve. EJS is used to create a hands-on activity that allows a reader to create a coastline with a rubberband, six-sided die, and thumb tacks. Java applications allow for exploration of these algorithms and the influence of their associated parameters. After discussing 2D fractal mountains, this article extends the 2D algorithm to produce 3D mountains. Finally, mathematical issues in random number generation are discussed. More specifically, linear congruential generators are considered and shown to be suitable as a random number generator for the 3D fractal landscape algorithm. The use of fractal landscapes in movies is also discussed.

Chartier, Tim

2009-09-11

183

The Strongest Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After learning about weathering and erosion, fifth-grade students worked in cooperative groups to create a "mountain" that could resist the effects of water erosion and demonstrate their understanding of the subject.

Colleen Monnes

2004-10-01

184

Cadell's Mountain Building Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These animations show reconstructions of Cadell's famous experiments in mountain building, performed at an open day of the British Geological Survey at Murchison House, Edinburgh. Various versions at different resolutions are available.

185

Smoky Mountain Field School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Tennessee Division of Continuing Education contains the home page for the Smoky Mountain Field School which offers supervised wilderness adventures for people of all ages and levels of experience. http://www.ce.utk.edu/Smoky/

186

KINGS RIVER, RANCHERIA, AGNEW, AND OAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On the basis of a mineral survey the Kings River, Rancheria, Agnew, and Oat Mountain Roadless Areas, California were found to have several areas with probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten in tactite, and one area with probable mineral-resource potential for lode gold in quartz veins. The extreme relief and inaccessibility in most of the roadless areas make exploration and mining very difficult. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of energy resources.

Nokleberg, Warren J.; Longwell, Warren D.

1984-01-01

187

Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With project headquarters at the University of Tennessee Libraries, the Great Smoky Mountains Regional Project is designed to serve as both a physical and digital collection of resources for researchers studying the Smokies and their surrounding communities. From the homepage, visitors can view a selection of finding aids (if they are planning to conduct research), browse through the Project's newsletters dating back to 2002, and look through a list of other organizations (with hyperlinks to their respective homepages, where available). Currently, there are two nice digital collections available here, both of which are worth more than just a glance. The first is a digitized collection of 898 photographs taken by the late Albert "Dutch" Roth. Roth was an amateur photographer who spent six decades photographing the Great Smoky Mountains' Greenbrier and Mount Le Conte sections. Here visitors can peruse these images by subject heading and a variety of other fields; in doing so, visitors will get a real feel for the landscape of the region. The second digital collection is of the flora of Tennessee, and allows visitors to search through images of native and introduced flora throughout the state by plant name, family and genus.

188

Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track requires, among other things, new principles for siting-principles based on partnership between the federal implementing agency and prospective host states. These principles apply to the task of developing an integrated waste management strategy, to interactions between the federal government and prospective host states for consolidated storage and disposal facilities, and to the logistically and politically complicated task of transportation system design. Lessons from the past 25 years, in combination with fundamental parameters of the nuclear waste management task in the US, suggest new principles for partnership outlined in this paper. These principles will work better if well-grounded and firm guidelines are set out beforehand and if the challenge of maintaining competence, transparency and integrity in the new organization is treated as a problem to be addressed rather than a result to be expected. (authors)

Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Williams, James M. [Western Interstate Energy Board, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

2012-07-01

189

Pennsylvania's dead mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most first-time visitors to Blue Mountain are never quite prepared for it. They don't expect to see 2000 acres of dead mountain-especially land looking like that. The defoliation started in 1898 when New Jersey Zinc Company opened the first of two plants to process zinc silicate (and later zinc sulfide) from nearby New Jersey. While the acid rain worked on

Lalo

2009-01-01

190

SKY LAKES ROADLESS AREA AND MOUNTAIN LAKES WILDERNESS, OREGON.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on a mineral survey of the Sky Lakes Roadless Area and the Mountain Lakes Wilderness, Oregon, the areas have little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral resources or geothermal energy resources. Nonmetallic resources exist in the areas, but other areas outside the roadless area and wilderness also contain resources of volcanic cinders, scoria, ash, breccia, and sand and gravel which are easier to obtain and closer to markets. The roadless area and wilderness are not geologically favorable for metallic deposits, or for coal, oil, or gas resources.

Smith, James G.; Benham, John R.

1984-01-01

191

Deep coalbed methane in Alberta, Canada: A fuel resource with the potential of zero greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge incentive to develop Alberta's deep coalbed methane (CBM) resources is found in evolving enhanced gas recovery (EGR) technologies using CO2 injection, somewhat similar to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, unlike CO2-EOR where CO2-breakthru eventually occurs, the injected CO2 is sequestered in the reservoir by sorption to the coal surface. The mechanism is that the CO2 displaces the sorbed

W. D Gunter; T Gentzis; B. A Rottenfusser; R. J. H Richardson

1997-01-01

192

Landscape change patterns in mountains, land use and environmental diversity, Mid-Norway 1960–1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegain mountains have had a central role in the subsistence agroecosystems by providing vast biological resources for humans and their livestock since 4000–3500 BP as indicated by paleoecological records. Later with the development of the summer farming system the use of the mountains was intensified. This long-term use of the mountains has shaped a montane cultural landscape by livestock grazing,

E. Gunilla A. Olsson; Gunnar Austrheim; Synnøve N. Grenne

2000-01-01

193

Climate and Wildfire in Mountains of the Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the mid-1980s, there has been a dramatic increase in the area burned in wildfires in mountain forests of the western United States, with mean annual area burned nearly three and a half times higher compared to the preceding one and a half decades.(1) Concomitant increases in variability in annual area burned and in fire suppression costs pose a serious challenge for land management in the mountainous West. The variance in annual area burned since 1987 is nineteen times its previous level. Since managers must be prepared for the worst possible scenarios in every fire season, increased uncertainty about the scale of the western fire season each year imposes high costs on public agencies. Annual real suppression costs in western forests have more than doubled for the Forest Service since 1987, while the variance in annual suppression costs is over four times higher. Although federal agencies' fire suppression budgets have increased recently, they are still close to what would be spent in an "average" year that seldom occurs, while costs tend to fluctuate between low and high extremes. Modeling area burned and suppression costs as a function of climate variability alone, Westerling (2004, unpublished work) found that the probability of the Forest Service's suppression expenses exceeding the current annual suppression budget has exceeded 50% since 1987, a substantial increase from the one-in-three chance over the preceding 40 years. Recent progress in our understanding of the links between climate and wildfire, and in our ability to forecast some aspects of both climate and wildfire season severity a season or more in advance, offers some hope that these costs might be ameliorated through the integration of climate information into fire and fuels management. In addition to the effects of climate variability on wildfire, long-term biomass accumulations in some western ecosystems have fueled an increasing incidence of large, stand-replacing wildfires where such fires were previously rare. These severe large fires can result in erosion and changes in vegetation type, with consequences for water quality, stream flow, future biological productivity of the affected areas, and habitat loss for endangered species. Apart from their deleterious ecological consequences, severe fires can also dramatically affect amenity values for public lands and for homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. In the National Fire Plan, land management agencies have committed to reducing fuels on millions of hectares of public lands. The primary means are mechanical removal, prescribed fire and wildland fire use. The Forest Service estimates they will need to spend hundreds of millions of dollars per year to meet their fuel reduction targets, while efforts in recent years have not kept up with the current rate of biomass increase. Use of climate information for targeting resources and scheduling prescribed burns could increase the efficiency of these efforts. In this study we review the fire history since 1970 for western mountain forests, and demonstrate apparent links between regional climate variability and decadal-scale changes in annual area burned. This analysis explores how wildfire size and frequency have varied over the past thirty-five years by elevation and latitude, and how climate indices such as precipitation, temperature, drought indices and the timing of spring runoff vary in importance for fire season severity by elevation in forests around the western United States.

Alfaro, E.; Westerling, A. L.; Cayan, D. R.

2004-12-01

194

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

, Colorado on the eastern face of the Rocky Mountains. The river flows southeasterly through Colorado, Kansas and below Great Bend, Kansas the river becomes crooked and subject to shifting channels. The upper sectionArkansas Water Resources Center AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DREDGING WITHIN THE ARKANSAS RIVER

Soerens, Thomas

195

Course Resource Lists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

England, Robert G.

196

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25

197

The Mountaineers Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With an eye towards conservation and documentation, The Mountaineers outdoor club has been in existence since 1906. Since that time, the group has been actively engaged in and around the Pacific NorthwestâÂÂs many wilderness areas in a variety of capacities. Recently, the University of Washington Librariesâ Digital Collections project saw fit to digitize some of their extensive photographic collections. The result is this fine online archive which contains delightful documentation of some of their early expeditions, such as a 1912 trek to Mount Rainier and a 1951 sojourn to Mount Olympus in the Olympic Mountain range. The site also includes a detailed map of their 1920 outing to Mount Olympus and an introductory essay about the history of the organization. Finally, the site also contains 28 bulletins from the organizationâÂÂs history that document some of their outings and mountaineering accomplishments.

198

Prescribed Fire at Sunset in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sunset as seen through the smoke of a prescribed burn in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. The burn was conducted to restore fire as an ecosystem process and reduce hazardous tree densities and fuel loads due to more than 100 years of fire suppression. Foreground trees (Douglas-fir and aspen) were ki...

199

Conservation of crop diversity for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the conservation and management of crop diversity in traditional agro-ecosystems as a crucial component for sustainable landscape development in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region. The results indicate that mountain farming has the potential to produce good output from a low input system where farmers still use local resources

Sunil Nautiyal; Harald Kaechele

2007-01-01

200

Winter habitat use by mountain goats in the Kingcome River drainage of coastal British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using radio telemetry from September 1994 to March 1996, we studied the winter habitat use of 15 mountain goats in the Kingcome River drainage on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. Our objectives were to identify important attributes of coastal mountain goat winter habitat and, in doing so, to provide resource managers with information that will help them make

Shawn Taylor; Kim Brunt

2007-01-01

201

Mountain Road with Autumn Foliage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A mountain road and surrounding early autumn foliage photographed from a higher elevation in the Appalachian Mountains. The especially prominent orange leaves of a maple tree are in the foreground....

202

Sean Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme  

E-print Network

Se´an Hewitt Wild Mountain Thyme Christmas day. We're all at my gran's house, The full, Catholic notes to Wild Mountain Thyme, And our voices warm And swell around The sunken armchair left Empty since

Robertson, Stephen

203

Pinnacle Mountain Field Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in teams and on their own to determine the most likely origin of block fields on Pinnacle Mountain, central AR. Teams of two or three students collect and analyze field data on grain size, roughness, and orientation of boulders on Pinnacle Mountain. On their own, students research possible origins of block fields and interpret their results in a written report. This activity provides students with practice using field skills (including GPS/PDA experience), interpreting data, reading the literature, developing hypotheses, working in teams, and report writing. Designed for a geomorphology course

Margaret McMillan

204

Mountain Man Measurement Rendezvous  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners participate in several activities where they apply measurement skills. Learners explore how the Mountain Men played an important part in the history of the American frontier and more importantly, how the Mountain Men used different techniques for making measurements in their daily activities. At the various stations, learners measure their jump distances, handfuls of "gold," water-soaked sponges, "buffalo chip" throws, arm spans, "stone" throws, "arrow" tosses, foot sizes, pots of beans, and "shooting" distances. This activity works well outside.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

205

Nuclear Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trends in and factors related to the nuclear industry and nuclear fuel production are discussed. Topics addressed include nuclear reactors, survival of the U.S. uranium industry, production costs, budget cuts by the Department of Energy and U.S. Geological survey for resource studies, mining, and research/development activities. (JN)

Nash, J. Thomas

1983-01-01

206

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain  

E-print Network

Moving Beyond the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as the sole location to be studied for possi- ble development of the Yucca Mountain site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently published Viability As- sessment

207

Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program as they have developed over the past 5 years; what follows will be focused on Yucca Mountain, but not restricted to it.

Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

2013-01-01

208

Identifying indirect habitat loss and avoidance of human infrastructure by northern mountain woodland caribou  

E-print Network

mountain woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia, Canada, with seasonal resource due to avoidance. Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are habitat specialists and are sensitive online 10 August 2011 Keywords: Cumulative effect Habitat selection Potential habitat Rangifer tarandus

Hebblewhite, Mark

209

Epic landslide erosion from mountain roads in Yunnan, China ? challenges for sustainable development  

EPA Science Inventory

Expanding systems of mountain roads in developing countries significantly increase the risk of landslides and sedimentation in streams and rivers, as well as create vulnerabilities for residents and aquatic resources. However, neither government agencies nor external assistance o...

210

DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

211

The Strongest Mountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

Monnes, Colleen

2004-01-01

212

POTENTAIL HABITAT MOUNTAIN PLOVERS  

E-print Network

POTENTAIL HABITAT FOR MOUNTAIN PLOVERS ON COLORADO SPRINGS UTILITIES PROPERTY A Report to Colorado). To identify potential habitat on current and future Colorado Springs Utilities property, the Utility funded a habitat survey conducted by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program at Colorado State University. METHODS

213

Carve That Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students further investigate major landforms (e.g., mountains, rivers, plains, hills, oceans and plateaus). They build a three-dimensional model of a landscape depicting several of these landforms. Once they have built their model, they act as civil and transportation engineers to build a road through the landscape they have created.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

214

Modeling Gray Wolf Habitat in the Northern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The reintroduction of the gray wolf into the Northern Rocky Mountains has created many difficult management issues; ranchers fear for their livestock, hunters worry about game populations, ecologists and biologists support the reintroduction, and resource management agencies are caught in the middle. To date (2000), the one hundred plus wolves in the Yellowstone National Park area and approximately 200

Michael E. Houts

2001-01-01

215

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available

2007-05-01

216

Video Resources Central Asia  

E-print Network

Video Resources Central Asia · Central Asia Country Overviews: https://archive.org/details/central-asia · Kyrgyzstan: Crisis in Kyrgyzstan: Fuel, Contracts, and Revolution along the Afghan Supply Chain http://www.c-span.org/video

Qian, Ning

217

Mountain Waves and Downslope Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountain waves form above and downwind of topographic barriers and frequently pose a serious hazard to mountain aviation because of strong-to-extreme turbulence. This foundation module describes the features of mountain waves and explores the conditions under which they form. Like other foundation modules in the Mesoscale Primer, this module starts with a forecast scenario and concludes with a final exam. Rich graphics, audio narration, and frequent interactions enhance the presentation.

Comet

2004-01-07

218

NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology section of future revisions of the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c).

D.F. Fenster

2000-12-11

219

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan  

E-print Network

Mountain-Block Hydrology and Mountain-Front Recharge* John L. Wilson and Huade Guan New Mexico of recharge to basin aquifers oc- curs along the mountain front. Traditionally called "mountain-front recharge, mountain-front recharge estimates are based on the general pre- cipitation characteristics of the mountain

Texas at San Antonio, University of

220

Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

2014-01-01

221

Mountain-eering University of Trento Spin off  

E-print Network

. Date of incorporation:· September 17, 2008. Equity:· 30.000 euros. Management Team:· Matteo Dall:· environmental engineering and green technology solutions for the hydrological analysis of the territory and simulations for the specific need. Mountain-eering provides software solutions for the hydrological analysis

222

Current Status and Potential Impacts Regarding the Proposed Development of a Rail Line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a description of the current status regarding the proposed development of a rail line to the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository in Nye County, Southern Nevada, which includes potential impacts analyzed during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and the subsequent creation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the rail line. Potential impacts are addressed within the context of impacts to natural and human environmental resources found within the geographic area of the proposed federal project. Potential impacts to these resources have been fully analyzed in the Rail Alignment Draft EIS (DEIS). This paper includes a summary of the potential impacts analyzed in the DEIS. Examples of potential impacts include land use conflicts, air quality, water use, and impacts to biological and cultural resources, among others. In conclusion: Based on its obligations under the NWPA and its decision to select the mostly rail scenario for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, DOE needs to ship these materials by rail in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. DOE prepared the Rail Alignment EIS to provide the background, data, information, and analyses to help decision makers and the public understand the potential environmental impacts that could result from constructing and operating a railroad for shipment of spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and other materials from an existing rail line in Nevada to a repository at Yucca Mountain. This railroad would consist of a rail line, railroad operations support facilities, and other related infrastructure. DOE will use the Rail Alignment EIS to decide whether to construct and operate the proposed railroad, and if so, to: - Select a rail alignment (Caliente rail alignment or Mina rail alignment) in which to construct the railroad; - Select the common segments and alternative segments within either a Caliente rail alignment or a Mina rail alignment. The Department would use the selected common segments and alternative segments to identify the public lands to be included in right-of-way applications; - Decide where to construct proposed railroad operations support facilities; - Decide whether to restrict use of the rail line to DOE trains, or whether to allow commercial shippers to operate over the rail line; and - Determine what mitigation measures to implement. (authors)

Lanthrum, G. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gunnerson, J. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

2008-07-01

223

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2013-10-01

224

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2012-10-01

225

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2011-10-01

226

49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation... STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part...

2010-10-01

227

Landform Interpretation: Table Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working collaboratively, groups of students [3-4]develop hypotheses addressing the paleotopography of a Miocene river channel [Table Mountain Latite] and processes that have resulted in its current topographic expression. Students use observations/data gained from topographic maps [Sonora, Keystone, Melones Dam and Knight's Ferry 7.5 minute quadrangles], San Francisco-San Jose Regional Geological Map, aerial photos, and Google Earth [120 39 01W; 37 48 15N to 120 26 17W; 37 57 36N]. Using PowerPoint, students present and defend their hypotheses and plans for further research during the final week of the semester. Designed for a geomorphology course

Gene Pearson

228

Development of a snowfall–snowmelt routine for mountainous terrain for the soil water assessment tool (SWAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil water assessment tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model originally developed to evaluate water resources in large agricultural basins. SWAT was not designed to model heterogeneous mountain basins typical of the western United States, and as a result, has performed poorly when applied to mountainous locations. The intent of this study was to increase the versatility of SWAT by

T. A. Fontaine; T. S. Cruickshank; J. G. Arnold; R. H. Hotchkiss

2002-01-01

229

Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains, California, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Airborne contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources like amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at high elevation. we evaluated contaminan...

230

The terrestrial ecosystem program for the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

DOE has implemented a program to monitor and mitigate impacts associated with site Characterization Activities at Yucca Mountain on the environment. This program has a sound experimental and statistical base. Monitoring data has been collected for parts of the program since 1989. There have been numerous changes in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Program since 1989 that reflect changes in the design and locations of Site Characterization Activities. There have also been changes made in the mitigation techniques implemented to protect important environmental resources based on results from the research efforts at Yucca Mountain. These changes have strengthened DOE efforts to ensure protection of the environmental during Site Characterization. DOE,has developed and implemented an integrated environmental program that protects the biotic environment and will restore environmental quality at Yucca Mountain.

Ostler, W.K.; O`Farrell, T.P.

1994-06-01

231

Succession patterns on mountain pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some successional patterns on mountain pastures in the Hohe Tauern mountains, Austria, are described. A close relation with former pasture management is shown. Very clear gradients in the nutritional status of the soil exist from stables towards more remote areas where no nutrients are added. Dwarf shrub or Alnus viridis woodland vegetation will develop after abandoning pastures, depending on elevation

G. Spatz; W. Germany

1980-01-01

232

Origami DNA model Mountain fold  

E-print Network

Origami DNA model Mountain fold Solid lines are "mountains" and are to be folded away from you solid lines. Valley folds along dashed lines. Making your DNA model Folds for your DNA model 1 Adapted from Yen, T., 1995, Make your own DNA. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 20: 94. #12;At this point

Csürös, Miklós

233

Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at

Jim I. Mead; Paul S. Martin; Robert C. Euler; Austin Long; A. J. T. Jull; Laurence J. Toolin; Douglas J. Donahue; T. W. Linick

1986-01-01

234

SP mountain data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

1981-01-01

235

Tools, Information, and Assistance: Resources for States (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers resources available through the Clean Cities Program. Resources include a Web site, numerous publications, an alternative fuel data base, and other information products and assistance.

Brennan, A. H.

2007-07-16

236

Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

2005-03-14

237

Supplemental Performance Analyses for the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents

S. D. Sevougian; J. A. McNeish; K. Coppersmith; K. E. Jenni; L. D. Rickertsen; P. N. Swift; M. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

238

Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the US Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

2009-01-01

239

Development and improvement of the wind resources map over South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy has been researched in many countries to restrict the emission of CO2 by substituting the fossil fuel to reduce the global warming. Recently, there has been growing penetration of renewable energy in Korea. Wind energy is one of the most cost-effective energy sources compared with other renewable energy sources in Korea. Since wind energy capacity depends on wind speed, wind resources map can provide the most suitable location for wind power generation. We developed 1-km horizontal resolution wind resources map over South Korea by using the numerical model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting). We also developed 333-m horizontal resolution wind resources map which conducted numerical experiments using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model to resolve turbulent features explicitly over the complex terrain with 333m horizontal resolution. In order to investigate the effect of complex terrain, we used high resolution of 100-m grid spacing topography data and 30-m grid spacing land-use data for lateral boundary condition. The wind resources map with 1-km grid resolution over Korea includes hourly wind variations during the TMY (Typical Meteorological Year) for 1998 ~ 2008. It shows abundant wind energy potential over the mountainous region and southwestern coastal region over South Korea, especially in spring and winter season. 1-km and 333-m wind resources map over the complex mountainous region such as Gang-won province showed well agreed with observed data at AWS (Automatic weather station). Moreover, we found that the 333-m wind resources map is more corresponded wind features over the complex terrain of Korea. After post-processing the 1-km wind resources map by using the GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, we have been displaying on web site (http://www.greenmap.go.kr) to provide these wind information for wind energy companies, experts in renewable energy and end users.

Seo, B.-K.; Lee, S.-W.; Byon, J.-Y.; Jeon, S.-H.; Park, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-J.

2012-04-01

240

RESOURCEUSEBY MOUNTAIN SHEEPIN A LARGE ENCLOSURE MA1THEWJ. ZiNE, PAULR. KRAUSMAN,MARKC. WALLACE,ANDLOUISR. BERNER,.  

E-print Network

1 RESOURCEUSEBY MOUNTAIN SHEEPIN A LARGE ENCLOSURE MA1THEWJ. ZiNE, PAULR. KRAUSMAN,MARKC. WALLACE,Tucson,AZ 85721 ~:..V"-Z' foll- y MARK C. WALLACE; SchoolofRenewableNaturalResources,Uni- NYEco. versityof Arizona

Wallace, Mark C.

241

Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

242

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

243

Prediction of mountain stream morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a large and diverse data set from mountain streams around the world to explore relationships between reach-scale channel morphology and control variables. The data set includes 177 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 114 pool-riffle reaches from the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We performed several iterations of stepwise discriminant analysis on these data. A three-variable discriminant function using slope (S), D84, and channel width (w) produced an error rate of 24% for the entire data set. Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle and 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed and 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2 values and F tests indicate that S is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. Comparison of the eight discriminant functions developed using different data sets indicates that no single variable is present in all functions, suggesting that the discriminant functions are sensitive to the specific stream reaches being analyzed. However, the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set correctly classified 69% of the 159 channels included in an independent validation data set. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the three-variable discriminant function developed from the entire data set has important implications for water resources management, such as facilitating prediction of channel morphology using regional S-w-D84 relations calibrated with minimal field work.

Wohl, Ellen; Merritt, David

2005-08-01

244

Blue Mountain Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Princeton University, the Blue Mountain Project encompasses the work of scholars, librarians, curators, and digital humanities researchers whose "mission is to create a freely available digital repository of important, rare, and fragile texts that both chronicle and embody the emergence of cultural modernity in the West." The materials here are contained within 5 sections, including The Archive, The Journals, and Our Partners. Within The Journals area, visitors can make their way through over 35 selected works, including "Dada," "Broom: An International Magazine of the Arts," and "Bruno's Weekly." Moving along, The Archive provides a brief overview of the digital guidelines for creating and maintaing the project's collection. Users can learn more about its recent work via their blog or by signing up for the project's newsletter.

245

Rocky Mountain Online Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rocky Mountain Online Archive contains archival collections in Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico from 20 participating institutions. To view a list of these institutions, visitors should click on the "About" tab at the top of the page, then click on the link "Participating Institutions". Visitors can click on the "Browse the Archive" tab at the top of the page to browse by institutions, subcategorized by Colorado, Wyoming and New Mexico, or by subjects, which includes the subcategories of subjects, genre, and places. The genres represented are "Audio-visual", "Correspondence", "Diaries", and "Photographs". Visitors may find the abundance of oral histories available under the "Audio-visual" tab very interesting to explore. The "Inventory of the Alamo Navajo Oral History Project 1977-1984", "Inventory of Italians of Albuquerque Oral History Project, 1995-1996", and "Guide to the North Poudre Irrigation Company Oral history Collection" are just some of the many available oral histories.

246

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01

247

Preparing the Yucca Mountain Multimedia Presentation  

SciTech Connect

In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada for development as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than 20 years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations-the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. As the Project moves into the next phase--applying for a license to construct a repository-the challenge of public interaction and outreach remains. It has become increasingly important to provide tools to communicate to the public the importance of the Yucca Mountain Project. Sharing the science and engineering research with the general public, as well as teachers, students, and industry professionals, is one of the project's most important activities. Discovering ways to translate project information and communicate this information to local governments, agencies, citizens' groups, schools, the news media, and other stakeholders is critical. With these facts in mind, the authors set out to create a presentation that would bring the ''mountain'' to the public.

Y. Larkin; J. Hartley; J. Scott

2002-11-14

248

CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

1984-01-01

249

[Can medicine move mountains?].  

PubMed

For the author involvement with Paracelsus demands consideration of both, socio-cultural as well as historico-cultural aspects. Each generation has obtained a different picture of this famous physician from Einsiedeln. Around 1941 the progress initiated by Paracelsus has been emphasized, such as the assumed foundation of chemistry, chemotherapy, and the renewal of surgery, occupational medicine, balneology and many more. For the year 1941 (= 400th anniversary of Paracelsus death) a nationalistic perception of Paracelsus was typical. For National-Socialistic Germany, Paracelsus was the founder of a "German medicine" as a contrast to medicine oriented towards France and Jewish-Arabia. Paracelsus also was seen as a pioneer of the experiment and as opponent of medical dilettantism in a popular direction. The perception of Paracelsus of 1993 is completely different. Today Theophrastus from Hohenheim is seen in a post-modern perspective, not as the man of progress, but as one, who opposed to the medicine of his age a partial ancient natural medicine, including the arts of gypsies, witches and midwives. The magic and psychosomatic informations of Paracelsus are seen as precious compensation for losses that we had to accept in the progress of modern medicine. As a psychiatrist Paracelsus was involved with diseases that originated from a "misuse of credo". He reports about collective psychoses, for example those appearing in the group of anabaptists in St. Gallen. Misuse of credo derives from intended provocation of martyrium. To move mountains with one's faith is another pathologic imagination. A therapy should aim at the restitution of such a "mountain" moved by the ill patient. Paracelsus demands the greatest mercy in dealing with mentally ill patients. This disease is also a challenge for theology: "What gives harm to the body destroys the house of the eternal".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191181

Meier, P

1993-12-21

250

Principal Facts and a Discussion of Terrain Correction Methods for the Complete Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Since 1974, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has supported gravity studies in the Cascade Mountains of Washington State (Danes, 1975, 1979, 1981; Korosec and others, 1981). The purpose of the work has been to gather baseline gravity data for eventual contribution to geothermal resource evaluation. However, it is expected that the Cascade gravity data will prove useful in a number of future endeavors such as fossil fuel and mineral exploration, as the gravity method is a basic tool of the exploration geophysicist. Results of the Cascade gravity project are summarized graphically as a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the Cascade Mountains, Washington. This report provides supplementary data and documentation for the complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map. Presented are principal gravity facts, simple Bouguer and Free-air gravity anomalies, computational methods, error analysis and a discussion of terrain corrections. It is hoped that release of this report will encourage analysis of Cascade gravity data beyond the standard treatment (complete Bouguer gravity anomaly at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cm{sup 2}) presented in Danes and Phillips, (1983).

Danes, Z.F.; Phillips, William M.

1983-02-01

251

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

252

Rocky Mountain Research Station 20142017 Strategic Framework  

E-print Network

Rocky Mountain Research Station 2014­2017 Strategic Framework #12;Rocky Mountain Research Station 240 West Prospect Fort Collins, CO 80526 (970) 498-1100 www.fs.fed.us/rmrs High mountain lake at GLEES (Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiments Site) #12;1ROCKY MOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION -- 2014­2017 STRATEg

253

KV04: Baxter Mountain This route visits  

E-print Network

11 KV04: Baxter Mountain General This route visits Baxter Mountain which is a short hike that has between Hurricane and Green Mountains. The hike is relatively short although there is a good elevation Description The trail begins on Rt9N directly across from Hurricane Mountain Road. From Keene Valley, go north

Reiter, Clifford A.

254

Nitrogen fertilizer optimization and cultivar selection for rice grown near mountainous slopes in Orissa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of the natural resource base has led to decline in crop yields or stagnation that caused food shortages at varying\\u000a degrees among mountain families. Rice, the major staple food in Asia, is suffering from lack of suitable cultivar and N fertilizer\\u000a management, when grown near mountainous slopes under rain-fed agro-ecosystem. An investigation through a field experiment\\u000a and simulation study

D. K. Swain; S. Herath; A. Pathirana; R. N. Dash

2005-01-01

255

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment  

E-print Network

Santa Monica Mountain Steelhead Assessment 1 Santa Monica Mountains Steelhead Habitat Assessment identify which basins in the Santa Monica Mountains (SMM) are most capable of supporting steelhead trout watersheds within the SMM. Field Setting Geology of the Santa Monica Mountains The Santa Monica Mountains

Keller, Ed

256

Mining activity and habitat use by mountain sheep ( Ovis canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mountain sheep in the vicinity of three high-wall limestone mines in San Bernardino County, CA, USA to evaluate\\u000a factors that influenced habitat use and, specifically, to investigate the influence of mining activity on distribution of\\u000a those specialized ungulates. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate a resource selection function by fitting a logistic\\u000a regression model and then comparing

Vernon C. Bleich; James H. Davis; Jason P. Marshal; Steven G. Torres; Ben J. Gonzales

2009-01-01

257

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

258

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

SciTech Connect

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

1986-02-01

259

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat  

PubMed Central

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. Images PMID:16593655

Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

1986-01-01

260

Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat.  

PubMed

Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters. PMID:16593655

Mead, J I; Martin, P S; Euler, R C; Long, A; Jull, A J; Toolin, L J; Donahue, D J; Linick, T W

1986-02-01

261

The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

2011-12-01

262

Yucca Mountain Project public interactions  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

Reilly, B.E.

1990-04-01

263

A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

264

Fuel Cells 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fuel Cells 2000, an organization dedicated to informing the public about fuel cells, offers this website with an interactive map listing companies and research organizations connected with the U.S. fuel cell industry. A second map shows U.S. Fuel Cell Installations and Vehicle Demonstrations. Links to the organizations' websites make this an easy-to-use resource for finding out more about fuel cells and looking up local demonstrations. Visitors can also download a full directory of nearly 1000 fuel-cell related companies and organizations and a chart showing fuel cell installations worldwide. (Unfortunately, many of the other links on this website were not working at the time of this writing.)

265

Testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources POLICIES TO INCREASE PASSENGER CAR AND LIGHT TRUCK FUEL  

E-print Network

that could have been used to raise fuel economy to instead increase horsepower and vehicle mass. Since 1987 horsepower is up 85% and mass over 25%. In part, this is because consumers value acceleration and speed

266

BLACK FORK MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, ARAKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Black Fork Mountain Roadless Area covers about 21 sq mi in the Ouachita National Forest in Polk County, Arkansas and LeFlore County, Oklahoma. On the basis of a mineral survey the area has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Stone and sand and gravel suitable for construction purposes occur in the Jackfork Sandstone and the Stanley Shale which also occur outside the roadless area. Although the potential for gas and oil is unknown and no resource potential was identified, some investigators believe that there is a possibility for the occurrence of gas and oil in the roadless area.

Miller, Mary H.

1984-01-01

267

Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database  

DOE Data Explorer

Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

268

MODEL INTEGRATION FOR ASSESSING FUTURE HYDROCLIMATE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES,  

E-print Network

sea surface temperatures ­ Retreat of mountain glaciers Warming trend in California ­ Long term, economics and fishery resources within a data centered, GIS-based model support system · Simulate and assess

Quinn, Nigel

269

Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository prompts heated congressional hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the final report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future is not expected until January 2012, the tentative conclusions of the commission's draft report were dissected during a recent joint hearing by two subcommittees of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. Among the more heated issues debated at the hearing was the fate of the stalled Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The Blue Ribbon Commission's (BRC) draft report includes recommendations for managing nuclear waste and for developing one or more permanent deep geological repositories and interim storage facilities, but the report does not address the future of Yucca Mountain. The BRC charter indicates that the commission is to “conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle.” However, the draft report states that the commission was not asked to consider, and therefore did not address, several key issues. “We have not rendered an opinion on the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site or on the request to withdraw the license application for Yucca Mountain,” the draft report states.

Showstack, Randy

2011-11-01

270

The Mountain that Moved  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication is part of a series entitled "Geologic Wonders of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests". It discusses the landslides in Montgomery and Craig counties of Virginia. These are the largest known landslides in eastern North America, known as rock back slides. The brochure discusses how they were discovered, when they occurred, where they are visible, why they happened, and if there will be more in the future. Additional resources are suggested for more information.

271

77 FR 41447 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council (RAC)/Recreation Resource Advisory Council (RRAC) Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...variety of planning and management issues associated with public land management in Utah. Planned agenda...Cedar City/St. George Resource Management Plan (RMP); progress...RAC's feedback on the Lake Mountain urban...

2012-07-13

272

77 FR 6141 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management's (BLM) Utah Resource Advisory Council (RAC...overview and procedures of resource advisory councils; issues...presentations on energy (renewable/fossil fuels), Sage Grouse, the Cedar City Resource Management Plan;...

2012-02-07

273

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Association of Canada, Automobile Parts Manufacturing Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Fertilizer Institute, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Fuels  

E-print Network

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Association of Canada, Automobile Parts Manufacturing Association, Brewers Association of Canada, Canadian Fertilizer Lime Institute, Canadian Steel Producers Association., Cement Association of Canada, Chemistry

274

Solar fuels: vision and concepts.  

PubMed

The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and 'endless' resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involving direct, semi-direct and indirect approaches to produce solar fuels, are overviewed. PMID:22434445

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

275

Lessons from a 5 yr citizen-science monitoring program, Mountain Watch, to engage hikers in air quality/visibility and plant phenology monitoring in the mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AMC’s citizen scientist monitoring program, Mountain Watch, engages hikers in observational monitoring while recreating in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The program uses two monitoring activities:1) tracking the phenology of 11 mountain flowers species, and 2) the visitors real world perception of on-mountain visibility and its ‘quality’ with proximate monitored air quality parameters. The Mountain Watch program objectives are a) to engage and educate the public through hands-on monitoring, b) to motivate the participant to take further action towards environmental stewardship, and c) to provide supplemental data to AMC’s ongoing science-based research to further our understanding of the impact of human activity on mountain ecosystems. The Mountain Watch plant monitoring includes recording the time and location of alpine and forest plants flowering and other phenological phases using AMC field guides and datasheets. In the White Mountains of New Hampshire concurrent meteorological data, including soil temperature, is paired with the phenology observations as part of AMC’s research to develop spatial and temporal phenology models with air and soil temperature for northeastern mountains. Mountain Watch’s visibility monitoring program has hikers record visual range and rate the view at select vistas in comparison to a clear day view photo guide when visiting AMC’s backcountry huts. The results are compared to proximate air quality measurements, which assists in determining how White Mountain National Forest air quality related values and natural resources management objectives are being met. Since 2006 the Mountain Watch program has received over 3,500 citizen datasheets for plant reproductive phenology and visibility monitoring. We estimate that we have reached more than 15,000 hikers through our facility based education programming focused on air quality and phenology and field monitoring hikes. While we consider this good success in engaging hikers to date, the ratio of resource expenditures in recruiting volunteers and QA/QCing their data for actual research application has been high. Mountain Watch staff are now refining the program to achieve education and research goals a manner that is sustainable into the future with limited fiscal and staff resources. The quality of our citizen phenology observations, in comparison to staff monitoring, has lead to refinements including directing general audience hikers to well-defined trailside observation stations, growing our more skilled amateur botanist volunteer base, and use of remote cameras for quality controls and better temporal coverage. Visibility monitoring at four mountain vistas has recently been analyzed in the context of policy applications. Refinements will be presented that will further inform natural resource management of air quality in relation to Clean Air Act Air Quality Related Values and a potential visibility focused particulate matter secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Overall lessons learned, regarding audience considerations, resource needs, and long-term sustainability, from our 5-year field based geoscience programs will be discussed.

Murray, G.; Weihrauch, D.; Kimball, K.; McDonough, C.

2010-12-01

276

Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan  

SciTech Connect

The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harrison, C.D. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States); Huber, D.W.

1995-12-31

277

Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

1995-12-31

278

MountainQuest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science quest is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this quest, students work in teams to make recommendations for building a new observatory for NASA. Students evaluate scientific and cultural data for five potential sites and then make presentaions to a formal review panel. This collaborative group project requires 4 to 10 class hours and integrates themes and unifying concepts in science with astronomy objectives.

George Tuthill

279

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

Detman, R.F.

1982-12-30

280

A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ``dry-out``, and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilson, M.L.

1991-11-01

281

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

282

Energy and resource consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

1973-01-01

283

Native Plants of Montara Mountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is always inspiring to find websites that have been created by a committed individual who is passionate about the site's subject. Developed by naturalist Chuck Kozak, Native Plants of Montara Mountain is just that type of website. Mr. Kozak has assembled a nice online field guide of plants native to Montara Mountain, a northern spur of California's Santa Cruz Mountains. The guide organizes plants by Family and Scientific name, Common name, or Color and Type. Site visitors can also find plants by using the alphabetically organized Master Index. The numerous plant entries include clear photos and brief descriptions. Although the website focuses on the flora of a specific area, many of these plants can be found in other geographic regions as well. This site is also reviewed in the September 3, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

284

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01

285

Proposed Amendments to the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to its radiation protection standards for the potential spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste disposal system in Yucca Mountain, Nevada on 22 August 2005. The original standards are found in Part 197 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 197). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 directed,

2006-01-01

286

A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce

Amit Kumar

2009-01-01

287

1Prepared by BG Rahm & SJ Riha (NYS Water Resources Institute), D Yoxtheimer (Penn State Marcellus Center for Outreach and Research), E Boyer (PA Water Resources Research Center), D Carder (WVU Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions), K Davi  

E-print Network

shale for natural gas resources involves a variety of activities that can potentially impact and air quality issues associated with shale gas development in the Northeast1 Development of Marcellus environmental water and air quality. Some of these impacts are well-documented, while others involve more

288

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2011-04-01

289

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...topographic maps used to determine the boundary of the Snipes Mountain viticultural area are titled: (1) Sunnyside, Wash., 1965, photo revised 1978; and (2) Granger, Wash., 1965. (c) Boundary. The Snipes Mountain viticultural area is...

2013-04-01

290

Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides data on plants and fungi from the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas of south-central China, including the Gaoligong Mountains and Tibetan Himalaya. The data were derived from georeferenced collections made on recent expeditions (1984-present) to the region, and include specimens with DNA tissue. Users can browse specimens by name; search by taxon, collector number, or date; or browse collecting localities in the database using Google Earth (TM). There is also information on expeditions and personnel, the Biodiversity of the Eastern Himalaya project, an image gallery, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus, and a map showing the historic Tibetan provinces of the region.

291

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project  

E-print Network

RED MOUNTAIN BAR PUMPED STOR AGE PR OJEC T Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage Project Continuing a pumped storage project to generate electricity during peak demand. The proposed Red Mountain Bar Pumped for irrigation water storage, flood control, power production and recreation, the Red Mountain Bar Pumped Storage

Laughlin, Robert B.

292

Resource List MSU Resources  

E-print Network

to be the premier Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender (LGBT) advocacy group in the university and surrounding community Resource Center Mission: The Bozeman Gay and Lesbian Resource Center was founded to assist the GLBTIQ who have Sex with Men (MSM), Intravenous Drug Users (IDU), and High-Risk Heterosexuals (HRH). Mailing

Dyer, Bill

293

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introduccin a  

E-print Network

Mountain Goat Software, LLC Una Introducción a Scrum Mike Cohen Traducido: Ernesto Grafeuille Revisado y modificado: Pedro Cabalar Noviembre 2013 #12;Mountain Goat Software, LLC Estamos perdiendo la hacia atrás -pueden servir mejor a los actuales requisitos competitivos". #12;Mountain Goat Software

Cabalar, Pedro

294

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2013-04-01

295

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2012-04-01

296

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2011-04-01

297

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2014-04-01

298

27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section 9.167 ...American Viticultural Areas § 9.167 Red Mountain (a) Name. The name of the...viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps....

2010-04-01

299

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

300

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

301

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

302

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

303

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

304

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

305

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2010-04-01

306

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

307

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2014-04-01

308

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

309

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

310

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2010-04-01

311

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2014-04-01

312

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

313

3, 58315873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC  

E-print Network

ACPD 3, 5831­5873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC dynamics and microphysics J. Reichardt et al. Title Page.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/3/5831/ © European Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Mountain (jens.reichardt@dwd.de) 5831 #12;ACPD 3, 5831­5873, 2003 Mountain wave PSC dynamics and microphysics J

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

5, 95479580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs  

E-print Network

ACPD 5, 9547­9580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs D. Lowe et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction particle composition and heterogeneous reactions in a mountain wave Polar Stratospheric Cloud D. Lowe 1 , A Commons License. 9547 #12;ACPD 5, 9547­9580, 2005 Mountain wave PSCs D. Lowe et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

316

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2014-04-01

317

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

318

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

319

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2011-04-01

320

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

321

27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80 Section 9.80 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.80 York Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2012-04-01

322

27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102 Section 9.102 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.102 Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2010-04-01

323

27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213 Section 9.213 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.213 Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

2012-04-01

324

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2013-04-01

325

27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94 Section 9.94 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.94 Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2011-04-01

326

27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55 Section 9.55 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.55 Bell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The...

2013-04-01

327

27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol...Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...described in this section is “Ozark Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The...

2012-04-01

328

C HAPTE R 9 Klamath Mountains Bioregion  

E-print Network

reporting sta- tions are located above 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Although most precipitation falls between October precipitation. Generally, less precipitation falls in valleys and canyons than in the sur- rounding uplands Mountain Marble Mountains S Sawyers Bar outh China Mountain TrinityR. T

Taylor, Alan

329

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

Northern British Columbia, University of

330

THINKING MOUNTAINS STEERING COMMITTEE Zac Robinson  

E-print Network

of Alberta, "Wearing Mountain Goat's Robe: Attending to Proper Relations with the Land in a Coast Salish#12;THINKING MOUNTAINS STEERING COMMITTEE Andy Bush David Hik Julie Rak Zac Robinson Heather Young-Leslie THINKING MOUNTAINS ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Dianne Chisholm Karen Fox Elizabeth Halpenny John Heath Eric Higgs

MacMillan, Andrew

331

Mountain Belts and the New Global Tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the sedimentary, volcanic, structural, and metamorphic chronology in mountain belts, and consideration of the implications of the new global tectonics (plate tectonics), strongly indicate that mountain belts are a consequence of plate evolution. It is proposed that mountain belts develop by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary and volcanic assemblages of Atlantic-type continental margins. These assemblages result

John F. Dewey; John M. Bird

1970-01-01

332

Land-Cover Trends of the Southern California Mountains Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents an assessment of land-use and land-cover (LU/LC) change in the Southern California Mountains ecoregion for the period 1973-2001. The Southern California Mountains is one of 84 Level-III ecoregions as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ecoregions have served as a spatial framework for environmental resource management, denoting areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The established Land Cover Trends methodology generates estimates of change for ecoregions using a probability sampling approach and change-detection analysis of thematic land-cover images derived from Landsat satellite imagery.

Soulard, Christopher E.; Raumann, Christian G.; Wilson, Tamara S.

2007-01-01

333

www.mnltap.umn.edu The trusted resource for Minnesota's local transportation agencies Winter 2009 Vol. 17, No. 1 Green fleets, fuel management..........2  

E-print Network

..........................................7 Maintenance Research Corner: augurs, wheel saw, air vizion ............7 TRAINING AND EDUCATION of the City of Bloomington has trained hundreds of city employees, including many engineers and transportationwww.mnltap.umn.edu The trusted resource for Minnesota's local transportation agencies Winter 2009

Minnesota, University of

334

Anatomy of a Mountain Range.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

Chew, Berkeley

1993-01-01

335

Plate Borders and Mountain Building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features animations of four different types of plate boundaries, including one animation of the collision of two pieces of continental crust, forming steep mountain ranges. The animations are all presented in flash, and the plate convergence offers a useful, generic view of orogeny.

Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development, Inc.

336

Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This colony of Mountainous Star Coral (Montastraea faveolata) is so large (about 3 feet across) that it must have been growing before the severe bleaching and disease episode in 2005/2006 that caused so much coral mortality on St. John's reefs....

337

How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below ?40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

2014-01-01

338

Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995, Number 12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)  

SciTech Connect

During the first half of fiscal year 1995, most activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project were directed at implementing the Program Plan developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Plan is designed to enable the Office to make measurable and significant progress toward key objectives over the next five years within the financial resources that can be realistically expected. Activities this period focused on the immediate goal of determining by 1998 whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is technically suitable as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work on the Project advanced in several critical areas, including programmatic activities such as issuing the Program Plan, completing the first technical basis report to support the assessment of three 10 CFR 960 guidelines, developing the Notice of Intent for the Environmental Impact Statement, submitting the License Application Annotated Outline, and beginning a rebaselining effort to conform with the goals of the Program Plan. Scientific investigation and analysis of the site and design and construction activities to support the evaluation of the technical suitability of the site also advanced. Specific details relating to all Project activities and reports generated are presented in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01

339

Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.  

PubMed

The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936

Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji

2012-01-01

340

MOUNTAIN-VALLEY AND KATABATIC FLOW IN BOULDER Find mountain valley circulation patterns that indicate mountain-valley flow, e.g.,  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN-VALLEY AND KATABATIC FLOW IN BOULDER TASK: Find mountain valley circulation patterns that indicate mountain-valley flow, e.g., in the Boulder Canyon or katabatic flow between the mountain ranges and the lower terrains around Denver and Colorado. MOTIVATION: Mountain-valley flow is a common well understood

341

Analysis of tru-fueled vhtr prismatic core performance domains  

E-print Network

The current waste management strategy for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) mandated by the U.S. Congress is the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Ongoing efforts on closed-fuel cycle options and difficulties...

Lewis, Tom Goslee

2009-05-15

342

Spatial modelling of mountainous basins; An integrated analysis of the hydrological cycle, climate change and agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the most essential substance on earth and a changing climate has an important impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of water availability. Mountain ranges provide an important “water tower' function and over 20% of the global population depends on fresh water resources provided by the Himalayan range in critical periods of the year. The hydrological cycle is

W. W. Immerzeel

2008-01-01

343

Combining DEM parameters with Landsat MSS and TM imagery in a GIS for mountain glacier characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building of a glaciological database is explored as an answer to the management of multisource and multiscale information required for the study of mountain glacier variations. Topographic information is derived from the 1:250,000 scale digital elevation model (DEM) of the Surveys and Mapping Branch of Energy, Mines and Resources, Canada. The interfacing of a geographic information system (GIS) and

Denis J. Gratton; Philip J. Howarth; Danielle J. Marceau

1990-01-01

344

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing public awareness of the increasing number of large wildfires across forested landscapes, coupled with needs of resource base management has accelerated research into forest reference conditions and the historical role of fire in coniferous ecosystems. This work investigates historical fire regimes of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California using fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this

Richard G. Everett

2008-01-01

345

Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (Mountain mint) germplasm collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, OR as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

346

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

347

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

Not Available

2008-06-01

348

Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

2004-12-01

349

Oxy-Fuel Welding & Cutting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from SnoCAMP provides a few resources on oxy-fuel welding and cutting. Documents cover topics like the oxyacetylene process, health and safety in welding, oxy-fuel safety and cutting and welding math and physics. Documents include a lesson plan, handouts, and a test.

2013-07-31

350

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02

351

Biological resource recovery systems: a technology update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews experiences and the present status of biological resource recovery systems, such as gas recovery from landfills and digesters. These systems are comparatively low mechanical and low capital intensive alternates compared to incineration and other refuse-to-energy techniques. The process and mechanical design of the Mountain View, Azusa and Palos Verdes, California, and the Franklin, Ohio, and Pompano Beach,

E. L. von Stein; D. R. Sachdev

1979-01-01

352

Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980  

SciTech Connect

The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

1982-04-01

353

Chemical Effects at the Reaction Front in Corroding Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance assessment models of the U. S. repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada suggest that neptunium from spent nuclear fuel is a potentially important dose contributor. A scientific understanding of how the UO matrix of spent nuclear fuel impacts the oxidative dissolution and reductive precipitation of Np is needed to predict the behavior of Np at the fuel surface during aqueous

Jeffrey A. Fortner; A. Jeremy Kropf; James L. Jerden; James C. Cunnane

2007-01-01

354

Ecology of Streams and Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial provides an introduction to the ecology of streams and mountains. It discusses how trees falling into a mountain stream can provide habitat by creating logjams, even going so far as to float to the sea during spring floods, where they provide cover for ocean fish. There is also a description of alpine ecosystems, those which exist above the tree line, and the animals that live or visit there, and a discussion of the idea of structure and function as it pertains to organisms as diverse as elephants and fungi. A section on soil ecology describes the relationship between mushrooms, the soil, and other organisms such as trees. A quiz and glossary are also provided.

355

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

356

Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

357

Plate T-11: Appalachian Mountains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Appalachian Mountain landforms clearly demonstrate the relation of plate tectonics and structure to geomorphology. The folded rocks record the convergence of two continental plates in Pennsylvanian/Permian time. This page uses text, maps, and remotely sensed imagery to explain the relationship between plate tectonics, geologic structures, and the resulting landforms. It is part of an out-of-print NASA publication entitled 'Geomorphology from Space'. Links to the rest of the book are provided.

358

Environmental program overview for a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The United States plans to begin operating the first repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste early in the next century. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified Yucca Mountain, in Nevada, as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a repository. To determine its suitability, the DOE evaluated the Yucca Mountain site, along with eight other potentially acceptable sites, in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The purpose of the Environmental Program Overview (EPO) for the Yucca Mountain site is to provide an overview of the overall, comprehensive approach being used to satisfy the environmental requirements applicable to sitting a repository at Yucca Mountain. The EPO states how the DOE will address the following environmental areas: aesthetics, air quality, cultural resources (archaeological and Native American components), noise, radiological studies, soils, terrestrial ecosystems, and water resources. This EPO describes the environmental program being developed for the sitting of a repository at Yucca Mountain. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1988-12-01

359

Optimum gradient of mountain paths.  

PubMed

By combining the experiment results of R. Margaria (Atti Accad. Naz. Lincei Memorie 7: 299-368, 1938), regarding the metabolic cost of gradient locomotion, together with recent insights on gait biomechanics, a prediction about the most economical gradient of mountain paths (approximately 25%) is obtained and interpreted. The pendulum-like mechanism of walking produces a waste of mechanical work against gravity within the gradient range of up to 15% (the overall efficiency is dominated by the low transmission efficiency), whereas for steeper values only the muscular efficiency is responsible for the (slight) metabolic change (per meter of vertical displacement) with respect to gradient. The speeds at the optimum gradient turned out to be approximately 0.65 m/s (+0.16 m/s vertical) and 1.50 m/s (-0.36 m/s vertical), for uphill and downhill walking, respectively, and the ascensional energy expenditure was 0.4 and 2.0 ml O2.kg body mass-1.vertical m-1 climbed or descended. When the metabolic power becomes a burden, as in high-altitude mountaineering, the optimum gradient should be reduced. A sample of real mountain path gradients, experimentally measured, mimics the obtained predictions. PMID:8594031

Minetti, A E

1995-11-01

360

The hydrology of Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

2000-12-04

361

Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains  

PubMed Central

We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 ?m and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ?0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-?m size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ?480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (?1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

2008-01-01

362

A geographic analysis of the status of mountain lions in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geographic distribution of sightings and sign of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Oklahoma was investigated. Mail survey questionnaires were sent to natural resource professionals throughout Oklahoma to gather temporal and spatial information on sightings of mountain lions from 1985 to 1995. We used a geographic information system (GIS) to compare locations of sightings and sign in the state with ecoregions, deer harvest, human population densities, locations of licensed owners and breeders of mountain lions, and generalized topography. Sightings and sign of mountain lions occurred significantly more often in the Central Rolling Red Plains than elsewhere in the state. Sightings of mountain lions increased with total deer harvest statewide (R2=0.828, P<0.001). Numbers of sightings of mountain lions were correlated negatively with density of the human population (R2=0.885, P=0.017). Surveys are a valuable method to assess the status of rare wildlife species when other methods are not available and when those receiving the survey are qualified.

Pike, J.R.; Shaw, J.H.; Leslie, D.M., Jr.; Shaw, M.G.

1999-01-01

363

Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 49 x 37 kilometers (30 x 23 miles) Location: 38.8 deg. North lat., 78.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Anaglyph of SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2003-01-01

364

Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

2010-01-01

365

Building a Fuel Cell- An Electrifying Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) explores the differences between batteries and fuel cells, and includes fuel cell schematics and further detail about the technology. The procedure of assembling a fuel cell is also outlined. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Walz, K.

2013-01-04

366

Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world`s energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels.

Pillay, K.K.S.

1998-05-01

367

Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of a karstic mountain region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karstic limestone formations in the Mediterranean basin are potential water resources that can meet a significant portion of groundwater demand. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly study the hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of karstic mountain regions. This paper presents a detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of the Nif Mountain karstic aquifer system in western Turkey, an important recharge source for the densely populated surrounding area. Based on the geological and hydrogeological studies, four major aquifers were identified in the study area including the allochthonous limestone in Bornova flysch, conglomerate-sandstone and clayey-limestone in Neogene series, and the Quaternary alluvium. Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater were measured in situ, and samples were collected at 59 locations comprised of springs and wells. Samples were analyzed for major ions, isotopic composition, arsenic, boron and heavy metals among other trace elements. It was found that the hydrogeological structure is complex with many springs having a wide range of discharge rates. High-discharge springs originate from allochthonous limestone units, whereas low-discharge springs are formed at the contacts with claystone and limestone units. Using stable isotope analysis data, a ?18O-deuterium relationship was obtained that lies between the Mediterranean meteoric and mean global lines. Tritium analyses showed that low-discharge springs originating from contact zones had longer circulation times compared to the high-discharge karstic springs. Furthermore, hydrogeochemical data revealed that groundwater quality significantly deteriorated as water moved from the mountain to the plains. Heavy metal, arsenic and boron concentrations were generally within drinking-water quality standards with a few exceptions occurring in residential and industrial areas located at the foothills of the mountain. Elevated arsenic concentrations were related to local geologic formations, which are likely to contain oxidized sulfite minerals in claystones. It is concluded that Nif Mountain overall has a significant potential to provide high-quality water with a safe yield of at least 50 million m3/year, which corresponds to about 28% of the mean annual inflow to the Tahtali reservoir, a major water resource for the city of Izmir.

Simsek, Celalettin; Elci, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Erdogan, Burhan

2008-03-01

368

Investigator Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Investigator Resources Investigator

369

Marketing the Mountains: An Environmental History of Tourism in Rocky Mountain National Park  

E-print Network

Marketing the Mountains explores the impact of tourism upon the natural world of Rocky Mountain National Park. Moving beyond culutral analysis of the development of tourism in the American West, this dissertation seeks to ...

Frank, Jerritt

2008-09-05

370

CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 .  

E-print Network

by the City'of Mountain View in Accordance with Section 10-106 of the California Code of Regulations, Title 24CITY OF MOUNTAIN VIEW April 12, 2011 . CaUfomia Energy Commission Attn: Joe Loyer 1516 Ninth.regardlogthls subm1Ual pte.R - -me ...OOD .. pos.lble. TbankYou . . . . City ofMountain View 650-903-6313· Recycled

371

The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands placed on the region as a result of various development and climate change scenarios. The multi-scale modeling approach involves a systems dynamics (SD) modeling framework linked with more detailed models such as one for basin-scale hydrology investigating the spatial relationships of water rights and requirements, reservoir locations, and climate change impacts (the details of the SD model and the hydrologic model are presented in other contributions by Pasqualini et al. and Wilson et al.). A link to a CO2 sequestration performance assessment model is also being built to enable analysis of alternative carbon management options. With these evolving capabilities, our analyses consider interdependent demands and impacts placed on the region for various development scenarios.

Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

2008-12-01

372

Managing Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

373

Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

Moyano, Ricardo

374

Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.  

PubMed

This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail. PMID:22470985

Styring, Stenbjörn

2012-01-01

375

Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes.

Hirschfelder, J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1992-07-01

376

U.S. sent fuel shipment experience by rail  

SciTech Connect

As planning for the large scale shipment of spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain proceeds to address these challenges, actual shipments of spent fuel in other venues continues to provide proof that domestic rail spent fuel shipments can proceed safely and effectively. This paper presents some examples of recently completed spent fuel shipments, and the shipment of large low-level radioactive waste shipments offering lessons learned that may be beneficial to the planning process for large scale spent fuel shipments in the US. (authors)

Colborn, K. [MHF Logistical Solutions, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

2007-07-01

377

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01

378

Fuel pin  

DOEpatents

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24

379

Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009  

PubMed Central

Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

2012-01-01

380

Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraced homes and gardens created areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens and created favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 22% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, it was found, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

2010-09-01

381

Urban hydrology in mountainous middle eastern cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate together with the type of urban setting found in mountainous Middle Eastern cities generate much lower runoff yields than previously reported and than usually estimated for urban design. In fact, a close analysis shows that most of the rainwater remains within the cities as a possible source for urban groundwater recharge. The present study examined two locales - Ramallah, an old traditional Palestinian Arab town, and Modiin, a new township in Israel - both situated on the karstic Yarkon Taninim aquifer. This aquifer supplies the only high-quality drinking water in the region (one quarter of the Israeli-Palestinian water demand), which is characterized by dense populations and limited water resources. This paper provides the first measured information on the hydrological effects of urbanization in the area. It was found that the shift of the mountainous natural steep slopes into a series of closed-terraces with homes and gardens create areas that are disconnected from the urban runoff response. Roofs drained into the attached gardens create favorable recharge units. Mainly low-gradient roads became the principal source for urban runoff already following 1-4 mm of rainfall. Parallel roads converted single peak hydrographs towards multi-peak runoff responses, increasing flow duration and reducing peak discharges. The remaining urban area (public parks, natural areas, etc.) generated runoff only as a result of high-magnitude rainstorms. All of the above conditions limited urban runoff coefficients to an upper boundary of only 35% and 30% (Ramallah and Modiin, respectively). During extreme rainstorms (above 100 mm) similar runoff coefficients were measured in urban and natural catchments as a result of the limited areas contributing to runoff in the urban areas, while natural terrain does not have these artificial limits. Hence, the effects of urbanization decrease with event magnitude and there is significant potential for urban groundwater recharge. However, frequent low-magnitude rainstorms often generate highly polluted stormwater in urban sewer systems and this water should only be used with great caution.

Grodek, T.; Lange, J.; Lekach, J.; Husary, S.

2011-03-01

382

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2012-01-01

383

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2013-01-01

384

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2011-01-01

385

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2014-01-01

386

14 CFR 95.19 - Hawaii Mountainous Area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaii Mountainous Area. 95.19 Section...Designated Mountainous Areas § 95.19 Hawaii Mountainous Area. The following islands of the State of Hawaii: Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai,...

2010-01-01

387

77 FR 66478 - Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...13XL1109AF; HAG13-0011] Steens Mountain Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY...Land Management (BLM), the Steens Mountain Advisory Council (SMAC) will meet as...August 14, 2001, pursuant to the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and...

2012-11-05

388

75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...09-ASW-36] Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation...proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the...non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field...

2010-03-15

389

27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. 9...American Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a...viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”....

2014-04-01

390

Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.  

PubMed Central

Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

1995-01-01

391

Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

Lee, S.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

392

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Cancer.gov

The objective of the evaluation must be clearly stated and well formulated evaluation questions developed, regardless of which evaluation method is chosen. An evaluation can be conducted by NCI staff, by academic or industry scientists, or by existing advisory boards or sub-committees of such boards. The process should be as objective as possible. This argues for including participants who are not directly involved with the resource.

393

MICHAEL G. RYAN Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499  

E-print Network

MICHAEL G. RYAN Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. Senior Research Scientist, 2012-present. Research, teaching and graduate student advising. Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA, Fort Collins, CO

MacDonald, Lee

394

Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the help of forestry data, the wind regime data and the topographic features of the mountain area (elevation, slope declivity, slope aspect). The analysis also consider the insolation degree of mountain slopes, that creates favourable conditions for fire propagation between different canopies. These data layers are integrated within a simple GIS analysis in order to intersect the ignition zones with the fire propagation zones in order to obtain the potential areas to be affected by fire. The digital map show three levels of forest fire susceptibility, differenced on the basis of expert knowledge. The map can be validated from the statistical point of view with the polygons of the forest fire affected areas mapped from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI satellite imagery. The mapping results could be integrated within the forest management strategies and especially within the forest cadastre and development maps (updated every ten years). The result can confirm that the data gap in terms of forest fire events can be filled with expert knowledge. References Chuvieco, E, Aguado, I., Jurdao, S., Pettinari, M., Yebra, M., Salas, J., Hantson, S., de la Riva, J., Ibarra, P., Rodrigues, M., Echeverria, M., Azqueta, D., Roman, M., Bastarrika, A., Martinez, S., Recondo, C., Zapico, E., Martinez-Vega F.J. (2012) Integrating geospatial information into fire risk assessment, International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2,2, 69-86. Hantson, S., Padilla, M., Corti., D, Chuvieco, E. (2013) Strenghts and weaknesses of MODIS hotspots to characterize Global fire occurence, Remote Sensing of Environment, 131, 1, 152-159. Mihai, B., Savulescu, I.,Sandric, I. (2007) Change detection analysis (1986/2002) for the alpine, subalpine and forest landscape in Iezer Mountains (Southern Carpathians, Romania), Mountain Research and Development, 27, 250-258.

Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

2014-05-01

395

Variable resource availability when resource replenishment is constant: The coupling of predators and prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although food resources are thought to limit many populations, the extent to which the population dynamics of predators and prey are coupled is rarely known. We examined a sedentary population of Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra L. complex) that relies on seeds in cones that accumulate in the canopy of Rocky Mountain Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta latifolia Engelm.). Nearly constant annual

Craig W. Benkman; Trevor Fetz; Matt V. Talluto

2012-01-01

396

Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. Biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel fuel typically comprises lower alkyl fatty acid (chain length C14–C22), esters of short-chain alcohols, primarily, methanol or ethanol. Various methods have been reported for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct

Ayhan Demirbas

2009-01-01

397

Long-Term Waste Package Degradation Studies at the Yucca Mountain Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Site Recommendation (SR) process for the potential repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underway. Fulfillment of the requirements for substantially complete containment of the radioactive waste emplaced in the potential repository and subsequent slow release of radionuclides from the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) into the geosphere will rely on

K. G. Mon; B. E. Bullard; D. E. Longsine; S. Mehta; J. H. Lee; A. M. Monib

2002-01-01

398

Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010  

E-print Network

by 2020. This should reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuel by 60% by the year 2050. The Welsh Assembly, and remained our main source of fuel until the industrial revolution. Recently fossil fuels ­ coal, oil and gas: fossil fuels are a finite resource, and the current scale of their use is having major impacts

399

Economic study of future aircraft fuels (1970-2000)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future aircraft fuels are evaluated in terms of fuel resource availability and pricing, processing methods, and economic projections over the period 1970-2000. Liquefied hydrogen, methane and propane are examined as potential turbine engine aircraft fuels relative to current JP fuel.

Alexander, A. D., III

1972-01-01

400

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS  

E-print Network

Physical Sciences MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITYBOZEMAN MOUNTAINS & MINDS Chemistry The Department is in surficial geology/physical geography, along with a traditional strength in snow science. The Mountain of industrial and agricultural chemicals, fundamental work in materials science, and the biochemistry portion

Dyer, Bill

401

Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1998-01-01

402

Effect sizes of mountains and molehills.  

PubMed

Decisions about environmental aesthetics require valid, understandable measurements of visual impacts. This study reports well known scientific measurements (standardized mean contrasts) for well known images (mountains and molehills). The scientific measurements of visual preferences for mountains and molehills were 1.17 and -0.05, respectively. PMID:9656286

Stamps, A E

1998-06-01

403

2550 Garcia Avenue Mountain View, CA 94043  

E-print Network

. 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, California 94043­1100 U.S.A. All rights reserved. This product2550 Garcia Avenue Mountain View, CA 94043 U.S.A. EarlyAccessEdition(May1994); pthreads System Laboratories, Inc. and the University of California, respectively. Third­party font software

Liblit, Ben

404

Arkansas' Ozark Mountain Blacks: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces research which attempted to determine if black Arkansas hill people could reasonably be referred to as hillbillies in the sense that isolated rural white mountain dwellers are so referred, finding that the few black mountaineers left are not hillbillies in the sense indicated of whites. (Author/JM)

Morgan, Gordon D.; Kunkel, Peter

1973-01-01

405

Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

Bektas, Fatih

2013-01-01

406

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2012-07-01

407

Geology Fieldnotes: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains Catoctin Mountain Park information, a park map, and visitor information. A general cultural history of the park is given, from the first human inhabitants to its development into a park. Also mentioned are recreational attractions and Cunningham Falls State Park, located next to Catoctin. This park lies in the Appalachian Mountain chain.

408

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

...Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2014-07-01

409

Approximate clustering via the mountain method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a simple and effective approach for approximate estimation of the cluster centers on the basis of the concept of a mountain function. We call the procedure the mountain method. It can be useful for obtaining the initial values of the clusters that are required by more complex cluster algorithms. It also can be used as a stand alone

R. R. Yager; D. P. Filev

1994-01-01

410

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2011-07-01

411

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2010-07-01

412

36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests...National Park and Preserve General Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount...

2013-07-01

413

Mountains and Arid Climates of Middle Latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from a global climate model with and without orography have been used to investigate the role of mountains in maintaining extensive arid climates in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Dry climates similar to those observed were simulated over central Asia and western interior North America in the experiment with mountains, whereas relatively moist climates were simulated in these

S. Manabe; A. J. Broccoli

1990-01-01

414

Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

2011-01-01

415

Mountaineering and Climbing on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial human missions to Mars will be a precious commodity wherein a maximum amount of information is gathered by each crew. As was the case during innumerable terrestrial missions of exploration, the Martian terrain that visiting crews must traverse in order to gain an understanding will often be difficult. This is accentuated by the fact that Mars is a world of geology - one whose surface area is equal to dry surface on Earth. Human crews will be called upon to use a variety of skills and tools to traverse the Martian surface - including those often associated with hiking, mountaineering and technical climbing. While rovers and other mechanical devices will be employed, it should be assumed that skills commonly associated with rock climbing, caving, and mountaineering on Earth will also be required. This paper looks at the human factors associated with such activity on Mars: space suit design requirements, life support, tools and procedures, traverse planning, logistics issues and navigation. Implications for adaptation of terrestrial gear will be examined as will implications raised by planetary protection. Lessons learned during sorties conducted on the lunar surface during the Apollo program are discussed.

Cowing, K. L.

416

Smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By late August 2000, severe forest fires had been burning in Montana and Idaho for more than a month. As of Aug. 29, a total of 57 fires were burning in both states. The smoke from these fires is considered a health risk, especially for the very young and very old, and health advisory has been issued for those with respiratory problems who live in the area. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains on the morning of August 21, 2000. Even though forest fires normally taper off overnight, these blazes are burning so fiercely that opaque pillars of smoke are rising into the morning air. More smoke fills the low-lying valleys, with the mountains rising out of the smoke into clear air. In the full size image, note the irrigated fields and ancient basalt lava flows that line the Snake River Plain to the south of the fires. Image by Reto Stockli and the MODIS science team

2002-01-01

417

Alkaline fuel cells applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

418

Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

419

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination §...

2010-04-01

420

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

...2014-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination §...

2014-04-01

421

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination §...

2013-04-01

422

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination §...

2011-04-01

423

18 CFR 281.304 - Computation of alternative fuel volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Computation of alternative fuel volume. 281.304 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Alternative Fuel Determination §...

2012-04-01

424

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report.

A. Linden; R.S. Saunders; R.J. Boutin; P.G. Harrington; K.D. Lachman; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-19

425

A sightability model for mountain goats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

2009-01-01

426

Rocky Mountain Coordination Center: Fire Information (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of information on fire hazards and prediction for the Rocky Mountain area. Users can access information on current fires and fire restrictions for this area. Other materials include predictive services (intelligence, weather forecasts, fuels and fire danger ratings), logistics and dispatch information for aviation and fire crews, and administrative information for RMCC personnel (safety, training, employment opportunities). There are also links to other agencies with related information.

427

Geologic map of the Mohave Mountains area, Mohave County, western Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Mohave Mountains area surrounds Lake Havasu City, Arizona, in the Basin and Range physiographic province. The Mohave Mountains and the Aubrey Hills form two northwest-trending ranges adjacent to Lake Havasu (elevation 132 m; 448 ft) on the Colorado River. The low Buck Mountains lie northeast of the Mohave Mountains in the alluviated valley of Dutch Flat. Lowlands at Standard Wash separate the Mohave Mountains from the Bill Williams Mountains to the southeast. The highest point in the area is Crossman Peak in the Mohave Mountains, at an elevation of 1519 m (5148 ft). Arizona Highway 95 is now rerouted in the northwestern part of the map area from its position portrayed on the base map; it now also passes through the southern edge of the map area. Geologic mapping was begun in 1980 as part of a program to assess the mineral resource potential of Federal lands under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (Light and others, 1983). Mapping responsibilities were as follows: Proterozoic and Mesozoic rocks, K.A. Howard; dikes, J.K. Nakata; Miocene section, J.E. Nielson; and surficial deposits, H.G. Wilshire. Earlier geologic mapping includes reconnaissance mapping by Wilson and Moore (1959). The present series of investigations has resulted in reports on the crystalline rocks and structure (Howard and others, 1982a), dikes (Nakata, 1982), Tertiary stratigraphy (Pike and Hansen, 1982; Nielson, 1986; Nielson and Beratan, 1990), surficial deposits (Wilshire and Reneau, 1992), tectonics (Howard and John, 1987; Beratan and others, 1990), geophysics (Simpson and others, 1986), mineralization (Light and McDonnell, 1983; Light and others, 1983), field guides (Nielson, 1986; Howard and others, 1987), and geochronology (Nakata and others, 1990; Foster and others, 1990).

Howard, K.A.; Nielson, J.E.; Wilshire, W.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Goodge, J.W.; Reneau, S.L.; John, B.E.; Hansen, V.L.

1999-01-01

428

Clean fuels from biomass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

Hsu, Y.-Y.

1976-01-01

429

A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale atmospheric circulation affects the hydroclimate of alpine environments in southeast Australia - allowing recently observed precipitation declines to be placed in the context of a long-term record spanning at least 100 years. This information will provide further insight into the impacts of predicted anthropogenic climate change and will ultimately lead to more informed water resource management in the Snowy Mountains.

Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

2014-05-01

430

Quantifying Mountain Block Recharge by Means of Catchment-Scale Storage-Discharge Relationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the hydrologic significance of mountainous catchments in providing freshwater resources, especially in semi-arid regions, little is known about key hydrological processes in these systems, such as mountain block recharge (MBR). We developed an empirical approach based on the storage sensitivity function introduced by Kirchner (2009) to develop storage-discharge relationships from stream flow analysis. We investigated sensitivity of MBR estimates to uncertainty in the derivation of the catchment storage-discharge relations. We implemented this technique in a semi-arid mountainous catchment in South-east Arizona, USA (the Marshall Gulch catchment in the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson) with two distinct rainy seasons, winter frontal storms and summer monsoon separated by prolonged dry periods. Developing storage-discharge relation based on baseflow data in the dry period allowed quantifying change in fractured bedrock storage caused by MBR. Contribution of fractured bedrock to stream flow was confirmed using stable isotope data. Our results show that 1) incorporating scalable time steps to correct for stream flow measurement errors improves the model fit; 2) the quantile method is more suitable for stream flow data binning; 3) the choice of the regression model is more critical when the stage-discharge function is used to predict changes in bedrock storage beyond the maximum observed flow in the catchment and 4) application of daily versus hourly flow did not affect the storage-discharge relationship. This methodology allowed quantifying MBR using stream flow recession analysis from within the mountain system.

Ajami, H.; Troch, P. A.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Eastoe, C. J.

2009-12-01

431

Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

None

1980-08-01

432

Rainfall characteristics along mountainous transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment is an experiment framework that aims at improving our understanding and quantification of processes related to the hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region at different scales (from the individual event scale to seasonal and inter-annual variability). During the Special Observation Period (SOP-1) conducted from September 5th to November 6th 2012, an important and complementary remote sensing network (operational radars, X band research radars, Micro Rain Radars, disdrometers, and a dense network of rain gauges) has been deployed in the Cévennes-Vivarais region (South of France). This network was specifically designed to investigate the structure and the heterogeneity of precipitations as well as, in particular, the impact of orography on this structure and it has provided us with high resolution data (time and space) along strong topographic gradients (small hills, foothills and mountain). Hence, these data will support our research to precisely describe the precipitation systems and their structures over a complex terrain. In this work, we will describe the characteristics of rainfall along two topographic gradients based on the major events observed during the fall 2012 campaign period. A classification according to the type of precipitation (convective, stratiform and orographic) which can affect the region has been made to investigate orographic impact under different rainfall regimes. We will also examine the influence of the relief on the vertical and horizontal structure of precipitation. In particular, we will illustrate the modification of the drop size distribution toward smaller droplets as we go from the small hills to the mountains.

Zwiebel, Jimmy; Van Baelen, Joël; Anquetin, Sandrine; Pointin, Yves; Boudevillain, Brice

2014-05-01

433

Additional Resources  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site More Links DCTD Links NCI Links NIH

434

Public Resources  

Cancer.gov

The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) published “Priorities for Personalized Medicine” in September 2008. This document recognizes the need for enabling tools and resources, such as biospecimen resources, in the move toward personalized medicine.

435

Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educators in the southeast United States will find links to resources for ocean science instruction on this website. The resource topics include general ocean and earth science education materials, ocean observing systems, water quality, wetlands and remote sensing data.

436

Continuing Science and Technology at the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was designated in 2002 to be the site for the nation's first permanent geological repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The process of selecting a site for the repository began nearly 25 years ago with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982. The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for submitting a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for constructing and operating the repository, and DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is charged with carrying out this action. The use of multiple natural and engineered barriers in the current repository design are considered by OCRWM to be sufficiently robust to warrant license approval; however, potential design enhancements and increased understanding of both natural and engineered barriers, especially over the long time frames during which the waste is to remain isolated from human contact continue to be examined. The Office of Science and Technology and International (OST&I) was created within OCRWM to help explore novel technologies that might lower overall costs and to develop a greater understanding of processes relevant to the long-term performance of the repository. A brief overview of Yucca Mountain, and the role that OST&I has in identifying technological or scientific advances that could make repository operations more efficient or performance more robust, will be presented. It is important to note, however, that adopting any of OST&I's technological or scientific developments will be at the discretion of OCRWM's Office of Repository Development (ORD).

Dr. R.J. Finch

2005-04-05

437

DEVELOPMENT OF A SNOWFALL--SNOWMELT ROUTINE FOR MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN FOR THE SOIL WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL (SWAT)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soil water assessment tool (SWAT) is a hydrologic model originally developed to evaluate water resources in large agricultural basins. SWAT was not designed to model heterogeneous mountain basins typical of the western United States, and as a result, has performed poorly when applied to mountai...

438

Consequences of herbivory in the mountain birch ( Betula pubescens ssp tortuosa ): importance of the functional organization of the tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of experiments indicate that the functional organization of the mountain birch may influence the ways in which the tree responds to simulated or natural herbivory. The first experiment showed that herbivory to both short and long shoot leaves affects plant development but, because growth largely proceeds by resources of the previous year, is manifested only in the year

Erkki Haukioja; Kai Ruohomäki; Josef Senn; Janne Suomela; Mari Walls

1990-01-01

439

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO VISIT A PLACE LIKE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK? VISITORS TELL THEIR STORIES IN COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human experience can be rich and filled with meaning in special places that are protected for natural resource and outdoor recreation value. Within a hermeneutic and meaning-based framework, we interviewed both day and overnight visitors in both developed and backcountry settings at Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, United States. The objective was to describe and interpret the relationship between park

Jeffrey J. Brooks; John P. Titre; George N. Wallace

440

A Design and Implementation of Forest-Fires Surveillance System based on Wireless Sensor Networks for South Korea Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) become an important issue such as environmental monitoring, home or factory automation, logistics and so on. Many wild fires cause to damage on forest and a mountain which have valuable natural resources during the dry winter season. Current surveillance systems use a camera, an infrared sensor system and a satellite system. These systems can not

Byungrak Son; Yong-sork Her

2006-01-01

441

Snow in Morocco? - Monitoring snow cover in the High Atlas Mountains with MODIS satellite images and climate stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow in the High Atlas Mountains forms the main source of freshwater for the arid lowlands of south-eastern Morocco. All large rivers and reservoir refill levels depend on maximal seasonal runoff generated by snow and rainfall events during the winter. As part of the GLOWA-IMPETUS project (an integrated approach for the efficient management of scarce water resources in West Africa),

O. Schulz; C. de Jong; M. Winiger

2003-01-01

442

Andrew Mahlstadt Literature and the Mountains recommended reading  

E-print Network

Andrew Mahlstadt Literature and the Mountains ­ recommended reading Critical works on mountains on the sublime Reading the Mountains of Home (John Elder) Mountaineering Literature Into Thin Air (Krakauer) The Fight for Everest (E.F. Norton) ­ about first British (Mallory and Irvine) attempts Everest

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

443

Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Waste Package Plan  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) waste package program is to develop, confirm the effectiveness of, and document a design for a waste package and associated engineered barrier system (EBS) for spent nuclear fuel and solidified high-level nuclear waste (HLW) that meets the applicable regulatory requirements for a geologic repository. The Waste Package Plan describes the waste package program and establishes the technical approach against which overall progress can be measured. It provides guidance for execution and describes the essential elements of the program, including the objectives, technical plan, and management approach. The plan covers the time period up to the submission of a repository license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). 1 fig.

Harrison-Giesler, D.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (USA). Yucca Mountain Project Office; Morissette, R.P. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Jardine, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

1991-02-01

444

Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in evolving sustainable Himalayan livelihoods.

Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

2014-11-01

445

Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic\\u000a patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to\\u000a understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore\\u000a the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of

Juan Wang; Qin-yan Ma; Fan Du; Yu-ming Yang

2007-01-01

446

Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

2012-01-01

447

Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1994-10-01

448

Independent management and financial review, Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is one part of the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (the Program) which was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, and as amended in 1987. The Program`s goal is to site the nation`s first geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste, in the form of spent fuel rod assemblies, generated by the nuclear power industry and a smaller quantity of Government radioactive waste. The Program, which also encompasses the transportation system and the multipurpose canister system was not the subject of this Report. The subject of this Review was only the Yucca Mountain Project in Nevada. While the Review was directed toward the Yucca Mountain Project rather than the Program as a whole, there are certain elements of the Project which cannot be addressed except through discussion of some Program issues. An example is the Total System Life Cycle Cost addressed in Section 7 of this report. Where Program issues are discussed in this Report, the reader is reminded of the scope limitations of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) contract to review only the Yucca Mountain Project. The primary scope of the Review was to respond to the specific criteria contained in the NARUC scope of work. In responding to these criteria, the Review Team understood that some interested parties have expressed concern over the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act relative to the Yucca Mountain Project and the nature of activities currently being carried out by the Department of Energy at the Yucca Mountain Project site. The Review Team has attempted to analyze relevant portions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as Amended, but has not conducted a thorough analysis of this legislation that could lead to any specific legal conclusions about all aspects of it.

NONE

1995-07-15

449

Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

Binder, Robert D.

2002-01-01

450

ConcepTest: Linear Mountain Range  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In exploring a new planet, you discover a long, linear mountain range crossing a broad low-lying area that is interpreted to represent an ancient basin. Predict what type of plate tectonic feature this represents. ...

451

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Protect My Family From Ticks? Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings What to Do When ... and Woods Safety Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Lyme Disease Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ...

452

Synthetic Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2008-03-26

453

Synthetic Fuel  

ScienceCinema

Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

2010-01-08

454

Watershed morphology of highland and mountain ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fluvial system represents a nested hierarchy that reflects the relationship among different spatial and temporal scales. Within the hierarchy, larger scale variables influence the characteristics of the next lower nested scale. Ecoregions represent one of the largest scales in the fluvial hierarchy and are defined by recurring patterns of geology, climate, land use, soils, and potential natural vegetation. Watersheds, the next largest scale, are often nested into a single ecoregion and therefore have properties that are indicative of a given ecoregion. Differences in watershed morphology (relief, drainage density, circularity ratio, relief ratio, and ruggedness number) were evaluated among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma: Ozark Highlands, Boston Mountains, and Ouachita Mountains. These ecoregions were selected because of their high-quality stream resources and diverse aquatic communities and are of special management interest to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. One hundred thirty-four watersheds in first-through fourth-order streams were compared. Using a nonparametric, two-factor analysis of variance (?? = 0.05) we concluded that the relief, drainage density, relief ratio, and ruggedness number all changed among ecoregion and stream order, whereas circularity ratio only changed with stream order. Our study shows that ecoregions can be used as a broad-scale framework for watershed management. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

2011-01-01

455

Discrimination between mountain stream channel types using independent control variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a large and diverse dataset from mountain streams around the world to explore our ability to classify reach-scale channel morphology using easily measurable control variables. The dataset includes 136 step-pool reaches, 44 plane-bed reaches, and 93 pool-riffle reaches from streams in the western United States, Panama, and New Zealand. We used stepwise discriminant analysis to select the most parsimonious subset of variables for classifying channel type. A 3-variable discriminant function using slope, D84, and channel width produced a classification error rate of 24% (103 reaches correctly classified). Seventy percent of plane-bed reaches were correctly classified (16% incorrectly classified as pool-riffle, 14% incorrectly classified as step-pool). Sixty-seven percent of pool-riffle channels were correctly classified (31% incorrectly classified as plane-bed, 2% as step-pool). Eighty-nine percent of step-pool reaches were correctly classified (9% incorrectly classified as plane-bed, 2% as pool-riffle). The partial R2-values indicate that slope is by far the most significant single explanatory variable. The ability to accurately classify channel type in other regions using the elegant 3-variable discriminant function developed from the entire dataset has important implications for water-resources management and for understanding relationships between process and form in mountain streams.

Wohl, E.; Merritt, D. M.

2004-12-01

456

Precipitation Versus Snowmelt Frequency Analysis for the Southern Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation frequency analyses are often used as input for hydrological models to estimate streamflow under extreme events and/or due to changing land cover. However, at snow dominated locations, snowmelt can contribute more water daily and over sustained periods than extreme rainfall events. To investigate this, daily snow water equivalent (SWE) and precipitation from the automated Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) snow telemetry (SNOTEL) network were analyzed for the Southern Rocky Mountains (southern Wyoming, Colorado and northern New Mexico). The annual time series from stations with at least 26 years of record (1987 to 2012) were used to compute a) the maximum daily precipitation for the entire year, b) the maximum daily rainfall using several stipulations, and c) the maximum daily snowmelt from the decrease in SWE. Various probability distribution functions were considered; the Pearson Type III distribution was used to determine the 10 year 24-hour and 100 year 24-hour events for the three types of water input. These data were used to produce maps for the three times series from montane elevations covering the range of elevation of the SNOTEL stations (approximately 2300 meters to the alpine zone). At most locations daily snowmelt contributed significantly more water to the mountain hydrological system than rainfall. The maps were also compared to the NOAA precipitation frequency atlas.

Fassnacht, S. R.; Patterson, G. G.; Sexstone, G. A.; Hultstrand, D. M.; Venable, N. B.; Records, R.

2013-12-01

457

Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

1980-03-01

458

Used Nuclear Fuel: From Liability to Benefit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear power has proven safe and reliable, with operating efficiencies in the U.S. exceeding 90%. It provides a carbon-free source of electricity (with about a 10% penalty arising from CO2 released from construction and the fuel cycle). However, used fuel from nuclear reactors is highly toxic and presents a challenge for permanent disposal -- both from technical and policy perspectives. The half-life of the "bad actors" is relatively short (of the order of decades) while the very long lived isotopes are relatively benign. At present, spent fuel is stored on-site in cooling ponds. Once the used fuel pools are full, the fuel is moved to dry cask storage on-site. Though the local storage is capable of handling used fuel safely and securely for many decades, the law requires DOE to assume responsibility for the used fuel and remove it from reactor sites. The nuclear industry pays a tithe to support sequestration of used fuel (but not research). However, there is currently no national policy in place to deal with the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel. This administration is opposed to underground storage at Yucca Mountain. There is no national policy for interim storage---removal of spent fuel from reactor sites and storage at a central location. And there is no national policy for liberating the energy contained in used fuel through recycling (separating out the fissionable components for subsequent use as nuclear fuel). A "Blue Ribbon Commission" has been formed to consider alternatives, but will not report until 2012. This paper will examine alternatives for used fuel disposition, their drawbacks (e.g. proliferation issues arising from recycling), and their benefits. For recycle options to emerge as a viable technology, research is required to develop cost effective methods for treating used nuclear fuel, with attention to policy as well as technical issues.

Orbach, Raymond L.

2011-03-01

459

Fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the fission track age of Transantarctic Mountain microtektites. The plateau method yielded a formation age of 0.85±0.17Ma. This age overlaps within error with that of the catastrophic impact that produced the Australasian tektite–microtektite strewn field ca. 0.8Ma ago. This provides further evidence that Transantarctic Mountain microtektites belong to the Australasian tektite–microtektite strewn field, as previously suggested on the

L. Folco; G. Bigazzi; M. D’Orazio; M. L. Balestrieri

2011-01-01

460

Social dominance in adult female mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social behaviour of adult female mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus, was studied for 2 years in an unhunted population in west-central Alberta, Canada. Compared with other female ungulates, mountain goat females interacted aggressively much more frequently and their dominance ranks were less stable in time and less age-related. Goats were organized in a non-linear but non-random dominance hierarchy, with many

François Fournier; Marco Festa-Bianchet

1995-01-01

461

Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

1973-01-01

462

Mapping Chaparral in the Santa Monica Mountains Using Multiple Spectral Mixture Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California chaparral is one of the most important natural vegetation communities in Southern California, representing a significant source of species diversity and, through a high susceptibility to fire, playing a major role in ecosystem dynamics. Due to steep topographic gradients, harsh edaphic conditions and variable fire histories, chaparral typically forms a complex mosaic of different species dominants and age classes, each with unique successional responses to fire and canopy characteristics (e.g. moisture content, biomass, fuel load) that modify fire susceptibility. The high human cost of fire and intimate mixing along the urban interface combine to modify the natural fire regime as well as provide additional impetus for a better understanding of how to predict fire and its management. Management problems have been further magnified by nearly seventy years of fire suppression and drought related die-back over the last few years resulting in a large accumulation of highly combustible fuels. Chaparral communities in the Santa Monica Mountains exemplify many of the management challenges associated with fire and biodiversity. A study was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains to investigate the use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for providing improved maps of chaparral coupled with direct estimates of canopy attributes (e.g. biomass, leaf area, fuel load). The Santa Monica Mountains are an east-west trending range located approximately 75 kilometers north of Los Angeles extending westward into Ventura County. Within the Santa Monica Mountains a diverse number of ecosystems are located, including four distinct types of chaparral, wetlands, riparian habitats, woodlands, and coastal sage scrub. In this study we focus on mapping three types of chaparral, oak woodlands and grasslands. Chaparral mapped included coastal sage scrub, chamise chaparral and mixed chaparral that consisted predominantly of two species of Ceanothus.

Green Robert O.; Roberts, D. A.; Gardner, M.; Church, R.; Ustin, S.; Scheer, G.

1996-01-01

463

A spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model for application in mountain basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with simulation periods varying from a few days for the smallest basin, Emerald Lake watershed in California, to multiple snow seasons for the Park City area in Utah. The model is driven by topographically corrected estimates of radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Simulation results in all basins closely match independently measured snow water equivalent, snow depth, or runoff during both the development and depletion of the snowcover. Spatially distributed estimates of snow deposition and melt allow us to better understand the interaction between topographic structure, climate, and moisture availability in mountain basins of the western US. Application of topographically distributed models such as this will lead to improved water resource and watershed management.Snowmelt is the principal source for soil moisture, ground-water re-charge, and stream-flow in mountainous regions of the western US, Canada, and other similar regions of the world. Information on the timing, magnitude, and contributing area of melt under variable or changing climate conditions is required for successful water and resource management. A coupled energy and mass-balance model ISNOBAL is used to simulate the development and melting of the seasonal snowcover in several mountain basins in California, Idaho, and Utah. Simulations are done over basins varying from 1 to 2500 km2, with simulation periods varying from a few days for the smallest basin, Emerald Lake watershed in California, to multiple snow seasons for the Park City area in Utah. The model is driven by topographically corrected estimates of radiation, temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation. Simulation results in all basins closely match independently measured snow water equivalent, snow depth, or runoff during both the development and depletion of the snowcover. Spatially distributed estimates of snow deposition and melt allow us to better understand the interaction between topographic structure, climate, and moisture availability in mountain basins of the western US. Application of topographically distributed models such as this will lead to improved water resource and watershed management.

Marks, D.; Domingo, J.; Susong, D.; Link, T.; Garen, D.

1999-01-01

464

Primer on gas integrated resource planning  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-12-01

465

Limits to Exploitation of Nonrenewable Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonrenewable resources consist of geochemical concentrations of naturally occurring elements and compounds that can or may be exploited at a profit. The ultimate limit to exploitation of earth resources then is the limit of net energy profit (or work savings). When it takes more energy to find, recover, process, and transport the fossil fuels than can be gotten from them

Earl Cook

1976-01-01

466

Public Interaction and Educational Outreach on the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

In July 2002, the U.S. Congress approved Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the nation's first long-term geologic repository site for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This major milestone for the country's high-level radioactive waste disposal program comes after more than twenty years of scientific study and intense public interaction and outreach. This paper describes public interaction and outreach challenges faced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project in the past and what additional communication strategies may be instituted following the July 2002 approval by the U.S. Congress to develop the site as the nation's first long-term geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The DOE public involvement activities were driven by two federal regulations--the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended. The NEPA required that DOE hold public hearings at key points in the development of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the NWPA required the agency to conduct public hearings in the vicinity of the site prior to making a recommendation regarding the site's suitability. The NWPA also provided a roadmap for how DOE would interact with affected units of government, which include the state of Nevada and the counties surrounding the site. Because the Department anticipated and later received much public interest in this high-profile project, the agency decided to go beyond regulatory-required public involvement activities and created a broad-based program that implemented far-reaching public interaction and outreach tactics. Over the last two decades, DOE informed, educated, and engaged a myriad of interested local, national, and international parties using various traditional and innovative approaches. The Yucca Mountain Project's intensive public affairs initiatives were instrumental in involving the public, which in turn resulted in thousands of comments on various aspects of the program. These comments were considered in the development of the EIS and weighed in the Secretary of Energy's decision to recommend the site.

A. Benson; Y. Riding

2002-11-14

467

Fossil Fuels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

Crank, Ron

468

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Ozark Highlands Ecoregion 25 Boston Mountains Ecoregion 26 Arkansas River Valley Ecoregion 26 Ouachita Mountains Ecoregion 27 Typical Gulf Coastal Ecoregion 27 Springwater-influenced Gulf Coastal Ecoregion 27 -i

Soerens, Thomas

469

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

), forested watersheds in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. The objective of the comparisons. They appear unsuited for use on small ephemeral headwater streams in the ~achita Mountains because only

Soerens, Thomas

470

Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

Powell, Robert E.

2002-01-01

471

The Russian/American fuel cell consortium  

SciTech Connect

The consortium involves US fuel cell industries and research institutes, Russian institutes and ministries, US national laboratories, GAZPROM (GASPROM?), the Russian natural gas company, etc. Financial resources would be leveraged by matching the technical resources to solve problems in fuel cell power development. The talents of the Russian and US scientists previously engaged in developing nuclear weapons, would be utilized. The consortium (RAFCO) would be operated by a joint committee, DOE, and MINATOM (Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy).

Sylwester, A.; Baker, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1996-12-31

472

Lunar resource recovery: A definition of requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to locate, mine, and process the natural resources of the Moon will be an essential requirement for lunar base development and operation. The list of materials that will be necessary is extensive and ranges from oxygen and hydrogen for fuel and life support to process tailings for emplacement over habitats. Despite the resources need, little is known about methodologies that might be suitable for utilizing lunar resources. This paper examines some of the requirements and constraints for resource recovery and identifies key areas of research needed to locate, mine, and process extraterrestrial natural resources.

Elsworth, D.; Kohler, J. L.; Alexander, S. S.

1992-01-01

473

Mountains and Plateaus on Io  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1997-01-01

474

plateau (High Atlas mountains, Morroco)  

E-print Network

Abstract Wetlands are a very important universal heritage; in the Moroccan High Atlas mountains the geomorphology and the slopes evolution determine the existence of the numerous projecting ledges of pozzines on plateaus and oozing. This is particularly the case in Oukaimeden site located at 75 km south of Marrakesh. These wet grasslands have been developed on small surface areas supported by soils water accumulation; and close to the sources and on some banks constitute wetlands of high floristic richness, which makes them very coveted pastures by local populations. These wet pastures are highly sensitive to climatic factors. Recent climatic changes, the anthropic and pastoral pressures and the global environmental changes, affect these zones at the level of their structure (areas, soil characteristics…) and their ecological functions. In the Oukaimeden plateau, the use of aerial photography made it possible to carry out a detailed follow up of the hydraulic adjustments (dam construction in the 1970s) as well as the setting up of new adjustments (tracks, paths, drain channel) on the structure and functioning of these grasslands.

S. Alaoui; Haroni Æ M. Alifriqui; Æ V. Simonneaux

2009-01-01

475

Modeling the Impacts of the Mountain Pine Beetle on Water and Energy fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in Western North America has generated growing concern in recent years. Increasing numbers of outbreaks have affected an estimated two million acres of forest in Colorado and Wyoming alone during 2008. Given the substantial acreage of prematurely dying forests within Colorado and Wyoming, it has been hypothesized that the effects of the MPB outbreak will be similar to those observed after forest harvesting. High tree mortality rates of recent MPB infestations have the potential to induce significant changes in forest canopy, impacting several aspects of the local water and energy cycle, including canopy interception of precipitation and radiation, snow accumulation, melt and sublimation and evapotranspiration (ET). Parflow, a variably saturated groundwater flow model was coupled with the Common Land Model (CLM) to incorporate physical processes related to energy at the land surface and used to investigate the changing hydrologic and energy regime associated with MPB infestations. Specifically, Parflow-CLM was used to model daily and annual fluctuations of ET, snow pack, groundwater storage and ground temperatures throughout the four phases of MPB attack (green, red, gray and dieback phases), at sites typical of the Rocky Mountain West. Our results demonstrate that MPB infested watersheds will experience a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in snow accumulation accompanied by earlier and faster snowmelt. Impacts are similar to those projected under climate change, yet with a systematically higher snowpack. These results have implications for water resource management due to higher tendencies for flooding in the spring and drought in the summer.

Mikkelson, K. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Ferguson, I. J.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

2011-12-01

476

Geothermal resources in Montana  

SciTech Connect

A list of persons and groups doing geothermal research in Montana is presented. A revised list of springs and wells with their flow and temperature values is shown with the heat value, in billions of British Thermal Units (Btu's) per year, for reference temperatures related to low temperature uses. The Boulder and Hunters springs are the foremost hot spring resources, while the Madison Limestone related springs around the Little Rocky Mountains, and Brooks spring north of Lewistown provide the major low temperature resources capable of large development utilizing heat pump technology. The water chemistry of almost all springs is suitable for direct application. A discussion of drilling activities around spring sites and the relative success (or lack thereof) provides some factors to consider. In an attempt to delineate areas with ground-water temperatures suitable for heat pump use, a 10/sup 0/C (50/sup 0/F) temperature cutoff was used. Urban area data is suspect; inadequate pumping time may yield spuriously warm temperatures.

Sonderegger, J.L.; Schmidt, F.A.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

1981-05-01

477

Future directions: Integrated resource planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated resource planning or IRP is the process for integrating supply- and demand-side resources to provide energy services at a cost that balances the interests of all stakeholders. It now is the resource planning process used by electric utilities in over 30 states. The goals of IRP have evolved from least cost planning and encouragement of demand-side management to broader, more complex issues including core competitive business activity, risk management and sharing, accounting for externalities, and fuel switching between gas and electricity. IRP processes are being extended to other interior regions of the country, to non-investor owned utilities, and to regional (rather than individual utility) planning bases, and to other fuels (natural gas). The comprehensive, multi-valued, and public reasoning characteristics of IRP could be extended to applications beyond energy, e.g., transportation, surface water management, and health care in ways suggested.

Bauer, D. C.; Eto, J.

478

Refining studies and engine testing of alternative highway-transportation fuels. Final report for the project, identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of alternative highway-transportation fuels was conducted in three major phases. Linear-programming models were used in the first phase to show how shale-oil and coal liquids would be used. Models for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent, and Great Lakes composite refineries were developed to make forecast quantities of products in 1995. Computer cases investigated maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in

N. R. Sefer; J. A. Russell; T. W. Ryan; T. J. Callahan

1982-01-01

479

Alternative fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

1977-01-01

480

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

to the distillers' grains. Salt (sodium) is used as a drying agent, and sulfuric acid (sulfur) is added during as an enzyme assay) to determine amino acid availability. Co-Product Handling, Storage, and Transportation Introduction Proper production and use of distillers' co-products as a feed ingredient have the potential

481

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

the petroleum-derived oxygenate, MTBE, was banned by many states. For the last half of 2005 and for 2006 for Ethanol? The U.S. is not short of energy; we have vast reserves of coal. What we are short of is liquid strategic cost. (Strategic cost represents the potential disruption or influence that can be exercised

482

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

. With this industry growth, demand for corn grows in parallel and thus its price. This publication reviews the history is provided in Table 1. The federal subsidy today is 1978 Energy Tax Act of 1978 $0.40 per gallon of ethanol tax exemption on the $0.04 gasoline excise tax 1980 Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act and the Energy

483

Fueling America Through Renewable Resources Purdue extension  

E-print Network

and for the reduced digestibility. Variability in Available Energy Most DDGS contain more oil than in corn grain distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS); however, the quantity that may be fed may be limited because there are numerous issues affecting use of DDGS in poultry rations. Issues to Be Addressed Whether large amounts

484

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

485

Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

NONE

1986-05-01

486

Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions  

E-print Network

snail species of the genus Zonitoides in Sabah, Borneo, namely Z. arboreus (Say, 1819) and Z. nitidus (O600 Capinha et al.: Zonitoides in tropical mountain forests Susceptibility of tropical mountain forests to biological invasions from the temperate and subtropical zone, exemplified by Zonitoides

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

487

An Aerial Census of Mountain Goats in the Olympic Mountain Range, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain goals were introduced into lhe olympic Mountains, Washington, during the late 1920s and are now considered an exotic species in Oiympic National Parl. We report the resuks fron tbe first ext€nsiv€ aerial census o{ this introduced popula' tion. A series of populalion reductions in the Klahhane Ridge area of the park was used to estimare a census efficiency of

O. B. Houston; B. B. Moorhead; R. W. Olson; Olympic Natona

488

The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

Hannum, W.H.

1991-01-01